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Sample records for secure distributed applications

  1. Secure key distribution applications of chaotic lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Xue, Chenpeng; Lv, Yunxin; Qiu, Kun

    2016-11-01

    Chaotic semiconductor laser is a good candidate for secure communication and high-speed true random bit generator, for its characteristics of broad bandwidth and prominent unpredictability. Based on the synchronization property and true random bit generation characteristic of chaotic semiconductor lasers, physical secure key distribution is available. In this work, we majorly show three key distribution schemes stemming from synchronized chaotic semiconductor lasers or chaos-based key exchange protocol. The numerical results demonstrate that the security of the chaos-synchronization-based key distribution scheme can be physically enhanced by adopting dynamic synchronization scheme or encrypted key generation, and that of key distribution with chaos-based key exchange protocol is dependent on the security of the exchange protocol and finally determined by the difficulty of regeneration the chaos system accurately.

  2. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  3. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  4. Cost-Efficient and Multi-Functional Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Distributed Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Sun, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Secure aggregation is an essential component of modern distributed applications and data mining platforms. Aggregated statistical results are typically adopted in constructing a data cube for data analysis at multiple abstraction levels in data warehouse platforms. Generating different types of statistical results efficiently at the same time (or referred to as enabling multi-functional support) is a fundamental requirement in practice. However, most of the existing schemes support a very limited number of statistics. Securely obtaining typical statistical results simultaneously in the distribution system, without recovering the original data, is still an open problem. In this paper, we present SEDAR, which is a SEcure Data Aggregation scheme under the Range segmentation model. Range segmentation model is proposed to reduce the communication cost by capturing the data characteristics, and different range uses different aggregation strategy. For raw data in the dominant range, SEDAR encodes them into well defined vectors to provide value-preservation and order-preservation, and thus provides the basis for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is used to achieve data privacy. We also present two enhanced versions. The first one is a Random based SEDAR (REDAR), and the second is a Compression based SEDAR (CEDAR). Both of them can significantly reduce communication cost with the trade-off lower security and lower accuracy, respectively. Experimental evaluations, based on six different scenes of real data, show that all of them have an excellent performance on cost and accuracy. PMID:27551747

  5. Photonic sensor opportunities for distributed and wireless systems in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David

    2006-10-01

    There are broad ranges of homeland security sensing applications that can be facilitated by distributed fiber optic sensors and photonics integrated wireless systems. These applications include [1]: Pipeline, (Monitoring, Security); Smart structures (Bridges, Tunnels, Dams, Public spaces); Power lines (Monitoring, Security); Transportation security; Chemical/biological detection; Wide area surveillance - perimeter; and Port Security (Underwater surveillance, Cargo container). Many vital assets which cover wide areas, such as pipeline and borders, are under constant threat of being attacked or breached. There is a rapidly emerging need to be able to provide identification of intrusion threats to such vital assets. Similar problems exit for monitoring the basic infrastructure such as water supply, power utilities, communications systems as well as transportation. There is a need to develop a coordinated and integrated solution for the detection of threats. From a sensor standpoint, consideration must not be limited to detection, but how does detection lead to intervention and deterrence. Fiber optic sensor technology must be compatible with other surveillance technologies such as wireless mote technology to facilitate integration. In addition, the multi-functionality of fiber optic sensors must be expanded to include bio-chemical detection. There have been a number of barriers for the acceptance and broad use of smart fiber optic sensors. Compared to telecommunications, the volume is low. This fact coupled with proprietary and custom specifications has kept the price of fiber optic sensors high. There is a general lack of a manufacturing infrastructure and lack of standards for packaging and reliability. Also, there are several competing technologies; some photonic based and other approaches based on conventional non-photonic technologies.

  6. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  7. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  8. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  9. The Secure Distributed Operating System Design Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    of the need for specialized computers and the desire to keep up with the quickly changing hardware technology . Distributed system applications also...Best Available Technologies for Computer Security," IEEE Computer , vol. 16, no. 7, July 1983. [Landwehr et al. 84] Landwehr, C.E., Heitmeyer, C.L...3.6.1.2 Mandatory Security ..... ..................... 137 3.6.2 The SDOS Trusted Computing Base ............... 139 3.6.3 Detailed Description of the Major

  10. Secure Distributed File Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    practicality and applicability of one such system, Trusted Ficus File System ( TRUFFLES ), in the DoD infrastructure. Integrated into this research are...discussions of Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), which is currently an integral part of the TRUFFLES implementation. This thesis concludes with a discussion of the...actual installation of a PEM reference implementation, and future requirements for the TRUFFLES installation at the Naval Postgraduate School. 14

  11. Application Security Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  12. Security Data Warehouse Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, Lynn R.; Hennan, Robert; Ortiz, Chris; Gonzalez, Steve; Roane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Security Data Warehouse (SDW) is used to aggregate and correlate all JSC IT security data. This includes IT asset inventory such as operating systems and patch levels, users, user logins, remote access dial-in and VPN, and vulnerability tracking and reporting. The correlation of this data allows for an integrated understanding of current security issues and systems by providing this data in a format that associates it to an individual host. The cornerstone of the SDW is its unique host-mapping algorithm that has undergone extensive field tests, and provides a high degree of accuracy. The algorithm comprises two parts. The first part employs fuzzy logic to derive a best-guess host assignment using incomplete sensor data. The second part is logic to identify and correct errors in the database, based on subsequent, more complete data. Host records are automatically split or merged, as appropriate. The process had to be refined and thoroughly tested before the SDW deployment was feasible. Complexity was increased by adding the dimension of time. The SDW correlates all data with its relationship to time. This lends support to forensic investigations, audits, and overall situational awareness. Another important feature of the SDW architecture is that all of the underlying complexities of the data model and host-mapping algorithm are encapsulated in an easy-to-use and understandable Perl language Application Programming Interface (API). This allows the SDW to be quickly augmented with additional sensors using minimal coding and testing. It also supports rapid generation of ad hoc reports and integration with other information systems.

  13. A secure communications infrastructure for high-performance distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Koenig, G.; Tuecke, S.

    1997-08-01

    Applications that use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers, databases, and scientific instruments may operate over open networks and access valuable resources. Hence, they can require mechanisms for ensuring integrity and confidentially of communications and for authenticating both users and resources. Security solutions developed for traditional client-server applications do not provide direct support for the program structures, programming tools, and performance requirements encountered in these applications. The authors address these requirements via a security-enhanced version of the Nexus communication library; which they use to provide secure versions of parallel libraries and languages, including the Message Passing Interface. These tools permit a fine degree of control over what, where, and when security mechanisms are applied. In particular, a single application can mix secure and nonsecure communication, allowing the programmer to make fine-grained security/performance tradeoffs. The authors present performance results that quantify the performance of their infrastructure.

  14. A Different Look at Secure Distributed Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    9, 12]. Still, the worst-case view dominates the secure computing literature in general and the secure distributed computing literature in...The model we now suggest represents distributed computing as two or more interwoven networks of competing nodes. In 111 1997, pp. 109{115 the

  15. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  16. Enhanced Usage of Keys Obtained by Physical, Unconditionally Secure Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-04-01

    Unconditionally secure physical key distribution schemes are very slow, and it is practically impossible to use a one-time-pad based cipher to guarantee unconditional security for the encryption of data because using the key bits more than once gives out statistical information, for example via the known-plain-text-attack or by utilizing known components of the protocol and language statistics. Here, we outline a protocol that reduces this speed problem and allows almost-one-time-pad based communication with an unconditionally secure physical key of finite length. The physical, unconditionally secure key is not used for data encryption but is employed in order to generate and share a new software-based key without any known-plain-text component. The software-only-based key distribution is then changed from computationally secure to unconditionally secure, because the communicated key-exchange data (algorithm parameters, one-way functions of random numbers, etc.) are encrypted in an unconditionally secure way with a one-time-pad. For practical applications, this combined physical/software key distribution based communication looks favorable compared to the software-only and physical-only key distribution based communication whenever the speed of the physical key distribution is much lower than that of the software-based key distribution. A mathematical security proof of this new scheme remains an open problem.

  17. Integrating security in a group oriented distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, Michael; Birman, Kenneth; Gong, LI

    1992-01-01

    A distributed security architecture is proposed for incorporation into group oriented distributed systems, and in particular, into the Isis distributed programming toolkit. The primary goal of the architecture is to make common group oriented abstractions robust in hostile settings, in order to facilitate the construction of high performance distributed applications that can tolerate both component failures and malicious attacks. These abstractions include process groups and causal group multicast. Moreover, a delegation and access control scheme is proposed for use in group oriented systems. The focus is the security architecture; particular cryptosystems and key exchange protocols are not emphasized.

  18. Network aware distributed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Johnston, William

    2001-02-04

    Most distributed applications today manage to utilize only a small percentage of the needed and available network bandwidth. Often application developers are not aware of the potential bandwidth of the network, and therefore do not know what to expect. Even when application developers are aware of the specifications of the machines and network links, they have few resources that can help determine why the expected performance was not achieved. What is needed is a ubiquitous and easy-to-use service that provides reliable, accurate, secure, and timely estimates of dynamic network properties. This service will help advise applications on how to make use of the network's increasing bandwidth and capabilities for traffic shaping and engineering. When fully implemented, this service will make building currently unrealizable levels of network awareness into distributed applications a relatively mundane task. For example, a remote data visualization application could choose between sending a wireframe, a pre-rendered image, or a 3-D representation, based on forecasts of CPU availability and power, compression options, and available bandwidth. The same service will provide on-demand performance information so that applications can compare predicted with actual results, and allow detailed queries about the end-to-end path for application and network tuning and debugging.

  19. Security seal. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, G.W.

    1981-11-17

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  20. Security concepts in clinical applications using DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Hohmann, Johachim; Cosic, Domagoi; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1998-07-01

    Local area networks in hospitals with connection to the Internet enable remote access to medical data and the deployment of distributed medical services. The use of standardized protocols like DICOM as required by the heterogeneous hard- and software infrastructure aggravates the problem that intruders can potentially gain access to sensitive data. Different levels of data protection are therefore required depending on the utilization of secured or publicly accessible networks, the use of standardized communication, and the differing national data security regulations. To investigate different speed-optimized data security concepts, we constructed exemplary scenarios with distributed telemedical services utilizing DICOM-conform software systems. The hospital networks are separated from the Internet by firewalls. Communication between the DICOM applications was made possible by integrating a security level between the DICOM upper layer protocol and the TCP/IP interface, while encrypting the whole datastream using the Secure Socket Layer Protocol (SSL). A DICOM-conform encryption of selected parts of the DICOM messages and files was developed, that encodes only patient-relevant data. Additionally a security proposal of the DICOM working group on security was implemented and analyzed. Data were encrypted by using either symmetric (public and private key) or symmetric (secret key) methods. This sped up the overall data transfer rate and allowed the DICOM-conform, off-line data storage.

  1. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  2. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  3. Secure Mobile Distributed File System (MDFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SECURE MOBILE DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM ( MDFS ) by Scott Huchton March 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors...Distributed File System ( MDFS ) Scott Huchton Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 Department of the Navy Approved for public release...demonstrate a functional version of MDFS on Android hardware. Due to the device’s limited resources, there are some issues that must be explored before MDFS

  4. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test

  6. Secure distribution for high resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Jing; Xu, Zheng Q.

    2010-09-01

    The use of remote sensing images collected by space platforms is becoming more and more widespread. The increasing value of space data and its use in critical scenarios call for adoption of proper security measures to protect these data against unauthorized access and fraudulent use. In this paper, based on the characteristics of remote sensing image data and application requirements on secure distribution, a secure distribution method is proposed, including users and regions classification, hierarchical control and keys generation, and multi-level encryption based on regions. The combination of the three parts can make that the same remote sensing images after multi-level encryption processing are distributed to different permission users through multicast, but different permission users can obtain different degree information after decryption through their own decryption keys. It well meets user access control and security needs in the process of high resolution remote sensing image distribution. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method which is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of remote sensing images including confidential information over internet.

  7. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  8. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  9. Derived virtual devices: a secure distributed file system mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.

  10. Cyber Security Applications: Freeware & Shareware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss some assignments using freeware/shareware instructors can find on the Web to use to provide students with hands-on experience in this arena. Also, the college, Palm Beach State College, via a grant with the U.S. Department of Labor, has recently purchased a unique cyber security device that simulates cyber security attacks…

  11. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  12. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  13. Security threats and solutions in distributed, interoperable health information systems using middleware.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly, distributed, interoperable healthcare information systems, which meet the shared care paradigm, work across the boundaries of policy, organisational, and technological domains and are based on middleware concepts. Especially in healthcare with its sensitive personal and medical data, such systems require advanced data security measures. In the paper, a common object-oriented security model for middleware systems and advertisements for implementation are proposed, corresponding the security requirement of both the user and the application environment.

  14. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  15. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  16. Improving security in the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin E.

    1992-09-01

    The arrival of high speed packet switched fiber optic LAN's has allowed local area design architectures to be used for larger metropolitan area network (MAN) implementations. The current LAN security mechanisms used in larger and faster fiber optic LAN's and MAN's are often inappropriate or unacceptable for use with emerging applications. The protocol of the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) standard provides a natural means for message integrity and availability verification. However, privacy in FDDI is facilitated at higher layers through a generic LAN standard. This thesis proposes a modification to the FDDI protocol implemented at the medium access control (MAC) sublayer, which integrates a confidentiality mechanism for data transfer. The modification provides a simple comprehensive security package to meet the high performance needs of current and emerging applications. In the proposed modification, the inherent properties of the ring are exploited using a unique Central Key Translator to distribute initial session keys. A symmetric bit stream cipher based on modulo2 addition is used for encryption/decryption by the transmitting and receiving stations. Part of the plain text from transmitted message frames is used as feedback to generate new session keys.

  17. Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-01-27

    Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a "classical" party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution.

  18. Semiquantum key distribution with secure delegated quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Semiquantum key distribution allows a quantum party to share a random key with a “classical” party who only can prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis or reorder some qubits when he has access to a quantum channel. In this work, we present a protocol where a secret key can be established between a quantum user and an almost classical user who only needs the quantum ability to access quantum channels, by securely delegating quantum computation to a quantum server. We show the proposed protocol is robust even when the delegated quantum server is a powerful adversary, and is experimentally feasible with current technology. As one party of our protocol is the most quantum-resource efficient, it can be more practical and significantly widen the applicability scope of quantum key distribution. PMID:26813384

  19. Need for Agility in Security Constraints for Distributed Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Submission to: 19th ICCRTS Title: Need for Agility in Security Constraints for Distributed Simulation (024) Topics: Primary Topic: 5...Modelling and Simulation , Alternates: 4. Experimentation, Metrics and Analysis, and 1. Concepts, Theory, and Policy S. K. Numrich, Ph.D...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Need for Agility in Security Constraints for Distributed Simulation

  20. Security for Multimedia Space Data Distribution over the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thom; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Distribution of interactive multimedia to remote investigators will be required for high quality science on the International Space Station (ISS). The Internet with the World Wide Web (WWW) and the JAVA environment are a good match for distribution of data, video and voice to remote science centers. Utilizing the "open" Internet in a secure manner is the major hurdle in making use of this cost effective, off-the-shelf, universal resource. This paper examines the major security threats to an Internet distribution system for payload data and the mitigation of these threats. A proposed security environment for the Space Station Biological Research Facility (SSBRP) is presented with a short description of the tools that have been implemented or planned. Formulating and implementing a security policy, firewalls, host hardware and software security are also discussed in this paper. Security is a vast topic and this paper can only give an overview of important issues. This paper postulates that a structured approach is required and stresses that security must be built into a network from the start. Ignoring security issues or putting them off until late in the development cycle can be disastrous.

  1. A protocol for secure communication in large distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. P.; Ferrari, D.; Rangan, P. V.; Sartirana, B.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanism for secure communication in large distributed systems is proposed. The mechanism, called Authenticated Datagram Protocol (ADP), provides message authentication and, optionally, privacy of data. ADP is a host-to-host datagram protocol, positioned below the transport layer; it uses public-key encryption to establish secure channels between hosts and to authenticate owners, and single-key encryption for communication over a channel and to ensure privacy of the messages. ADP is shown to satisfy the main security requirements of large distributed systems, to provide end-to-end security in spite of its relatively low level, and to exhibit several advantages over schemes in which security mechanisms are at a higher level. The results of a trace-driven measurement study of ADP performance show that its throughput and latency are acceptable even within the limitations of today's technology, provided single-key encryption/decryption can be done in hardware.

  2. Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.

  3. Detectors for Accelerator-Based Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Stave, Sean C.; Miller, Erin A.

    We present a review of detector systems used in accelerator-based security applications. The applications discussed span stockpile stewardship, material interdiction, treaty verification, and spent nuclear fuel assay. The challenge for detectors in accelerator-based applications is the separation of the desired signal from the background, frequently during high input count rates. Typical techniques to address the background challenge include shielding, timing, selection of sensitive materials, and choice of accelerator.

  4. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  5. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-10

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  6. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  7. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  8. Regional Security Application and Checkmate!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    30 F. Time, Geo- Spatial , and Resource Constraints ................................................ 32 G. Summary...leverage human interactions and computer modeling and tools to provide participants with useful insights on complex multi -disciplinary issues. It’s...and interdependent multi -disciplinary issues associated with such challenges. In this regard: (a) A regional S.E.N.S.E. application that addresses

  9. Video motion detection for physical security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost effectiveness. In recent years significant advances in image processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of video motion detection systems to a variety of physical security applications. Currently Sandia is developing several advanced systems that employ image processing techniques for a broader set of safeguards and security applications. TCATS (Target Cueing and Tracking System) uses a set of powerful, flexible, modular algorithms and software to alarm on purposeful target motion. Custom TCATS hardware optimized for perimeter security applications is currently being evaluated with video input. VISDTA (Video Imaging System for Detection, Tracking, and Assessment) uses some of the same TCATS algorithms and operates with a thermal imager input. In the scan mode, VISDTA detects changes in a scene from the previous image at a given scan point; in the stare mode, VISDTA detects purposeful motion similar to TCATS.

  10. Holographic interferometry for security and forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; R. C., Sreelekshmi; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna

    2016-10-01

    Security holograms having unique 3D images are one of the tools for enhancing the security for product and personnel authentication and anti-counterfeiting. Apart from the high technology that is required, the uniqueness of a 3D object presents a significant additional threshold for the counterfeiting of such security holograms. But, due to the development of 3D printing technology, the hurdles are disabled and allow the chances of counterfeiting. In order to overcome this, holographic interferometry is effectively utilized and the object is recorded twice before and after the state of random object change. At the time of reconstruction, two signal waves generated simultaneously interfere each other, resulting in a fringe modulation. This fringe modulation in 3D image hologram with respect to the random object change is exploited to generate a rigid and unique anticounterfeit feature. Though holographic interferometry techniques are being widely used for the non-destructive evaluation, the applicability of this technology for the security and forensic activity is less exploited. This paper describes our efforts to introduce holographic interferometry in 3D image holograms for security and forensic applications.

  11. Weak randomness seriously limits the security of quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, Jan; Pivoluska, Matej; Plesch, Martin; Wilmott, Colin

    2012-12-01

    In usual security proofs of quantum protocols the adversary (Eve) is expected to have full control over any quantum communication between any communicating parties (Alice and Bob). Eve is also expected to have full access to an authenticated classical channel between Alice and Bob. Unconditional security against any attack by Eve can be proved even in the realistic setting of device and channel imperfection. In this paper we show that the security of quantum key distribution protocols is ruined if one allows Eve to possess a very limited access to the random sources used by Alice. Such knowledge should always be expected in realistic experimental conditions via different side channels.

  12. New security infrastructure model for distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubenskaya, J.; Kryukov, A.; Demichev, A.; Prikhodko, N.

    2016-02-01

    At the paper we propose a new approach to setting up a user-friendly and yet secure authentication and authorization procedure in a distributed computing system. The security concept of the most heterogeneous distributed computing systems is based on the public key infrastructure along with proxy certificates which are used for rights delegation. In practice a contradiction between the limited lifetime of the proxy certificates and the unpredictable time of the request processing is a big issue for the end users of the system. We propose to use unlimited in time hashes which are individual for each request instead of proxy certificate. Our approach allows to avoid using of the proxy certificates. Thus the security infrastructure of distributed computing system becomes easier for development, support and use.

  13. Photonic sensor applications in transportation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David A.

    2007-09-01

    There is a broad range of security sensing applications in transportation that can be facilitated by using fiber optic sensors and photonic sensor integrated wireless systems. Many of these vital assets are under constant threat of being attacked. It is important to realize that the threats are not just from terrorism but an aging and often neglected infrastructure. To specifically address transportation security, photonic sensors fall into two categories: fixed point monitoring and mobile tracking. In fixed point monitoring, the sensors monitor bridge and tunnel structural health and environment problems such as toxic gases in a tunnel. Mobile tracking sensors are being designed to track cargo such as shipboard cargo containers and trucks. Mobile tracking sensor systems have multifunctional sensor requirements including intrusion (tampering), biochemical, radiation and explosives detection. This paper will review the state of the art of photonic sensor technologies and their ability to meet the challenges of transportation security.

  14. Security of quantum key distribution with light sources that are not independently and identically distributed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Yuichi; Mizutani, Akihiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Although quantum key distribution (QKD) is theoretically secure, there is a gap between the theory and practice. In fact, real-life QKD may not be secure because component devices in QKD systems may deviate from the theoretical models assumed in security proofs. To solve this problem, it is necessary to construct the security proof under realistic assumptions on the source and measurement unit. In this paper, we prove the security of a QKD protocol under practical assumptions on the source that accommodate fluctuation of the phase and intensity modulations. As long as our assumptions hold, it does not matter at all how the phase and intensity distribute or whether or not their distributions over different pulses are independently and identically distributed. Our work shows that practical sources can be safely employed in QKD experiments.

  15. Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-10

    the Dengue Decision Support System that has been developed at Colorado State University. Further, to accommodate the dynamic nature of pervasive...Expressiveness of Events using Parameter Con- texts", Proceedings of the 12th East European Conferences on Advances in Databases and Information Systems...Anura Jayasumana and Indrajit Ray, " Key Pre-distribution Based Secure Backbone Design for Wireless Sensor Networks", Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE

  16. Chemical Sniffing Instrumentation for Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Brkić, Boris; Taylor, Stephen; Marshall, Alan; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-07-27

    Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications. This article presents an overview of (a) the existing available technologies reported in the scientific literature for threat screening, (b) commercially available, portable (hand-held and stand-off) chemical detection systems, and (c) their underlying functional and operational principles. Emphasis is given to technologies that have been developed for in-field security operations, but laboratory developed techniques are also summarized as emerging technologies. The chemical analytes of interest in this review are (a) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with security applications (e.g., illegal, hazardous, and terrorist events), (b) chemical "signatures" associated with human presence, and

  17. Guidelines for Security of Computer Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RUTHZ 77], [RUTHZ 78], [EDPAF 77], [ IIASA 77], [SGCCA 75B], [MAIRW 76] are effective in meeting all three security objectives; however, some are...and [ IIASA 77]. * Fields can be checked for: − legitimate characters (format checks), − proper sequences with respect to corresponding fields in...MAIRW 76], [JANCE 74], and [ IIASA 77] referenced above. * Integrated Test Facility (ITF). The ITF allows the performance of the application system

  18. Distributed Secure Coordinated Control for Multiagent Systems Under Strategic Attacks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi; Wen, Guanghui; Hu, Guoqiang

    2016-04-12

    This paper studies a distributed secure consensus tracking control problem for multiagent systems subject to strategic cyber attacks modeled by a random Markov process. A hybrid stochastic secure control framework is established for designing a distributed secure control law such that mean-square exponential consensus tracking is achieved. A connectivity restoration mechanism is considered and the properties on attack frequency and attack length rate are investigated, respectively. Based on the solutions of an algebraic Riccati equation and an algebraic Riccati inequality, a procedure to select the control gains is provided and stability analysis is studied by using Lyapunov's method.. The effect of strategic attacks on discrete-time systems is also investigated. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  19. Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-09-15

    We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

  20. Drop-in Security for Distributed and Portable Computing Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevelakis, Vassilis; Keromytis, Angelos

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the use of a special purpose drop-in firewall/VPN gateway called Sieve, that can be inserted between the mobile workstation and the network to provide individualized security services for that particular station. Discusses features and advantages of the system and demonstrates how Sieve was used in various application areas such as at…

  1. The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, Jean Christian

    The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain

  2. 78 FR 35043 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Charter Renewal and Request for Applicants. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security...

  3. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014

  4. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 π mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 μs. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  5. Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukanen, A.; Leivo, M. M.; Rautiainen, A.; Grönholm, M.; Toivanen, H.; Grönberg, L.; Helistö, P.; Mäyrä, A.; Aikio, M.; Grossman, E. N.

    2012-12-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ~ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

  6. Restricted access processor - An application of computer security technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a security guard device that is currently being developed by Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The methods used to provide assurance that the system meets its security requirements include the system architecture, a system security evaluation, and the application of formal and informal verification techniques. The combination of state-of-the-art technology and the incorporation of new verification procedures results in a demonstration of the feasibility of computer security technology for operational applications.

  7. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... selling security holders during a distribution. 242.102 Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M § 242.102 Activities by issuers and selling security holders... or on behalf of an issuer or selling security holder, it shall be unlawful for such person, or...

  8. Cryptographically secure hardware random number generator dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernik, Pawel

    The chaotic signal generator based on the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources is presented. This system was implemented on the basis of the physical chaotic electronic vibration generator in which the resonant circuit is composed of two capacitors, two resistors, coil and transistor, called the Colpitts oscillator. The presented system was designed, programmed and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. True cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results will be here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  9. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  10. Health Information Security in Hospitals: the Application of Security Safeguards

    PubMed Central

    Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A hospital information system has potentials to improve the accessibility of clinical information and the quality of health care. However, the use of this system has resulted in new challenges, such as concerns over health information security. This paper aims to assess the status of information security in terms of administrative, technical and physical safeguards in the university hospitals. Methods: This was a survey study in which the participants were information technology (IT) managers (n=36) who worked in the hospitals affiliated to the top ranked medical universities (university A and university B). Data were collected using a questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was examined by the experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α=0.75). Results: The results showed that the administrative safeguards were arranged at a medium level. In terms of the technical safeguards and the physical safeguards, the IT managers rated them at a strong level. Conclusion: According to the results, among three types of security safeguards, the administrative safeguards were assessed at the medium level. To improve it, developing security policies, implementing access control models and training users are recommended. PMID:27046944

  11. Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, James

    2008-05-01

    In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will

  12. Advances in Adaptive Secure Message-Oriented Middleware for Distributed Business-Critical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abie, Habtamu; Savola, Reijo M.; Wang, Jinfu; Rotondi, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Distributed business-critical systems are often implemented using distributed messaging infrastructures with increasingly stringent requirements with regard to resilience, security, adaptability, intelligence and scalability. Current systems have limited ability in meeting these requirements. This paper describes advances in adaptive security, security metrics, anomaly detection and resilience, and authentication architecture in such distributed messaging systems.

  13. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for sale or an offer to sell a security or general solicitation or general advertising, in connection... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139...

  14. Security of two-way quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudry, Normand J.; Lucamarini, Marco; Mancini, Stefano; Renner, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Quantum key distribution protocols typically make use of a one-way quantum channel to distribute a shared secret string to two distant users. However, protocols exploiting a two-way quantum channel have been proposed as an alternative route to the same goal, with the potential advantage of outperforming one-way protocols. Here we provide a strategy to prove security for two-way quantum key distribution protocols against the most general quantum attack possible by an eavesdropper. We utilize an entropic uncertainty relation, and only a few assumptions need to be made about the devices used in the protocol. We also show that a two-way protocol can outperform comparable one-way protocols.

  15. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.; Grassl, Markus

    2006-08-15

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  16. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark; Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system is described: a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when pre-existing, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  17. Tools for distributed application management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Cooper, Robert; Wood, Mark; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed application management consists of monitoring and controlling an application as it executes in a distributed environment. It encompasses such activities as configuration, initialization, performance monitoring, resource scheduling, and failure response. The Meta system (a collection of tools for constructing distributed application management software) is described. Meta provides the mechanism, while the programmer specifies the policy for application management. The policy is manifested as a control program which is a soft real-time reactive program. The underlying application is instrumented with a variety of built-in and user-defined sensors and actuators. These define the interface between the control program and the application. The control program also has access to a database describing the structure of the application and the characteristics of its environment. Some of the more difficult problems for application management occur when preexisting, nondistributed programs are integrated into a distributed application for which they may not have been intended. Meta allows management functions to be retrofitted to such programs with a minimum of effort.

  18. Lilith: A scalable secure tool for massively parallel distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.C.; Camp, L.J.; Evensky, D.A.; Gentile, A.C.

    1997-06-01

    Changes in high performance computing have necessitated the ability to utilize and interrogate potentially many thousands of processors. The ASCI (Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative) program conducted by the United States Department of Energy, for example, envisions thousands of distinct operating systems connected by low-latency gigabit-per-second networks. In addition multiple systems of this kind will be linked via high-capacity networks with latencies as low as the speed of light will allow. Code which spans systems of this sort must be scalable; yet constructing such code whether for applications, debugging, or maintenance is an unsolved problem. Lilith is a research software platform that attempts to answer these questions with an end toward meeting these needs. Presently, Lilith exists as a test-bed, written in Java, for various spanning algorithms and security schemes. The test-bed software has, and enforces, hooks allowing implementation and testing of various security schemes.

  19. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  20. 26 CFR 1.355-1 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Holders § 1.355-1 Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation. (a) Effective... in income of) the shareholders and security holders, of one or more existing businesses formerly... shareholders with respect to its stock or to its security holders in exchange for its securities....

  1. 26 CFR 1.355-1 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Holders § 1.355-1 Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation. (a) Effective... in income of) the shareholders and security holders, of one or more existing businesses formerly... shareholders with respect to its stock or to its security holders in exchange for its securities....

  2. 26 CFR 1.355-1 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Holders § 1.355-1 Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation. (a) Effective... in income of) the shareholders and security holders, of one or more existing businesses formerly... shareholders with respect to its stock or to its security holders in exchange for its securities....

  3. Applications of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Hopkins, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for sub-surface and through barrier detection and has applications in drug analysis, cancer detection, forensic science, as well as defense and security. This paper reviews previous efforts in SORS and other through barrier Raman techniques and presents a discussion on current research in defense and security applications.

  4. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior to May 1, 1956, shall submit a new application in accordance with the requirements of this part....

  5. 33 CFR 125.55 - Outstanding Port Security Card Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an application for a Coast Guard Port Security Card and who did not receive such a document prior to May 1, 1956, shall submit a new application in accordance with the requirements of this part....

  6. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    SciTech Connect

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  7. 13 CFR 107.1400 - Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities. 107.1400 Section 107.1400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees... distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities. If you issued Preferred Securities to SBA on or after...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1081-5 - Distribution solely of stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution solely of stock or securities. 1...-5 Distribution solely of stock or securities. (a) In general. If, without any surrender of his stock... holding company or a majority-owned subsidiary company receives stock or securities in such corporation...

  9. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively.

  10. A Cooperative Model for IS Security Risk Management in Distributed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively. PMID:24563626

  11. Java-based Open Platform for distributed health telematics applications.

    PubMed

    Hoepner, Petra; Eckert, Klaus-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Within the European HARP project, a Java-based Open Platform has been specified and implemented to support trustworthy distributed applications for health. Emphasis was put on security services for enabling both communication and application security. The Open Platform is Web-based and comprises the Client environment, Web/Application server, as well as Database and Archive servers. Servlets composed and executed according to the user's authorisation create signed XML messages. From those messages, user-role-related applets are generated. The technical details of the realisation are presented. Possible future enhancements for user-centric, adaptable services based on next-generation mobile service environments are outlined.

  12. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  13. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  14. Realization of security concepts for DICOM-based distributed medical services.

    PubMed

    Bernarding, J; Thiel, A; Tolxdorff, T

    2000-12-01

    Exploiting distributed hard- and software resources for telemedicine requires a fast, secure, and platform-independent data exchange. Standards without inherent security mechanisms such as DICOM may ease non-authorized data access. Therefore, exemplary telemedical data streams were analyzed within the Berlin metropolitan area network using specialized magnetic resonance imaging techniques and distributed resources for data postprocessing. For secure DICOM communication both the Secure Socket Layer Protocol and a DICOM-conform partial encryption of patient-relevant data were implemented. Partial encryption exhibited the highest transfer rate and enabled a secure long-term storage. Different data streams between secured and unsecured networks were realized using partial encryption.

  15. Simple fiber optic sensor for applications in security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Karol, M.; Markowski, P.; Napierala, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate measurement results of the modalmetric fiber optic sensor used for the monitoring of the fiber optic link integrity to protect it against unauthorized access to classified information. The presented construction is based on the detection of changes of the modes distribution in a multimode fiber. Any mechanical stress on the multimode fiber causes changes of polarization and distribution of propagating modes, hence it changes the distribution of modes at the end of the multimode fiber. Observation of these changes using a narrow core single-mode fiber allows to use the structure as an optical fiber sensor. We used several kilometers long optical links to conduct field tests of laboratory sensor. On this basis the prototype module of modalmetric fiber optic sensor wasbuilt. The modification of optoelectronic part, the variation of sensor length and the change of the method of light reflection at the end of the fiber enable the use of the modalmetric fiber optic sensor in many applications. The sensor finds wide range of applications in security systems. It can be applied to protect the museum's collection, transmission lines and to protect objects of critical infrastructure.

  16. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    DOE PAGES

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat for developing a radiological dispersal device and be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and re-search purposes. Lastly, we present an overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security.

  17. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications, including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization, and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat to developing a radiological dispersal device, and, can be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and research purposes. An overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security is presented.

  18. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    PubMed

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  19. Consistency and Security in Mobile Real Time Distributed Database (MRTDDB): A Combinational Giant Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Gyanendra Kr.; Sharma, A. K.; Swaroop, Vishnu

    2010-11-01

    Many type of Information System are widely used in various fields. With the hasty development of computer network, Information System users care more about data sharing in networks. In traditional relational database, data consistency was controlled by consistency control mechanism when a data object is locked in a sharing mode, other transactions can only read it, but can not update it. If the traditional consistency control method has been used yet, the system's concurrency will be inadequately influenced. So there are many new necessities for the consistency control and security in MRTDDB. The problem not limited only to type of data (e.g. mobile or real-time databases). There are many aspects of data consistency problems in MRTDDB, such as inconsistency between attribute and type of data; the inconsistency of topological relations after objects has been modified. In this paper, many cases of consistency are discussed. As the mobile computing becomes well liked and the database grows with information sharing security is a big issue for researchers. Consistency and Security of data is a big challenge for researchers because when ever the data is not consistent and secure no maneuver on the data (e.g. transaction) is productive. It becomes more and more crucial when the transactions are used in non-traditional environment like Mobile, Distributed, Real Time and Multimedia databases. In this paper we raise the different aspects and analyze the available solution for consistency and security of databases. Traditional Database Security has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects. But in the mobility and nomadic computing uses these database creating a new opportunities for research. The wide spread use of databases over the web, heterogeneous client-server architectures, application servers, and networks creates a critical need to amplify this focus. In this paper we also discuss an overview of the new and old

  20. A resilient and secure software platform and architecture for distributed spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, William R.; Dubey, Abhishek; Karsai, Gabor

    2014-06-01

    A distributed spacecraft is a cluster of independent satellite modules flying in formation that communicate via ad-hoc wireless networks. This system in space is a cloud platform that facilitates sharing sensors and other computing and communication resources across multiple applications, potentially developed and maintained by different organizations. Effectively, such architecture can realize the functions of monolithic satellites at a reduced cost and with improved adaptivity and robustness. Openness of these architectures pose special challenges because the distributed software platform has to support applications from different security domains and organizations, and where information flows have to be carefully managed and compartmentalized. If the platform is used as a robust shared resource its management, configuration, and resilience becomes a challenge in itself. We have designed and prototyped a distributed software platform for such architectures. The core element of the platform is a new operating system whose services were designed to restrict access to the network and the file system, and to enforce resource management constraints for all non-privileged processes Mixed-criticality applications operating at different security labels are deployed and controlled by a privileged management process that is also pre-configuring all information flows. This paper describes the design and objective of this layer.

  1. Secure dissemination of electronic healthcare records in distributed wireless environments.

    PubMed

    Belsis, Petros; Vassis, Dimitris; Skourlas, Christos; Pantziou, Grammati

    2008-01-01

    A new networking paradigm has emerged with the appearance of wireless computing. Among else ad-hoc networks, mobile and ubiquitous environments can boost the performance of systems in which they get applied. Among else, medical environments are a convenient example of their applicability. With the utilisation of wireless infrastructures, medical data may be accessible to healthcare practitioners, enabling continuous access to medical data. Due to the critical nature of medical information, the design and implementation of these infrastructures demands special treatment in order to meet specific requirements; among else, special care should be taken in order to manage interoperability, security, and in order to deal with bandwidth and hardware resource constraints that characterize the wireless topology. In this paper we present an architecture that attempts to deal with these issues; moreover, in order to prove the validity of our approach we have also evaluated the performance of our platform through simulation in different operating scenarios.

  2. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around α≈2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  3. Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  4. Optimal service distribution in WSN service system subject to data security constraints.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-08-04

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm.

  5. 78 FR 4393 - Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program... Policy, Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Minorities and Retirement... Education (ED or the Department) and the United States Social Security Administration (SSA). The MRS...

  6. Enhanced Security-Constrained OPF With Distributed Battery Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, YF; Guo, CX; Kirschen, DS; Dong, SF

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how fast-response distributed battery energy storage could be used to implement post-contingency corrective control actions. Immediately after a contingency, the injections of distributed batteries could be adjusted to alleviate overloads and reduce flows below their short-term emergency rating. This ensures that the post-contingency system remains stable until the operator has redispatched the generation. Implementing this form of corrective control would allow operators to take advantage of the difference between the short-and long-term ratings of the lines and would therefore increase the available transmission capacity. This problem is formulated as a two-stage, enhanced security-constrained OPF problem, in which the first-stage optimizes the pre-contingency generation dispatch, while the second-stage minimizes the corrective actions for each contingency. Case studies based on a six-bus test system and on the RTS 96 demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective corrective actions and can guarantee operational reliability and economy.

  7. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  8. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  9. A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. Objective To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. Methods We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. Results The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. Conclusion The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for

  10. Neutron Detection Alternatives to 3He for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Stromswold, David C.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-11-21

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Large radiation detection systems deployed for homeland security and proliferation detection applications use such systems. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security and basic research, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This has led to the search for an alternative technology to replace the use of 3He-based neutron detectors. In this paper, we review the testing of currently commercially available alternative technologies for neutron detection in large systems used in various national security applications.

  11. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks.

    PubMed

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl; Renner, Renato; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2013-01-18

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)].

  12. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Against General Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl; Renner, Renato; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2013-01-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)PRLTAO0031-9007].

  13. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  14. Finite-key security analysis for multilevel quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brádler, Kamil; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Fickler, Robert; Broadbent, Anne; Boyd, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed security analysis of a d-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on two and three mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) both in an asymptotic and finite-key-length scenario. The finite secret key rates (in bits per detected photon) are calculated as a function of the length of the sifted key by (i) generalizing the uncertainly relation-based insight from BB84 to any d-level 2-MUB QKD protocol and (ii) by adopting recent advances in the second-order asymptotics for finite block length quantum coding (for both d-level 2- and 3-MUB QKD protocols). Since the finite and asymptotic secret key rates increase with d and the number of MUBs (together with the tolerable threshold) such QKD schemes could in principle offer an important advantage over BB84. We discuss the possibility of an experimental realization of the 3-MUB QKD protocol with the orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom of photons.

  15. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-04-23

    Secure data aggregation (SDA) schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics) and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA), in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss.

  16. Use of Computer-Generated Holograms in Security Hologram Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanovs, A.; Bakanas, R.

    2016-10-01

    The article discusses the use of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) for the application as one of the security features in the relief-phase protective holograms. An improved method of calculating CGHs is presented, based on ray-tracing approach in the case of interference of parallel rays. Software is developed for the calculation of multilevel phase CGHs and their integration in the application of security holograms. Topology of calculated computer-generated phase holograms was recorded on the photoresist by the optical greyscale lithography. Parameters of the recorded microstructures were investigated with the help of the atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The results of the research have shown highly protective properties of the security elements based on CGH microstructures. In our opinion, a wide use of CGHs is very promising in the structure of complex security holograms for increasing the level of protection against counterfeit.

  17. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the

  18. Collaborative Knowledge Discovery & Marshalling for Intelligence & Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Jensen, Russell S.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Ellis, Peter C.; Fligg, Alan K.; McGrath, Liam R.; O'Hara, Kelly A.; Bell, Eric B.

    2010-05-24

    This paper discusses the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework, a flexible, extensible evidence-marshalling environment built upon a natural language processing pipeline and exposed to users via an open-source semantic wiki. We focus our discussion on applications of the framework to intelligence and security applications, specifically, an instantiation of the KEF environment for researching illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  19. Quantum key distribution: theory for application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.

    Quantum key distribution bears the promise to set new standards in secure communication. However, on the way from the theoretical principles to the practical implementation we find many obstacles that need to be taken care of. In this article I show how to obtain a key with a realistic setup such that the security of this key can be proven for an important restricted class of eavesdropping attacks, namely the individual attacks.

  20. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publications or distributions... ACT OF 1933 General § 230.139 Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers... section, a broker's or dealer's publication or distribution of a research report about an issuer or any...

  1. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other than those they are distributing. 230.138 Section 230.138 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  2. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. 78 FR 26814 - Millington Exchange Traded MAVINS Fund, LLC and Millington Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Millington Exchange Traded MAVINS Fund, LLC and Millington Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application May 2, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of...

  4. X-ray imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  5. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.

  6. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... topics generally believed to be true to determine to what extent that claim is warranted. The adversarial... impact on our cyber security posture. The third topic to be explored in this series is ``Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security.'' The workshop on this topic will be held in Gaitherburg, MD on May 17,...

  7. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-12-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  8. Military Applications of Nanotechnology: Implications for Strategic Security 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Military Applications of Nanotechnology: Implications for Strategic Security   8   cosmetics, sunscreens, clothes, photovoltaics ( solar cells ...Synthesis, characterization, and ab initio modeling of asymmetric-substituted metalloporphyrins for dye-sensitized photovoltaics ( solar cells ) on...nano- structured TiO2 substrates. Participation in ACIN 2013 enabled discussions with researchers from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil

  9. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Information Brokering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengjun

    2010-01-01

    As enormous structured, semi-structured and unstructured data are collected and archived by organizations in many realms ranging from business to health networks to government agencies, the needs for efficient yet secure inter-organization information sharing naturally arise. Unlike early information sharing approaches that only involve a small…

  10. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  11. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  12. Secure quantum key distribution with a single not-so-weak coherent pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chil-Min; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2007-04-01

    We propose a secure quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using a single not-so-weak coherent qubit. With two preprocesses for random rotation and compensation, a key bit is encoded to a randomly polarized not-so-weak coherent qubit. We analyze the security of the QKD protocol, which counters the photon number splitting and the impersonation attacks. The estimated mean number of photon, which is less than 6.0, guarantees security. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of quantum secure direct communication.

  13. Modified Wigner inequality for secure quantum-key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Rastello, M.L.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the insecurity with present implementations of the Ekert protocol for quantum-key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We propose a modified version of this inequality which guarantees safe quantum-key distribution.

  14. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must apply... will consider this an application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be entitled...

  15. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must apply... will consider this an application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be entitled...

  16. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must apply... will consider this an application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be entitled...

  17. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must apply... will consider this an application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be entitled...

  18. 20 CFR 404.611 - How do I file an application for Social Security benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Security benefits? 404.611 Section 404.611 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD... § 404.611 How do I file an application for Social Security benefits? (a) General rule. You must apply... will consider this an application for title II Social Security benefits, which you may be entitled...

  19. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  20. A strategy for the development of secure telemedicine applications.

    PubMed Central

    Raman, R. S.; Reddy, R.; Jagannathan, V.; Reddy, S.; Cleetus, K. J.; Srinivas, K.

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare applications based on computer-supported collaboration technologies have the potential to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. Such applications can help overcome barriers to quality healthcare in the small, scattered populations of rural areas enabling telemedicine to be a part of the practice of medicine. However the growing concern about the potential for abuse through disclosure of personal health information to unauthorized parties has restricted the deployment and adoption of these potentially valuable tools. The authors, who built ARTEMIS--an Intranet healthcare collaboration facility, now describe their approach to develop secure telemedicine applications for rural healthcare practitioners. PMID:9357645

  1. Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Nicolas J; Bourennane, Mohamed; Karlsson, Anders; Gisin, Nicolas

    2002-03-25

    We consider two quantum cryptographic schemes relying on encoding the key into qudits, i.e., quantum states in a d-dimensional Hilbert space. The first cryptosystem uses two mutually unbiased bases (thereby extending the BB84 scheme), while the second exploits all d+1 available such bases (extending the six-state protocol for qubits). We derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper applying a cloning-based individual attack, along with an upper bound on the error rate that ensures unconditional security against coherent attacks.

  2. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  3. Security in Distributed Collaborative Environments: Limitations and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Rachid; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Brunie, Lionel

    The main goal of establishing collaboration between heterogeneous environment is to create such as Pervasive context which provide nomadic users with ubiquitous access to digital information and surrounding resources. However, the constraints of mobility and heterogeneity arise a number of crucial issues related to security, especially authentication access control and privacy. First of all, in this chapter we explore the trust paradigm, specially the transitive capability to enable a trust peer to peer collaboration. In this manner, when each organization sets its own security policy to recognize (authenticate) users members of a trusted community and provide them a local access (access control), the trust transitivity between peers will allows users to gain a broad, larger and controlled access inside the pervasive environment. Next, we study the problem of user's privacy. In fact in pervasive and ubiquitous environments, nomadic users gather and exchange certificates or credential which providing them rights to access by transitivity unknown and trusted environments. These signed documents embeds increasing number of attribute that require to be filtered according to such contextual situation. In this chapter, we propose a new morph signature enabling each certificate owner to preserve his privacy by discloses or blinds some sensitive attributes according to faced situation.

  4. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  5. Provably secure time distribution for the electric grid

    SciTech Connect

    Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Grice, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a quantum time distribution (QTD) method that combines the precision of optical timing techniques with the integrity of quantum key distribution (QKD). Critical infrastructure is dependent on microprocessor- and programmable logic-based monitoring and control systems. The distribution of timing information across the electric grid is accomplished by GPS signals which are known to be vulnerable to spoofing. We demonstrate a method for synchronizing remote clocks based on the arrival time of photons in a modifed QKD system. This has the advantage that the signal can be veried by examining the quantum states of the photons similar to QKD.

  6. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  7. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.

    2014-06-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  8. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  9. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  10. Differential Slicing: Identifying Causal Execution Differences for Security Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-16

    with the key- board layout set to Ukrainian (failing trace) and set to US- English (passing trace). Note that the failing trace is the one that does not...Juan Caballero was also par- tially supported by Grants FP7- ICT No. 256980, FP7- PEOPLE-COFUND No. 229599, and Comunidad de Madrid No. S2009TIC-1465...Defense”, 2007. [6] J. Caballero. Grammar and Model Extraction for Security Applications using Dynamic Program Bi- nary Analysis. PhD thesis, Department of

  11. A Secure Protocol to Distribute Unlinkable Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Sweeney, Latanya

    2005-01-01

    Health data that appears anonymous, such as DNA records, can be re-identified to named patients via location visit patterns, or trails. This is a realistic privacy concern which continues to exist because data holders do not collaborate prior to making disclosures. In this paper, we present STRANON, a novel computational protocol that enables data holders to work together to determine records that can be disclosed and satisfy a formal privacy protection model. STRANON incorporates a secure encrypted environment, so no data holder reveals information until the trails of disclosed records are provably unlinkable. We evaluate STRANON on real-world datasets with known susceptibilities and demonstrate data holders can release significant quantities of data with zero trail re-identifiability. PMID:16779087

  12. A secure protocol to distribute unlinkable health data.

    PubMed

    Malin, Bradley A; Sweeney, Latanya

    2005-01-01

    Health data that appears anonymous, such as DNA records, can be re-identified to named patients via location visit patterns, or trails. This is a realistic privacy concern which continues to exist because data holders do not collaborate prior to making disclosures. In this paper, we present STRANON, a novel computational protocol that enables data holders to work together to determine records that can be disclosed and satisfy a formal privacy protection model. STRANON incorporates a secure encrypted environment, so no data holder reveals information until the trails of disclosed records are provably unlinkable. We evaluate STRANON on real-world datasets with known susceptibilities and demonstrate data holders can release significant quantities of data with zero trail re-identifiability.

  13. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-18

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Uniform Measurement Error Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ghazarians, Alan; Jackson, Dennis...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME

  14. A case for avoiding security-enhanced HTTP tools to improve security for Web-based applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes some of the general weaknesses of the current popular Hypertext Transmission Protocol (HTTP) security standards and products in an effort to show that these standards are not appealing for many applications. The author will then show how one can treat HTTP browsers and servers as untrusted elements in the network so that one can rely on other mechanisms to achieve better overall security than can be attained through today`s security-enhanced HTTP tools.

  15. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  16. Security Issues in Cross-Organizational Peer-to-Peer Applications and Some Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Awasthi, Lalit K.

    Peer-to-Peer networks have been widely used for sharing millions of terabytes of content, for large-scale distributed computing and for a variety of other novel applications, due to their scalability and fault-tolerance. However, the scope of P2P networks has somehow been limited to individual computers connected to the internet. P2P networks are also notorious for blatant copyright violations and facilitating several kinds of security attacks. Businesses and large organizations have thus stayed away from deploying P2P applications citing security loopholes in P2P systems as the biggest reason for non-adoption. In theory P2P applications can help fulfill many organizational requirements such as collaboration and joint projects with other organizations, access to specialized computing infrastructure and finally accessing the specialized information/content and expert human knowledge available at other organizations. These potentially beneficial interactions necessitate that the research community attempt to alleviate the security shortcomings in P2P systems and ensure their acceptance and wide deployment. This research paper therefore examines the security issues prevalent in enabling cross-organizational P2P interactions and provides some technical insights into how some of these issues can be resolved.

  17. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol. PMID:28029119

  18. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-12-24

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  19. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  20. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  1. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  2. Unconditional security of time-energy entanglement quantum key distribution using dual-basis interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheshen; Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2014-03-28

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data-obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers-that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements, an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over a 200-km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700-bit/sec secure-key rate and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with a 15% system efficiency.

  3. Collective Attacks and Unconditional Security in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    We present here an information theoretic study of Gaussian collective attacks on the continuous variable key distribution protocols based on Gaussian modulation of coherent states. These attacks, overlooked in previous security studies, give a finite advantage to the eavesdropper in the experimentally relevant lossy channel, but are not powerful enough to reduce the range of the reverse reconciliation protocols. Secret key rates are given for the ideal case where Bob performs optimal collective measurements, as well as for the realistic cases where he performs homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We also apply the generic security proof of Christiandl et al. to obtain unconditionally secure rates for these protocols.

  4. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  5. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  6. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  7. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  8. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  9. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of the related forms prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying...

  10. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of the related forms prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying...

  11. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of the related forms prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying...

  12. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of the related forms prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying...

  13. 20 CFR 422.501 - Applications and other forms used in Social Security Administration programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Security Administration programs. 422.501 Section 422.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... used in Social Security Administration programs. This subpart lists the applications and some of the related forms prescribed by the Social Security Administration for use by the public in applying...

  14. Defence and security applications of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have seen tremendous recent application in the realm of Defence and Security. And, in many instances replacing traditional solid state lasers as the source of choice for Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, In-situ Sensing, Through-Barrier Sensing, and many others. Following their development and demonstration in the early 1990's, QCL's reached some maturity and specific defence and security application prior to 2005; with much initial development fostered by DARPA initiatives in the US, dstl, MoD, and EOARD funding initiatives in the UK, and University level R&D such as those by Prof Manijeh Razeghi at Northwestern University [1], and Prof Ted Masselink at Humboldt University [2]. As QCL's provide direct mid-IR laser output for electrical input, they demonstrate high quantum efficiency compared with diode pumped solid state lasers with optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to generate mid-Infrared output. One particular advantage of QCL's is their very broad operational bandwidth, extending from the terahertz to the near-infrared spectral regions. Defence and Security areas benefiting from QCL's include: Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, Through-the-Wall Sensing, and Explosive Detection. All information used to construct this paper obtained from open sources.

  15. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  16. Integrating CLIPS applications into heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    SOCIAL is an advanced, object-oriented development tool for integrating intelligent and conventional applications across heterogeneous hardware and software platforms. SOCIAL defines a family of 'wrapper' objects called agents, which incorporate predefined capabilities for distributed communication and control. Developers embed applications within agents and establish interactions between distributed agents via non-intrusive message-based interfaces. This paper describes a predefined SOCIAL agent that is specialized for integrating C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS)-based applications. The agent's high-level Application Programming Interface supports bidirectional flow of data, knowledge, and commands to other agents, enabling CLIPS applications to initiate interactions autonomously, and respond to requests and results from heterogeneous remote systems. The design and operation of CLIPS agents are illustrated with two distributed applications that integrate CLIPS-based expert systems with other intelligent systems for isolating and mapping problems in the Space Shuttle Launch Processing System at the NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

  18. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP

  19. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610

  20. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-22

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.

  1. Secure Large-Scale Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermott, William J.; Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Tran, Peter; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To fully conduct research that will support the far-term concepts, technologies and methods required to improve the safety of Air Transportation a simulation environment of the requisite degree of fidelity must first be in place. The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will provide the underlying infrastructure necessary for such a simulation system. Aerospace-specific knowledge management services such as intelligent data-integration middleware will support the management of information associated with this complex and critically important operational environment. This simulation environment, in conjunction with a distributed network of supercomputers, and high-speed network connections to aircraft, and to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline and other data-sources will provide the capability to continuously monitor and measure operational performance against expected performance. The VNAS will also provide the tools to use this performance baseline to obtain a perspective of what is happening today and of the potential impact of proposed changes before they are introduced into the system.

  2. An Interesting Application of the Binomial Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, G. J.; MacFarlane, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an application of the binomial distribution in which the distribution is used to detect differences between the sensory properties of food products. Included is a BASIC computer program listing used to generate triangle and duo-trio test results. (JN)

  3. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomei; Sun, Hao

    2016-12-16

    We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor's reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured.

  4. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guomei; Sun, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor’s reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured. PMID:27999282

  5. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  6. Unconditionally secure device-independent quantum key distribution with only two devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution is the task of using uncharacterized quantum devices to establish a shared key between two users. If a protocol is secure, regardless of the device behavior, it can be used to generate a shared key even if the supplier of the devices is malicious. To date, all device-independent quantum key distribution protocols that are known to be secure require separate isolated devices for each entangled pair, which is a significant practical limitation. We introduce a protocol that requires Alice and Bob to have only one device each. Although inefficient and unable to tolerate reasonable levels of noise, our protocol is unconditionally secure against an adversarial supplier limited only by locally enforced signaling constraints.

  7. Task Assignment Heuristics for Distributed CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Benitez, N.; Djomehri, M. J.; Biswas, R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    CFD applications require high-performance computational platforms: 1. Complex physics and domain configuration demand strongly coupled solutions; 2. Applications are CPU and memory intensive; and 3. Huge resource requirements can only be satisfied by teraflop-scale machines or distributed computing.

  8. Establishing security of quantum key distribution without monitoring disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koashi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, the information leak to an eavesdropper is estimated through the basic principle of quantum mechanics dictated in the original version of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The amount of leaked information on a shared sifted key is bounded from above essentially by using information-disturbance trade-off relations, based on the amount of signal disturbance measured via randomly sampled or inserted probe signals. Here we discuss an entirely different avenue toward the private communication, which does not rely on the information disturbance trade-off relations and hence does not require a monitoring of signal disturbance. The independence of the amount of privacy amplification from that of disturbance tends to give it a high tolerance on the channel noises. The lifting of the burden of precise statistical estimation of disturbance leads to a favorable finite-key-size effect. A protocol based on the novel principle can be implemented by only using photon detectors and classical optics tools: a laser, a phase modulator, and an interferometer. The protocol resembles the differential-phase-shift QKD protocol in that both share a simple binary phase shift keying on a coherent train of weak pulses from a laser. The difference lies in the use of a variable-delay interferometer in the new protocol, which randomly changes the combination of pulse pairs to be superposed. This extra randomness has turned out to be enough to upper-bound the information extracted by the eavesdropper, regardless of how they have disturbed the quantum signal.

  9. High performance seismic sensor requirements for military and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, A.; Pisano, D.; Sicignano, A.; Goldburt, T.

    2005-05-01

    General Sensing Systems (GSS) has been developing seismic sensors for different security and military applications for the past several years. Research and development in this area does not have a single-value purpose as security and military applications are of a broad variety. Many of the requirements for seismic sensors are well known. Herein we describe additional requirements for seismic sensors that are not at the center of common attention and associated with high performance seismic sensors. We find that the hard issues related to "remote" deployment/installation methods can be solved, given the seismic sensor does not have the usual single-axis sensitivity, but sensitivity to arbitrary oriented impact/vibrations. Our results show that such a sensor can be designed, in particular based on electret materials. We report that traditional frequency response curve linearity is not always the appropriate goal. Such issues as useful signal frequency band and an interference immunity should be directly taken into account. In addition, the mechanical oscillator of the seismic sensor should have a very broad dynamic range about 120dB, or an adjustable sensitivity for use in various tactical applications. We find that increasing sensitivity is not so much needed as is reducing of the seismic sensor sensitivity threshold. The lower sensitivity threshold in higher target detection range can be obtained in low noise environmental conditions. We will also show that the attempt to design and manufacture a universal seismic sensor for every possible application seems unreasonable. In every respect it makes sense to design a seismic sensor set, which can fit and satisfy all plurality of the applications and multi objective requirements.

  10. 13 CFR 107.1400 - Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dividends or partnership... (Leverage) Preferred Securities Leverage-Section 301(d) Licensees § 107.1400 Dividends or partnership... 21, 1989, you must pay SBA a dividend or partnership distribution of 4 percent per year, from...

  11. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... traded. For purposes of section 731(c) and this section, a financial instrument is actively traded...

  12. Cyber-Security Holism: A System of Solutions for a Distributed Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    SUBTITLE CYCBER-SECURITY HOLISM: A SYSTEM OF SOLUTIONS FOR A DISTRIBUTED PROBLEM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Simple Dynamic Programing Example .....................................................................18...organism of the parts. Facing this complexity, I turned to holism, to systems theory, and to dynamic programming used to understand complexity in

  13. Current seismic sensor issues for defense and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Alex; Sicignano, Al; Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim

    2004-09-01

    Seismic footstep detection-based systems are very important for various homeland security and military applications. Their performance and usefulness strongly depends on the characteristics of the seismic sensors. Unfortunately, currently available seismic sensors do not provide in satisfactory results. This paper describes the main issues of using seismic sensors for detection purposes and shows the key disadvantages of the most popular commercial seismic sensors/geophones. According to our results, the following are the key issues of poor seismic sensor performance: - Poor response to low frequency signals, leading to decrease of the detection range of targets - Unsatisfactory sensitivity threshold, causing missing low level seismic signals from outlying targets - Long damping signal time and corresponding low accuracy response, leading to problems with outlying target detection in high level noise environments - Low noise immunity from electromagnetic interference making seismic sensor operation in radar installation areas unreliable - Relatively bulky size and high price, which prevents extensive use of seismic sensors In addition, we have formulated objective requirements for seismic sensors to be used in defense and security applications

  14. Security applications of a remote electric-field sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, Robert J.; Harland, Christopher J.; Prance, Helen

    2008-10-01

    A new generation of electric field sensors developed at the University of Sussex is enabling an alternative to contact voltage and non-contact magnetic field measurements. We have demonstrated the capability of this technology in a number of areas including ECG through clothing, remote off-body ECG, through wall movement sensing and electric field imaging. Clearly, there are many applications for a generic sensor technology with this capability, including long term vital sign monitoring. The non-invasive nature of the measurement also makes these sensors ideal for man/machine and human/robot interfacing. In addition, there are obvious security and biometric possibilities since we can obtain physiological data remotely, without the knowledge of the subject. This is a clear advantage if such systems are to be used for evaluating the psychological state of a subject. In this paper we report the results obtained with a new version of the sensor which is capable of acquiring electrophysiological signals remotely in an open unshielded laboratory. We believe that this technology opens up a new area of remote biometrics which could have considerable implications for security applications. We have also demonstrated the ability of EPS to function in closely-packed one and two dimensional arrays for real-time imaging.

  15. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  16. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-14

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, 'on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  17. Application of Near-Space Passive Radar for Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqin

    2007-03-01

    To protect the homeland from terrorist attacks employing explosive devices, revolutionary advances across a wide range of technologies are required. Inspired by recent advances in near-space (defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km), this paper proposes a new passive radar system using opportunistic transmitter as an illuminator and near-space platform as a receiver. This concept differs substantially from current radars. This system can be operated as a passive bistatic or multistatic radar and hence largely immune to jamming. By placing the receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed much more cheaply and with much greater operational utility. These advantages make near-space passive attractive for a variety of applications, many of which fit well with the needs of homeland security. This paper details the role of near-space passive radar as sensor system that can support homeland security applications. The strengths and weakness of near-space passive radar, compared to current spaceborne and airborne radars, are detailed. The signal models and processing algorithms for near-space passive radar are provided. It is shown that the use of cost effective near-space platforms can provide the solutions that were previously thought to be out of reach to remote sensing and government customers.

  18. Quantum key distribution for security guarantees over QoS-driven 3D satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, quantum-based communication is emerging as a new technique for ensuring secured communications because it can guarantee absolute security between two different remote entities. Quantum communication performs the transmission and exchange of quantum information among distant nodes within a network. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a methodology for generating and distributing random encryption keys using the principles of quantum physics. In this paper, we investigate the techniques on how to efficiently use QKD in 3D satellite networks and propose an effective method to overcome its communications-distance limitations. In order to implement secured and reliable communications over wireless satellite links, we develop a free-space quantum channel model in satellite communication networks. To enlarge the communications distances over 3D satellite networks, we propose to employ the intermediate nodes to relay the unconditional keys and guarantee the Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER) for security requirement over 3D satellite networks. We also propose the communication model for QKD security-Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee and an adaptive cooperative routing selection scheme to optimize the throughput performance of QKD-based satellite communications networks. The obtained simulation results verify our proposed schemes.

  19. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Muthurajan, Vinothkumar; Narayanasamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric) mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function) provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC) schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA) to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT) regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation. PMID:26981584

  20. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, Vinothkumar; Narayanasamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric) mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function) provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC) schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA) to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT) regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation.

  1. Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhuis, Gert J.; Elders, Job; van Weerden, Harm; Amersfoort, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field of packaging, testing, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been built up in the struggle for meeting the stringent Telcordia requirements that apply to telecom products. As an example, silica-on-silicon is now a mature technology available at several industrial foundries around the world, where, on the performance front, the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) has evolved into an off-the-shelf product. The field of optical chemical-biological (CB) sensors for homeland security application can greatly benefit from the advances as described above. In this paper we discuss the currently available technologies, device concepts, and modeling tools that have emerged from the telecommunications arena and that can effectively be applied to the field of homeland security. Using this profound telecom knowledge base, standard telecom components can readily be tailored for detecting CB agents. Designs for telecom components aim at complete isolation from the environment to exclude impact of environmental parameters on optical performance. For sensing applications, the optical path must be exposed to the measurand, in this area additional development is required beyond what has already been achieved in telecom development. We have tackled this problem, and are now in a position to apply standard telecom components for CB sensing. As an example, the application of an AWG as a refractometer is demonstrated, and its performance evaluated.

  2. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  3. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD.

  4. A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frédéric; Litzistorf, Gérald

    Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

  5. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  6. Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.L.

    1999-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

  7. Application of fuzzy sets to optimal reactive power planning with security constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical formulation for the optimal reactive power planning taking into account the static security constraints and the non-probabilistic uncertainty in load values. The planning process is decomposed into investment and operation problems via the generalized Benders decomposition (GBD). Fixed and variable costs are considered in the investment problem. Linguistic declarations of load values in the operation problem are translated into possibility distribution functions. The operation problem is decomposed into 4 subproblems via Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition (DWD), and the modeling of multi-area power systems is considered by applying a second DWD to each subproblem, leading to a significant reduction in its dimensions for personal computer applications. Voltage constraints within each area are modeled as fuzzy sets for the static security analysis by biasing the final solution towards desired values of variables within their given ranges. The overall solution is a compromise between economics (lower investment and operation costs) and security (tighter feasible region). Numerical examples for the applicability of the proposed approach to multi-area power systems are discussed.

  8. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    PubMed

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  9. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-11-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers.

  10. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2012-01-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers. PMID:23175590

  11. A secure RFID-based WBAN for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

    2013-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years.

  12. Application of the Open Software Foundation (OSF)distributed computing environment to global PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to developing Global Picture Archiving and Communication System (GPACS) applications using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The OSF DCE services include remote procedure calls, naming service, threads service, time service, file management services, and security service. Several OSF DCE toolkits are currently available from computer and software vendors. Designing distributed Global PACS applications using the OSF DCE approach will feature an open architecture, heterogeneity, and technology independence for GPACS remote consultation and diagnosis applications, including synchronized image annotation, and system privacy and security. The applications can communicate through various transport services and communications networks in a Global PACS environment. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS will enable us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

  13. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  14. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  15. Ultra-wide fast fisheye for security and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, Ahmed M.; Gao, Zhishan

    2014-11-01

    A 1.5mm focal length, F/4and F/3.75, miniature fisheye all spherical optical lens systems with 220 degree full field of view are designed in this paper, a brief discussion for a series of limiting factors is achieved, the performance evaluation is done by ZEMAX optical design and analysis software, which shows that the two designed fisheye lenses are perfect lateral color and axial chromatic aberration corrected, the maximum wavefront OPD at the full FOV is 0.6λ and 1.2λ, the RMS spot size is 3.75-3.9microns across the full FOV in both lens systems, and have diffraction encircled energy, as above 80% energy can be included in 4.8 μm radius circle. Finally, the modulation transfer function of these two designs produces a high-resolution projection with uniform in brightness over the entire range of field angles for security, monitoring, and tracking applications.

  16. Pulse-shape discrimination scintillators for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Mark E.; Duroe, Kirk; Kendall, Paul A.

    2016-09-01

    An extensive programme of research has been conducted for scintillation liquids and plastics capable of neutron-gamma discrimination for deployment in future passive and active Homeland Security systems to provide protection against radiological and nuclear threats. The more established detection materials such as EJ-301 and EJ-309 are compared with novel materials such as EJ-299-33 and p-terphenyl. This research also explores the benefits that can be gained from improvements in the analogue-to-digital sampling rate and sample bit resolution. Results are presented on the Pulse Shape Discrimination performance of various detector and data acquisition combinations and how optimum configurations from these studies have been developed into field-ready detector arrays. Early results from application-specific experimental configurations of multi-element detector arrays are presented.

  17. Security engineering: systems engineering of security through the adaptation and application of risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Feather, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task in the organization, which must protect its resources and data against the loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As systems become more complex and diverse, and more vulnerabilities are discovered while attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security. This paper describes an approach to address IT security risk through risk management and mitigation in both the institution and in the project life cycle.

  18. Security mechanism based on Hospital Authentication Server for secure application of implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Seop

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance.

  19. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  20. Applying SOA Concepts to Distributed Industrial Applications Using WCF Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopper, Markus; Gastermann, Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Software Development is subject to a constant process of change. In the meantime web services, access to remote services or distributed applications are already the standard. Simultaneously with their advancement demands on these techniques are rising significantly. Defined support for security issues, coordination of transactions and reliable communications are expected. Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)—as a part of Microsoft Corporation's .NET Framework—supports these requirements in line with wide range interoperability. WCF provides the development of distributed and interconnected software applications by means of a service-oriented programming model. This paper introduces a service-oriented communication concept based on WCF, which is specifically designed for industrial applications within a production environment using a central manufacturing information system (MIS) database. It introduces applied technologies and provides an overview of some important design aspects and base service sets of WCF. Additionally, this paper also shows a factual implementation of the presented service-oriented communication concept in the form of an industrial software application used in plastics industry.

  1. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Miller, Eric M.; Sage, Steen P.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a Secure, Autonomous, and Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Emergency Response Satellite Operations. It includes a description of current improvements to existing Virtual Mission Operations Center technology being used by US Department of Defense and originally developed under NASA funding. The report also highlights a technology demonstration performed in partnership with the United States Geological Service for Earth Resources Observation and Science using DigitalGlobe(Registered TradeMark) satellites to obtain space-based sensor data.

  2. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  3. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  4. Extended inverse Lindley distribution: properties and application.

    PubMed

    Alkarni, Said Hofan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an extension of the inverse Lindley distribution, which offers more flexibility in modeling upside-down bathtub lifetime data. Some statistical properties of the proposed distribution are explicitly derived. These include density and hazard rate functions with their behavior, moments, moment generating function, skewness, kurtosis measures, and quantile function. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters and their estimated asymptotic distribution and confidence intervals are derived. Rényi entropy as a measure of the uncertainty in the model is derived. The application of the model to a real data set i.e., the flood levels for the Susquehanna river at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, over 20 four-year periods from 1890 to 1969 is compared to the fit attained by some other well-known existing distributions.

  5. Operation of remote mobile sensors for security of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Perelman, By Lina; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-09-01

    The deployment of fixed online water quality sensors in water distribution systems has been recognized as one of the key components of contamination warning systems for securing public health. This study proposes to explore how the inclusion of mobile sensors for inline monitoring of various water quality parameters (e.g., residual chlorine, pH) can enhance water distribution system security. Mobile sensors equipped with sampling, sensing, data acquisition, wireless transmission and power generation systems are being designed, fabricated, and tested, and prototypes are expected to be released in the very near future. This study initiates the development of a theoretical framework for modeling mobile sensor movement in water distribution systems and integrating the sensory data collected from stationary and non-stationary sensor nodes to increase system security. The methodology is applied and demonstrated on two benchmark networks. Performance of different sensor network designs are compared for fixed and combined fixed and mobile sensor networks. Results indicate that complementing online sensor networks with inline monitoring can increase detection likelihood and decrease mean time to detection.

  6. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  7. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  8. Guidelines for developing distributed virtual environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    1998-08-01

    We have conducted a variety of projects that served to investigate the limits of virtual environments and distributed virtual environment (DVE) technology for the military and medical professions. The projects include an application that allows the user to interactively explore a high-fidelity, dynamic scale model of the Solar System and a high-fidelity, photorealistic, rapidly reconfigurable aircraft simulator. Additional projects are a project for observing, analyzing, and understanding the activity in a military distributed virtual environment, a project to develop a distributed threat simulator for training Air Force pilots, a virtual spaceplane to determine user interface requirements for a planned military spaceplane system, and an automated wingman for use in supplementing or replacing human-controlled systems in a DVE. The last two projects are a virtual environment user interface framework; and a project for training hospital emergency department personnel. In the process of designing and assembling the DVE applications in support of these projects, we have developed rules of thumb and insights into assembling DVE applications and the environment itself. In this paper, we open with a brief review of the applications that were the source for our insights and then present the lessons learned as a result of these projects. The lessons we have learned fall primarily into five areas. These areas are requirements development, software architecture, human-computer interaction, graphical database modeling, and construction of computer-generated forces.

  9. 12 CFR 350.12 - Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law or regulations. 350.12 Section 350.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.12 Disclosure required by applicable banking or securities law...

  10. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders § 5.1 Applications and correspondence involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including...

  11. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders § 5.1 Applications and correspondence involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including...

  12. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders § 5.1 Applications and correspondence involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including...

  13. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Secrecy Orders § 5.1 Applications and correspondence involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including...

  14. Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources

    DOE PAGES

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; ...

    2015-09-09

    In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called 'rejected data analysis', and showed that its security in the limit of infinitelymore » long keys is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.« less

  15. Finite-key security analysis of quantum key distribution with imperfect light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-09

    In recent years, the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD) has been significantly narrowed, particularly for QKD systems with arbitrarily flawed optical receivers. The status for QKD systems with imperfect light sources is however less satisfactory, in the sense that the resulting secure key rates are often overly dependent on the quality of state preparation. This is especially the case when the channel loss is high. Very recently, to overcome this limitation, Tamaki et al proposed a QKD protocol based on the so-called 'rejected data analysis', and showed that its security in the limit of infinitely long keys is almost independent of any encoding flaw in the qubit space, being this protocol compatible with the decoy state method. Here, as a step towards practical QKD, we show that a similar conclusion is reached in the finite-key regime, even when the intensity of the light source is unstable. More concretely, we derive security bounds for a wide class of realistic light sources and show that the bounds are also efficient in the presence of high channel loss. Our results strongly suggest the feasibility of long distance provably secure communication with imperfect light sources.

  16. Distributed Computing Framework for Synthetic Radar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrola, Eric M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Aivazis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We are developing an extensible software framework, in response to Air Force and NASA needs for distributed computing facilities for a variety of radar applications. The objective of this work is to develop a Python based software framework, that is the framework elements of the middleware that allows developers to control processing flow on a grid in a distributed computing environment. Framework architectures to date allow developers to connect processing functions together as interchangeable objects, thereby allowing a data flow graph to be devised for a specific problem to be solved. The Pyre framework, developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and now being used as the basis for next-generation radar processing at JPL, is a Python-based software framework. We have extended the Pyre framework to include new facilities to deploy processing components as services, including components that monitor and assess the state of the distributed network for eventual real-time control of grid resources.

  17. DOE integrated safeguards and security (DISS) system a nation-wide distributed information system for personnel security

    SciTech Connect

    Block, B.

    1997-06-05

    DISS uses secure client-server and relational database technology across open networks to address the problems of security clearance request processing and tracking of security clearances for the Department of energy. The system supports the entire process from data entry by the prospective clearance holders through tracking of all DOE clearances, and use of standard DOE badges in automated access control systems throughout the DOE complex.

  18. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms (Extended Abstract).

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Eugene Y; Hatcliff, John

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals.

  19. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  20. Applicability of Army Automation Security Guidance to Local Area Computer Network Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Emplovment of tactical fighters or compromise operational plans and targeting for nuclear missiles. [Ref. 1: p. 17] For example, one group of juvenile...everything from targeting ICBM’s to parceling out spaces in the Pentagon parking lot." [Ref. 2: p. 1] Given that "the flexibility of LANs for dynamic system...emphasis on security at the unit level. This section will address a few general computer network security points in terms of ADP target areas

  1. Control and Communication for a Secure and Reconfigurable Power Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Anthony Michael

    A major transformation is taking place throughout the electric power industry to overlay existing electric infrastructure with advanced sensing, communications, and control system technologies. This transformation to a smart grid promises to enhance system efficiency, increase system reliability, support the electrification of transportation, and provide customers with greater control over their electricity consumption. Upgrading control and communication systems for the end-to-end electric power grid, however, will present many new security challenges that must be dealt with before extensive deployment and implementation of these technologies can begin. In this dissertation, a comprehensive systems approach is taken to minimize and prevent cyber-physical disturbances to electric power distribution systems using sensing, communications, and control system technologies. To accomplish this task, an intelligent distributed secure control (IDSC) architecture is presented and validated in silico for distribution systems to provide greater adaptive protection, with the ability to proactively reconfigure, and rapidly respond to disturbances. Detailed descriptions of functionalities at each layer of the architecture as well as the whole system are provided. To compare the performance of the IDSC architecture with that of other control architectures, an original simulation methodology is developed. The simulation model integrates aspects of cyber-physical security, dynamic price and demand response, sensing, communications, intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs), and dynamic optimization and reconfiguration. Applying this comprehensive systems approach, performance results for the IEEE 123 node test feeder are simulated and analyzed. The results show the trade-offs between system reliability, operational constraints, and costs for several control architectures and optimization algorithms. Additional simulation results are also provided. In particular, the

  2. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  3. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mi, Shichao; Han, Hui; Chen, Cailian; Yan, Jian; Guan, Xinping

    2016-02-19

    Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

  5. Application of wireless sensor system on security network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    In this research we developed wireless sensor system for security application. We have used geophone to detect seismic signals which are generated by footsteps. Geophones are resonant devices. Therefore, vibration on the land can generate seismic waveforms which could be very similar to the signature by footstep. The signals from human footstep have weak signals to noise ratio and the signal strength is subject to the distance between the sensor and human. In order to detect weak signals from footstep, we designed and fabricated 2-stage amplification circuit which consists of active and RC filters and amplifiers. The bandwidth of filter is 0.7Hz-150Hz and the gain of amplifier is set to 1000. The wireless sensor system also developed to monitor the sensing signals at the remote place. The wireless sensor system consists of 3 units; a wireless sensor unit, a wireless receiver unit, and a monitoring unit. The wireless sensor unit transmits amplified signals from geophone with Zigbee, and the wireless receiver unit which has both Zigbee and Wi-Fi module receives signals from the sensor unit and transmits signals to the monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve the low power consumption and wide range coverage.

  6. Recent Advances in Infrasound Science for National Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Blom, P. S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the frequency-threshold of human hearing, covering the frequency range from 0.01 - 20 Hz. Infrasound science studies the generation, propagation, measurement, and analysis of infrasound. Sources of infrasound include a wide variety of energetic natural and manmade phenomena that include chemical and nuclear explosions, rockets and missiles, and aircraft. The dominant factors influencing the propagation of infrasound are the spatial and temporal variations in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In recent years, Infrasound Science has experienced a renaissance due to the installation of an international monitoring system of 60 infrasound arrays for monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and to the demonstrated value of regional infrasound networks for both scientific and applied purposes. Furthermore, in the past decade, significant advances have been made on using measurements of infrasound to invert for these properties of the atmosphere at altitudes where alternative measurement techniques are extremely costly. This presentation provides a review of recent advances in infrasound science as relevant to National Security applications.

  7. Distributed Hash Tables: Design and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.-F. Michael; Chan, S.-H. Gary

    The tremendous growth of the Internet and large-scale applications such as file sharing and multimedia streaming require the support of efficient search on objects. Peer-to-peer approaches have been proposed to provide this search mechanism scalably. One such approach is the distributed hash table (DHT), a scalable, efficient, robust and self-organizing routing overlay suitable for Internet-size deployment. In this chapter, we discuss how scalable routing is achieved under node dynamics in DHTs. We also present several applications which illustrate the power of DHTs in enabling large-scale peer-to-peer applications. Since wireless networks are becoming increasingly popular, we also discuss the issues of deploying DHTs and various solutions in such networks.

  8. Securing Secrets and Managing Trust in Modern Computing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The amount of digital data generated and stored by users increases every day. In order to protect this data, modern computing systems employ numerous cryptographic and access control solutions. Almost all of such solutions, however, require the keeping of certain secrets as the basis of their security models. How best to securely store and control…

  9. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  10. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  11. Distributed Energy Systems: Security Implications of the Grid of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Kelic, Andjelka; Taylor, Robert A.; Henry, Jordan M; Stamp, Jason E.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are being added to the nation's electric grid, and as penetration of these resources increases, they have the potential to displace or offset large-scale, capital-intensive, centralized generation. Integration of DER into operation of the traditional electric grid requires automated operational control and communication of DER elements, from system measurement to control hardware and software, in conjunction with a utility's existing automated and human-directed control of other portions of the system. Implementation of DER technologies suggests a number of gaps from both a security and a policy perspective. This page intentionally left blank.

  12. 78 FR 72132 - RBS Securities Inc. and Citizens Investment Advisors; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... COMMISSION RBS Securities Inc. and Citizens Investment Advisors; Notice of Application and Temporary Order... notice of application for a permanent order under section 9(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act''). Summary of Application: Applicants have received a temporary order exempting them from...

  13. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; ...

    2016-08-09

    One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. But, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, we proposed an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) in order to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. We analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find thatmore » DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.« less

  14. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; Boso, Gianluca; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-08-09

    One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. But, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, we proposed an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) in order to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. We analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.

  15. Increasing operational command and control security by the implementation of device independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Messina, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    In a very simplistic way, the Command and Control functions can be summarized as the need to provide the decision makers with an exhaustive, real-time, situation picture and the capability to convey their decisions down to the operational forces. This two-ways data and information flow is vital to the execution of current operations and goes far beyond the border of military operations stretching to Police and disaster recovery as well. The availability of off-the shelf technology has enabled hostile elements to endanger the security of the communication networks by violating the traditional security protocols and devices and hacking sensitive databases. In this paper an innovative approach based to implementing Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution system is presented. The use of this technology would prevent security breaches due to a stolen crypto device placed in an end-to-end communication chain. The system, operating with attenuated laser, is practical and provides the increasing of the distance between the legitimate users.

  16. Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Application of Revocation Process Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives September 2014 GAO-14-640...Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process 5a. CONTRACT...2014 PERSONNEL SECURITY CLEARANCES Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

  17. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  18. NASA guidelines for assuring the adequacy and appropriateness of security safeguards in sensitive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-71, transmittal Memorandum No. 1, requires that each agency establish a management control process to assure that appropriate administrative, physical and technical safeguards are incorporated into all new computer applications. In addition to security specifications, the management control process should assure that the safeguards are adequate for the application. The security activities that should be integral to the system development process are examined. The software quality assurance process to assure that adequate and appropriate controls are incorporated into sensitive applications is also examined. Security for software packages is also discussed.

  19. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine A.; Nógues-Bravo, David; Normand, Signe

    2011-10-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview of applications of SDM to paleobiology, outlining the methodology, reviewing SDM-based studies to paleobiology or at the interface of paleo- and neobiology, discussing assumptions and uncertainties as well as how to handle them, and providing a synthesis and outlook. Key methodological issues for SDM applications to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years the number of studies using SDM to address paleobiology-related questions has increased considerably. While some of these studies only use SDM (23%), most combine them with genetically inferred patterns (49%), paleoecological records (22%), or both (6%). A large number of SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia in biogeography and evolution, especially in Europe, but also in many other regions. SDM-based approaches are also beginning to contribute to a suite of other research questions, such as historical constraints on current distributions and diversity patterns, the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing

  20. Microholographic computer generated holograms for security applications: Microtags

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Kravitz, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. Eight-by-eight-cell and 12 x 12-cell phase-only and phase-and-amplitude microtag designs has been exposed in photoresist using the extreme-ultraviolet (13.4 nm) lithography (EUVL) tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Using EUVL, we have also fabricated microtags consisting of 150-nm lines arranged to form 300-nm-period gratings. The microtags described in this report were designed for readout at 632.8 nm and 442 nm. The smallest microtag measures 56 {mu}m x 80 {mu}m when viewed at normal incidence. The largest microtag measures 80 by 160 microns and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. The microtag design process uses a modified iterative Fourier-transform algorithm to create either phase-only or phase-and-amplitude microtags. We also report on a simple and compact readout system for recording the diffraction pattern formed by a microtag. The measured diffraction patterns agree very well with predictions. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are CD modeled as consisting of sub-wavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The objective of our analysis is the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal-coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency. Maximum diffraction efficiency is calculated at 16% for microtag gratings in air and 12% for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-microtag gratings. Finally, we suggest several additional microtag concepts, such as two-dimensional microtags and pixel-code microtags.

  1. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security requirements for... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  2. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security requirements for... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  3. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security requirements for... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  4. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security requirements for... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  5. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security requirements for... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.203 Security requirements for patent applications containing...

  6. Securing Location Services Infrastructures: Practical Criteria for Application Developers and Solutions Architects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamanian, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory, normative study examined the security and privacy of location based services in mobile applications. This study explored risk, and controls to implement privacy and security. This study was addressed using components of the FIPS Risk Management Framework. This study found that risk to location information was…

  7. Active Millimeter-Wave and Sub-Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2011-09-02

    Active imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths has been developed for security applications including concealed weapon detection. The physical properties that affect imaging performance are discussed along with a review of the current state-of-the-art and future potential for security imaging systems.

  8. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions...)(3)), or international applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty prior to entering...

  9. Reviews of computing technology: Securing network applications, Kerberos and RSA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper will focus on the first step in establishing network security, authentication, and describe the basic function of both RSA and Kerberos as used to provide authentication and confidential data transfer services. It will also discuss the Digital Signature Standard and the market acceptance of each. Proper identification of the principals involved in a network dialog is a necessary first step in providing network-wide security comparable to that of stand-alone systems.

  10. Extended Range Underwater Loudhailer for Port Security Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    CG) has developed an Integrated Anti- swimmer System (IAS) to aid enforcement of security zones around high-value maritime assets. The IAS includes...water’s surface, primarily from combat swimmers and divers. The CG’s Underwater Port Security (UPSec) mission requires the ability to detect, track...locate, identify, and interdict potentially hostile swimmers and divers. An Integrated Anti- swimmer System (IAS) has been developed that

  11. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-06-01

    Temporal steering, which is a temporal analog of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, refers to temporal quantum correlations between the initial and final state of a quantum system. Our analysis of temporal steering inequalities in relation to the average quantum bit error rates reveals the interplay between temporal steering and quantum cloning, which guarantees the security of quantum key distribution based on mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks. The key distributions analyzed here include the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the six-state 1998 protocol by Bruss. Moreover, we define a temporal steerable weight, which enables us to identify a kind of monogamy of temporal correlation that is essential to quantum cryptography and useful for analyzing various scenarios of quantum causality.

  12. 76 FR 8755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-032 Official Passport Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--032 Official... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--032 Official Passport Application and Maintenance Records..., Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528. Instructions: All...

  13. Implementation of a secure USIM COS architecture for mobile payment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Juan; Wu, Juan; Xu, Donglai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a secure architecture for mobile payment applications is designed, which combines public service platform, Trusted Service Manager(TSM) and Security Element Financial Certification Security Domain(SE FCSD). The architecture interconnects various platforms, authenticates the identity of transaction parties and detects the legality of applications. In the architecture, a more reliable secure channel protocol SCP10 is used to secure the confidentiality and integrity of data. Using NFC Universal Subscriber Identifier Module Card (NFC USIM card) as the hardware platform, a security element supporting the architecture is implemented, and also a USIM Chip Operating System (USIM COS) supporting both financial certification security domain and SCP10 protocol is designed. In order to improve the efficiency of identity authentication of USIM card, a compact digital certification is adopted to improve verification speed and save storage space. The experiment results and security tests show that the USIM COS has advantages of security and reliability , and it has commercial value and has achieved effective mobile payments.

  14. Contributions to Human Errors and Breaches in National Security Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D. J.; Houghton, F. K.; Gilmore, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has recognized that security infractions are often the consequence of various types of human errors (e.g., mistakes, lapses, slips) and/or breaches (i.e., deliberate deviations from policies or required procedures with no intention to bring about an adverse security consequence) and therefore has established an error reduction program based in part on the techniques used to mitigate hazard and accident potentials. One cornerstone of this program, definition of the situational and personal factors that increase the likelihood of employee errors and breaches, is detailed here. This information can be used retrospectively (as in accident investigations) to support and guide inquiries into security incidents or prospectively (as in hazard assessments) to guide efforts to reduce the likelihood of error/incident occurrence. Both approaches provide the foundation for targeted interventions to reduce the influence of these factors and for the formation of subsequent 'lessons learned.' Overall security is enhanced not only by reducing the inadvertent releases of classified information but also by reducing the security and safeguards resources devoted to them, thereby allowing these resources to be concentrated on acts of malevolence.

  15. A distributed wireless sensor network system for transportation safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mashrur; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Fries, Ryan; Ma, Yongchang; Bagaria, Devang

    2007-04-01

    Given the anticipated increases in highway traffic, the scale and complexity of the traffic infrastructure will continue to grow progressively in time and in distributed geographical areas. To assure transportation efficiency, safety, and security in the presence of such growth, it is critical to identify an infrastructure development methodology that can adapt to expansions while assuring reliable operation for both centralized monitoring and distributed management. In this paper, a wireless sensor network design methodology is presented, aimed at providing effective distributed surveillance, anomaly detection, and coordinated response. The proposed methodology integrates state-of-the-art traffic sensors, with flexibly programmable controller devices that can integrate with the available traffic control equipments. The system methodology provides a paradigm in which sensors and controllers can be progressively incorporated and programmed to autonomously coordinate with peer sensors and a hierarchy of controllers to detect, notify, and react to anomalous events. Since the system can tolerate failure of parts of the system, as the network connectivity continues to increase, the proposed sensor network will have positive implications on evacuation plans during natural disasters or terrorist attacks. To illustrate the design methodology and usage, a simulated system along a freeway corridor in South Carolina was constructed in an integrated microscopic traffic and wireless sensor network simulation platform, in which distributed incident detection and response functions were implemented. The test results, including detection and false alarm rates and wireless communication latencies, are analyzed to identify insights of the system's operation and potential enhancement strategies.

  16. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor

    PubMed Central

    Yonow, Tania; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature. PMID:28296903

  17. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor.

    PubMed

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  18. Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.

  19. 26 CFR 1.355-1 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1... in income of) the shareholders and security holders, of one or more existing businesses formerly... shareholders with respect to its stock or to its security holders in exchange for its securities....

  20. 26 CFR 1.355-1 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1... in income of) the shareholders and security holders, of one or more existing businesses formerly... shareholders with respect to its stock or to its security holders in exchange for its securities....

  1. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... communications network; or (4) Exercises of securities. The exercise of any option, warrant, right, or any... communications network; or (7) Transactions in Rule 144A securities. Transactions in securities eligible for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities by issuers...

  2. Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafu, Mhlambululi; Garapo, Kevin; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.020504] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

  3. 76 FR 28482 - Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 May 12, 2011. The Securities and Exchange Commission gives notice that BF Enterprises, Inc. has filed an application under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. BF...

  4. 78 FR 14847 - Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities Exchange Under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 March 1, 2013. On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC (``Topaz Exchange'' or ``Applicant'') submitted to the Securities and Exchange...

  5. Toward secure distribution of electronic health records: quantitative feasibility study on secure E-mail systems for sharing patient records.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Yuichiro; Nogawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2005-12-01

    If the quality and efficiency of medical services are to be ensured, electronic health records (EHR) and EHR-supporting infrastructure must be prevalent. Many hospitals, however, have EHR systems for their internal use only, and the standardization process for the exchange of medical information is still in process. This standardization process addresses information security and is considering public key infrastructure (PKI) as one security measure, but PKI is rarely used by medical practioners because of its poor user-friendliness. Here we propose an effective use of the identity-based encryption (IBE) system as a security measure. This system enables us to send encrypted and signed messages without requiring the receiver to get a public key, and it enables us to deliver secured messages to ambiguous receivers like those to whom letters of reference are sent. We evaluated the feasibility of this technology by using the analytic hierarchy process, which is an effective analysis tool when selection and judgment depend on nonquantitative psychological factors, to analyze the results of an experiment in which medical workers used E-mail agents with and without PKI and IBE. We found that medical practioners and researchers avoid using PKI because of its poor user-friendliness and instead use IBE even though it is harder to install. We therefore think IBE would encourage medical institutions to share patient records.

  6. Defense and Homeland Security Applications of Multi-Agent Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Monterey, CA 93943-5219, U.S.A. Felix Martinez Wargaming Department Centro de Estudios Superiores Navales Mexico, D.F. 04840, MEXICO Lisa R...critical asset, Petroleos Mexicano (PE- MEX) and the Mexican Navy maintain mutually supportive security strategies in the Campeche Sound. During a state of

  7. Securing Applications in Personal Computers: The Relay Race Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    1987. Tanenbaum, A., Structured Computer Organizaticn, Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1990. Zarger, C., "Is Your PC Secure?" Mechanical Engineering, pg. 57...Operating Systems:Design and Implementation, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1987. Tanenbaum, A., Structured Computer Organization, Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1990. Walker

  8. SOCLe: Integrated Design of Software Applications and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    repercussions. Sad exam- ples abound: the Therac - 25 radiotherapy machine (3 dead and 3 severely wounded persons), the ARIANE 5 rocket ∗The Secure OCL...for IBM on how to integrate this technology into their tools Defence R&D Canada – Valcartier # 25 Frederic.Painchaud@drdc-rddc.gc.ca http://www.polymtl.ca/crac/socle

  9. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  10. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  11. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-15

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  12. Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.

  13. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  14. Security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2016-08-01

    One of the simplest methods for implementing quantum key distribution over fiber-optic communication is the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with phase encoding (PE-BB84 protocol), in which the sender uses phase modulation over double pulses from a laser and the receiver uses a passive delayed interferometer. Using essentially the same setup and by regarding a train of many pulses as a single block, one can carry out the so-called differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol, which is a variant of differential-phase-shift (DPS) protocols. Here we prove the security of the DQPS protocol based on an adaptation of proof techniques for the BB84 protocol, which inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the protocol, such as accommodating the use of threshold detectors and simple off-line calibration methods for the light source. We show that the secure key rate of the DQPS protocol in the proof is eight-thirds as high as the rate of the PE-BB84 protocol.

  15. Misinterpretation of statistical distance in security of quantum key distribution shown by simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakoshi, Takehisa; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study will test an interpretation in quantum key distribution (QKD) that trace distance between the distributed quantum state and the ideal mixed state is a maximum failure probability of the protocol. Around 2004, this interpretation was proposed and standardized to satisfy both of the key uniformity in the context of universal composability and operational meaning of the failure probability of the key extraction. However, this proposal has not been verified concretely yet for many years while H. P. Yuen and O. Hirota have thrown doubt on this interpretation since 2009. To ascertain this interpretation, a physical random number generator was employed to evaluate key uniformity in QKD. In this way, we calculated statistical distance which correspond to trace distance in quantum theory after a quantum measurement is done, then we compared it with the failure probability whether universal composability was obtained. As a result, the degree of statistical distance of the probability distribution of the physical random numbers and the ideal uniformity was very large. It is also explained why trace distance is not suitable to guarantee the security in QKD from the view point of quantum binary decision theory.

  16. Security of distributed processing of medical image data using JINI technology.

    PubMed

    Ruminski, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Health Care Organizations (HCOs) are highly computerized using broadband networks for data communication within and outside of their departments. However their computer resources are usually task oriented, and not effectively used. Already introduced and new standards for e-Health (e.g. DICOM, TC251-standards) offer workflow management models to organize different resources towards a one, complex task. Distributed processing can be used to implement such models. Similarly, computational resources can be used for any complicated problem-solving task inside a HCO department, between HCO departments and between HCOs. In this article the security analysis of Jini-based computational grids and cost of safeguards introduction is presented. The Jini-based GRID was analyzed in two medical parametric imaging tasks: active, dynamic infrared imaging and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging (DSC-MRI).

  17. Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains.

  18. MDPHnet: secure, distributed sharing of electronic health record data for public health surveillance, evaluation, and planning.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua; Brown, Jeffrey S; Land, Thomas; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Electronic health record systems contain clinically detailed data from large populations of patients that could significantly enrich public health surveillance. Clinical practices' security, privacy, and proprietary concerns, however, have limited their willingness to share these data with public health agencies. We describe a novel distributed network for public health surveillance called MDPHnet. The system allows the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) to initiate custom queries against participating practices' electronic health records while the data remain behind each practice's firewall. Practices can review proposed queries before execution and approve query results before releasing them to the health department. MDPH is using the system for routine surveillance for priority conditions and to evaluate the impact of public health interventions.

  19. The architecture for data, security and application in Digital Earth platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Fang; Yang, Wenhui; Ye, Ansheng; Chen, Huayue

    2016-11-01

    Digital Earth platform is an application, service and decision support system, which integrates geo-spatial data acquisition, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, statistics and visualization. It realizes comprehensive management and widely application of different kinds of huge earth data under the geo-spatial framework and in a open environment. It should consider the continues growing of data and applications, as well as data security. According to the issues of how to safely use spatial data in Digital Earth platform, an architecture for data,security and application in Digital Earth platform was proposed in this paper. We call this architecture DOA(DOSA). In the digital earth platform on its goal is the Trusted Data. DOA(DOSA) and Trusted Data can provide data management, security grantee, application supporting for Digital Earth platform.

  20. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Sawaya, Kunio; Mizuno, Koji; Uemura, Jun; Takeda, Masamune; Takahashi, Junichi; Yamada, Kota; Morichika, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Haruyuki; Niikura, Hirotaka; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Kato, Shigeto; Nakada, Jun

    2010-04-01

    77 GHz passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging camera for the purpose of security is developed. In order to detect concealed objects in clothes without hindrance to flow of people at airport security checks, video rate imaging is realized using one-dimensional imaging sensor array of 25 elements and a flapping reflector. As receiving antennas, novel antipodal Fermi antenna (APFA) having required characteristics for passive imaging such as broad bandwidth to obtain enough power, axially symmetric directivity with 10dB beam width of 35 degrees to obtain optimum coupling with dielectric lens, narrow width geometry for high spatial resolution of imaging is used. Real-time calibration (RTC) technique is introduced to eliminate the drift of receiving circuits. Interpolation technique to improve the quality of image and marking software for screening of suspicious objects are also developed. High spatial resolution of 20 mm is obtained by using developed imaging camera.

  1. Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribe, William R.; Newnham, David A.; Taday, Philip F.; Kemp, Michael C.

    2004-04-01

    Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new Recent events have led to dramatic changes to the methods employed in security screening. For example, following the failed shoe bombing, it is now common for shoes to be removed and X-rayed at airport checkpoints. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to security screening, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. Terahertz (THz) technology is a promising, emerging candidate. In previous publications we have shown how our THz pulsed imaging systems can be used to image threat items, and have demonstrated that explosive materials have characteristic THz spectra. We have also demonstrated that nonmetallic weaponry can be imaged when concealed beneath clothing. In this work we examine more closely the properties of barrier and potential confusion materials. We demonstrate that barrier materials have smooth spectra with relatively low attenuation. We further demonstrate that the terahertz spectra of several common chemicals and medicines are distinct from those of threat materials.

  2. Android Protection Mechanism: A Signed Code Security Mechanism for Smartphone Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    application security depends almost solely on decisions users make when downloading and installing applications. Numerous applications reside on...arithmetic. All of these are crucial to understand application programming for the Android device and for making kernel-level modifications to the system...exceptions occur via a Software Interrupt (SWI) instruction or a Breakpoint (BKPT) instruction. User mode can make calls to privileged OS code by using

  3. IDCDACS: IDC's Distributed Application Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Martin; Boresch, Alexander; Kianička, Ján; Sudakov, Alexander; Tomuta, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO is an international organization based in Vienna, Austria. Its mission is to establish a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear explosions. For this purpose time series data from a global network of seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasound (SHI) sensors are transmitted to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna in near-real-time, where it is processed to locate events that may be nuclear explosions. We newly designed the distributed application control system that glues together the various components of the automatic waveform data processing system at the IDC (IDCDACS). Our highly-scalable solution preserves the existing architecture of the IDC processing system that proved successful over many years of operational use, but replaces proprietary components with open-source solutions and custom developed software. Existing code was refactored and extended to obtain a reusable software framework that is flexibly adaptable to different types of processing workflows. Automatic data processing is organized in series of self-contained processing steps, each series being referred to as a processing pipeline. Pipelines process data by time intervals, i.e. the time-series data received from monitoring stations is organized in segments based on the time when the data was recorded. So-called data monitor applications queue the data for processing in each pipeline based on specific conditions, e.g. data availability, elapsed time or completion states of preceding processing pipelines. IDCDACS consists of a configurable number of distributed monitoring and controlling processes, a message broker and a relational database. All processes communicate through message queues hosted on the message broker. Persistent state information is stored in the database. A configurable processing controller instantiates and monitors all data processing

  4. Information Security Considerations for Applications Using Apache Accumulo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Foundation. (2013, May). Apache Accumulo source code . [Online]. Available : http://archive.apache.org/dist/accumulo/1.5.0/accumulo-1.5.0-src.tar.gz [35...Number: N/A. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT...analysis of Accumulo source code to de- scribe Accumulo’s architecture and detail its cell-level access control policy enforcement. We discuss the

  5. A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  6. A topology visualization early warning distribution algorithm for large-scale network security incidents.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology.

  7. A Framework for Federated Two-Factor Authentication Enabling Cost-Effective Secure Access to Distributed Cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Rogers, Gary L; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    As cyber attacks become increasingly sophisticated, the security measures used to mitigate the risks must also increase in sophistication. One time password (OTP) systems provide strong authentication because security credentials are not reusable, thus thwarting credential replay attacks. The credential changes regularly, making brute-force attacks significantly more difficult. In high performance computing, end users may require access to resources housed at several different service provider locations. The ability to share a strong token between multiple computing resources reduces cost and complexity. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) provides access to digital resources, including supercomputers, data resources, and software tools. XSEDE will offer centralized strong authentication for services amongst service providers that leverage their own user databases and security profiles. This work implements a scalable framework built on standards to provide federated secure access to distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  8. Shipboard Application of a Ring Structured Distributed Computing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Considerable research is currently going on into the application of distributed computing systems. They appear particularly suitable for the...structured distributed computing system might be adapted to function in this environment. Included in this consideration are the feasibility of

  9. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

  10. Forensic and homeland security applications of modern portable Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L

    2010-10-10

    Modern detection and identification of chemical and biological hazards within the forensic and homeland security contexts may well require conducting the analysis in field while adapting a non-contact approach to the hazard. Technological achievements on both surface and resonance enhancement Raman scattering re-developed Raman spectroscopy to become the most adaptable spectroscopy technique for stand-off and non-contact analysis of hazards. On the other hand, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy proved to be very valuable for non-invasive chemical analysis of hazards concealed within non-transparent containers and packaging.

  11. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  12. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  13. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  14. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  15. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  16. 10 CFR 61.20 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.20 Filing and distribution of application. (a) An application for a license... license covering the receipt and disposal of radioactive wastes in a land disposal facility are...

  17. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

  18. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  19. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  20. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  1. 77 FR 42017 - AmericaFirst Quantitative Trust and AmericaFirst Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AmericaFirst Quantitative Trust and AmericaFirst Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application July 10, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an...

  2. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  3. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  4. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  5. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  6. 17 CFR 240.6a-1 - Application for registration as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as a national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. 240.6a-1... national securities exchange or exemption from registration based on limited volume. (a) An application for registration as a national securities exchange, or for exemption from such registration based on limited...

  7. Passive 350 GHz Video Imaging Systems for Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, E.; May, T.; Born, D.; Zieger, G.; Anders, S.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, H.-G.; Schäffel, C.

    2015-10-01

    Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for personal security screening for a number of years. In contradiction to established portal-based millimeter-wave scanning techniques, it allows for scanning people from a distance in real time with high throughput and without a distinct inspection procedure. This opens up new possibilities for scanning, which directly address an urgent security need of modern societies: protecting crowds and critical infrastructure from the growing threat of individual terror attacks. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), operated at temperatures below 1 K, are used as radiation detectors. By this means, background limited performance (BLIP) mode is achieved, providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a temperature resolution well below 1 K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 5-25 m, a field of view up to 2 m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable of frame rates of up to 25 frames per second.

  8. How policy variables influence the timing of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance.

    PubMed

    Burkhauser, R V; Butler, J S; Weathers, R R

    This article analyzes the impact of policy variables--employer accommodations, state Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) allowance rates, and DI benefits--on the timing of an application for DI benefits by workers with a work-limiting health condition starting when their health condition first begins to bother them. The analysis uses a rich mixture of personal and employer characteristics from the Health and Retirement Study linked to Social Security administrative records. We find that most workers do not apply immediately for DI benefits when they are first bothered by a health condition. On the contrary, the median working-age man with a work-limiting condition waits 7 years after that time before applying, and the median working-age woman waits 8 years. Although the risk of applying for benefits is greatest in the year following onset, only 16 percent of men and 13 percent of women in our sample apply within the first year, and the risk of application falls thereafter. That finding suggests that institutional factors, in addition to health factors, may play a role in the timing of DI applications. Using kernel density estimates of the distribution of application and nonapplication ordered by state allowance rates (the rate of acceptance per DI determination in each state), we find that both men and women who live in states with high allowance rates are disproportionately more likely to apply for benefits in the first year after their condition begins to bother them than are those in states with low allowance rates. Using life-table analysis, we also find that men and women who are accommodated by their employers are significantly less likely to apply for DI benefits in each of the first few years after their condition begins to bother them than are those who are not accommodated. On the basis of this evidence, we include these policy variables in a model of the timing of DI application that controls for other socioeconomic variables as well as health

  9. Applicants' preference for impression management tactic in employment interviews by Transportation Security Administration.

    PubMed

    Scudder, Joseph N; Lamude, Kevin G

    2009-04-01

    Following past findings on employment interviews, this study hypothesized applicants would have a preference for using self-promoting tactics of impression management over other focuses. Self-reports of impression management tactics were collected from 124 applicants who had interviews for screener positions with the Transportation Security Administration. Contrary to the hypothesis, analysis indicated participants reported they used more ingratiation tactics attempting to praise the interviewer than self-promotion tactics which focused on their own accomplishments. Special qualifications for security jobs which required well-developed perceptual abilities and the controlling structure of the interview context were perhaps responsible for present results differing from prior findings.

  10. Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    In free-space quantum key distribution (QKD), the sensitivity of the receiver's detector channels may depend differently on the spatial mode of incoming photons. Consequently, an attacker can control the spatial mode to break security. We experimentally investigate a standard polarization QKD receiver and identify sources of efficiency mismatch in its optical scheme. We model a practical intercept-and-resend attack and show that it would break security in most situations. We show experimentally that adding an appropriately chosen spatial filter at the receiver's entrance may be an effective countermeasure.

  11. Illumination Criteria in Imaging System Design for Security Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    conjunction with pole spacing and distance from the critical area to be illuminated. Streetlights or roadway luminaires are characterized by their light...found best suited for perimeter illumination, when CCTV is employed, are the floodlights and the -o 4, , streetlights (roadway luminaires). The... streetlights are preferred, however, because the asymmetrical light distribution simplifies the system architecture when designing for uniformity of The

  12. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  13. COAMPS Application to Global and Homeland Security Threat Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Glascoe, L G

    2004-09-14

    Atmospheric dispersion problems have received more attention with regard to global and homeland security than their conventional roles in air pollution and local hazard assessment in the post 9/11 era. Consequently, there is growing interest to characterize meteorology uncertainty at both low and high altitudes (below and above 30 km, respectively). A 3-D Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS, developed by Naval Research Laboratory; Hodur, 1997) is used to address LLNL's task. The objective of this report is focused on the effort at the improvement of COAMPS forecast to address the uncertainty issue, and to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast. To assess the atmospheric dispersion behavior in a wider range of meteorological conditions and to expand its vertical scope for the potential threat at high altitudes, several modifications of COAMPS are needed to meet the project goal. These improvements include (1) the long-range forecast capability to show the variability of meteorological conditions at a much larger time scale (say, a year), and (2) the model physics enhancement to provide new capability for high-altitude forecast.

  14. Securing Ground Data System Applications for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.; Tso, Kam S.; Johnson, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and sophistication of cyber attacks has prompted the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Program Office at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to initiate the Common Access Manager (CAM) effort to protect software applications used in Ground Data Systems (GDSs) at JPL and other NASA Centers. The CAM software provides centralized services and software components used by GDS subsystems to meet access control requirements and ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In this paper we describe the CAM software; examples of its integration with spacecraft commanding software applications and an information management service; and measurements of its performance and reliability.

  15. Applications of Photonuclear Physics for International Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; Hall, J M; McNabb, D P; McFarland, J; Norman, E; Bertozzi, W; Korbly, S; Ledoux, R; Park, W

    2010-04-16

    Studies of nuclear resonance fluorescence based applications are presented. Important for these applications are data for isotopes such as {sup 239}Pu. Nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements of {sup 239}Pu were performed at the free electron laser facility at UC Santa Barbara using photons from a bremsstrahlung beam with an endpoint energies between 4.0 MeV and 5.5 MeV. Though no discrete states with significant confidence level were measured, we have excluded the region above 27(3) eV-barns, or 4-sigma, where we would expect only a small chance of false positives. Details of the measurements and the results are presented here.

  16. Distribution automation applications of fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold; Johnston, A.; Friend, H.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for interest and research in distribution automation are discussed. The communication requirements of distribution automation are examined and shown to exceed the capabilities of power line carrier, radio, and telephone systems. A fiber optic based communication system is described that is co-located with the distribution system and that could satisfy the data rate and reliability requirements. A cost comparison shows that it could be constructed at a cost that is similar to that of a power line carrier system. The requirements for fiber optic sensors for distribution automation are discussed. The design of a data link suitable for optically-powered electronic sensing is presented. Empirical results are given. A modeling technique that was used to understand the reflections of guided light from a variety of surfaces is described. An optical position-indicator design is discussed. Systems aspects of distribution automation are discussed, in particular, the lack of interface, communications, and data standards. The economics of distribution automation are examined.

  17. Scaling Concolic Execution of Binary Programs for Security Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    software including commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software and malware, which are already distributed in binary forms. In various cases, the users...Mealy machines to represent abstract protocol models. A Mealy machine is a finite state machine in which, at each particular state, an input from the...as described by the RFB protocol specification1 and as shown in the Samba source code2. It also generates, for each server, a finite state machine

  18. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to

  19. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  20. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-05-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as

  1. Securing While Sampling in Wireless Body Area Networks With Application to Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Dautov, Ruslan; Tsouri, Gill R

    2016-01-01

    Stringent resource constraints and broadcast transmission in wireless body area network raise serious security concerns when employed in biomedical applications. Protecting data transmission where any minor alteration is potentially harmful is of significant importance in healthcare. Traditional security methods based on public or private key infrastructure require considerable memory and computational resources, and present an implementation obstacle in compact sensor nodes. This paper proposes a lightweight encryption framework augmenting compressed sensing with wireless physical layer security. Augmenting compressed sensing to secure information is based on the use of the measurement matrix as an encryption key, and allows for incorporating security in addition to compression at the time of sampling an analog signal. The proposed approach eliminates the need for a separate encryption algorithm, as well as the predeployment of a key thereby conserving sensor node's limited resources. The proposed framework is evaluated using analysis, simulation, and experimentation applied to a wireless electrocardiogram setup consisting of a sensor node, an access point, and an eavesdropper performing a proximity attack. Results show that legitimate communication is reliable and secure given that the eavesdropper is located at a reasonable distance from the sensor node and the access point.

  2. Application of Ica-Eemd to Secure Communications in Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Lin; Tung, Pi-Cheng; Huang, Norden E.

    2012-04-01

    We propose the application of ICA-EEMD to secure communication systems. ICA-EEMD is employed to retrieve the message data encrypted by a mixture of Gaussian white noise and chaotic noise. The results showed that ICA-EEMD can effectively extract the two original message data.

  3. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  4. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (§ 249.1001... reported in items 1-13 or item 21 of Form SIP or in any amendment thereto is or becomes inaccurate for any... shall promptly file an amendment on Form SIP correcting such information. (c) The Commission, upon...

  5. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application for the registration of a securities information processor shall be filed on Form SIP (§ 249.1001... reported in items 1-13 or item 21 of Form SIP or in any amendment thereto is or becomes inaccurate for any... shall promptly file an amendment on Form SIP correcting such information. (c) The Commission, upon...

  6. 7 CFR 765.403 - Transfer of security to and assumption of debt by eligible applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eligible applicants. (a) Transfer of real estate and chattel security. The Agency may approve transfers of... of this chapter may assume Non-program loans made for real estate purposes if the Agency determines... as an FO loan. (c) Loan types that the Agency no longer makes. Real estate loan types the Agency...

  7. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanoparticle/PVA/ chitosan for security ink applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, B. W.; Nurjanah, R.; Mahen, E. C. S.; Nuryantini, A. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Security ink using a carbon nanoparticle (C-dot)/PVA/chitosan-composite-based material has been successfully synthesized. The C-dot powder was prepared using a urea pyrolysis method. The precursors were synthesized using urea ((NH2)2CO, Mw  =  60.07 g mol‑1) and citric acid (C6H8O7•H2O, Mw  =  210.14 g mol‑1) as the fuel and carbon sources, respectively. The C-dots were prepared by heating the precursor solution at 250 °C for 90 min. The security ink was fabricated using C-dots, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, (CH2CH(OH)) n , with Mw  =  ~20 000 g mol‑1) and chitosan as the dyes, resins and binders, respectively. The morphology and optical properties of the security ink were measured using SEM and EDX, a PL spectrometer and UV–vis spectroscopy. The viscosity properties of the security ink were measured using a viscometer. The characterization showed that the C-dots have a monodisperse particle size, a tetragonal structure and absorption spectra in the UV light region. It is shown that the PVA:chitosan concentration has a significant effect on the viscosity properties, so the viscosity is optimized for the security ink. In addition, the security ink was studied using a commercial printer, and the results show a good quality blue emission (450 nm) appearing under UV light exposure at 365 nm. The security ink C-dot/PVA/chitosan composite has potential applications in security, panel display, optoelectronic and optical devices on an industrial scale.

  9. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

  10. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  11. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  12. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  13. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  14. 17 CFR 249.1001 - Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend such...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form SIP, for application for... § 249.1001 Form SIP, for application for registration as a securities information processor or to amend... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form SIP, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  15. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

  16. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

  17. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

  18. 17 CFR 249.801 - Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form X-15AA-1, for application....801 Form X-15AA-1, for application for registration as a national securities association or affiliated...). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form X-15AA-1, see the List of CFR...

  19. Floodlight quantum key distribution: Demonstrating a framework for high-rate secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheshen; Zhuang, Quntao; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Floodlight quantum key distribution (FL-QKD) is a radically different QKD paradigm that can achieve gigabit-per-second secret-key rates over metropolitan area distances without multiplexing [Q. Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 012322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012322]. It is a two-way protocol that transmits many photons per bit duration and employs a high-gain optical amplifier, neither of which can be utilized by existing QKD protocols, to mitigate channel loss. FL-QKD uses an optical bandwidth that is substantially larger than the modulation rate and performs decoding with a unique broadband homodyne receiver. Essential to FL-QKD is Alice's injection of photons from a photon-pair source—in addition to the light used for key generation—into the light she sends to Bob. This injection enables Alice and Bob to quantify Eve's intrusion and thus secure FL-QKD against collective attacks. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 10 dB propagation loss—equivalent to 50 km of low-loss fiber—and achieved a 55 Mbit/s secret-key rate (SKR) for a 100 Mbit/s modulation rate, as compared to the state-of-the-art system's 1 Mbit/s SKR for a 1 Gbit/s modulation rate [M. Lucamarini et al., Opt. Express 21, 24550 (2013), 10.1364/OE.21.024550], representing ˜500 -fold and ˜50 -fold improvements in secret-key efficiency (bits per channel use) and SKR (bits per second), respectively.

  20. Fully-polarimetric passive MMW imaging systems for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Jirousek, Matthias; Anthony, John-Walter; Süß, Helmut

    2010-10-01

    Increasing terroristic attacks raise the danger to the public and create a new and more complex dimension of threat. This evolution must and can only be combat by the application of new counter-measures like advanced imaging technologies for wide-area surveillance and the detection of concealed dangerous objects. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions. The acquisition of polarimetric object characteristics can increase the detection capability by gathering complementary object information. Over years the DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute developed several problem-orientated radiometer imaging systems covering nearly the whole frequency spectrum between 1 GHz and 100 GHz for a multitude of applications. Actually a fully-polarimetric radiometer receiver at W band is developed in order to explore the polarimetric information content of interesting objects simultaneously. Some important theoretical characteristics of polarimetric radiometry at millimeterwaves are introduced and discussed. The actual design and construction of the receiver system is outlined and first experimental imaging results are presented.

  1. Wireless video monitoring and robot control in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkkala, Eero A.; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roning, Juha

    1998-10-01

    This research focuses on applications based on wireless monitoring and robot control, utilizing motion image and augmented reality. These applications include remote services and surveillance-related functions such as remote monitoring. A remote service can be, for example, a way to deliver products at a hospital or old people's home. Due to the mobile nature of the system, monitoring at places with privacy concerns is possible. On the other hand, mobility demands wireless communications. Suitable and present technologies for wireless video transfer are weighted. Identification of objects with the help of Radio Frequency Identifying (RFID) technology and facial recognition results in intelligent actions, for example, where the control of a robot does not require extensive workload from the user. In other words, tasks can be partially autonomous, RFID can be also used in augmentation of the video view with virtual objects. As a real-life experiment, a prototype environment is being constructed that consists of a robot equipped with a video camera and wireless links to the network and multimedia computer.

  2. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  3. Future prospects of luminescent nanomaterial based security inks: from synthesis to anti-counterfeiting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Counterfeiting of valuable documents, currency and branded products is a challenging problem that has serious economic, security and health ramifications for governments, businesses and consumers all over the world. It is estimated that counterfeiting represents a multi-billion dollar underground economy with counterfeit products being produced on a large scale every year. Counterfeiting is an increasingly high-tech crime and calls for high-tech solutions to prevent and deter the acts of counterfeiting. The present review briefly outlines and addresses the key challenges in this area, including the above mentioned concerns for anti-counterfeiting applications. This article describes a unique combination of all possible kinds of security ink formulations based on lanthanide doped luminescent nanomaterials, quantum dots (semiconductor and carbon based), metal organic frameworks as well as plasmonic nanomaterials for their possible use in anti-counterfeiting applications. Moreover, in this review, we have briefly discussed and described the historical background of luminescent nanomaterials, basic concepts and detailed synthesis methods along with their characterization. Furthermore, we have also discussed the methods adopted for the fabrication and design of luminescent security inks, various security printing techniques and their anti-counterfeiting applications.

  4. 78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Business Investment Companies, 23 FR 10484 (Dec. 30, 1958). \\2\\ Amendments to the Offering Exemption Under Regulation E of the Securities Act of 1933, 49 FR 35342 (Sept. 7, 1984). As part of Regulation E, rule...

  5. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

    2007-02-20

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of {sup 129}I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general {sup 129}I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed {sup 129}I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse {sup 129}I ({sup 129}Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant {sup 129}I, or {sup 129}I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the {sup 129

  6. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... registration under section 4(2) of the Securities Act (15 U.S.C. 77d(2)) or §§ 230.144A or 230.501 through 230.508 of this chapter; or (ii) Persons not deemed to be “U.S. persons” for purposes of §§ 230.902(o)(2...) Exempted securities. “Exempted securities” as defined in section 3(a)(12) of the Exchange Act (15...

  7. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... registration under section 4(2) of the Securities Act (15 U.S.C. 77d(2)) or §§ 230.144A or § 230.500 et seq of this chapter; or (ii) Persons not deemed to be “U.S. persons” for purposes of §§ 230.902(o)(2) or 230...) Exempted securities. “Exempted securities” as defined in section 3(a)(12) of the Exchange Act (15...

  8. Coordination in Distributed Intelligent Systems Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-13

    System ( SCMS ) manages the interaction of these proc- esses in order to achieve some end goals. The paper in [ 19] describes a SCMS based on the...Coordination in Distributed Intelligent Systems Appli~ations Abdeslem Boukhtouta1.4, Jean Berger’ , Ranjeev Mittu2, Abdellah Bedrouni3 1 Defence...Quebec, H3G IM8, Canada 4 Concordia University, Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering (CIISE), 1455 de Maison- neuve, Montreal, Quebec

  9. Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A

    2002-10-08

    The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

  10. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  11. Enhancing Heart-Beat-Based Security for mHealth Applications.

    PubMed

    Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    In heart-beat-based security, a security key is derived from the time difference between consecutive heart beats (the inter-pulse interval, IPI), which may, subsequently, be used to enable secure communication. While heart-beat-based security holds promise in mobile health (mHealth) applications, there currently exists no work that provides a detailed characterization of the delivered security in a real system. In this paper, we evaluate the strength of IPI-based security keys in the context of entity authentication. We investigate several aspects that should be considered in practice, including subjects with reduced heart-rate variability (HRV), different sensor-sampling frequencies, intersensor variability (i.e., how accurate each entity may measure heart beats) as well as average and worst-case-authentication time. Contrary to the current state of the art, our evaluation demonstrates that authentication using multiple, less-entropic keys may actually increase the key strength by reducing the effects of intersensor variability. Moreover, we find that the maximal key strength of a 60-bit key varies between 29.2 bits and only 5.7 bits, depending on the subject's HRV. To improve security, we introduce the inter-multi-pulse interval (ImPI), a novel method of extracting entropy from the heart by considering the time difference between nonconsecutive heart beats. Given the same authentication time, using the ImPI for key generation increases key strength by up to 3.4 × (+19.2 bits) for subjects with limited HRV, at the cost of an extended key-generation time of 4.8 × (+45 s).

  12. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  13. Automatic Adaptation of Tunable Distributed Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    i.e., function name). Windows NT also allows a process to access the memory im- age of another and to inject a thread into the latter. Together...of application resource us- age as if only the prescribed amount is available to their execution, we can use it to emulate different resource scenarios...decompresses the data, and updates the local image on display. resolution and progressive transmission techniques to improve performance. First, im- ages

  14. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  15. Using data for couples to project the distributional effects of changes in Social Security policy.

    PubMed

    Butrica, B A; Iams, H M; Sandell, S H

    1999-01-01

    Under Social Security program rules, the aged receive Social Security benefits either as retired workers, spouses, divorced spouses, or widow(er)s. Retired-worker benefits are paid to workers who have 40 quarters of coverage over their lives. Auxiliary benefits are paid to spouses, divorced spouses, and widow(er)s of retired workers. Spouse benefits are computed using the earnings history of the current spouse for individuals who are married when they apply for benefits. Divorced spouse and widow(er) benefits are computed using the earnings history of the ex-spouse or deceased spouse with the highest PIA. A large number of retired women are entitled to auxiliary benefits. Some women receive only auxiliary benefits, while the majority of women have their retired-worker benefit supplemented by auxiliary benefits. Because the level of Social Security benefits can reflect the relative lifetime earnings of both spouses, as a couple, using individual data to estimate Social Security benefits will tend to underestimate actual benefits, particularly for women. However, detailed data for couples are often difficult to obtain. There is currently no known single data source that includes both marital and earnings history information. As a result, many researchers resort to estimating Social Security benefits using individual data or aggregate data, such as the average earnings of men and women. The Social Security Administration's Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, with substantial assistance from the Brookings Institution, the Urban Institute, and the RAND Corporation, is developing a model that overcomes this problem by using the marital and earnings histories of both marital partners to estimate Social Security benefits. The Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) model projects retirement income (Social Security benefits, pension income, asset income, and earnings of working beneficiaries) from 1997 through 2031 for current and future Social Security

  16. Distributed geant4 simulation in medical and space science applications using DIANE framework and the GRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościcki, Jakub T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Mantero, Alfonso; Pia, M. G.

    2003-09-01

    Distributed computing is one of the most important trends in IT which has recently gained significance for large-scale scientific applications. Distributed Analysis Environment (DIANE) [1] is a R&D study, focusing on semi-interactive parallel and remote data analysis and simulation, which has been conducted at CERN. DIANE provides necessary software infrastructure for parallel scientific applications in the master-worker model. Advanced error recovery policies, automatic book-keeping of distributed jobs and on-line monitoring and control tools are provided. DIANE makes a transparent use of a number of different middleware implementations such as load balancing service (LSF, PBS, GRID Resource Broker, Condor) and security service (GSI, Kerberos, openssh). A number of distributed Geant 4 simulations have been deployed and tested, ranging from interactive radiotherapy treatment planning using dedicated clusters in hospitals, to globally-distributed simulations of astrophysics experiments using the European Data Grid middleware. This paper describes the general concepts behind the DIANE framework and results of the first tests with distributed Geant 4 simulations.

  17. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  18. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  19. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  20. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  1. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  2. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  3. 10 CFR 60.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing and distribution of application. 60.22 Section 60.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... application for a construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a...

  4. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  5. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  6. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  7. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  8. 10 CFR 63.22 - Filing and distribution of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.22 Filing and distribution... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area at Yucca Mountain, and an application for a... operations area at the Yucca Mountain site that has been characterized, any amendments to the...

  9. Stable and generalized-t distributions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathie, P. N.; Coutinho, M.; Sousa, T. R.; Rodrigues, G. S.; Carrijo, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper a generalized-t distribution is introduced and used as an alternative to the symmetric stable distribution. To do so, the χ2-divergence is presented and minimized to approximate the symmetric stable distribution, as accurately as possible, by the generalized-t distribution. Kth moments for the generalized-t distribution function are given. The stable distribution is defined in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions. Five applications with natural data (sunspots activity), and financial data (stock exchange in Brazil, South Africa and Venezuela, and daily variation of Petrobras stock market) are analyzed. A time series analysis is used to eliminate data correlation in each data set, and then the distributions are used to fit the residuals of these models.

  10. Analysis on the threats and spatiotemporal distribution pattern of security in World Natural Heritage Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoguo; Yang, Zhaoping; Du, Xishihui

    2015-01-01

    World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS) are treasures that need human protection and invite appreciation, which makes conservation of WNHS an urgent task. This paper assesses where in the world threats are most pressing and which WNHS require emergency assistance. Using an analysis of "hot spots" and inverse distance weighting, it finds that Africa is the region where WNHS are least secure. Reports of the state of the conservation of WNHS describe the many threats that exist. Of these, management activities and institutional factors are the primary threats. The paper suggests relevant measures to improve the WNHS security.

  11. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN.

  12. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  13. Distributed data mining on grids: services, tools, and applications.

    PubMed

    Cannataro, Mario; Congiusta, Antonio; Pugliese, Andrea; Talia, Domenico; Trunfio, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Data mining algorithms are widely used today for the analysis of large corporate and scientific datasets stored in databases and data archives. Industry, science, and commerce fields often need to analyze very large datasets maintained over geographically distributed sites by using the computational power of distributed and parallel systems. The grid can play a significant role in providing an effective computational support for distributed knowledge discovery applications. For the development of data mining applications on grids we designed a system called Knowledge Grid. This paper describes the Knowledge Grid framework and presents the toolset provided by the Knowledge Grid for implementing distributed knowledge discovery. The paper discusses how to design and implement data mining applications by using the Knowledge Grid tools starting from searching grid resources, composing software and data components, and executing the resulting data mining process on a grid. Some performance results are also discussed.

  14. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requires an application under section 18(i) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1828(i)) as implemented by § 303.241... with, or made a part of, the application filed pursuant to section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions....

  15. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, A.; Karpov, E.; Grangier, P.; Cerf, N. J.

    2009-11-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  16. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  17. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  18. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  19. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  20. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meeting the criteria of General Instruction I.B.5 of Form S-3 (§ 239.13 of this chapter) (“S-3 ABS”) shall not be deemed to constitute an offer for sale or offer to sell S-3 ABS registered or proposed to be... ABS backed directly (or, with respect to securitizations of other securities, indirectly)...

  1. Physically Transient Memory on a Rapidly Dissoluble Paper for Security Application

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dongil; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Daewon; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Ahn, Daechul; Park, Sang-Jae; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    We report the transient memory device by means of a water soluble SSG (solid sodium with glycerine) paper. This material has a hydroscopic property hence it can be soluble in water. In terms of physical security of memory devices, prompt abrogation of a memory device which stored a large number of data is crucial when it is stolen because all of things have identified information in the memory device. By utilizing the SSG paper as a substrate, we fabricated a disposable resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has good data retention of longer than 106 seconds and cycling endurance of 300 cycles. This memory device is dissolved within 10 seconds thus it can never be recovered or replicated. By employing direct printing but not lithography technology to aim low cost and disposable applications, the memory capacity tends to be limited less than kilo-bits. However, unlike high memory capacity demand for consumer electronics, the proposed device is targeting for security applications. With this regards, the sub-kilobit memory capacity should find the applications such as one-time usable personal identification, authentication code storage, cryptography key, and smart delivery tag. This aspect is attractive for security and protection system against unauthorized accessibility. PMID:27917910

  2. Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi; Hohil, Myron; Desai, Sachi V.

    2007-10-01

    Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-of-principle experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-AT and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

  3. Physically Transient Memory on a Rapidly Dissoluble Paper for Security Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dongil; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Daewon; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Ahn, Daechul; Park, Sang-Jae; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    We report the transient memory device by means of a water soluble SSG (solid sodium with glycerine) paper. This material has a hydroscopic property hence it can be soluble in water. In terms of physical security of memory devices, prompt abrogation of a memory device which stored a large number of data is crucial when it is stolen because all of things have identified information in the memory device. By utilizing the SSG paper as a substrate, we fabricated a disposable resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has good data retention of longer than 106 seconds and cycling endurance of 300 cycles. This memory device is dissolved within 10 seconds thus it can never be recovered or replicated. By employing direct printing but not lithography technology to aim low cost and disposable applications, the memory capacity tends to be limited less than kilo-bits. However, unlike high memory capacity demand for consumer electronics, the proposed device is targeting for security applications. With this regards, the sub-kilobit memory capacity should find the applications such as one-time usable personal identification, authentication code storage, cryptography key, and smart delivery tag. This aspect is attractive for security and protection system against unauthorized accessibility.

  4. Physically Transient Memory on a Rapidly Dissoluble Paper for Security Application.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dongil; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Daewon; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Ahn, Daechul; Park, Sang-Jae; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-05

    We report the transient memory device by means of a water soluble SSG (solid sodium with glycerine) paper. This material has a hydroscopic property hence it can be soluble in water. In terms of physical security of memory devices, prompt abrogation of a memory device which stored a large number of data is crucial when it is stolen because all of things have identified information in the memory device. By utilizing the SSG paper as a substrate, we fabricated a disposable resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has good data retention of longer than 10(6) seconds and cycling endurance of 300 cycles. This memory device is dissolved within 10 seconds thus it can never be recovered or replicated. By employing direct printing but not lithography technology to aim low cost and disposable applications, the memory capacity tends to be limited less than kilo-bits. However, unlike high memory capacity demand for consumer electronics, the proposed device is targeting for security applications. With this regards, the sub-kilobit memory capacity should find the applications such as one-time usable personal identification, authentication code storage, cryptography key, and smart delivery tag. This aspect is attractive for security and protection system against unauthorized accessibility.

  5. 75 FR 4595 - BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities... Y-Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Y Exchange'') submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission... publishing this notice to solicit comments on BATS Y Exchange's Form 1. The Commission will take...

  6. Synchronized states in a ring of four mutually coupled oscillators and experimental application to secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nana, B.; Woafo, P.

    2011-04-01

    Data encryption has become increasingly important for many applications including phone, internet and satellite communications. Considering the desirable properties of ergodicity and high sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, chaotic signals are suitable for encryption systems. Chaotic encryption systems generally have high speed with low cost, which makes them better candidates than many traditional ciphers for multimedia data encryption. In this paper, analytical and numerical methods as well as experimental implementation are used to prove partial and complete synchronized states in a ring of four autonomous oscillators in their chaotic states. Application to secure communication is discussed.

  7. Advances in AlGaInN laser diode technology for defence, security and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Boćkowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisnieski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology for defence, security and sensing applications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., 380nm, to the visible 530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications including displays and imaging systems, free-space and underwater telecommunications and the latest quantum technologies such as optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry.

  8. An appraisal of the Burr distribution for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganora, Daniele; Laio, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The extended three-parameter Burr XII is a probability distribution function rarely used in hydrology, while this distribution is more popular in other disciplines. The aim of this contribution is (i) to define the scope of this distribution in hydrological applications, (ii) to describe a simplified method to estimate the distribution parameters based on the sample L-moments, and (iii) to discuss an application aimed at representing the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) with the Burr distribution. Compared to other three-parameter distributions, the Burr is particularly appealing because its range covers positive values only, which of course is convenient when modeling streamflows; moreover, the distribution has two shape parameters, which allows it to be quite flexible and to adapt well to many different shapes of the frequency curves and FDC. The third parameter of the distribution is a scale factor. Despite in the literature the most important methods for parameter estimation have been already discussed, current approaches still require numerical solution of two joint non-linear equations to evaluate the shape parameters of the distribution. This can hamper the use of the Burr distribution in practical applications due to the difficulties in implementing and controlling the estimation procedure. These difficulties are particularly relevant in extensive applications, such as the mapping of the FDCs in many section of a river network, or when professionals without expertise in numerical computation are involved. In this work we develop a simplified, although accurate, set of explicit equations to compute the two shape parameters starting from the L-CV and the L-skewness coefficients. This goal is achieved by properly weighting a set of simple base functions over the domain of the Burr distribution in the L-CV vs L-skewness space. The Burr distribution has been applied to represent the FDC of an extensive set of data including about 120 time series from stations located

  9. High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Martin, Rodger Carl; Grissino-Mayer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

  10. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  11. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  12. Neutron Generators Developed at LBNL for Homeland Security andImaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, Jani

    2006-08-13

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented.

  13. An automated approach for tone mapping operator parameter adjustment in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasula, LukáÅ.¡; Narwaria, Manish; Le Callet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity in recent years. Different from the traditional low dynamic range (LDR), HDR content tends to be visually more appealing and realistic as it can represent the dynamic range of the visual stimuli present in the real world. As a result, more scene details can be faithfully reproduced. As a direct consequence, the visual quality tends to improve. HDR can be also directly exploited for new applications such as video surveillance and other security tasks. Since more scene details are available in HDR, it can help in identifying/tracking visual information which otherwise might be difficult with typical LDR content due to factors such as lack/excess of illumination, extreme contrast in the scene, etc. On the other hand, with HDR, there might be issues related to increased privacy intrusion. To display the HDR content on the regular screen, tone-mapping operators (TMO) are used. In this paper, we present the universal method for TMO parameters tuning, in order to maintain as many details as possible, which is desirable in security applications. The method's performance is verified on several TMOs by comparing the outcomes from tone-mapping with default and optimized parameters. The results suggest that the proposed approach preserves more information which could be of advantage for security surveillance but, on the other hand, makes us consider possible increase in privacy intrusion.

  14. Applications Analysis: Principles and Examples from Various Distributed Computer Applications at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Dennis; Evans, David; Jensen, Dal; Nelson, Spencer

    1999-08-01

    As information systems have become distributed over many computers within the enterprise, managing those applications has become increasingly important. This is an emerging area of work, recognized as such by many large organizations as well as many start-up companies. In this report, we present a summary of the move to distributed applications, some of the problems that came along for the ride, and some specific examples of the tools and techniques we have used to analyze distributed applications and gain some insight into the mechanics and politics of distributed computing.

  15. An architecture for distributed video applications based on declarative networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiping; Gonzales, Cesar; Lobo, Jorge; Calo, Seraphin; Verma, Dinesh

    2012-06-01

    Video surveillance applications are examples of complex distributed coalition tasks. Real-time capture and analysis of image sensor data is one of the most important tasks in a number of military critical decision making scenarios. In complex battlefield situations, there is a need to coordinate the operation of distributed image sensors and the analysis of their data as transmitted over a heterogeneous wireless network where bandwidth, power, and computational capabilities are constrained. There is also a need to automate decision making based on the results of the analysis of video data. Declarative Networking is a promising technology for controlling complex video surveillance applications in this sort of environment. This paper presents a flexible and extensible architecture for deploying distributed video surveillance applications using the declarative networking paradigm, which allows us to dynamically connect and manage distributed image sensors and deploy various modules for the analysis of video data to satisfy a variety of video surveillance requirements. With declarative computing, it becomes possible for us not only to express the program control structure in a declarative fashion, but also to simplify the management of distributed video surveillance applications.

  16. Color dynamics of diffraction gratings: evaluation and applications in optical security.

    PubMed

    Pires, P; Rebordão, J M

    1999-12-11

    We looked for design methodologies that cope with optical specifications described in terms of trajectories in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) 1976 chromaticity diagram in the context of low-cost mass-reproduction processes that inevitably introduce changes in the design of a diffractive device for security applications. The mathematics of the design process can be strongly simplified if the theory of planar waveguides (in integrated optics) is used to estimate, with sufficient accuracy, the position of Wood singularities, responsible for the more-interesting visual features of a grating. We show how to use such a model to assess color dynamics variations that are due to production and to estimate domains within the space of grating parameters that enable both first- and second-level security features to be implemented simultaneously. All the results are compared with the values obtained by rigorous coupled-wave analysis.

  17. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  18. The application of artificial intelligence techniques to large distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubyah, R.; Smith, T. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Data accessibility and transfer of information, including the land resources information system pilot, are structured as large computer information networks. These pilot efforts include the reduction of the difficulty to find and use data, reducing processing costs, and minimize incompatibility between data sources. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques were suggested to achieve these goals. The applicability of certain AI techniques are explored in the context of distributed problem solving systems and the pilot land data system (PLDS). The topics discussed include: PLDS and its data processing requirements, expert systems and PLDS, distributed problem solving systems, AI problem solving paradigms, query processing, and distributed data bases.

  19. A Component-based Programming Model for Composite, Distributed Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidson, Thomas M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The nature of scientific programming is evolving to larger, composite applications that are composed of smaller element applications. These composite applications are more frequently being targeted for distributed, heterogeneous networks of computers. They are most likely programmed by a group of developers. Software component technology and computational frameworks are being proposed and developed to meet the programming requirements of these new applications. Historically, programming systems have had a hard time being accepted by the scientific programming community. In this paper, a programming model is outlined that attempts to organize the software component concepts and fundamental programming entities into programming abstractions that will be better understood by the application developers. The programming model is designed to support computational frameworks that manage many of the tedious programming details, but also that allow sufficient programmer control to design an accurate, high-performance application.

  20. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of gain. (i) A and B form partnership AB as equal partners. A contributes property with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted tax basis of $250. B contributes $1,000 cash. AB subsequently purchases... immediately before the distribution, there would have been no gain recognized by AB and A's distributive...

  1. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of gain. (i) A and B form partnership AB as equal partners. A contributes property with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted tax basis of $250. B contributes $1,000 cash. AB subsequently purchases... immediately before the distribution, there would have been no gain recognized by AB and A's distributive...

  2. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of gain. (i) A and B form partnership AB as equal partners. A contributes property with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted tax basis of $250. B contributes $1,000 cash. AB subsequently purchases... immediately before the distribution, there would have been no gain recognized by AB and A's distributive...

  3. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of gain. (i) A and B form partnership AB as equal partners. A contributes property with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted tax basis of $250. B contributes $1,000 cash. AB subsequently purchases... immediately before the distribution, there would have been no gain recognized by AB and A's distributive...

  4. Meeting the ONCHIT population health mandate: a proposed model for security in selective transportable distributed environments.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Chin, John; Richards, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Goal Two of the US ONCHIT Plan focuses on enabling the use of electronic health information for critical health improvement activities that promote the health of targeted communities, and the US population as a whole. Because of the focus on communities and populations, the activities under this second goal differ fundamentally from those of the first goal, which focus on the care of individuals. Proposed here is a model for health information management in such population-based environments, which allows selective access and use of information, and maintains transportability while ensuring security and confidentiality.

  5. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 4(2) of the Securities Act (15 U.S.C. 77d(2)) or §§ 230.144A or § 230.500 et seq of this chapter; or (ii) Persons not deemed to be “U.S. persons” for purposes of §§ 230.902(o)(2) or 230.902(o)(7) of... defined in section 3(a)(12) of the Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(12)); or (4) Face-amount certificates...

  6. Sensor-enabled chem/bio contamination detection system dedicated to situational awareness of water distribution security status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Mark D.; Smith, Eddy D.; VanBlaricum, Vicki; Hock, Vincent F.; Kroll, Dan; Russell, Kevin J.

    2010-04-01

    Both real events and models have proven that drinking water systems are vulnerable to deliberate and/or accidental contamination. Additionally, homeland security initiatives and modeling efforts have determined that it is relatively easy to orchestrate the contamination of potable water supplies. Such contamination can be accomplished with classic and non-traditional chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and/or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). Subsequent research and testing has developed a proven network for detection and response to these threats. The method uses offthe- shelf, broad-spectrum analytical instruments coupled with advanced interpretive algorithms. The system detects and characterizes any backflow events involving toxic contaminants by employing unique chemical signature (fingerprint) response data. This instrumentation has been certified by the Office of Homeland Security for detecting deliberate and/or accidental contamination of critical water infrastructure. The system involves integration of several mature technologies (sensors, SCADA, dynamic models, and the HACH HST Guardian Blue instrumentation) into a complete, real-time, management system that also can be used to address other water distribution concerns, such as corrosion. This paper summarizes the reasons and results for installing such a distribution-based detection and protection system.

  7. Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)

    SciTech Connect

    Muftic, Sead

    2005-03-31

    -domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The

  8. Distribution robotics in the gas industry: Issues and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetwood, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The new engineering field of ''Distribution Robotics'' is emerging in the gas industry. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the gas utility managers and engineers to take notice to this new technology and start factoring it into their planning strategies. The defined goal of distribution robotics is to improve the quality of service, lower operating costs, reduce work hazards, and perform in situ tasks. Applications of the distribution robotic system range from internal leak detection and repair to pipe condition assessment and cleaning; as stated, these applications are performed in a live system. To achieve the desired application missions, the robotic system requires robots of different designs along with appropriate tools, peripherals, and external support systems. The robot consists of several subsystems that allow motion, sensory perception, action and reaction, communication, and entering or existing the system. Each subsystem has several choices for robot configurations with advantages and trade-offs for the purpose, mode, range, and speed required by each mission. External support systems are required for a complete distribution robotic system. An external computer and human operator are needed as well as the physical hardware necessary to support a robot operation. Finally, issues raised by a distribution robotic system need consideration for proper planning. The major issues raised are robot miniaturization, obstacles, safety, coverage, and control.

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  10. Acceleration of iterative image reconstruction for x-ray imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degirmenci, Soysal; Politte, David G.; Bosch, Carl; Tricha, Nawfel; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional image reconstruction for scanning baggage in security applications is becoming increasingly important. Compared to medical x-ray imaging, security imaging systems must be designed for a greater variety of objects. There is a lot of variation in attenuation and nearly every bag scanned has metal present, potentially yielding significant artifacts. Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms are known to reduce metal artifacts and yield quantitatively more accurate estimates of attenuation than linear methods. For iterative image reconstruction algorithms to be deployed at security checkpoints, the images must be quantitatively accurate and the convergence speed must be increased dramatically. There are many approaches for increasing convergence; two approaches are described in detail in this paper. The first approach includes a scheduled change in the number of ordered subsets over iterations and a reformulation of convergent ordered subsets that was originally proposed by Ahn, Fessler et. al.1 The second approach is based on varying the multiplication factor in front of the additive step in the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm, resulting in more aggressive updates in iterations. Each approach is implemented on real data from a SureScanTM x 1000 Explosive Detection System∗ and compared to straightforward implementations of the alternating minimization algorithm of O'Sullivan and Benac2 with a Huber-type edge-preserving penalty, originally proposed by Lange.3

  11. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  12. Nonlinear observer for synchronization of chaotic systems with application to secure data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Perez-Pinacho, Claudia A.

    2014-06-01

    The main issue of this work is related with the design of a class of nonlinear observer in order to synchronize chaotic dynamical systems in a master-slave scheme, considering different initial conditions. The oscillator of Chen is proposed as a benchmark model and a bounded-type observer is proposed to reach synchronicity between both two chaotic systems. The proposed observer contains a proportional and sigmoid form of a bounded function of the synchronization error in order to provide asymptotic synchronization with a satisfactory performance. Some numerical simulations were carrying out in order to show the operation of the proposed methodology, with possible applications to secure data communications issues.

  13. Chaotic synchronization based on nonlinear state-observer and its application in secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Jie; Li, Dian-Pu; Zhang, Ai-Jun

    2004-06-01

    Chaotic synchronization is a branch of chaotic control. Nowadays, the research and application of chaotic synchronization have become a hot topic and one of the development directions is for the research on chaos. In this paper, a universal nonlinear state-observer is presented for a class of universal chaotic systems to realize the chaotic synchronization, according to the theory of state-observer in the modern control theory. And theoretic analysis and simulation results have illustrated the validity of the approach. Moreover, the approach of synchronization proposed in this paper is very easy, flexible and universal with high synchronization precision. When the approach is applied to secure communication, the results are satisfying.

  14. Radar sensing of heartbeat and respiration at a distance with security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1997-06-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute have developed a radar that will detect heartbeat and respiration without any physical connection to the subject. The system is capable of making these measurements at ranges exceeding 10 meters. This paper explores the use of the system for the biometric identification of personnel who work in a highly secure environment. The system, used in this application, would use the heartbeat signature of an individual as a biometric identifier. Also, the system could be used to determine the stress level being experienced by an individual on the basis of respiration and heartbeat rates.

  15. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Martin; Hampp, Norbert; Rhinow, Daniel

    2014-02-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  16. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  17. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  18. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  19. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  20. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  1. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  2. Security extensions to DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Schaaf, Thorsten; Bellaire, Gunter; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1999-07-01

    To ensure the acceptance of telemedical applications several obstacles must be overcome: the transfer of huge amounts of data over heterogeneous hard- and software platforms must be optimized; extended data post-processing is often required; and data security must be taken into consideration; post- processing based on secured data exchange must retain the relationship between original and post-processed images. To analyze and solve these problems, applications of distributed medical services were integrated. Data transfer and management was based on the Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM) standard. To account for platform- independence of remote users, a novel DICOM server and viewer as implemented in JAVA. Different DICOM-conform data security concepts were analyzed. Encryption of the complete data stream using secure socket layers as well as a partial encryption concepts were tested. The best result was attained by a DICOM-conform encryption of patient-relevant data. The implementation medical services, which used newly develop techniques of magnetic resonance imaging, allowed a much earlier diagnosis of the human brain infarct. The integrated data security enabled remote segmentation within the unsecured internet, followed by storing the data back into the secured network.

  3. Information-theoretic secure key distribution based on common random-signal induced synchronization in unidirectionally-coupled cascades of semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Hayato; Morikatsu, Shinichiro; Aida, Hiroki; Nozawa, Takahiro; Kakesu, Izumi; Uchida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Davis, Peter

    2013-07-29

    It has been proposed that a secure key distribution scheme using correlated random bit sequences can be implemented using common random-signal induced synchronization of semiconductor laser systems. In this scheme it is necessary to use laser systems consisting of multiple cascaded lasers to be secure against a powerful eavesdropper. In this paper, we report the results of an experimental study that demonstrate that the common random-signal induced synchronization is possible in cascaded semiconductor laser systems. We also show that the correlated random bit sequences generated in the synchronized cascaded laser systems can be used to create an information-theoretically secure key between two legitimate users.

  4. Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security

    PubMed Central

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P.; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow©. Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. PMID:22303175

  5. Field measurements and guidelines for the application of wireless sensor networks to the environment and security.

    PubMed

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow(©). Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems.

  6. National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors—Mostly Nuclear Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Michael W.

    2009-12-01

    As with science, so with security—in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  7. Distributed beamforming designs to improve physical layer security in wireless relay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Mujun; Liu, Chen; Fu, Youhua

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates security-oriented beamforming designs in a relay network composed of a source-destination pair, multiple relays, and a passive eavesdropper. Unlike most of the earlier works, we assume that only statistical information of the relay-eavesdropper channels is known to the relays. We propose beamforming solutions for amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks to improve secrecy capacity. In an AF network, the beamforming design is obtained by approximating a product of two correlated Rayleigh quotients to a single Rayleigh quotient using the Taylor series expansion. Our study reveals that in an AF network, the secrecy capacity does not always grow as the eavesdropper moves away from the relays or as total relay transmit power increases. Moreover, if the destination is nearer to the relays than the eavesdropper is, a suboptimal power is derived in closed form through monotonicity analysis of secrecy capacity. While in a DF network, secrecy capacity is a single Rayleigh quotient problem which can be easily solved. We also found that if the relay-eavesdropper distances are about the same, it is unnecessary to consider the eavesdropper in a DF network. Numerical results show that for either AF or DF relaying protocol, the proposed beamforming scheme provides higher secrecy capacity than traditional approaches.

  8. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-01

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  9. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-15

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  10. Application of parallel distributed processing to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, J. R.; Heffelfinger, H. L.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) to enhance automated experiment monitoring and control is explored. Recent very large scale integration (VLSI) advances have made such applications an achievable goal. The PDP machine has demonstrated the ability to automatically organize stored information, handle unfamiliar and contradictory input data and perform the actions necessary. The PDP machine has demonstrated that it can perform inference and knowledge operations with greater speed and flexibility and at lower cost than traditional architectures. In applications where the rule set governing an expert system's decisions is difficult to formulate, PDP can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken.

  11. Direct analysis in real time-Mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in forensic and security applications.

    PubMed

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Musselman, Brian; Hall, Adam B

    2016-06-06

    Over the last decade, direct analysis in real time (DART) has emerged as a viable method for fast, easy, and reliable "ambient ionization" for forensic analysis. The ability of DART to generate ions from chemicals that might be present at the scene of a criminal activity, whether they are in the gas, liquid, or solid phase, with limited sample preparation has made the technology a useful analytical tool in numerous forensic applications. This review paper summarizes many of those applications, ranging from the analysis of trace evidence to security applications, with a focus on providing the forensic scientist with a resource for developing their own applications. The most common uses for DART in forensics are in studying seized drugs, drugs of abuse and their metabolites, bulk and detonated explosives, toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents, inks and dyes, and commercial plant and animal products that have been adulterated for economic gain. This review is meant to complement recent reviews that have described the fundamentals of the ionization mechanism and the general use of DART. We describe a wide range of forensic applications beyond the field of analyzing drugs of abuse, which dominates the literature, including common experimental and data analysis methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 9999: XX-XX, 2016.

  12. The use of stimulated electron emission (SEE) in homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, H.; Andrews, H. R.; Facina, M.; Lee, W. T.; Niu, H. W.

    2012-06-01

    Certain insulating solids can store a fraction of the absorbed energy when irradiated by ionizing radiation. The stored energy can be released subsequently by heating or optical stimulation. As a result, light may be emitted through Thermoluminescence (TL) or Optically-Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and electrons may be emitted through Thermally-Stimulated Electron Emission (TSEE) or Optically-Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). TL and OSL are widely used in current radiation dosimetry systems. However, despite considerable research effort during the early 1970s, SEE was not commonly adopted for dosimetry applications. One of the main reasons is that SEE is a surface phenomenon, while luminescence is a bulk phenomenon, making SEE more susceptible to humidity, absorption of gases, minor physical defects and handling, both before and after irradiation. Nevertheless, it has been recognized that SEE may be useful for homeland security applications in nuclear forensics, where dose accuracy is not the primary performance metric. In this research, we are investigating the use of SEE for nuclear forensic applications. Many common materials, both natural and man-made, exhibit the phenomenon, providing an opportunity to use the environment itself as an in-situ radiation detector. We have designed and constructed a unique prototype reader for conducting SEE measurements. We have demonstrated that the SEE measurements from a variety of materials are quantitatively reproducible and correlated to radiation exposure. Due to the broad applicability of SEE, significant additional studies are warranted to optimize this novel technique for nuclear forensic and other applications.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Three Distributed Computing Environments for Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoohi, Rod; Weeratunga, Sisira; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present performance results for three distributed computing environments using the three simulated CFD applications in the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite. These environments are the DCF cluster, the LACE cluster, and an Intel iPSC/860 machine. The DCF is a prototypic cluster of loosely coupled SGI R3000 machines connected by Ethernet. The LACE cluster is a tightly coupled cluster of 32 IBM RS6000/560 machines connected by Ethernet as well as by either FDDI or an IBM Allnode switch. Results of several parallel algorithms for the three simulated applications are presented and analyzed based on the interplay between the communication requirements of an algorithm and the characteristics of the communication network of a distributed system.

  14. A Dynamically Configurable Log-based Distributed Security Event Detection Methodology using Simple Event Correlator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    from SANS Whitepaper - "... Detecting Attacks on Web Applications from Log Files" #look for image tags type=Single continue=TakeNext ptype=RegExp...shellcmd /home/user/sec -2.5.3/ common/syslogclient "... Synthetic : " "$2|$1|xss detected in image tag: $3" #send the raw log type=Single ptype=RegExp...Expressions taken from SANS Whitepaper - "... Detecting Attacks on Web Applications from Log Files" #look for image tags type=Single continue=TakeNext

  15. Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Koji

    2005-07-15

    We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory.

  16. Nonparametric Estimation of Distribution and Density Functions with Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    have been used: kurtosis, Hogg’s Q statistic, and percentile ratios. Applications of the discriminants in parametric estimation problem can be found...particularly in the sense of parametric estimation (Ref 108). Reiss proposes minimum distance estimators of unimodal densities. He proves consistency and...in distribution and density estimation, and goodness of fit testing. 129 The next chapter will venture into the realm of parametric estimation using

  17. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  18. Security for the digital information age of medicine: issues, applications, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Michael A.; Pasieka, Michael S.; Lord, William P.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.

    1997-05-01

    Privacy and integrity of medical records is expected by patients. This privacy and integrity is often mandated by regulations. Traditionally, the security of medical records has been based on physical lock and key. As the storage of patient record information shifts from paper to digital, new security concerns arise. Digital cryptographic methods provide solutions to many of these new concerns. In this paper we overview new security concerns, new legislation mandating secure medical records and solutions providing security.

  19. Information Measures of Degree Distributions with an Application to Labeled Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Purvine, Emilie AH

    2016-01-11

    The problem of describing the distribution of labels over a set of objects is relevant to many domains. For example: cyber security, social media, and protein interactions all care about the manner in which labels are distributed among different objects. In this paper we present three interacting statistical measures on label distributions, inspired by entropy and information theory. Labeled graphs are discussed as a specific case of labels distributed over a set of edges. We describe a use case in cyber security using a labeled directed multi-graph of IPFLOW. Finally we show how these measures respond when labels are updated in certain ways.

  20. Network Security Validation Using Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Vicky; Gregoriades, Andreas

    Non-functional requirements (NFR) such as network security recently gained widespread attention in distributed information systems. Despite their importance however, there is no systematic approach to validate these requirements given the complexity and uncertainty characterizing modern networks. Traditionally, network security requirements specification has been the results of a reactive process. This however, limited the immunity property of the distributed systems that depended on these networks. Security requirements specification need a proactive approach. Networks' infrastructure is constantly under attack by hackers and malicious software that aim to break into computers. To combat these threats, network designers need sophisticated security validation techniques that will guarantee the minimum level of security for their future networks. This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to security requirements validation. An introduction to game theory is presented along with an example that demonstrates the application of the approach.

  1. Constraints and Approaches for Distributed Mobile AD-HOC Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    sizes, and scenarios. Protocols such as Identity- Based Symmetric Keying and Rich Uncle have limited application until the network’s routing...optimized group determination algorithm – The algorithm we are currently using is sub -optimal since it simply finds the largest group available, whereas a...that may result in sub -optimal configurations. • Integration of routing and keying protocols – Despite the additional complexity of integrating

  2. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  3. Development of an UltraNet Based Distributed Visualization Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krystynak, John

    1991-01-01

    The example application is a distributed visualization involving a supercomputer and a graphics workstation. The visualization computation is performed on a Connection Machine, end the results are rendered using a Silicon Graphics Workstations The UltraNet network installed at NAB allows high-bandwidth communication between the computers. Ideally, taking advantage of the UltraNet is no more complex than developing TCP/IP and Unix BSD socket-type applications on a single machine. In practice, there are several problems in developing an Application using the UltraNet. This paper identifies potential problems and discusses techniques for overcoming them. Performance of UltraNet communication is measured and found to be 10 MB/sec for SGI VGX workstations.

  4. Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

    Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

  5. Efficient Use of Distributed Systems for Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Valerie; Chen, Jian; Canfield, Thomas; Richard, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Distributed computing has been regarded as the future of high performance computing. Nationwide high speed networks such as vBNS are becoming widely available to interconnect high-speed computers, virtual environments, scientific instruments and large data sets. One of the major issues to be addressed with distributed systems is the development of computational tools that facilitate the efficient execution of parallel applications on such systems. These tools must exploit the heterogeneous resources (networks and compute nodes) in distributed systems. This paper presents a tool, called PART, which addresses this issue for mesh partitioning. PART takes advantage of the following heterogeneous system features: (1) processor speed; (2) number of processors; (3) local network performance; and (4) wide area network performance. Further, different finite element applications under consideration may have different computational complexities, different communication patterns, and different element types, which also must be taken into consideration when partitioning. PART uses parallel simulated annealing to partition the domain, taking into consideration network and processor heterogeneity. The results of using PART for an explicit finite element application executing on two IBM SPs (located at Argonne National Laboratory and the San Diego Supercomputer Center) indicate an increase in efficiency by up to 36% as compared to METIS, a widely used mesh partitioning tool. The input to METIS was modified to take into consideration heterogeneous processor performance; METIS does not take into consideration heterogeneous networks. The execution times for these applications were reduced by up to 30% as compared to METIS. These results are given in Figure 1 for four irregular meshes with number of elements ranging from 30,269 elements for the Barth5 mesh to 11,451 elements for the Barth4 mesh. Future work with PART entails using the tool with an integrated application requiring

  6. Analyzing comprehensive QoS with security constraints for services composition applications in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Zhao; Huang, Yannong; Xu, Degang

    2014-12-01

    Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique-vector universal generating function (VUGF)-which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs.

  7. Analyzing Comprehensive QoS with Security Constraints for Services Composition Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Zhao; Huang, Yannong; Xu, Degang

    2014-01-01

    Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique—vector universal generating function (VUGF)—which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs. PMID:25470488

  8. Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Assche, G. van; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-05-15

    We study the equivalence of a realistic quantum key distribution protocol using coherent states and homodyne detection with a formal entanglement purification protocol. Maximally entangled qubit pairs that one can extract in the formal protocol correspond to secret key bits in the realistic protocol. More specifically, we define a qubit encoding scheme that allows the formal protocol to produce more than one entangled qubit pair per entangled oscillator pair or, equivalently for the realistic protocol, more than one secret key bit per coherent state. The entanglement parameters are estimated using quantum tomography. We analyze the properties of the encoding scheme and investigate the resulting secret key rate in the important case of the attenuation channel.

  9. Taxation of Social Security benefits under the new income tax provisions: distributional estimates for 1994.

    PubMed

    Pattison, D

    1994-01-01

    The 1993 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act raised the proportion of benefits includable in income for the Federal personal income tax. This article presents estimates of the income-distributional effects of the new provision in 1994, the first year for which it is effective. Under the pre-1993 law, up to 50 percent of benefits were included in taxable income for certain high-income beneficiaries. Under the new law, some of these beneficiaries are required to include an even higher proportion of benefits--up to 85 percent. Only 11 percent of beneficiary families, concentrated in the top three deciles by family income, include more of their benefits in taxable income under the new law than they would have under the old law. Another 8 percent include the same amount of benefits under either. The remaining beneficiary families, more than 80 percent, include no benefits in taxable income under either the old law or the new.

  10. The President Has No Clothes: The Case for Broader Application of Red Teaming within Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    November 9, 2006). 130 Ibid. 131 Homeland Security News Wire, “Billions spent on airport security , but major security gaps remain.” 132 Arvind Gupta...security initiatives to improve airport security since 9/11.173 It also faces the challenge of managing almost 60,000 employees, 80 percent of whom work...perimeter at the airport security checkpoint.180 A Red Team might ask if we are building the equivalent of a modern-day Maginot line. What are the implied

  11. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    UNFSF. The framework for integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF will include 1) identification of applicable regulatory requirements, 2) selection of a common system that share dual safeguard and security functions, 3) development of functional design criteria and design requirements for the selected system, 4) identification and integration of the dual safeguards and security design requirements, and 5) assessment of the integration and potential benefit.

  12. Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

  13. The AIRS Applications Pipeline, from Identification to Visualization to Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Teixeira, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. AIRS provides observations of temperature and water vapor along the atmospheric column and is sensitive to many atmospheric constituents in the mid-troposphere, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ozone. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, we are finding that AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under most of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. Currently in development are temperature inversion maps that can potentially correlate to respiratory health problems, dengue fever and West Nile virus outbreak prediction maps, maps that can be used to make assessments of air quality, and maps of volcanic ash burden. This poster will communicate the Project's approach and efforts to date of its applications pipeline, which includes identifying applications, utilizing science expertise, hiring outside experts to assist with development and dissemination, visualization along application themes, and leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving and distribution. In addition, a new web-based browse tool being developed by the AIRS Project for easy access to application product imagery will also be described.

  14. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  15. Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Liu, Jingwei; Kwak, Kyungsup

    2012-02-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in healthcare applications is growing in a fast pace. Numerous applications such as heart rate monitor, blood pressure monitor and endoscopic capsule are already in use. To address the growing use of sensor technology in this area, a new field known as wireless body area networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged. As most devices and their applications are wireless in nature, security and privacy concerns are among major areas of concern. Due to direct involvement of humans also increases the sensitivity. Whether the data gathered from patients or individuals are obtained with the consent of the person or without it due to the need by the system, misuse or privacy concerns may restrict people from taking advantage of the full benefits from the system. People may not see these devices safe for daily use. There may also possibility of serious social unrest due to the fear that such devices may be used for monitoring and tracking individuals by government agencies or other private organizations. In this paper we discuss these issues and analyze in detail the problems and their possible measures.

  16. Research into a distributed fault diagnosis system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Suxiang; Jiao, Weidong; Lou, Yongjian; Shen, Xiaomei

    2005-12-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is a solution to distributed computing methods over heterogeneity systems, which establishes a communication protocol between distributed objects. It takes great emphasis on realizing the interoperation between distributed objects. However, only after developing some application approaches and some practical technology in monitoring and diagnosis, can the customers share the monitoring and diagnosis information, so that the purpose of realizing remote multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online can be achieved. This paper aims at building an open fault monitoring and diagnosis platform combining CORBA, Web and agent. Heterogeneity diagnosis object interoperate in independent thread through the CORBA (soft-bus), realizing sharing resource and multi-expert cooperation diagnosis online, solving the disadvantage such as lack of diagnosis knowledge, oneness of diagnosis technique and imperfectness of analysis function, so that more complicated and further diagnosis can be carried on. Take high-speed centrifugal air compressor set for example, we demonstrate a distributed diagnosis based on CORBA. It proves that we can find out more efficient approaches to settle the problems such as real-time monitoring and diagnosis on the net and the break-up of complicated tasks, inosculating CORBA, Web technique and agent frame model to carry on complemental research. In this system, Multi-diagnosis Intelligent Agent helps improve diagnosis efficiency. Besides, this system offers an open circumstances, which is easy for the diagnosis objects to upgrade and for new diagnosis server objects to join in.

  17. The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

  18. Compact, rugged, and intuitive thermal imaging cameras for homeland security and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Charles M.

    2005-05-01

    Low cost, small size, low power uncooled thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views commercial law enforcement and military applications. Key applications include security, medical, automotive, power generation monitoring, manufacturing and process control, aerospace application, defense, environmental and resource monitoring, maintenance monitoring and night vision. Commercial applications also include law enforcement and military special operations. Each application drives a unique set of requirements that include similar fundamental infrared technologies. Recently, in the uncooled infrared camera and microbolometer detector areas, major strides have been made in the design and manufacture of personal military and law enforcement sensors. L-3 Communications Infrared Products (L-3 IP) is producing a family of new products based on the amorphous silicon microbolometer with low cost, low power, high volume, wafer-level vacuum packaged silicon focal plane array technologies. These bolometer systems contain no choppers or thermoelectric coolers, require no manual calibration, and use readily available commercial off-the-shelf components. One such successful product is the Thermal-Eye X100xp. Extensive market needs analysis for these small hand held sensors has been validated by the quick acceptability into the Law Enforcement and Military Segments. As well as this product has already been received, L-3 IP has developed a strategic roadmap to improve and enhance the features and function of this product to include upgrades such as the new 30-Hz, 30-μm pitch detector. This paper describes advances in bolometric focal plane arrays, optical and circuit card technologies while providing a glimpse into the future of micro hand held sensor growth. Also, technical barriers are addressed in light of constraints, lessons learned and boundary conditions. One conclusion is that the Thermal Eye Silicon Bolometer technology simultaneously drives weight

  19. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  20. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  1. A distribution-function-valued SPDE and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we further study the stochastic partial differential equation first proposed by Xiong [22]. Under localized conditions on its coefficients, we prove a comparison theorem on its solutions and show that the solution is in fact distribution-function-valued. We also establish pathwise uniqueness of the solution. As applications we obtain the well-posedness of martingale problems for two classes of measure-valued diffusions: interacting super-Brownian motions and interacting Fleming-Viot processes. Properties of the two superprocesses such as the existence of density fields and the survival-extinction behaviors are also studied.

  2. Applicability of delay tolerant networking to distributed satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimann, A.; Tzschichholz, T.; Schmidt, M.; Kleinschrodt, A.; Schilling, K.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, a trend towards distributed small satellite missions is emerging using cooperating satellites to achieve joint mission objectives, e.g. for earth observation. Communication is a key feature when cooperation between satellites is desired. Typically those satellite networks are affected by slow data rates, high packet loss and intermittent connectivity. To address these challenges the store-and-forward approach of the delay tolerant networking (DTN) concept is investigated in this article. Network simulations of typical scenarios were carried out and evaluated to derive statements about the applicability of the DTN approach to networks in low earth orbits.

  3. Implementing Network Video for Traditional Security and Innovative Applications: Best Practices and Uses for Network Video in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Administrators are constantly seeking ways to cost-effectively and adequately increase security and improve efficiency in K-12 schools. While video is not a new tool to schools, the shift from analog to network technology has increased the accessibility and usability in a variety of applications. Properly installed and used, video is a powerful…

  4. Security and privacy issues of personal health.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While health systems in developed countries and increasingly also in developing countries are moving from organisation-centred to person-centred health service delivery, the supporting communication and information technology is faced with new risks regarding security and privacy of stakeholders involved. The comprehensively distributed environment puts special burden on guaranteeing communication security services, but even more on guaranteeing application security services dealing with privilege management, access control and audit regarding social implication and connected sensitivity of personal information recorded, processed, communicated and stored in an even internationally distributed environment.

  5. DAVE: A plug and play model for distributed multimedia application development

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.F.; Friesen, J.A.; Yang, C.L.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a model being used for the development of distributed multimedia applications. The Distributed Audio Video Environment (DAVE) was designed to support the development of a wide range of distributed applications. The implementation of this model is described. DAVE is unique in that it combines a simple ``plug and play`` programming interface, supports both centralized and fully distributed applications, provides device and media extensibility, promotes object reuseability, and supports interoperability and network independence. This model enables application developers to easily develop distributed multimedia applications and create reusable multimedia toolkits. DAVE was designed for developing applications such as video conferencing, media archival, remote process control, and distance learning.

  6. Programming environment for distributed applications design in artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baujard, Olivier; Pesty, Sylvie; Garbay, Catherine

    1992-03-01

    Complex applications in artificial intelligence need a multiple representation of knowledge and tasks in terms of abstraction levels and points of view. The integration of numerous resources (knowledge-based systems, real-time systems, data bases, etc.), often geographically distributed on different machines connected into a network, is moreover a necessity for the development of real scale systems. The distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) approach is thus becoming important to solve problems in complex situations. There are several currents in DAI research and we are involved in the design of DAI programming platforms for large and complex real-world problem solving systems. Blackboard systems constitute the earlier architecture. It is based on a shared memory which permits the communication among a collection of specialists and an external and unique control structure. Blackboard architectures have been extended, especially to introduce parallelism. Multi-agent architectures are based on coordinated agents (problem-solvers) communicating most of the time via message passing. A solution is found through the cooperation between several agents, each of them being in charge of a specific task, but no one having sufficient resources to obtain a solution. Coordination, cooperation, knowledge, goal, plan, exchanges are then necessary to reach a global solution. Our own research is along this last line. The current presentation describes Multi-Agent Problem Solver (MAPS) which is an agent-oriented language for a DAI system design embedded in a full programming environment. An agent is conceived as an autonomous entity with specific goals, roles, skills, and resources. Knowledge (descriptive and operative) is distributed among agents organized into networks (agents communicate through message sending). Agents are moreover geographically distributed and run in a parallel mode. Our purpose is to build a powerful environment for DAI applications design that not only

  7. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    PubMed

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  8. LigoDV-web: Providing easy, secure and universal access to a large distributed scientific data store for the LIGO scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areeda, J. S.; Smith, J. R.; Lundgren, A. P.; Maros, E.; Macleod, D. M.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational-wave observatories around the world, including the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), record a large volume of gravitational-wave output data and auxiliary data about the instruments and their environments. These data are stored at the observatory sites and distributed to computing clusters for data analysis. LigoDV-web is a web-based data viewer that provides access to data recorded at the LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston and GEO600 observatories, and the 40 m prototype interferometer at Caltech. The challenge addressed by this project is to provide meaningful visualizations of small data sets to anyone in the collaboration in a fast, secure and reliable manner with minimal software, hardware and training required of the end users. LigoDV-web is implemented as a Java Enterprise Application, with Shibboleth Single Sign On for authentication and authorization, and a proprietary network protocol used for data access on the back end. Collaboration members with proper credentials can request data be displayed in any of several general formats from any Internet appliance that supports a modern browser with Javascript and minimal HTML5 support, including personal computers, smartphones, and tablets. Since its inception in 2012, 634 unique users have visited the LigoDV-web website in a total of 33 , 861 sessions and generated a total of 139 , 875 plots. This infrastructure has been helpful in many analyses within the collaboration including follow-up of the data surrounding the first gravitational-wave events observed by LIGO in 2015.

  9. Spectroelectrochemistry as a Strategy for Improving Selectivity of Sensors for Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2012-12-19

    Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidin–biotin and 17β-estradiol–anti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

  10. Spectroelectrochemistry as a strategy for improving selectivity of sensors for security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2012-09-01

    Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidin-biotin and 17β-estradiol-anti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

  11. System-on-chip-centric unattended embedded sensors in homeland security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Esterkin, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    System-on-chip (SoC) single-die electronic integrated circuit (IC) integration has recently been attracting a great deal of attention, due to its high modularity, universality, and relatively low fabrication cost. The SoC also has low power consumption and it is naturally suited to being a base for integration of embedded sensors. Such sensors can run unattended, and can be either commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic, COTS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or optical-COTS or produced in house (i.e., at Physical Optics Corporation, POC). In the version with the simplest electronic packaging, they can be integrated with low-power wireless RF that can communicate with a central processing unit (CPU) integrated in-house and installed on the specific platform of interest. Such a platform can be a human body (for e-clothing), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), or many others. In this paper we discuss SoC-centric embedded unattended sensors in Homeland Security and military applications, including specific application scenarios (or CONOPS). In one specific example, we analyze an embedded polarization optical sensor produced in house, including generalized Lambertian light-emitting diode (LED) sources and secondary nonimaging optics (NIO).

  12. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  13. High-speed free-space quantum key distribution system for urban daylight applications.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, M J; Denisenko, N; Soto, D; Arroyo, D; Orue, A B; Fernandez, V

    2013-05-10

    We report a free-space quantum key distribution system designed for high-speed key transmission in urban areas. Clocking the system at gigahertz frequencies and efficiently filtering background enables higher secure key rates than those previously achieved by similar systems. The transmitter and receiver are located in two separate buildings 300 m apart in downtown Madrid and they exchange secure keys at rates up to 1 Mbps. The system operates in full bright daylight conditions with an average secure key rate of 0.5 Mbps and 24 h stability without human intervention.

  14. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G.J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts of x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1) increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2) x-ray intensity modulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliver adequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3) the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo (“fan-beam-steering”). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (~0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 μs to 10 μs. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.

  15. Mass-producible microtags for security applications: calculated fabrication tolerances by rigorous coupled-wave analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Descour, M.R.; Sweatt, W.C.; Krenz, K.D.

    1998-04-01

    We develop a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. An 8{times}8 cell phase-only and an 8{times}8 cell phase-and-amplitude microtag design are fabricated in photoresist using an extreme ultraviolet (13.4-nm) lithography (EUVL) tool. Each microtag measures 80{times}160{mu}m and contains features 0.2 {mu}m wide. Fraunhofer-zone diffraction patterns can be obtained from fabricated microtags without any intervening optics and compare very favorably with predicted diffraction patterns [Descour {ital et al.} (1996)]. We present the results of a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) of microtags. Microtags are modeled as consisting of subwavelength gratings of a trapezoidal profile. Transverse-electric (TE) and TM readout polarizations are modeled. The analysis concerns the determination of optimal microtag-grating design parameter values and tolerances on those parameters. The parameters are grating wall-slope angle, grating duty cycle, grating depth, and metal coating thickness. Optimal microtag-grating parameter values result in maximum diffraction efficiency, which is calculated at 16{percent} for microtag gratings in air and 12{percent} for microtag gratings underneath a protective dielectric coating, within fabrication constraints. TM-polarized readout illumination is diffracted with higher efficiency than TE-polarized illumination by microtag gratings. {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}{ital Key words:} computer-generated holograms; security and anticounterfeiting devices; grating fabrication tolerances; rigorous coupled-wave analysis. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers}

  16. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  17. Multivariate Generalized Beta Distributions with Applications to Utility Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, David L.; Novick, Melvin R.

    1982-01-01

    Two multivariate probability distributions, a generalized beta distribution and a generalized F distribution, are derived. Formulas for the moments of these distributions are given and an example of the bivariate generalized beta is presented. (Author/JKS)

  18. On Barnes Beta Distributions and Applications to the Maximum Distribution of the 2D Gaussian Free Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    A new family of Barnes beta distributions on (0, ∞) is introduced and its infinite divisibility, moment determinacy, scaling, and factorization properties are established. The Morris integral probability distribution is constructed from Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2), and its moment determinacy and involution invariance properties are established. For application, the maximum distributions of the 2D gaussian free field on the unit interval and circle with a non-random logarithmic potential are conjecturally related to the critical Selberg and Morris integral probability distributions, respectively, and expressed in terms of sums of Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2).

  19. Communicating Uncertainty about Climate Change for Application to Security Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulledge, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    -management framework for climate security. The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report concluded that "Responding to climate change involves an iterative risk management process that includes both adaptation and mitigation and takes into account climate change damages, co-benefits, sustainability, equity and attitudes to risk." In risk management, key uncertainties guide action aimed at reducing risk and cannot be ignored or used to justify inaction. Security policies such as arms control and counter-terrorism demonstrate that high-impact outcomes matter to decision makers even if they are likely to be rare events. In spite of this fact, the long tail on the probability distribution of climate sensitivity was largely ignored by the climate science community until recently and its implications for decision making are still not receiving adequate attention. Informing risk management requires scientists to shift from a singular aversion to type I statistical error (i.e. false positive) to a balanced presentation of both type I error and type II error (i.e. false negative) when the latter may have serious consequences. Examples from national security, extreme weather, and economics illustrate these concepts.

  20. Monitoring and controlling distributed applications using Lomita (position paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Szafranska, Ida M.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Meta toolkit was developed for controlling distributed applications. This toolkit has been publicly available as part of the academic ISIS release, and has been used for building various system monitoring and control applications. One major stumbling block with using Meta has been the language (called NPL) it supports. NPL is very low-level and using it is difficult, in the same way it is difficult to write machine language programs or raw Postscript programs. Hence, a higher level language was built along with a runtime environment. The hope is that with this higher-level approach, more complicated Meta applications will be written and thereby concentrate more on the use (and limitations) of Meta as an architecture. The Meta toolkit is reviewed with its intended use. Next, the goals with Lomita and an overview is given of its architecture and language syntax. A detailed example is given of Lomita's use by presenting a complete program for a load-adaptable service.