Science.gov

Sample records for securities primary auctions

  1. Auction-based Security Game for Multiuser Cooperative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Wendong; Cheng, Yunpeng

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an auction-based algorithm to allocate the relay power efficiently to improve the system secrecy rate in a cooperative network, where several source-destination pairs and one cooperative relay are involved. On the one hand, the cooperative relay assists these pairs to transmit under a peak power constraint. On the other hand, the relay is untrusty and is also a passive eavesdropper. The whole auction process is completely distributed and no instantaneous channel state information exchange is needed. We also prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) for the proposed power auction game. Moreover, the Pareto optimality is also validated. Simulation results show that our proposed auction-based algorithm can effectively improve the system secrecy rate. Besides, the proposed auction-based algorithm can converge to the unique NE point within a finite number of iterations. More interestingly, we also find that the proposed power auction mechanism is cheat-proof.

  2. 31 CFR 356.17 - How and when do I pay for securities awarded in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How and when do I pay for securities... securities awarded in an auction? (a) General. By bidding in an auction, you agree to pay the settlement amount for any securities awarded to you. (See § 356.25.) For notes and bonds, the settlement amount may...

  3. Revisiting "The Loophole of the Improved Secure Quantum Sealed-Bid Auction with Post-Confirmation and Solution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Le; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Su, Qi

    2014-09-01

    Recently, Luo et al. make a detailed analysis on the security of quantum sealed-bid auction with post-confirmation protocol (Quantum Information Processing, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 1359-1369, 2012) and present the corresponding improved strategy for its loophole. Unfortunately, we find their improved version is still not as secure as expected, since it is vulnerable to malicious bidders in collusion with the auctioneer. And there is an unreasonable suspicion in the honesty of the auctioneer for special situation. Then we propose an improved strategy, which can perfectly defeat kinds of attacks.

  4. Cryptanalysis and melioration of secure quantum sealed-bid auction with post-confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Bao; Huang, Liu-Sheng; Yang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Han, Dian-Qi

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the quantum sealed-bid auction protocol proposed by Zhao et al. (Opt Commun 283:1394, 2010). It uses M groups n-particle GHZ states to represent bids and a post-confirmation mechanism to guarantee the honesty of the quantum sealed-bid auction. However, in our opinion the protocol still does not complete the task of a sealed-bid auction fairly. It is shown that a large group of dishonest bidders can collude to obtain all the other one's secret bids before the opening phase of the auction with a probability polynomially close to one. Moreover, a simple feasible improvement of the protocol is proposed.

  5. Comment on "Cryptanalysis and improvement of the secure quantum sealed-bid auction with post confirmation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhangji; Wang, Weijia

    2014-11-01

    In a recent paper, an improvement of quantum sealed-bid auction protocol is proposed by introducing hash function. However, in this comment, it is shown that the improvement brings in other problems which would not complete the task of a sealed-bid auction fairly.

  6. The loophole of the improved secure quantum sealed-bid auction with post-confirmation and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zhao, Zhangji; Long, Haiming; Su, Wen; Yang, Yixian

    2013-01-01

    In the literature He et al. (Quantum Inf Process, 2011) performed the cryptanalysis about the protocol of secure quantum auction with post-confirmation, and proposed the melioration algorithm in order to defeat the collusion among some malicious bidders in Zhao et al.'s protocol (Zhao et al. in Opt Commun 283:3194, 2010). But unfortunately, this protocol can't defeat the collusion among some malicious bidders either. In this paper, we will analyze the security of He et al.'s protocol and point out the potential loophole. Furthermore, we propose an improved protocol which can defeat the collusion among malicious bidders effectively.

  7. Do I hear... anyone here? Tax-exempt healthcare facilities have taken a hit on auction-rate securities as the mortgage meltdown has investors skittish.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-02-25

    The crisis in auction-rate securities is coming down hard on tax-exempt providers. Buyers are disappearing, sending interest rates soaring. Some hospitals and other healthcare borrowers are being forced to pay maximum interest. "Basically, the investor pool has all but vanished," says Melissa Williams, left, of Christus Health.

  8. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the book-entry systems in... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS... book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained? There are three...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9260 - Primary security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary security. 619.9260 Section 619.9260 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9260 Primary security. The basic collateral securing the loan. ...

  10. 12 CFR 619.9260 - Primary security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary security. 619.9260 Section 619.9260 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9260 Primary security. The basic collateral securing the loan....

  11. 12 CFR 619.9260 - Primary security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary security. 619.9260 Section 619.9260 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9260 Primary security. The basic collateral securing the loan....

  12. 19 CFR 127.34 - Auctioneer's commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auctioneer's commissions. 127.34 Section 127.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Proceeds of Sale § 127.34 Auctioneer's...

  13. 19 CFR 127.34 - Auctioneer's commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Auctioneer's commissions. 127.34 Section 127.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Proceeds of Sale § 127.34 Auctioneer's...

  14. 31 CFR 356.17 - How and when do I pay for securities awarded in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a premium amount, accrued interest, and, for inflation-protected securities, an inflation adjustment... separately for any premium, accrued interest, or inflation adjustment as soon as you receive your Payment Due... inflation adjustment. (3) Payment by maturing securities. You may use maturing securities held in Legacy...

  15. Combinatorial auction design

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David; Rassenti, Stephen; Roopnarine, Anil; Smith, Vernon

    2003-01-01

    Combinatorial auctions allow for more expressive bidding in which participants can submit package bids with logical constraints that limit allowable outcomes. This type of auction can be useful when participants' values are complementary or when participants have production and financial constraints. However, combinatorial auctions are currently rare in practice. The main problems confronted in implementing these auctions are that they have computational uncertainty (i.e., there is no guarantee that the winning bids for such an auction can be found in a “reasonable” amount of time when the number of bidders and items becomes larger) and that the auction is cognitively complex and can lead participants to pursue perverse bidding strategies. This article describes a type of combinatorial auction that, during laboratory testing, eliminated these problems and produced extremely efficient outcomes. PMID:12893875

  16. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Banks, depository institutions, and other authorized entities, such as government and international agencies and foreign central banks. In their accounts, depository institutions maintain securities held for...

  17. 31 CFR 356.17 - How and when do I pay for securities awarded in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Notice. (1) Bidding and payment by computer or by telephone. If you are bidding by computer or by... Treasury Direct as payment for reinvestments into new securities that we are offering, as long as we...

  18. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  19. Improving the secrecy rate by turning foes to allies: An auction scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ya-Yan; Wang, Bao-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Security against eavesdroppers is a critical issue in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a scenario consisting of one primary pair and multiple secondary pairs is considered. The secondary transmitters (STs) work in half-duplex mode and they are potential eavesdroppers on the primary transmission unless they are allowed to simultaneously transmit with the primary transmitter (PT). A modified second-price sealed-bid auction scheme is employed to model the interaction between the PT and STs. With the proposed auction scheme, the hostile relationship between the PT and STs is transformed into a cooperative relationship. An iterative algorithm based on the max-min criteria is proposed to find the optimal bidding power of the STs for an access chance in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. Numerical results show that the proposed auction scheme not only improves the PT’s security but also increases the access opportunities of the STs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271232 and 61372126) and the University Postgraduate Research and Innovation Project in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. CXZZ12-0472).

  20. Anonymous, Yet Trustworthy Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Prasit Bikash; Naessens, Vincent; de Decker, Bart

    An auction is an inevitable market mechanism to setup prices of goods or services in a competitive and dynamic environment. Anonymity of bidders is required to conceal their business strategies from competitors. However, it is also essential to provide the seller guarantees that a bidder is trustworthy and competent enough to perform certain tasks (e.g transports). This paper proposes an auction protocol where bidders will participate anonymously, yet prove to be trustworthy and competent and can be held accountable towards auctioneers and sellers. Moreover, the protocol introduces promises, bonuses and compensations to ensure the best price for the sellers, extra profit for bidders and opportunities for newcomers in the business. It also handles ties, and copes with last minute bidding. Finally, the auction’s fair proceedings and outcome can be verified by everyone.

  1. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  2. Three essays on auction markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunda, Nicholas James

    This dissertation contains a series of theoretical investigations of auction markets. The essays it contains cover wholesale electricity markets, a popular selling mechanism on eBay, and supplier entry into multi-unit procurement auctions. The study in Chapter 1 compares the procurement cost-minimizing and productive efficiency performance of the auction mechanism used by independent system operators in wholesale electricity auction markets in the U.S. with that of a proposed alternative. The current practice allocates energy contracts as if the auction featured a discriminatory final payment method when, in fact, the markets are uniform price auctions. The proposed alternative explicitly accounts for the market-clearing price during the allocation phase. We find that the proposed alternative largely outperforms the current practice on the basis of procurement costs in the context of simple auction markets featuring both day-ahead and real-time auctions and that the procurement cost advantage of the alternative is complete when we simulate the effects of increased competition. We also find that a tradeoff between the objectives of procurement cost minimization and productive efficiency emerges in our simple auction markets and persists in the face of increased competition. The study in Chapter 2 considers a possible rationale for an auction with a buy price. In an auction with a buy price, the seller provides bidders with an option to end the auction early by accepting a transaction at a posted price. The "Buy-It-Now" option on eBay is a leading example of an auction with a buy price. The study develops a model of an auction with a buy price in which bidders use the auction's reserve price and buy price to formulate a reference price. The model both explains why a revenue-maximizing seller would want to augment her auction with a buy price and demonstrates that the seller sets a higher reserve price when she can affect the bidders' reference price through the

  3. Combinatorial Auctions without Money

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    auctions. ICALP, pp. 90-101, 2010. [2] P. Briest, P. Krysta, and B. Vöcking. Approximation techniques for utilitarian mechanism design. STOC, pp. 39-48...Grandoni, P. Krysta, S. Leonardi, and C. Ventre. Utilitarian mechanism design for multi-objective optimization. SODA, pp. 573-584, 2010. [11] J. R

  4. Timely response to secure messages from primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; North, Frederick; Angstman, Kurt B; Oberhelman, Sara S; Meunier, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    To assess delays in response to patient secure e-mail messages in primary care. Secure electronic messages are initiated by primary care patients. Timely response is necessary for patient safety and quality. A database of secure messages. A random sample of 353 secure electronic messages initiated by primary care patients treated in 4 clinics. Message not opened after 12 hours or messages not responded to after 36 hours. A total of 8.5% of electronic messages were not opened within 12 hours, and 17.6% did not receive a response in 36 hours. Clinic location, being a clinic employee, and patient sex were not related to delays. Patients older than 50 years were more likely to receive a delayed response (25.7% delayed, P = .013). The risk of both kinds of delays was higher on weekends (P < .001 for both). The e-mail message system resulted in high rates of delayed response. Delays were concentrated on weekends (Friday-Sunday). Reducing delayed responses may require automatic rerouting of messages to message centers staffed 24-7 or other mechanisms to manage this after-hours work flow.

  5. Multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction using single photons as message carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Gong-Lin; Xu, Yong; Chen, Zhen-Yu; An, Xing-Xing; Ji, Fu-Gao; Gnitou, Gnim Tchalim

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a novel multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction protocol using the single photons as the message carrier of bids is proposed, followed by an example of three-party auction. Compared with those protocols based on the entangled states (GHZ state, EPR pairs, etc.), the present protocol is more economic and feasible within present technology. In order to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction, the decoy photon checking technique and an improved post-confirmation mechanism with EPR pairs are introduced, respectively.

  6. Internet Auction Sellers: Does Size Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Diane; Becherer, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the Internet auction phenomenon as it relates to the marketing mix of online auction sellers. The data indicate that, while there is great diversity among businesses that utilize online auctions, distinct cost leadership and differentiation marketing strategies are both evident. These two approaches are further distinguished in terms of…

  7. Internet Auction Sellers: Does Size Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Diane; Becherer, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the Internet auction phenomenon as it relates to the marketing mix of online auction sellers. The data indicate that, while there is great diversity among businesses that utilize online auctions, distinct cost leadership and differentiation marketing strategies are both evident. These two approaches are further distinguished in terms of…

  8. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  9. Exploring Online Auction Behaviors and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Sua; Crutsinger, Christy; Kim, Haejung

    2008-01-01

    The availability and convenience of the Internet, combined with the variety of products available at any given time, have contributed to the success of online auctions.This exploratory study examined online auction behaviors among college students in an attempt to identify underlying dimensions of auction motivations. Questionnaires completed by…

  10. Exploring Online Auction Behaviors and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Sua; Crutsinger, Christy; Kim, Haejung

    2008-01-01

    The availability and convenience of the Internet, combined with the variety of products available at any given time, have contributed to the success of online auctions.This exploratory study examined online auction behaviors among college students in an attempt to identify underlying dimensions of auction motivations. Questionnaires completed by…

  11. 40 CFR 73.70 - Auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.70 Auctions... years after purchase. *These are unsold advance allowances from the direct sale program for 1993, 1994... Auction Subaccount, including unsold allowances transferred from the preceding year's direct sale, and...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  13. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  14. A new quantum sealed-bid auction protocol with secret order in post-confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiang-Hua; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    A new security protocol for quantum sealed-bid auction is proposed to resist the collusion attack from some malicious bidders. The most significant feature of this protocol is that bidders prepare their particles with secret order in post-confirmation for encoding bids. In addition, a new theorem and its proof are given based on the theory of combinatorial mathematics, which can be used as evaluation criteria for the collusion attack. It is shown that the new protocol is immune to the collusion attack and meets the demand for a secure auction. Compared with those previous protocols, the security, efficiency and availability of the proposed protocol are largely improved.

  15. Statistical Mechanics of Combinatorial Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, Tobias; Leone, Michele; Marsili, Matteo; Sellitto, Mauro; Weigt, Martin; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2006-09-01

    Combinatorial auctions are formulated as frustrated lattice gases on sparse random graphs, allowing the determination of the optimal revenue by methods of statistical physics. Transitions between computationally easy and hard regimes are found and interpreted in terms of the geometric structure of the space of solutions. We introduce an iterative algorithm to solve intermediate and large instances, and discuss competing states of optimal revenue and maximal number of satisfied bidders. The algorithm can be generalized to the hard phase and to more sophisticated auction protocols.

  16. Statistical Properties of Online Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Alireza; Schadschneider, Andreas

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of online auctions run on eBay. Both stationary and dynamic properties, like distributions of prices, number of bids etc., as well as relations between these quantities are studied. The analysis of the data reveals surprisingly simple distributions and relations, typically of power-law form. Based on these findings we introduce a simple method to identify suspicious auctions that could be influenced by a form of fraud known as shill bidding. Furthermore the influence of bidding strategies is discussed. The results indicate that the observed behavior is related to a mixture of agents using a variety of strategies.

  17. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  18. A Theory of Auctions and Competitive Bidding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    seventh century A.D.2/ In the United States in the 1980’ s , auctions account for an enormous volume of economic activity. Every week, the U.S. Treasury...auction - S games must coincide. Initially, this strategic equivalence of the two auction forms may seem puzzling. It might appear that after a bidder...to the bidder depends only on the rules of the auction and the strategies of the others, and not on his private valuation of the * object. ’ S Figure

  19. 31 CFR 356.11 - How are bids submitted in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... us to issue the awarded securities in the commercial book-entry system, in TreasuryDirect ®, or in..., our computer time stamp will establish the receipt time. You are bound by your bids after the closing... auctions. (4) Submitters are responsible for bids submitted using computer equipment on their premises...

  20. 40 CFR 73.70 - Auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.70 Auctions.... Sales of offered allowances, including, but not limited to, allowances offered by more than one offeror... Administrator will transfer to the Allowance Tracking System account of each source that includes a unit...

  1. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by the...

  2. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by the...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.131 - Auctioneers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Use of Contractors to Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.131 Auctioneers. The services of licensed auctioneers, if required, may be used to...

  4. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by...

  5. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by...

  6. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by...

  7. Collusion in Auctions for Emission Permits: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtraw, Dallas; Goeree, Jacob; Holt, Charles A.; Myers, Erica; Palmer, Karen; Shobe, William

    2009-01-01

    Environmental markets have several institutional features that provide a new context for the use of auctions and that have not been studied previously. This paper reports on laboratory experiments testing three auction forms--uniform and discriminatory price sealed-bid auctions and an ascending clock auction. We test the ability of subjects to…

  8. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjunct livestock auction operations. 780.617 Section 780... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.617 Adjunct livestock auction operations. The livestock auction...

  9. Effects of Suboptimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Shabalin, Pasha; Bichler, Martin

    Though the VCG auction assumes a central place in the mechanism design literature, there are a number of reasons for favoring iterative combinatorial auction designs. Several promising ascending auction formats have been developed throughout the past few years based on primal-dual and subgradient algorithms and linear programming theory. Prices are interpreted as a feasible dual solution and the provisional allocation is interpreted as a feasible primal solution. iBundle( 3) (Parkes and Ungar 2000), dVSV (de Vries et al. 2007) and the Ascending Proxy auction (Ausubel and Milgrom 2002) result in VCG payoffs when the coalitional value function satisfies the buyer submodularity condition and bidders bid straightforward, which is an expost Nash equilibrium in that case. iBEA and CreditDebit auctions (Mishra and Parkes 2007) do not even require the buyer submodularity condition and achieve the same properties for general valuations. In many situations, however, one cannot assume bidders to bid straightforward and it is not clear from the theory how these non-linear personalized price auctions (NLPPAs) perform in this case. Robustness of auctions with respect to different bidding behavior is therefore a critical issue for any application. We have conducted a large number of computational experiments to analyze the performance of NLPPA designs with respect to different bidding strategies and different valuation models. We compare the results of NLPPAs to those of the VCG auction and those of iterative combinatorial auctions with approximate linear prices, such as ALPS (Bichler et al. 2009) and the Combinatorial Clock auction (Porter et al. 2003).

  10. 77 FR 57085 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction; Release of Files with Recalculated Road Miles for Auction 901...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction; Release of Files with Recalculated Road Miles for Auction 901; Mock... updated data files of census blocks eligible for the Mobility Fund Phase I support to be offered in Auction 901, which is to be held on September 27, 2012, and the change of the mock auction date from...

  11. Spiral of Hatred: Social Effects in Buyer-Seller Cross-Comments Left on Internet Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielek, Radoslaw; Wawer, Aleksander; Wierzbicki, Adam

    An auction platform is a dynamic environment where a rich variety of social effects can be observed. Most of those effects remain unnoticed or even hidden to ordinary users. The in-depth studies of such effects should allow us to identify and understand the key factors influencing users’ behaviour. The material collected from the biggest Polish auction house has been analyzed. NLP algorithms were applied to extract sentiment-related content from collected comments. Emotional distance between negative, neutral and positive comments has been calculated. The obtained results confirm the existence of the spiral-of-hatred effect but also indicate that much more complex patterns of mutual relations between sellers and buyers exist. The last section contains a several suggestions which can prove useful to improve trustworthiness of users’ reports and security of an auction platform in general.

  12. Sequential Auctions in Uncertain Information Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Shaheen; Wooldridge, Michael; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    This paper analyzes sequential auctions for private value objects using second-price sealed-bid rules. Now, the equilibrium bids for such auctions depend on the information uncertainty of the bidders. Specifically, there are three key auction parameters that the bidders could be uncertain about: the valuations of the objects for sale, the number of objects for sale, and the number of participating bidders. We analyse the bidding behaviour for each of these three sources of uncertainty. For each setting, we first find the equilibrium bidding strategies for the individual auctions that comprise a series. Then we analyze the effect of these uncertainties on the computational and economic properties of the equilibrium solution. The former analysis is essential if we want to use software agents to bid on our behalf. The latter is essential because both the auctioneer and the bidders want to know how these uncertainties affect their profits. Thus we compare the outcomes for these settings from the perspective of the bidders (i.e., in terms of their profits), from the perspective of the auctioneer (i.e., in terms of his revenue), and from a global perspective (i.e., in terms of auction efficiency).

  13. Quantum auctions: Facts and myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Quantum game theory, whatever opinions may be held due to its abstract physical formalism, have already found various applications even outside the orthodox physics domain. In this paper we introduce the concept of a quantum auction, its advantages and drawbacks. Then we describe the models that have already been put forward. A general model involves Wigner formalism and infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces - we envisage that the implementation might not be an easy task. But a restricted model advocated by the Hewlett-Packard group (Hogg et al.) seems to be much easier to implement. We focus on problems related to combinatorial auctions and technical assumptions that are made. Powerful quantum algorithms for finding solutions would extend the range of possible applications. Quantum strategies, being qubits, can be teleported but are immune from cloning - therefore extreme privacy of the agent’s activity could in principle be guaranteed. Then we point out some key problems that have to be solved before commercial use would be possible. With present technology, optical networks, single photon sources and detectors seems to be sufficient for an experimental realization in the near future.

  14. Sold!: Auction Methods for Multirobot Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    758 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 18, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 Sold!: Auction Methods for Multirobot Coordination Brian P. Gerkey and...Auctions have been 760 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 18, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 demonstrated in the control of simulated robots...different robots execute the same task using different resources. 762 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 18, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 is

  15. Security approaches in using tablet computers for primary data collection in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Adam B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues associated with the potential use of cloud-based data storage approaches. This paper identifies and describes major security considerations for primary data collection with tablets; proposes a set of architectural strategies for implementing data collection forms with tablet computers; and discusses the security, cost, and workflow of each strategy. The paper briefly reviews the strategies with respect to their implementation for three primary data collection activities for the WICER project.

  16. Security Approaches in Using Tablet Computers for Primary Data Collection in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Adam B.; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues associated with the potential use of cloud-based data storage approaches. This paper identifies and describes major security considerations for primary data collection with tablets; proposes a set of architectural strategies for implementing data collection forms with tablet computers; and discusses the security, cost, and workflow of each strategy. The paper briefly reviews the strategies with respect to their implementation for three primary data collection activities for the WICER project. PMID:25848559

  17. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.73 Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of... consecutive calendar years, fewer than 20 percent of the allowances available in the subaccount for...

  18. 76 FR 81932 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits; Revised Construction Permit Number in Auction 93

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Linda Sanderson, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum...://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/93/ , or by using the search function for AU Docket No. 11-146 on the Commission... Wireless Telecommunications and Media Bureaus announce a change to the construction permit number for...

  19. Prior-Free Multi-Unit Auctions with Ordered Bidders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    case, the Bayesian optimal auction awards items to the (at most k) bidders with the highest positive virtual valuations. The payment of a winning...Prior-Free Multi-Unit Auctions with Ordered Bidders∗ Sayan Bhattacharya† Elias Koutsoupias‡ Janardhan Kulkarni§ Stefano Leonardi¶ Tim Roughgarden...Xiaoming Xu∗∗ Abstract Prior-free auctions are robust auctions that assume no distribution over bidders’ valuations and provide worst-case (input-by

  20. Quantum sealed-bid auction using a modified scheme for multiparty circular quantum key agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-07-01

    A feasible, secure and collusion attack-free quantum sealed-bid auction protocol is proposed using a modified scheme for multiparty circular quantum key agreement. In the proposed protocol, the set of all ( n) bidders is grouped into l subsets (sub-circles) in such a way that only the initiator (who prepares the quantum state to be distributed for a particular round of communication and acts as the receiver in that round) is a member of all the subsets (sub-circles) prepared for a particular round, while any other bidder is part of only a single subset. All n bidders and auctioneer initiate one round of communication, and each of them prepares l copies of a ( r-1) -partite entangled state (one for each sub-circle), where r=n/l+1. The efficiency and security of the proposed protocol are critically analyzed. It is shown that the proposed protocol is free from the collusion attacks that are possible on the existing schemes of quantum sealed-bid auction. Further, it is observed that the security against collusion attack increases with the increase in l, but that reduces the complexity (number of entangled qubits in each entangled state) of the entangled states to be used and that makes the scheme scalable and implementable with the available technologies. The additional security and scalability are shown to arise due to the use of a circular structure in place of a complete-graph or tree-type structure used earlier.

  1. Competitive Financing Mechanisms: Auctions Used by Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Carlotta C.

    This report reviews auctions used by various federal agencies to examine the feasibility of using similar auctions to determine interest rates for student borrowing through the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. The review identified 31 different auctions, divided into two major…

  2. Bidding Agents That Perpetrate Auction Fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; McCabe, Alan; Read, Wayne

    This paper presents a software bidding agent that inserts fake bids on the seller's behalf to inflate an auction's price. This behaviour is referred to as shill bidding. Shill bidding is strictly prohibited by online auctioneers, as it defrauds unsuspecting buyers by forcing them to pay more for the item. The malicious bidding agent was constructed to aid in developing shill detection techniques. We have previously documented a simple shill bidding agent that incrementally increases the auction price until it reaches the desired profit target, or it becomes too risky to continue bidding. This paper presents an adaptive shill bidding agent which when used over a series of auctions with substitutable items, can revise its strategy based on bidding behaviour in past auctions. The adaptive agent applies a novel prediction technique referred to as the Extremum Consistency (EC) algorithm, to determine the optimal price to aspire for. The EC algorithm has successfully been used in handwritten signature verification for determining the maximum and minimum values in an input stream. The agent's ability to inflate the price has been tested in a simulated marketplace and experimental results are presented.

  3. China’s Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J. Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003—2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a “two stage auction”. The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are “cold”, which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities. PMID:25506125

  4. 47 CFR 1.2208 - Public notice of auction completion and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Competitive Bidding Proceedings Broadcast Television Spectrum Reverse... broadcast television spectrum incentive auction conducted under section 6403 of the Spectrum Act, public... indicate that the reassignments of television channels and reallocations of broadcast television...

  5. Effect of security threats on primary care access in Logar province, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Masahiro J

    2008-01-01

    Security threats are a major concern for access to health care in many war-torn communities; however, there is little quantified data on actual access to care in rural communities during war. Kinderberg International e.V. provided primary care in rural Logar province, Afghanistan, for these three years in eight districts until they were integrated into the new health care structure led by the Ministry of Health in early 2005. We examined the number of patients visiting our clinic before and during the security threats related to the parliamentary election and subsequent national assembly in 2004. The number of patients declined in remote clinics while the number increased in central locations. This finding has an important practical implication: the monitoring of access to care should include remote clinics, otherwise it may potentially underestimate compromised access to health care due to security threats.

  6. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  7. Impact of Patient Portal Secure Messages and Electronic Visits on Adult Primary Care Office Visits

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Sarah J.; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Ebbert, Jon O.; Ytterberg, Karen; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M.; Stroebel, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Secure messages and electronic visits (“e-visits”) through patient portals provide patients with alternatives to face-to-face appointments, telephone contact, letters, and e-mails. Limited information exists on how portal messaging impacts face-to-face visits in primary care. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,357 primary care patients who used electronic messaging (both secure messages and e-visits) on a patient portal. Face-to-face appointment frequencies (visits/year) of each patient were calculated before and after the first message in a matched-pairs analysis. We analyzed visit frequencies with and without adjustments for a first message surge in visits, and we examined subgroups of high message utilizers and long-term users. Results: Primary care patients who sent at least one message (secure message or e-visit) had a mean of 2.43 (standard deviation [SD] 2.3) annual face-to-face visits before the first message and 2.47 (SD 2.8) after, a nonsignificant difference (p=0.45). After adjustment for a first message surge in visits, no significant visit frequency differences were observed (mean, 2.35 annual visits per patient both before and after first message; p=0.93). Subgroup analysis also showed no significant change in visit frequency for patients with higher message utilization or for those who had used the messaging feature longer. Conclusions: No significant change in face-to-face visit frequency was observed following implementation of portal messaging. Secure messaging and e-visits through a patient portal may not result in a change of adult primary care face-to-face visits. PMID:24350803

  8. Books at Auction: The Art of Deaccessioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Lack of space and budget cuts force many libraries to weed out books and to be selective in accepting collection bequests. The approach for deciding which books to weed out and whether to dispose of these books through dealers or auctions are decisions private clubs and many libraries must make. (RBF)

  9. Books at Auction: The Art of Deaccessioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Lack of space and budget cuts force many libraries to weed out books and to be selective in accepting collection bequests. The approach for deciding which books to weed out and whether to dispose of these books through dealers or auctions are decisions private clubs and many libraries must make. (RBF)

  10. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  11. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  12. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  13. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  14. Experiments in Deaccessioning: Archives and Online Auctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doylen, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for archives to remove duplicate or unneeded materials from their collection focuses on the legal and ethical issues raised for archives by the use of online auction venues in deaccessioning unwanted materials, based on experiences at the University of Wisconsin. (Author/LRW)

  15. Increasing the Effectiveness of Navy Retention Compensation by Evaluating Different Auction Compensation Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    distribution. This thesis studies three different types of auctions, and examines which auction would be utilized best by the government as a retention...results of the experiment showed that discriminatory auctions fared best overall. Sealed bid- discriminatory auctions had a significant savings of 5.1...examines which auction would be utilized best by the government as a retention tool. The three auctions analyzed were a sealed bid-discriminatory

  16. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  17. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  18. Auctions vs negotiations: a study of price differentials.

    PubMed

    Kjerstad, Egil

    2005-12-01

    Recent contributions in auction and bargaining theory suggest that a procurer should place more faith in the power of competition among alternative suppliers than in his or her own negotiating skill. Based on data from 216 contracts between procurers and suppliers of medical and surgical articles, we test whether auctions and bargaining result in significantly different prices. The main results are that auctions give 'thicker' markets compared with negotiations, as expected, but that auctions do not result in significantly lower prices compared with negotiations.

  19. Health Auctions: a Valuation Experiment (HAVE) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Petrie, Dennis; Scuffham, Paul A; Byrnes, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality-adjusted life years are derived using health state utility weights which adjust for the relative value of living in each health state compared with living in perfect health. Various techniques are used to estimate health state utility weights including time-trade-off and standard gamble. These methods have exhibited limitations in terms of complexity, validity and reliability. A new composite approach using experimental auctions to value health states is introduced in this protocol. Methods and analysis A pilot study will test the feasibility and validity of using experimental auctions to value health states in monetary terms. A convenient sample (n=150) from a population of university staff and students will be invited to participate in 30 auction sets with a group of 5 people in each set. The 9 health states auctioned in each auction set will come from the commonly used EQ-5D-3L instrument. At most participants purchase 2 health states, and the participant who acquires the 2 ‘best’ health states on average will keep the amount of money they do not spend in acquiring those health states. The value (highest bid and average bid) of each of the 24 health states will be compared across auctions to test for reliability across auction groups and across auctioneers. A test retest will be conducted for 10% of the sample to assess reliability of responses for health states auctions. Feasibility of conducting experimental auctions to value health states will also be examined. The validity of estimated health states values will be compared with published utility estimates from other methods. This pilot study will explore the feasibility, reliability and validity in using experimental auction for valuing health states. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance was obtained from Griffith University ethics committee. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and major international conferences. PMID:27056589

  20. Health Auctions: a Valuation Experiment (HAVE) study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Petrie, Dennis; Scuffham, Paul A; Byrnes, Joshua

    2016-04-07

    Quality-adjusted life years are derived using health state utility weights which adjust for the relative value of living in each health state compared with living in perfect health. Various techniques are used to estimate health state utility weights including time-trade-off and standard gamble. These methods have exhibited limitations in terms of complexity, validity and reliability. A new composite approach using experimental auctions to value health states is introduced in this protocol. A pilot study will test the feasibility and validity of using experimental auctions to value health states in monetary terms. A convenient sample (n=150) from a population of university staff and students will be invited to participate in 30 auction sets with a group of 5 people in each set. The 9 health states auctioned in each auction set will come from the commonly used EQ-5D-3L instrument. At most participants purchase 2 health states, and the participant who acquires the 2 'best' health states on average will keep the amount of money they do not spend in acquiring those health states. The value (highest bid and average bid) of each of the 24 health states will be compared across auctions to test for reliability across auction groups and across auctioneers. A test retest will be conducted for 10% of the sample to assess reliability of responses for health states auctions. Feasibility of conducting experimental auctions to value health states will also be examined. The validity of estimated health states values will be compared with published utility estimates from other methods. This pilot study will explore the feasibility, reliability and validity in using experimental auction for valuing health states. Ethical clearance was obtained from Griffith University ethics committee. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and major international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  1. A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo

    Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

  2. A Classroom Auction with Externalities: Applied to Mergers and Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, J. Patrick; Anderson, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an in-class exercise in which students participate in an auction to buy US Airways. The exercise is based on events of late 1995, in which neither United nor American Airlines decided to bid for US Airways. Two teams of students participate in an English auction. Students learn that the equilibrium of the sequential game is…

  3. A Classroom Auction with Externalities: Applied to Mergers and Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, J. Patrick; Anderson, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an in-class exercise in which students participate in an auction to buy US Airways. The exercise is based on events of late 1995, in which neither United nor American Airlines decided to bid for US Airways. Two teams of students participate in an English auction. Students learn that the equilibrium of the sequential game is…

  4. 77 FR 38803 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Updated Data For Auction 901

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... subsequently released geographic information system (GIS) formats of the data shown in the interactive map. The... search function for AU Docket No. 12-25 on the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Web... with the release of Auction 901 Procedures Public Notice, the Bureaus released an interactive map...

  5. Georeferenced and secure mobile health system for large scale data collection in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sa, Joao H G; Rebelo, Marina S; Brentani, Alexandra; Grisi, Sandra J F E; Iwaya, Leonardo H; Simplicio, Marcos A; Carvalho, Tereza C M B; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2016-10-01

    Mobile health consists in applying mobile devices and communication capabilities for expanding the coverage and improving the effectiveness of health care programs. The technology is particularly promising for developing countries, in which health authorities can take advantage of the flourishing mobile market to provide adequate health care to underprivileged communities, especially primary care. In Brazil, the Primary Care Information System (SIAB) receives primary health care data from all regions of the country, creating a rich database for health-related action planning. Family Health Teams (FHTs) collect this data in periodic visits to families enrolled in governmental programs, following an acquisition procedure that involves filling in paper forms. This procedure compromises the quality of the data provided to health care authorities and slows down the decision-making process. To develop a mobile system (GeoHealth) that should address and overcome the aforementioned problems and deploy the proposed solution in a wide underprivileged metropolitan area of a major city in Brazil. The proposed solution comprises three main components: (a) an Application Server, with a database containing family health conditions; and two clients, (b) a Web Browser running visualization tools for management tasks, and (c) a data-gathering device (smartphone) to register and to georeference the family health data. A data security framework was designed to ensure the security of data, which was stored locally and transmitted over public networks. The system was successfully deployed at six primary care units in the city of Sao Paulo, where a total of 28,324 families/96,061 inhabitants are regularly followed up by government health policies. The health conditions observed from the population covered were: diabetes in 3.40%, hypertension (age >40) in 23.87% and tuberculosis in 0.06%. This estimated prevalence has enabled FHTs to set clinical appointments proactively, with the aim of

  6. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  7. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  8. 31 CFR 363.202 - What marketable Treasury securities may I purchase and hold through my TreasuryDirect ® account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security that is available for purchase through the TreasuryDirect ® website. One day each week, marketable securities that are scheduled for auction within 8 weeks will be made available on the TreasuryDirect...

  9. 31 CFR 363.202 - What marketable Treasury securities may I purchase and hold through my TreasuryDirect ® account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security that is available for purchase through the TreasuryDirect ® website. One day each week, marketable securities that are scheduled for auction within 8 weeks will be made available on the TreasuryDirect...

  10. 31 CFR 363.202 - What marketable Treasury securities may I purchase and hold through my TreasuryDirect ® account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security that is available for purchase through the TreasuryDirect ® website. One day each week, marketable securities that are scheduled for auction within 8 weeks will be made available on the TreasuryDirect...

  11. Security risk assessment of the primary layer of wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Latal, Jan; Poboril, Radek; Hajek, Lukas; Kepak, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation passive optical access networks come to the fore nowadays. These optical next-generation networks are the response to the increasing qualitative requirements from end users. Technologies using Time Division Multiplexing include NG-PON (XG-PON 1 and XG-PON 2) and 10GEPON. Their advantage is the applicability to older topologies, which are operated by the original technology of passive optical access networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) is an alternative also belonging to next-generation networks. Time Division Multiplexing is in this case replaced by Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Certain variants of WDM-PON use a combination of broadband light source, optical circulator, optical phased array and tunable FP laser. Construction of the terminal units (ONU) is advantageous because it can always tune in to the appropriate wavelength in the given optical DWDM channel (100 GHz). The disadvantage is the increased security risk on the primary layer due to channel crosstalk in an optical phased array (AWG). The aim of this paper is to assess the degree of security risk in real conditions. The article includes both simulation and real measurements in C + L bands with 100 GHz DWDM spacing.

  12. Urban expansion brought stress to food security in China: Evidence from decreased cropland net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Min; Ma, Qun; Dou, Yinyin

    2017-01-15

    Cropland net primary productivity (CNPP) is a crucial indicator of grain productivity and food security. However, assessments of the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP in China have been inadequate owing to data limitations. In this paper, our objective was to assess the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP in China from 1992 to 2015 in a spatially explicit manner. We first obtained the CNPP before urban expansion between 1992 and 2015 in China using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. We then assessed the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP from 1992 to 2015 at multiple scales (the whole country, agricultural zones, and urban expansion hotspots) by combining the CNPP before urban expansion with the urban land coverage time series extracted from multi-source remotely sensed data. We found that the total loss of the CNPP due to urban expansion from 1992 to 2015 was 13.77TgC, which accounts for 1.88% of the CNPP before urban expansion in China. This CNPP loss resulted in a 12.45-million-ton decrease in grain production in China, corresponding to a reduction in the mean annual grain self-sufficiency rate of 2%. Therefore, we concluded that rapid urban expansion from 1992 to 2015 caused stress to China's food security. We suggest that it is still vital for China to effectively protect cropland to improve the urbanization level to 60% by 2020. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aligning Medication Reconciliation and Secure Messaging: Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Justice; Marcello, Thomas B; Paquin, Allison M; Stewart, Max; Archambeault, Cliona; Simon, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Background Virtual (non-face-to-face) medication reconciliation strategies may reduce adverse drug events (ADEs) among vulnerable ambulatory patients. Understanding provider perspectives on the use of technology for medication reconciliation can inform the design of patient-centered solutions to improve ambulatory medication safety. Objective The aim of the study was to describe primary care providers’ experiences of ambulatory medication reconciliation and secure messaging (secure email between patients and providers), and to elicit perceptions of a virtual medication reconciliation system using secure messaging (SM). Methods This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. From January 2012 to May 2012, we conducted structured observations of primary care clinical activities and interviewed 15 primary care providers within a Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). We carried out content analysis informed by the grounded theory. Results Of the 15 participating providers, 12 were female and 11 saw 10 or fewer patients in a typical workday. Experiences and perceptions elicited from providers during in-depth interviews were organized into 12 overarching themes: 4 themes for experiences with medication reconciliation, 3 themes for perceptions on how to improve ambulatory medication reconciliation, and 5 themes for experiences with SM. Providers generally recognized medication reconciliation as a valuable component of primary care delivery and all agreed that medication reconciliation following hospital discharge is a key priority. Most providers favored delegating the responsibility for medication reconciliation to another member of the staff, such as a nurse or a pharmacist. The 4 themes related to ambulatory medication reconciliation were (1) the approach to complex patients, (2) the effectiveness of medication reconciliation in preventing ADEs, (3) challenges to completing medication reconciliation, and (4) medication

  14. Detecting Fraud in Internet Auction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanlin; Zhang, Linfeng; Guan, Yong

    Fraud compromises the thriving Internet auction market. Studies have shown that fraudsters often manipulate their reputations through sophisticated collusions with accomplices, enabling them to defeat the reputation-based feedback systems that are used to combat fraud. This paper presents an algorithm that can identify colluding fraudsters in real time. Experiments with eBay transaction data show that the algorithm has low false negative and false positive rates. Furthermore, the algorithm can identify fraudsters who are innocent at the time of the data collection, but engage in fraudulent transactions soon after they accumulate good feedback ratings.

  15. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    PubMed Central

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  16. Auction Mechanism to Allocate Air Traffic Control Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffarin, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with an auction mechanism for airspace slots, as a means of solving the European airspace congestion problem. A disequilibrium, between Air Traffic Control (ATC) services supply and ATC services demand are at the origin of almost one fourth of delays in the air transport industry in Europe. In order to tackle this congestion problem, we suggest modifying both pricing and allocation of ATC services, by setting up an auction mechanism. Objects of the auction will be the right for airlines to cross a part of the airspace, and then to benefit from ATC services over a period corresponding to the necessary time for the crossing. Allocation and payment rules have to be defined according to the objectives of this auction. The auctioneer is the public authority in charge of ATC services, whose aim is to obtain an efficient allocation. Therefore, the social value will be maximized. Another objective is to internalize congestion costs. To that end, we apply the principle of Clarke-Groves mechanism auction: each winner has to pay the externalities imposed on other bidders. The complex context of ATC leads to a specific design for this auction.

  17. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  18. A novel income security intervention to address poverty in a primary care setting: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marcella K; Bloch, Gary; Pinto, Andrew D

    2017-08-17

    To examine the development and implementation of a novel income security intervention in primary care. A retrospective, descriptive chart review of all patients referred to the Income Security Heath Promotion service during the first year of the service (December 2013-December 2014). A multisite interdisciplinary primary care organisation in inner city Toronto, Canada, serving over 40 000 patients. The study population included 181 patients (53% female, mean age 48 years) who were referred to the Income Security Health Promotion service and engaged in care. The Income Security Health Promotion service consists of a trained health promoter who provides a mixture of expert advice and case management to patients to improve income security. An advisory group, made up of physicians, social workers, a community engagement specialist and a clinical manager, supports the service. Sociodemographic information, health status, referral information and encounter details were collected from patient charts. Encounters focused on helping patients with increasing their income (77.4%), reducing their expenses (58.6%) and improving their financial literacy (26.5%). The health promoter provided an array of services to patients, including assistance with taxes, connecting to community services, budgeting and accessing free services. The service could be improved with more specific goal setting, better links to other members of the healthcare team and implementing routine follow-up with each patient after discharge. Income Security Health Promotion is a novel service within primary care to assist vulnerable patients with a key social determinant of health. This study is a preliminary look at understanding the functioning of the service. Future research will examine the impact of the Income Security Health Promotion service on income security, financial literacy, engagement with health services and health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  19. Statistical theory of the continuous double auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric; Doyne Farmer, J.; Gillemot, László; Krishnamurthy, Supriya

    2003-12-01

    Most modern financial markets use a continuous double auction mechanism to store and match orders and facilitate trading. In this paper we develop a microscopic dynamical statistical model for the continuous double auction under the assumption of IID random order flow, and analyse it using simulation, dimensional analysis, and theoretical tools based on mean field approximations. The model makes testable predictions for basic properties of markets, such as price volatility, the depth of stored supply and demand versus price, the bid-ask spread, the price impact function, and the time and probability of filling orders. These predictions are based on properties of order flow and the limit order book, such as share volume of market and limit orders, cancellations, typical order size, and tick size. Because these quantities can all be measured directly there are no free parameters. We show that the order size, which can be cast as a non-dimensional granularity parameter, is in most cases a more significant determinant of market behaviour than tick size. We also provide an explanation for the observed highly concave nature of the price impact function. On a broader level, this work suggests how stochastic models based on zero intelligence agents may be useful to probe the structure of market institutions. Like the model of perfect rationality, a stochastic zero intelligence model can be used to make strong predictions based on a compact set of assumptions, even if these assumptions are not fully believable.

  20. The communications spectrum: Frequency allocations and auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    Demands on the communications spectrum have increased sharply because of the growth in radio communication services, the large bandwidths now required, and the rapid increases in world population. The problem will be exacerbated by the requirements of high definition television and the enormous amounts of information that will be transmitted by radio. The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite natural resource of great value used for emergency communications and military operations as well as for commercial purposes. Both government and the marketplace have proper roles in the allocation of its resources. There are no viable alternatives to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union or to agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission for the regulation of radio communication and the assignment of spectrum to essential public services. Although government auctions of spectrum are justifiable where there is no way to distinguish among commercial entities seeking to use the same bands for similar services, the practice is inherently inequitable and discourages development of new uses for the spectrum by removing investment protection. Recommended alternatives to auctions are: (1) lotteries, which keep assets and proceeds in the economy; and (2) ongoing charges for current as well as new users of the spectrum.

  1. Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

  2. From Walras’ auctioneer to continuous time double auctions: a general dynamic theory of supply and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donier, J.; Bouchaud, J.-P.

    2016-12-01

    In standard Walrasian auctions, the price of a good is defined as the point where the supply and demand curves intersect. Since both curves are generically regular, the response to small perturbations is linearly small. However, a crucial ingredient is absent of the theory, namely transactions themselves. What happens after they occur? To answer the question, we develop a dynamic theory for supply and demand based on agents with heterogeneous beliefs. When the inter-auction time is infinitely long, the Walrasian mechanism is recovered. When transactions are allowed to happen in continuous time, a peculiar property emerges: close to the price, supply and demand vanish quadratically, which we empirically confirm on the Bitcoin. This explains why price impact in financial markets is universally observed to behave as the square root of the excess volume. The consequences are important, as they imply that the very fact of clearing the market makes prices hypersensitive to small fluctuations.

  3. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  4. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  5. Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.

    2009-07-01

    Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.

  6. [The surgically treated gunshot injury. Securing evidence in hospitals without primary participation of police or legal medicine].

    PubMed

    Zack, F; Manhart, J; Rummel, J; Büttner, A

    2015-05-01

    Against the background of a problematic reconstruction of a hunting accident, the question arises how such cases can be handled in hospitals and how exhibits can be adequately dealt with. After evaluating a questionnaire on current conditions of securing evidence in cases of surgically treated gunshot wounds from 26 surgical institutions in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and in consideration of the certified advanced training in the field of legal medicine, recommendations are given regarding the securing of evidence within the clinical setting without primary involvement of police or legal medicine.

  7. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Jing, Tao; Ma, Liran; Huo, Yan; Qian, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. Yet, the use of a large number of IoT devices can severely worsen the spectrum scarcity problem. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing demands of radio access from IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT) has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as cellular telephones). Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric and asymmetric ciphers) may not be suitable for CIoT networks since these networks are composed of low-profile devices. In this paper, we address the security issues in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative in nature, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secure transmission. In our proposed cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) at the eavesdropper subject to the Quality of Service (QoS) constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper (ECSI). By using Semi-Definite Programming (SDP), the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the cooperative

  8. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information...

  9. A Research Study on Secure Attachment Using the Primary Caregiving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Phoon, Dora Mei Yong; Tan-Chong, Elizabeth Chai Kim; Tan, Marilyn Ai Bee; Goh, Mandy Lian Mui

    2015-01-01

    A child's positive sense of well-being is central to their overall growth and development. With an increasing number of mothers in the workforce, many infants and toddlers spend much time in child care services. Hence it is crucial that caregivers provide a secure base for the child to develop secure attachment with educarers. Given multiple…

  10. A Research Study on Secure Attachment Using the Primary Caregiving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Phoon, Dora Mei Yong; Tan-Chong, Elizabeth Chai Kim; Tan, Marilyn Ai Bee; Goh, Mandy Lian Mui

    2015-01-01

    A child's positive sense of well-being is central to their overall growth and development. With an increasing number of mothers in the workforce, many infants and toddlers spend much time in child care services. Hence it is crucial that caregivers provide a secure base for the child to develop secure attachment with educarers. Given multiple…

  11. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  13. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. (a) Every operator of an auction sale or broker shall make, keep, and maintain records or...

  14. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  15. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  16. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    the transaction by the ISO, take a decision to expand the existing system, or retain the original structure of the system. Also, the thesis investigates the impact of wheeling transactions on congestion management, where we present a generalized mathematical model for the Fixed Transmission Right (FTR) auction. The auction guarantees FTR availability to all participants on a non-discriminatory basis, in which system users are permitted to buy, sell and trade FTRs through an auction. When FTRs are utilized with LMPs, they increase the efficient use of the transmission system and let a transmission customer gain advantageous features such as acquiring a mechanism to offset the extra cost due to congestion charges, providing financial and operational certainty and making system users pay for the actual use of the congested paths. The thesis also highlighted FTR trading in secondary markets to self-arrange access across different paths, create long-term transmission rights and provide more commercial certainty.

  17. Model of Auctioneer Estimation of Swordtip Squid (Loligo edulis) Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Matsumoto, Keisuke; Morimoto, Eiji; Ezoe, Satoru; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hirano, Takayuki

    The knowledge of experienced auctioneers regarding the circulation of marine products is an essential skill and is necessary for evaluating product quality and managing aspects such as freshness. In the present study, the ability of an auctioneer to quickly evaluate the freshness of swordtip squid (Loligo edulis) at fish markets was analyzed. Evaluation characteristics used by an auctioneer were analyzed and developed using a fuzzy logic model. Forty boxes containing 247 swordtip squid with mantles measuring 220 mm that had been evaluated and assigned to one of five quality categories by an auctioneer were used for the analysis and the modeling. The relationships between the evaluations of appearance, body color, and muscle freshness were statistically analyzed. It was found that a total of four indexes of the epidermis color strongly reflected evaluations of appearance: dispersion ratio of the head, chroma on the head-end mantle and the difference in the chroma and brightness of the mantle. The fuzzy logic model used these indexes for the antecedent-part of the linguistic rules. The results of both simulation and evaluations demonstrate that the model is robust, with the predicted results corresponding with more than 96% of the quality assignments of the auctioneers.

  18. 76 FR 1158 - Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Scheduled for July 19, 2011; Comment Sought on Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... particular license). Under this proposal, the FCC Auction System interface will list the acceptable bid... and during the auction, through the Commission's Integrated Spectrum Auction System (FCC Auction System). 11. For purposes of complying with 47 CFR 1.2105(c), the Commission's rule prohibiting...

  19. 75 FR 61752 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 29, 2011; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 29, 2011; Comment Sought on... March 29, 2011 (Auction 91). This document also seeks comment on competitive bidding procedures for... March 29, 2011. II. Construction Permits In Auction 91 2. Auction 91 will offer 147 construction permits...

  20. Essays on empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions: Impacts of financial transmission rights on the restructured electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hailing

    This dissertation uses recently developed empirical methodologies for the study of multi-unit auctions to test the impacts of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) on the competitiveness of restructured electricity markets. FTRs are a special type of financial option that hedge against volatility in the cost of transporting electricity over the grid. Policy makers seek to use the prices of FTRs as market signals to incentivize efficient investment and utilization of transmission capacity. However, prices will not send the correct signals if market participants strategically use FTRs. This dissertation uses data from the Texas electricity market to test whether the prices of FTRs are efficient to achieve such goals. The auctions studied are multi-unit, uniform-price, sealed-bid auctions. The first part of the dissertation studies the auctions on the spot market of the wholesale electricity industry. I derive structural empirical models to test theoretical predictions as to whether bidders fully internalize the effect of FTRs on profits into their bidding decisions. I find that bidders are learning as to how to optimally bid above marginal cost for their inframarginal capacities. The bidders also learn to bid to include FTRs into their profit maximization problem during the course of the first year. But starting from the second year, they deviated from optimal bidding that includes FTRs in the profit maximization problems. Counterfactual analysis show that the primary effect of FTRs on market outcomes is changing the level of prices rather than production efficiency. Finally, I find that in most months, the current allocations of FTRs are statistically equivalent to the optimal allocations. The second part of the dissertation studies the bidding behavior in the FTR auctions. I find that FTRs' strategic impact on the FTR purchasing behavior is significant for large bidders---firms exercising market power in the FTR auctions. Second, trader forecasts future FTR credit

  1. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Jing, Tao; Ma, Liran; Huo, Yan; Qian, Jin

    2016-03-07

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. The use of a large number of IoT devices makes the spectrum scarcity problem even more serious. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing radio access demands of IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT) has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as telephones). Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography) may be compromised in CIoT networks, since these types of networks are heterogeneous. In this paper, we address the security issue in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative networks, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secrecy transmission. In the cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the eavesdropper subject to the quality of service (QoS) constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the considered minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper. By using semi-definite programming (SDP), the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the cooperative jamming scheme

  2. A Greedy Double Auction Mechanism for Grid Resource Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ding; Luo, Siwei; Gao, Zhan

    To improve the resource utilization and satisfy more users, a Greedy Double Auction Mechanism(GDAM) is proposed to allocate resources in grid environments. GDAM trades resources at discriminatory price instead of uniform price, reflecting the variance in requirements for profits and quantities. Moreover, GDAM applies different auction rules to different cases, over-demand, over-supply and equilibrium of demand and supply. As a new mechanism for grid resource allocation, GDAM is proved to be strategy-proof, economically efficient, weakly budget-balanced and individual rational. Simulation results also confirm that GDAM outperforms the traditional one on both the total trade amount and the user satisfaction percentage, specially as more users are involved in the auction market.

  3. Multi-unit auctions with budget-constrained bidders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Gagan Pratap

    In my dissertation, I investigate the effects of budget-constraints in multi-unit auctions. This is done in three parts. First, I analyze a case where all bidders have a common budget constraint. Precisely, I analyze an auction where two units of an object are sold at two simultaneous, sealed bid, first-price auctions, to bidders who have demand for both units. Bidders differ with respect to their valuations for the units. All bidders have an identical budget constraint which binds their ability to spend in the auction. I show that if valuation distribution is atom-less, then their does not exist any symmetric equilibrium in this auction game. In the second and third parts of my thesis, I analyze the sale of licenses for the right to drill for oil and natural gas in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the United States. These sales are conducted using simultaneous sealed-bid first-price auctions for multiple licenses, each representing a specific area (called a tract). Using aspects of observed bidding-behavior, I first make a prima facie case that bidders are budget-constrained in these auctions. In order to formalize this argument, I develop a simple extension of the standard model (where bidders differ in their valuations for the objects) by incorporating (random) budgets for the bidders. The auction-game then has a two-dimensional set of types for each player. I study the theoretical properties of this auction, assuming for simplicity that two units are being sold. I show that this game has an equilibrium in pure strategies that is symmetric with respect to the players and with respect to the units. The strategies are essentially pure in the sense that each bidder-type has a unique split (up to a permutation) of his budget between the two auctions. I then characterize the equilibrium in terms of the bid-distribution and iso-bid curves in the value-budget space. I derive various qualitative features of this equilibrium, among which are: (1) under mild

  4. Application for Single Price Auction Model (SPA) in AC Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachi, Tsunehisa; Fukutome, Suguru; Chen, Luonan; Makino, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Gentarou

    This paper aims to develop a single price auction model with AC transmission network, based on the principle of maximizing social surplus of electricity market. Specifically, we first formulate the auction market as a nonlinear optimization problem, which has almost the same form as the conventional optimal power flow problem, and then propose an algorithm to derive both market clearing price and trade volume of each player even for the case of market-splitting. As indicated in the paper, the proposed approach can be used not only for the price evaluation of auction or bidding market but also for analysis of bidding strategy, congestion effect and other constraints or factors. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate effectiveness of our method.

  5. An Auctioning Reputation System Based on Anomaly Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    systems used by online auction houses do not address the concern of a buyer shopping for commodities—finding a good bargain. These systems do not provide...INTRODUCTION Online auction houses such as eBay have emerged as a conve- nient way to buy and sell items over the Internet. eBay alone has over 147 million...Pattern Classification. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 2nd edition, 2000. [11] eBay Inc. Policy: Seller shill bidding. Published online at http

  6. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks--an auction-based approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Li, Zheng; Xu, Pengchao; Xu, Youyun; Gao, Xinbo; Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive radio is emerging as a promising technique to improve the utilization of the radio frequency spectrum. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing among primary (or "licensed") users (PUs) and secondary (or "unlicensed") users (SUs). We formulate the problem based on bandwidth auction, in which each SU makes a bid for the amount of spectrum and each PU may assign the spectrum among the SUs by itself according to the information from the SUs without degrading its own performance. We show that the auction is a noncooperative game and that Nash equilibrium (NE) can be its solution. We first consider a single-PU network to investigate the existence and uniqueness of the NE and further discuss the fairness among the SUs under given conditions. Then, we present a dynamic updating algorithm in which each SU achieves NE in a distributed manner. The stability condition of the dynamic behavior for this spectrum-sharing scheme is studied. The discussion is generalized to the case in which there are multiple PUs in the network, where the properties of the NE are shown under appropriate conditions. Simulations were used to evaluate the system performance and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  8. Double-Auction Market Simulation Software for Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironside, Brian; Joerding, Wayne; Kuzyk, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The authors provide a version of a double-auction market simulation designed for classes too large for most computer labs to accommodate in one sitting. Instead, students play the game from remote computers, wherever they may be and at any time during a given time period specified by the instructor. When the window of time expires, students can…

  9. Predicting the Demand for Spectrum Allocation through Auctions (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    part of new approach it is required to predict the customer needs . The customer needs will be predicted using automated collaborative filtering (ACF...the customer history, and bid for resources to meet customer needs . Dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) using cognitive radios and DSA by auction

  10. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  11. 15. Detail view of the original auction podium in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of the original auction podium in the 1937 arena (main section), with the west bleachers at the left, the north bleachers at the right, and the monitor roof structure, supported by posts, above; looking northwest - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  12. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  13. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  14. Empirical regularities of opening call auction in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Ren, Fei; Ni, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical regularities of an opening call auction using the ultra-high-frequency data of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. The distribution of the relative price, defined as the relative difference between the order price in the opening call auction and the closing price on the last trading day, is asymmetric and that the distribution displays a sharp peak at the zero relative price and a relatively wide peak at the negative relative price. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method is adopted to investigate the long-term memory of relative order prices. We further study the statistical regularities of order sizes in the opening call auction, and observe a phenomenon of number preference, known as order size clustering. The probability density function (PDF) of order sizes could be well fitted by a q-Gamma function, and the long-term memory also exists in order sizes. In addition, both the average volume and the average number of orders decrease exponentially with the price level away from the best bid or ask price level in the limit-order book (LOB) established immediately after the opening call auction, and a price clustering phenomenon is observed.

  15. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  16. 78 FR 61350 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction (Auction 902); Short-Form Application Filing Window...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...-areas . The Bureaus are also making available geographic information system (GIS) data for the eligible... list of eligible areas for Auction 902. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless Telecommunications... and Governmental Affairs Bureau at (202) 418-0530 or (202) 418-0432 (TTY). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  17. Patients' views on interpersonal continuity in primary care: a sense of security based on four core foundations.

    PubMed

    von Bültzingslöwen, Inger; Eliasson, Gösta; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Mattsson, Bengt; Hjortdahl, Per

    2006-04-01

    A deep and comprehensive understanding of what patients value about having a personal doctor in primary care is lacking. To acquire a comprehensive understanding of the core values of having a personal doctor in a continuing doctor-patient relationship in primary care among long-term, chronically ill patients. In this qualitative study, 14 chronically ill patients at three primary health care centres were strategically selected. The centres were selected to include patients with experiences from both long-term and short-term doctors. The patients were asked about their views on having a personal doctor in a continuing doctor-patient relationship in primary care compared with having different short-term doctors. Sixteen health care professionals were interviewed about what chronically ill patients convey to them about having a personal doctor in contrast to seeing different short-term locum doctors. The in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The core category, i.e. a universal concept that many patients used to describe the impact of having access to a personal doctor, was a sense of security. This was based on four main categories or core foundations which were: feelings of coherence, confidence in care, a trusting relationship and accessibility. In turn, the four main categories emerged from two to four of subcategories. The foundations that underpin the value of personal care from the patients' perspective could be based on categories found in this study.

  18. Building Secure Attachments for Primary School Children: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubha, Neerose; Cahill, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide implications of attachment theory there remains a lack of research exploring interventions which encapsulate the principles of an attachment-based framework in the school context. The aim of this research was to address this gap by implementing an intervention for a group of five primary-aged pupils with identified insecure…

  19. Building Secure Attachments for Primary School Children: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubha, Neerose; Cahill, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide implications of attachment theory there remains a lack of research exploring interventions which encapsulate the principles of an attachment-based framework in the school context. The aim of this research was to address this gap by implementing an intervention for a group of five primary-aged pupils with identified insecure…

  20. Auction development for the price-based electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekrajangpetch, Somgiat

    The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets. A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies (GENCOs) when identical or similar generating units participate in a LR CDCA based auction. Supporting information for bidding strategies on how to change unit data to enhance the chances of bid acceptance has been developed. The majority of this work is based on Single Period Commodity Auction (SPCA). Alternative structures for the SPCA are outlined. Whether the optimal solution is degenerated is investigated. Good pricing criteria are summarized and the pricing method following good pricing criteria is developed. Electricity is generally considered as a homogeneous product. When availability level is used as additional characteristic to distinct electricity, electricity can be considered a heterogeneous product. The procedure to trade electricity as a heterogeneous product is developed. The SPCA is formulated as a linear program. The basic IPLP algorithm has been extended so that sensitivity analysis can be performed as in the simplex method. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine market reach. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is used in combination with the investigation of historical auction results to provide raw data for power system expansion. Market power is a critical issue in electric power deregulation. Firms with market power have an advantage over other competitor firms in terms of market reach. Various approaches to

  1. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  2. [Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Ramírez-Sánchez, Claudine; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR) of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients' metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times) nutritionists (4.2 times) and social workers (4.1 times). The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  3. Using auctions for contracting with hospitals when quality matters.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2003-03-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of contracting with hospitals with hidden information when the number of patients wanting treatment depends on the quality of health care services offered. The optimal policy is characterized in the case of a single hospital. It is demonstrated that the regulator can reduce the information rent by decreasing the quality. When the regulator is assumed to be able to organize an auction for awarding the right to provide the service, we characterize the optimal auction and the first score tendering procedure implementing it. The regulator can reimburse a unit price per treated patient and let the hospital choose the level of quality. It is proved that the expected quality of health care services is greater and the expected payment is lower than in the monopoly case.

  4. Auctions with Dynamic Populations: Efficiency and Revenue Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Maher

    We study a stochastic sequential allocation problem with a dynamic population of privately-informed buyers. We characterize the set of efficient allocation rules and show that a dynamic VCG mechanism is both efficient and periodic ex post incentive compatible; we also show that the revenue-maximizing direct mechanism is a pivot mechanism with a reserve price. We then consider sequential ascending auctions in this setting, both with and without a reserve price. We construct equilibrium bidding strategies in this indirect mechanism where bidders reveal their private information in every period, yielding the same outcomes as the direct mechanisms. Thus, the sequential ascending auction is a natural institution for achieving either efficient or optimal outcomes.

  5. 78 FR 2260 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Rescheduled for April 23, 2013; Notice of Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the auction of certain FM broadcast... all public notices pertaining to this auction. ii. Prohibited Communications and Compliance...

  6. Auction-based distributed efficient economic operations of microgrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing; Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the economic operations of the microgrid in a distributed way such that the operational schedule of each of the units, like generators, load units, storage units, etc., in a microgrid system, is implemented by autonomous agents. We apply and generalise the progressive second price (PSP) auction mechanism which was proposed by Lazar and Semret to efficiently allocate the divisible network resources. Considering the economic operation for the microgrid systems, the generators play as sellers to supply energy and the load units play as the buyers to consume energy, while a storage unit, like battery, super capacitor, etc., may transit between buyer and seller, such that it is a buyer when it charges and becomes a seller when it discharges. Furthermore in a connected mode, each individual unit competes against not only the other individual units in the microgrid but also the exogenous main grid possessing fixed electricity price and infinite trade capacity; that is to say, the auctioneer assigns the electricity among all individual units and the main grid with respect to the submitted bid strategies of all individual units in the microgrid in an economic way. Due to these distinct characteristics, the underlying auction games are distinct from those studied in the literature. We show that under mild conditions, the efficient economic operation strategy is a Nash equilibrium (NE) for the PSP auction games, and propose a distributed algorithm under which the system can converge to an NE. We also show that the performance of worst NE can be bounded with respect to the system parameters, say the energy trading price with the main grid, and based upon that, the implemented NE is unique and efficient under some conditions.

  7. Auction-based resource allocation game under a hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yingying; Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a class of auction-based resource allocation games under a hierarchical structure, such that each supplier is assigned a certain amount of resource from a single provider and allocates it to its buyers with auction mechanisms. To implement the efficient allocations for the underlying hierarchical system, we first design an auction mechanism, for each local system composed of a supplier and its buyers, which inherits the advantages of the progressive second price mechanism. By employing a dynamic algorithm, each local system converges to its own efficient Nash equilibrium, at which the efficient resource allocation is achieved and the bidding prices of all the buyers in this local system are identical with each other. After the local systems reach their own equilibria respectively, the resources assigned to suppliers are readjusted via a dynamic hierarchical algorithm with respect to the bidding prices associated with the implemented equilibria of local systems. By applying the proposed hierarchical process, the formulated hierarchical system can converge to the efficient allocation under certain mild conditions. The developed results in this work are demonstrated with simulations.

  8. Outcome variation in the social security disability insurance program: the role of primary diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Based on the adjudicative process, the author classifies claimant-level data over an 8-year period (1997-2004) into four mutually exclusive categories: (1) initial allowances, (2) initial denials not appealed, (3) final allowances, and (4) final denials. The ability to predict those outcomes is explored within a multilevel modeling framework, with applicants clustered by state and primary diagnosis code. Variance decomposition suggests that medical diagnoses play a substantial role in explaining individual-level variation in initial allowances. Moreover, there is statistically significant high positive correlation between the predictions of an initial allowance and a final allowance across the diagnoses. This finding suggests that the ordinal ranking of impairments between these two adjudicative outcomes is widely preserved. In other words, impairments with a higher expectation of an initial allowance also tend to have a higher expectation of a final allowance.

  9. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions. For purposes of Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004 for BRS licenses, a small business is..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions. For purposes of Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004 for BRS licenses, a small business is..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR...

  11. 75 FR 8703 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Scheduled for May 25, 2010; Notice and Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... licensees to use certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum or provide service to certain areas in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For legal... the upcoming auction of 9,603 licenses for lower and upper paging bands spectrum. This auction,...

  12. 78 FR 24404 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Band Licenses Scheduled for July 16, 2013; Notice of Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... licensees to use certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum or provide service to certain areas in... Spectrum Access Division: For legal and general auction questions: Howard Davenport (attorney) at (202) 418... lower and upper ] paging bands spectrum. This auction, which is designated as Auction 95, is...

  13. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  14. 29 CFR 516.13 - Livestock auction employees exempt from overtime pay requirements under section 13(b)(13) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock auction employees exempt from overtime pay....13 Livestock auction employees exempt from overtime pay requirements under section 13(b)(13) of the... employee is employed both in agriculture and in connection with livestock auction operations: (a) The...

  15. 77 FR 60690 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 26, 2013; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... amounts. Under this proposal, the FCC Auction System interface will list the acceptable bid amounts for... on the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Web page at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs... Auction System (FCC Auction System). Bidders will also have the option of placing bids by...

  16. 76 FR 60830 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 27, 2012; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 27, 2012; Comment Sought on... commence on March 27, 2012. This document also seeks comment on competitive bidding procedures for this... used for this auction. This auction is scheduled to commence on March 27, 2012, and is designated as...

  17. 78 FR 11179 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Scheduled for July 16, 2013; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., please provide the appropriate FCC document number, for example, DA 13-60. The Auction 95 Comment Public... in Auction 95. Due to the large number of licenses in Auction 95, the complete list of licenses... that the lower band licenses should be awarded in each of the 175 geographic areas known as Economic...

  18. Sold! The Elementary Classroom Auction as Learning Tool of Communication and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Boyd, Gina

    2014-01-01

    An auction, though an economic tool, is essentially a performance dependent on communication (Smith, 1989). The auctioneer dictates the pace, asks for bids, and acknowledges responses; the enterprise is controlled by a voice (Boyce, 2001). Bidders must listen and respond strategically to the communication of the people around them. An auction…

  19. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  20. Sold! The Elementary Classroom Auction as Learning Tool of Communication and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Boyd, Gina

    2014-01-01

    An auction, though an economic tool, is essentially a performance dependent on communication (Smith, 1989). The auctioneer dictates the pace, asks for bids, and acknowledges responses; the enterprise is controlled by a voice (Boyce, 2001). Bidders must listen and respond strategically to the communication of the people around them. An auction…

  1. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and...

  2. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and...

  3. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and...

  4. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and...

  5. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  6. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  7. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  8. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  9. 31 CFR 356.22 - Does the Treasury have any limitations on auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the Treasury have any limitations on auction awards? 356.22 Section 356.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money..., PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.22 Does the Treasury...

  10. Are Structural Estimates of Auction Models Reasonable? Evidence from Experimental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Hortacsu, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Recently, economists have developed methods for structural estimation of auction models. Many researchers object to these methods because they find the strict rationality assumptions to be implausible. Using bid data from first-price auction experiments, we estimate four alternative structural models: (1) risk-neutral Bayes-Nash, (2) risk-averse…

  11. 77 FR 38061 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Phase I Auction for completing FCC Form 180, announce the availability of certain updated files and..., please provide the appropriate FCC document number, for example, DA 12-947. The Supplemental Filing... site: http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/901/ or by using the search function for AU Docket No. 12-25...

  12. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  13. 29 CFR 780.619 - Work “in connection with” livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work âin connection withâ livestock auction operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.619 Work “in connection with” livestock...

  14. Are Structural Estimates of Auction Models Reasonable? Evidence from Experimental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Hortacsu, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Recently, economists have developed methods for structural estimation of auction models. Many researchers object to these methods because they find the strict rationality assumptions to be implausible. Using bid data from first-price auction experiments, we estimate four alternative structural models: (1) risk-neutral Bayes-Nash, (2) risk-averse…

  15. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  16. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  17. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  18. 30 CFR 285.220 - What auction format may MMS use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285... competitive auctions to award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats,...

  19. 78 FR 45524 - Auction of H Block Licenses in the 1915-1920 MHz and 1995-2000 MHz Bands; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    .... SUMMARY: This document announces the intention to hold an auction of H Block licenses in the 1915-1920 and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For auction... INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Auction 96 Comment Public Notice released on July 15, 2013. The complete...

  20. Efficient Double Auction Mechanisms in the Energy Grid with Connected and Islanded Microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faqiry, Mohammad Nazif

    The future energy grid is expected to operate in a decentralized fashion as a network of autonomous microgrids that are coordinated by a Distribution System Operator (DSO), which should allocate energy to them in an efficient manner. Each microgrid operating in either islanded or grid-connected mode may be considered to manage its own resources. This can take place through auctions with individual units of the microgrid as the agents. This research proposes efficient auction mechanisms for the energy grid, with is-landed and connected microgrids. The microgrid level auction is carried out by means of an intermediate agent called an aggregator. The individual consumer and producer units are modeled as selfish agents. With the microgrid in islanded mode, two aggregator-level auction classes are analyzed: (i) price-heterogeneous, and (ii) price homogeneous. Under the price heterogeneity paradigm, this research extends earlier work on the well-known, single-sided Kelly mechanism to double auctions. As in Kelly auctions, the proposed algorithm implements the bidding without using any agent level private infor-mation (i.e. generation capacity and utility functions). The proposed auction is shown to be an efficient mechanism that maximizes the social welfare, i.e. the sum of the utilities of all the agents. Furthermore, the research considers the situation where a subset of agents act as a coalition to redistribute the allocated energy and price using any other specific fairness criterion. The price homogeneous double auction algorithm proposed in this research ad-dresses the problem of price-anticipation, where each agent tries to influence the equilibri-um price of energy by placing strategic bids. As a result of this behavior, the auction's efficiency is lowered. This research proposes a novel approach that is implemented by the aggregator, called virtual bidding, where the efficiency can be asymptotically maximized, even in the presence of price anticipatory bidders

  1. The Security Education Concepts in the Textbooks of the National and Civic Education of the Primary Stage in Jordan--An Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the concepts of the security education in the textbooks of the national and civic education of the higher primary stage in Jordan. It adopted the descriptive analytical method. The study sample consisted of the textbooks of the national and civic education for the basic eighth, ninth and tenth grades. To…

  2. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  3. Alternative Salary Auction Mechanisms for the Navy: An Experimental Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    auctions transfer the most surplus value to the Navy. Equity is fairness among sailors, and may mean equal pay or equal benefit (surplus)3. No...values range from $40,000 to $80,000 – Each value in range equally likely – Rounded to nearest $1000 8 Willingness to Pay (WTP) • Maximum a company is...test the impact of bidding behavior on two matching mechanisms proposed by prior research for use in the U.S. Navy’s Assignment Incentive Pay (AIP

  4. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.

  5. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  6. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  7. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  8. Multiagent model and mean field theory of complex auction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Yougui; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in analyzing a variety of socio-economic phenomena using methods from statistical and nonlinear physics. We study a class of complex systems arising from economics, the lowest unique bid auction (LUBA) systems, which is a recently emerged class of online auction game systems. Through analyzing large, empirical data sets of LUBA, we identify a general feature of the bid price distribution: an inverted J-shaped function with exponential decay in the large bid price region. To account for the distribution, we propose a multi-agent model in which each agent bids stochastically in the field of winner’s attractiveness, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain analytic solutions of the model based on mean field analysis. The theory produces bid-price distributions that are in excellent agreement with those from the real data. Our model and theory capture the essential features of human behaviors in the competitive environment as exemplified by LUBA, and may provide significant quantitative insights into complex socio-economic phenomena.

  9. Using Experimental Auctions to Examine Demand for E-Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard; Rousu, Matthew C; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Vogl, Lisa; Corrigan, Jay R

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarettes are the latest in a line of potentially reduced exposure products that have garnered interest among smokers. In this paper, we use experimental auctions to estimate smokers' demand for e-cigarettes and to assess the impact of advertisements on willingness to pay. These are actual auctions, with winners and losers, which means hypothetical biases often seen in surveys are minimized. We find smokers have positive demand for e-cigarettes, and that the print advertisements used in our study had greater effectiveness than video ads (b = 2.00, p < .05) in terms of increasing demand for disposable e-cigarettes. Demand was greater for reusable versus disposable e-cigarettes. In multivariate models, demand for e-cigarettes was higher among non-white participants and among smokers willing to pay more for cigarettes. Our findings suggest that cigarette smokers are interested in e-cigarettes as alternatives to traditional products, particularly for reusable forms, and that this demand can be influenced by messaging/advertising. Given these reduced harm products are appealing, if smokers are able to switch completely to e-cigarettes, there is a good chance for accrual of significant harm reduction.

  10. Ergodic Transition in a Simple Model of the Continuous Double Auction

    PubMed Central

    Radivojević, Tijana; Anselmi, Jonatha; Scalas, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We study a phenomenological model for the continuous double auction, whose aggregate order process is equivalent to two independent queues. The continuous double auction defines a continuous-time random walk for trade prices. The conditions for ergodicity of the auction are derived and, as a consequence, three possible regimes in the behavior of prices and logarithmic returns are observed. In the ergodic regime, prices are unstable and one can observe a heteroskedastic behavior in the logarithmic returns. On the contrary, non-ergodicity triggers stability of prices, even if two different regimes can be seen. PMID:24558377

  11. Understanding overbidding: using the neural circuitry of reward to design economic auctions.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Mauricio R; Schotter, Andrew; Ozbay, Erkut Y; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-26

    We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response. Leveraging these neuroimaging results, we design a behavioral experiment that demonstrates that framing an experimental auction to emphasize loss increases overbidding. These results highlight a role for the contemplation of loss in understanding the tendency to bid "too high." Current economic theories suggest overbidding may result from either "joy of winning" or risk aversion. By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, we find that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions.

  12. Understanding Overbidding: Using the Neural Circuitry of Reward to Design Economic Auctions

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Mauricio R.; Schotter, Andrew; Ozbay, Erkut Y.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response. Leveraging these neuroimaging results, we design a behavioral experiment that demonstrates that framing an experimental auction to emphasize loss increases overbidding. These results highlight a role for the contemplation of loss in understanding the tendency to bid “too high.” Current economic theories suggest overbidding may result from either “joy of winning” or risk aversion. By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, we find that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions. PMID:18818362

  13. Bid distribution derived from consistent mixed strategy in lowest unique bid auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinan; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2014-12-01

    The Lowest Unique Bid Auction (LUBA) booms recently through the Internet. A typical distribution pattern of bid price in this reverse auction has been found and needs to be interpreted. The distribution curve is a decreasing one whose slope has a close relationship with the number of agents participating in the auction. To explain this stylized fact, we develop a model assuming that agents prefer to bid on the price at which the probability of winning is higher. The bid distributions of actual auctions with the number of agents less than 200 can be fitted very well using the parameters for the value of items and the number of bids. When this number becomes larger, however, a deviation occurs between prediction and empirical data, which can be adjusted by introducing cognitive illusion of the bid number.

  14. 31 CFR 356.11 - How are bids submitted in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participating in our auctions. (3) In contingency situations, such as a power outage, we may accept bids by a... Identification Number. (4) In contingency situations, such as a power outage, we may accept bids by other...

  15. 78 FR 56874 - Comment Sought on Petition for Reconsideration of Auction 902 Procedures Public Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... must refer to AU Docket No. 13-53. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau and Wireline Competition... Commission's Web site: http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/902/ , or by using the search function for AU Docket...

  16. The Allocation of Runway Slots by Auction. Volume III. Theory and Technical Issues for Implementation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-15

    air polution , noise, landside traffic c.)ngestion and so on--dictate a different approach at l_ ast for some congested airports (notably Washington...approaches to slot auctions have not allowed for the inter- dependency of slot values to the air carriers--a single slot for a landing of an aircraft is...slot exchange. 17. Key Woeds II. Distrlbution Stmtome Slot, exchange, auction, trading, air Document is available to the public carriers, allocation

  17. Product definition for future electricity supply auctions: the 2006 Illinois experience

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Luciano; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Gross, George

    2008-08-15

    Much of the discussion about new markets for electricity contracts focuses on the auction format to be used. Far less attention has been paid to the contract definition itself. An analysis of the 2006 Illinois Electricity Auction shows how a poorly formulated product definition can erode the performance of such markets. The authors propose an improved product definition to overcome the key problems they have identified. (author)

  18. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Argentine drilling equipment to go on auction block

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) is preparing to sell all state owned drilling rigs and related assets as part of a plan to privatize Argnetina's oil and gas industry. YPF expects to offer the equipment to private companies by summer in a sealed bid auction in Buenos Aires. More than 30 mostly late model U.S. and Romanian rigs rated to 1,800-7,000 m will be included in the sale. Drilling contracts covering all major Argentina exploration areas will be offered with many of the rigs being sold. This paper reports that the YPF sale will include well completion units, drill pipe and collars, large equipment yards, shops, and warehouses, and possibly the largest inventory of fishing tools in South America, says a company helping to organize the sale. YPF will set up a data room in Buenos Aires to provide information about drilling, conditions, rigs and equipment, and other assets.

  20. Efficient power control via auction in WCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xia; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhou, Manli

    2002-08-01

    This paper investigates the power control mechanism in the context of third generation multimedia multirate wideband CDMA (WCDMA) mobile communications. We first present the system model and get the sufficient condition for the existence of feasible power assignment. Under this constraint, we reformulate the power control problem as a non-cooperative game in allocating the normalized QoS products, and propose a new call admission control (CAC) algorithm based on uniform-price auction (UPA) to control the power. Properties of UPA Nash equilibrium, especially its efficiency, are also discussed in wireless system environment. The results of comparison show that our scheme charging users on the QoS products has the enormous advantage over other pricing schemes charging users directly on the transmit powers. Numerical results which demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithm are presented.

  1. Modeling and simulation of a double auction artificial financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raberto, Marco; Cincotti, Silvano

    2005-09-01

    We present a double-auction artificial financial market populated by heterogeneous agents who trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents issue random orders subject to budget constraints. The limit prices of orders may depend on past market volatility. Limit orders are stored in the book whereas market orders give immediate birth to transactions. We show that fat tails and volatility clustering are recovered by means of very simple assumptions. We also investigate two important stylized facts of the limit order book, i.e., the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive transactions and the instantaneous price impact function. We show both theoretically and through simulations that if the order waiting times are exponentially distributed, even trading waiting times are also exponentially distributed.

  2. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  3. 76 FR 78645 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 27, 2012; Notice and Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... white lights in residential neighborhoods or excessive radio frequency emission. C. Auction Specifics i... power television, television translator or FM translator facilities will not be counted among the...

  4. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  5. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  6. Impact of primary healthcare providers' initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions in managing risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial.

    PubMed

    Keurhorst, M; Anderson, P; Heinen, M; Bendtsen, Preben; Baena, Begoña; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Colom, Joan; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Kaner, Eileen; Kłoda, Karolina; Mierzecki, Artur; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Parkinson, Kathryn; Reynolds, Jillian; Ronda, Gaby; Segura, Lidia; Słodownik, Luiza; Spak, Fredrik; van Steenkiste, Ben; Wallace, Paul; Wolstenholme, Amy; Wojnar, Marcin; Gual, Antoni; Laurant, M; Wensing, M

    2016-07-16

    Brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective in reducing drinking problems but poorly implemented in routine practice. Although evidence about implementing brief interventions is growing, knowledge is limited with regard to impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on brief intervention implementation. In a cluster randomised factorial trial, 120 primary healthcare units (PHCUs) were randomised to eight groups: care as usual, training and support, financial reimbursement, and the opportunity to refer patients to an internet-based brief intervention (e-BI); paired combinations of these three strategies, and all three strategies combined. To explore the impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions, we performed multilevel linear regression analyses adapted to the factorial design. Data from 746 providers from 120 PHCUs were included in the analyses. Baseline role security and therapeutic commitment were found not to influence implementation of brief interventions. Furthermore, there were no significant interactions between these characteristics and allocated implementation groups. The extent to which providers changed their brief intervention delivery following experience of different implementation strategies was not determined by their initial attitudes towards alcohol problems. In future research, more attention is needed to unravel the causal relation between practitioners' attitudes, their actual behaviour and care improvement strategies to enhance implementation science. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01501552.

  7. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  8. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  9. A Bayesian formulation for auction-based task allocation in heterogeneous multi-agent teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, Charles E.; Christensen, Henrik

    2011-06-01

    In distributed, heterogeneous, multi-agent teams, agents may have different capabilities and types of sensors. Agents in dynamic environments will need to cooperate in real-time to perform tasks with minimal costs. Some example scenarios include dynamic allocation of UAV and UGV robot teams to possible hurricane survivor locations, search and rescue and target detection. Auction based algorithms scale well because agents generally only need to communicate bid information. In addition, the agents are able to perform their computations in parallel and can operate on local information. Furthermore, it is easy to integrate humans and other vehicle types and sensor combinations into an auction framework. However, standard auction mechanisms do not explicitly consider sensors with varying reliability. The agents sensor qualities should be explicitly accounted. Consider a scenario with multiple agents, each carrying a single sensor. The tasks in this case are to simply visit a location and detect a target. The sensors are of varying quality, with some having a higher probability of target detection. The agents themselves may have different capabilities, as well. The agents use knowledge of their environment to submit cost-based bids for performing each task and an auction is used to perform the task allocation. This paper discusses techniques for including a Bayesian formulation of target detection likelihood into this auction based framework for performing task allocation across multi-agent heterogeneous teams. Analysis and results of experiments with multiple air systems performing distributed target detection are also included.

  10. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  11. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  12. 78 FR 68839 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Rescheduled for February 25, 2014; Notice of Changes to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Rescheduled for February 25, 2014; Notice of Changes to... single-round reverse auction that will award up to $50 million in one-time Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I... Rescheduling Public Notice, the Bureaus adopt schedule changes intended to give potential bidders and...

  13. 75 FR 28278 - Notice of amendment to Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Online Auction of Public Lands in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...: 14X5232] Notice of amendment to Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Online Auction of Public Lands in... online auction will be conducted by the GSA. Bidders may register on the GSA Web site, https://www...

  14. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... warehouse floors in designated markets. 29.75b Section 29.75b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  15. Electronic Reverse Auctions: Integrating an E-Sourcing Tool into a Sales and Purchasing Cross-Course Negotiation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline A.; Dobie, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Electronic reverse auctions are increasingly being used by firms to improve firm financial and operational performance. The described teaching innovation serves as a model for introducing electronic reverse auctions as a central element in a comprehensive negotiation exercise involving sales management and purchasing management students. Results…

  16. Electronic Reverse Auctions: Integrating an E-Sourcing Tool into a Sales and Purchasing Cross-Course Negotiation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline A.; Dobie, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Electronic reverse auctions are increasingly being used by firms to improve firm financial and operational performance. The described teaching innovation serves as a model for introducing electronic reverse auctions as a central element in a comprehensive negotiation exercise involving sales management and purchasing management students. Results…

  17. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions.

    PubMed

    Newman, George E; Bloom, Paul

    2014-03-11

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person's immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people's expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions.

  18. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions

    PubMed Central

    Newman, George E.; Bloom, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person’s immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people’s expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions. PMID:24567388

  19. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy: Rate equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.; Kahng, B.

    2006-06-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid k times up to the t th bidding progresses, called the k -frequent bidder, seems to scale as nk(t)˜tk-2.4 . The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the k -frequent bidder is likely to scale as qk(t)˜k-1.4 , independent of t for large t . This theoretical prediction is close to empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  20. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy: Rate equation approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, I; Kahng, B

    2006-06-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid k times up to the tth bidding progresses, called the k-frequent bidder, seems to scale as n(k)(t) approximately tk(-2.4). The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the k-frequent bidder is likely to scale as q(k)(t) approximately k(-1.4), independent of t for large t. This theoretical prediction is close to empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  1. The value of victory: social origins of the winner's curse in common value auctions

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Li, Jian; Lau, Tatiana; Maskin, Eric; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Montague, P. Read; McClure, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Auctions, normally considered as devices facilitating trade, also provide a way to probe mechanisms governing one's valuation of some good or action. One of the most intriguing phenomena in auction behavior is the winner's curse — the strong tendency of participants to bid more than rational agent theory prescribes, often at a significant loss. The prevailing explanation suggests that humans have limited cognitive abilities that make estimating the correct bid difficult, if not impossible. Using a series of auction structures, we found that bidding approaches rational agent predictions when participants compete against a computer. However, the winner's curse appears when participants compete against other humans, even when cognitive demands for the correct bidding strategy are removed. These results suggest the humans assign significant future value to victories over human but not over computer opponents even though such victories may incur immediate losses, and that this valuation anomaly is the origin of apparently irrational behavior. PMID:20305741

  2. Mechanism Design for Multi-slot Ads Auction in Sponsored Search Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Sun, Yang; Yin, Ming; Zhou, Yunhong

    In this paper, we study pricing models for multi-slot advertisements, where advertisers can bid to place links to their sales webpages at one or multiple slots on a webpage, called the multi-slot AD auction problem. We develop and analyze several important mechanisms, including the VCG mechanism for multi-slot ads auction, the optimal social welfare solution, as well as two weighted GSP-like protocols (mixed and hybrid). Furthermore, we consider that forward-looking Nash equilibrium and prove its existence in the weighted GSP-like pricing protocols.

  3. Practical Application of Principle-Agent and Auction Theory: A Contracting Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Capt Will Griffin C1C Ryan Holler C1C Jimmy Manuel C1C Ryan McVay Practical Application of Principle-Agent and Auction Theory: A Contracting... Auction Theory: A Contracting Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Statement of the Problem  The DOD holds an inferior position when bargaining with the private sector (known budget). This creates inefficiencies in

  4. 31 CFR 356.5 - What types of securities does the Treasury auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... years. (2) Treasury inflation-protected notes. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the inflation-adjusted principal on each interest payment date; (ii) Have interest payable... with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the par amount; (ii) Have interest payable semiannually...

  5. 31 CFR 356.5 - What types of securities does the Treasury auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years. (2) Treasury inflation-protected notes. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the inflation-adjusted principal on each interest payment date; (ii) Have interest payable... with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the par amount; (ii) Have interest payable semiannually...

  6. 31 CFR 356.5 - What types of securities does the Treasury auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... years. (2) Treasury inflation-protected notes. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be... bonds. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the inflation-adjusted principal... distinguish such notes and bonds from “inflation-protected securities” and “floating rate notes.” We refer to...

  7. 31 CFR 356.5 - What types of securities does the Treasury auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... years. (2) Treasury inflation-protected notes. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the inflation-adjusted principal on each interest payment date; (ii) Have interest payable... with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the par amount; (ii) Have interest payable semiannually...

  8. 31 CFR 356.5 - What types of securities does the Treasury auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... years. (2) Treasury inflation-protected notes. (i) Are issued with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the inflation-adjusted principal on each interest payment date; (ii) Have interest payable... with a stated rate of interest to be applied to the par amount; (ii) Have interest payable semiannually...

  9. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Treasury determine auction awards? 356.20 Section 356.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE...

  10. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted or...

  11. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted or...

  12. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted or...

  13. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted or...

  14. 31 CFR 356.10 - What is the purpose of an auction announcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... announcement? 356.10 Section 356.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE...? By issuing an auction announcement, we provide public notice of the sale of bills, notes, and...

  15. 31 CFR 356.10 - What is the purpose of an auction announcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... announcement? 356.10 Section 356.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE...? By issuing an auction announcement, we provide public notice of the sale of bills, notes, and...

  16. 77 FR 69933 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 27, and 73 Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through... of Proposed Rulemaking, ``Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum...

  17. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the auction results announced? 356.23 Section 356.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include...

  18. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the auction results announced? 356.23 Section 356.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information as...

  19. On Revenue-Optimal Dynamic Auctions for Bidders with Interdependent Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Florin; Parkes, David C.

    In a dynamic market, being able to update one's value based on information available to other bidders currently in the market can be critical to having profitable transactions. This is nicely captured by the model of interdependent values (IDV): a bidder's value can explicitly depend on the private information of other bidders. In this paper we present preliminary results about the revenue properties of dynamic auctions for IDV bidders. We adopt a computational approach to design single-item revenue-optimal dynamic auctions with known arrivals and departures but (private) signals that arrive online. In leveraging a characterization of truthful auctions, we present a mixed-integer programming formulation of the design problem. Although a discretization is imposed on bidder signals the solution is a mechanism applicable to continuous signals. The formulation size grows exponentially in the dependence of bidders' values on other bidders' signals. We highlight general properties of revenue-optimal dynamic auctions in a simple parametrized example and study the sensitivity of prices and revenue to model parameters.

  20. See Art History in a New Light: Have an Art Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benter, Doris J.

    2008-01-01

    At Portledge School in Locust Valley, New York, ninth graders in their upper school study art history for one semester. The visual arts department has created a vigorous new syllabus culminating in an hour-long mock art auction. The department selects several art movements (e.g., Post-Impressionism, Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, Social Realism,…

  1. 30 CFR 285.220 - What auction format may MMS use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What auction format may MMS use in a lease sale? 285.220 Section 285.220 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Cerification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salvage Auction Cerification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  5. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results. 97.521 Section 97.521 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... under § 52.38(b)(4) or (5) of this chapter, for the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014...

  6. 40 CFR 97.421 - Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results. 97.421 Section 97.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... the control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX...

  7. Reciprocity in Online Markets: Empirical Studies of Auction and Barter Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Shun

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation seeks to understand how reciprocity affects transaction outcomes and mechanism design in online markets. The first essay examines negative reciprocity illustrated as feedback-revoking behavior in the eBay auction market, focusing on its impact and implications for reputation system design. I utilize the biggest policy change of…

  8. Analysis of Bidding Behaviors in Non-monetary Incentivized, Real-Time Uniform Auctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    of experimentation for all participants. The study focuses primarily on implementing an improved SRB program using auction mechanisms incorporating...of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December...47 C. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER STUDY

  9. 31 CFR 356.33 - Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the Treasury have any discretion... CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Miscellaneous Provisions § 356.33 Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process? (a) We have the discretion to: (1) Accept, reject, or refuse to...

  10. A False-name-Proof Double Auction Protocol for Arbitrary Evaluation Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yuko; Yokoo, Makoto

    We develop a new false-name-proof double auction protocol called the Generalized Threshold Price Double auction (GTPD) protocol. False-name-proofness generalizes strategy-proofness by incorporating the possibility of false-name bids, e.g., bids submitted using multiple e-mail addresses. An existing protocol called TPD protocol is false-name-proof but can handle only the cases where marginal utilities of each agent always decrease, while our new GTPD protocol can handle arbitrary evaluation values. When marginal utilities can increase, some bids cannot be divided into a single unit (e.g., an all-or-nothing bid). Due to the existence of such indivisible bids, meeting supply/demand becomes difficult. Furthermore, a seller/buyer can submit a false-name-bid by pretending to be a potential buyer/seller to manipulate allocations and payments. In the GTPD protocol, the auctioneer is required to absorb the supply-demand imbalance up to a given upper-bound. Also, the GTPD incorporate a new false-name-proof one-sided auction protocol that is guaranteed to sell/buy a certain number of units. Simulation results show that when the threshold price is set appropriately, this protocol can obtain a good social surplus, and the number of absorbed units is much smaller than the given upper-bound.

  11. See Art History in a New Light: Have an Art Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benter, Doris J.

    2008-01-01

    At Portledge School in Locust Valley, New York, ninth graders in their upper school study art history for one semester. The visual arts department has created a vigorous new syllabus culminating in an hour-long mock art auction. The department selects several art movements (e.g., Post-Impressionism, Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, Social Realism,…

  12. 75 FR 57947 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... page at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ . I. Introduction 1. The Wireless Telecommunications and the Media... TTY: 202-418-0432. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau requests that a copy of all comments and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For...

  13. Teaching Undergraduate Money and Banking: T-Bill Auctions and Stock Market Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saros, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The author offers innovative approaches to 3 topics that are typically only briefly mentioned (if at all) in money and banking courses. The first topic is a Treasury bill auction experiment in which students have an opportunity to participate directly. The results from a class of 14 money and banking students are used to explain how an instructor…

  14. Doesticks' Assault on Slavery: Style and Technique in "The Great Auction Sale, at Savannah, Georgia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentino, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes "The Great Auction Sale of Slaves, at Savannah, Georgia" (1859), a popular work by Mortimer Neal Thompson, an American humorist better known by his pseudonym, Q.K. Philander Doesticks, P.B. The book is one of the most readable, credibly authentic accounts of the abuses of slavery. (BJV)

  15. Initial Approaches to Mitigating the Impacts of the AWS-3 Auction (1755-1780 MHz)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    and subsequent initial approaches to mitigating the impacts of that auction on Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) operations in the 1780-1850 MHz...AWS-3, Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry, LTE-A, Transition Plan, Transmitters, Receivers, Antenna Systems, Bandwidth Efficient Modulation, Spectrum 16

  16. The Use of Reverse Auction Within the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    that leverage the power of fluid market conditions through a dynamic pricing environment. This project examines the use of RAs within the Army...of the U.S. Army’s use of reverse auctions (RAs) in regard to contracting. RAs are powerful procurement tools that leverage the power of fluid market ... Market -Based Pricing ..................................................................19  I.  THE PRICING HIERARCHY

  17. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... point, for example, 17.13%. (b) Determining the interest rate for new note and bond issues. We set the interest rate at a 1/8 of one percent increment. If a Treasury note or bond auction results in a yield lower than 0.125 percent, the interest rate will be set at 1/8 of one percent, and successful bidders...

  18. Design Implications of Real-Time Feedback in Continuous Combinatorial Auctions: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Pallab

    2009-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) has spawned the growth of novel and innovative market mechanisms (such as online auctions) and associated businesses (such as eBay and Priceline) that were not feasible without the capabilities and reach of these modern information technologies. Previous studies on designing trading mechanisms for online markets…

  19. Ordering competition: the interactional accomplishment of the sale of art and antiques at auction.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christian; Luff, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Auctions provide an institutional solution to a social problem; they enable the legitimate pricing and exchange of goods where those goods are of uncertain value. In turn, auctions raise a number of social and organizational issues that are resolved within the interaction that arise in sales by auction. In this paper, we examine sales of fine art, antiques and objets d'art and explore the ways in which auctioneers mediate competition between buyers and establish a value for goods. In particular, we explore how bids are elicited, co-ordinated and revealed so as to rapidly escalate the price of goods in a transparent manner that enables the legitimate valuation and exchange of goods. In directing attention towards the significance of the social interaction, including talk, visual and material conduct, the paper contributes to the growing corpus of ethnographic studies of markets. It suggests that to understand the operation of markets and their outcomes, and to unpack issues of agency, trust and practice, we need to place the 'interaction order' at the heart of analytic agenda.

  20. Design Implications of Real-Time Feedback in Continuous Combinatorial Auctions: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Pallab

    2009-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) has spawned the growth of novel and innovative market mechanisms (such as online auctions) and associated businesses (such as eBay and Priceline) that were not feasible without the capabilities and reach of these modern information technologies. Previous studies on designing trading mechanisms for online markets…

  1. Teaching Undergraduate Money and Banking: T-Bill Auctions and Stock Market Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saros, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The author offers innovative approaches to 3 topics that are typically only briefly mentioned (if at all) in money and banking courses. The first topic is a Treasury bill auction experiment in which students have an opportunity to participate directly. The results from a class of 14 money and banking students are used to explain how an instructor…

  2. Reciprocity in Online Markets: Empirical Studies of Auction and Barter Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Shun

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation seeks to understand how reciprocity affects transaction outcomes and mechanism design in online markets. The first essay examines negative reciprocity illustrated as feedback-revoking behavior in the eBay auction market, focusing on its impact and implications for reputation system design. I utilize the biggest policy change of…

  3. 77 FR 73969 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 27 and 73 Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through... implement an incentive auction of broadcast television spectrum. The NPRM set deadlines for filing...

  4. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odometer record retention for auction companies. 580.9 Section 580.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention fo...

  5. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odometer record retention for auction companies. 580.9 Section 580.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention fo...

  6. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Odometer record retention for auction companies. 580.9 Section 580.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention fo...

  7. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Odometer record retention for auction companies. 580.9 Section 580.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention fo...

  8. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odometer record retention for auction companies. 580.9 Section 580.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention fo...

  9. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  10. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction.

    PubMed

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider.

  11. 77 FR 7152 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Scheduled for September 27, 2012; Comment Sought on Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    .... If commenters propose to use different road categories, they should explain their reasoning and... bids, the auction system would use a mathematical optimization procedure to identify the set of...

  12. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  13. Analysis, Evaluation and Improvement of Sequential Single-Item Auctions for the Cooperative Real-Time Allocation of Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-30

    ICRA Workshop on Search and Pursuit/Evasion in the Physical World: Efficiency, Scalability, and Guarantees in 2010. • Sven Koenig became a member of...that fit the risk preferences of human decision makers in high-stake one- shot decision situations better than current systems. We also describe how to...auction-like algorithm, called Sequential Incremental-Value (SIV) auction, which assigns tasks to robots in multiple rounds. The idea behind SIV

  14. Homeland Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  15. Security: Vandalism, Campus Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Police use a middle school at Lauderdale Lakes, Florida, as a nighttime headquarters. At several colleges and universities students are supplementing professional campus security departments. (Author/MLF)

  16. Encouraging information sharing to boost the name-your-own-price auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yahong; Li, Jinlin; Huang, He; Ran, Lun; Hu, Yusheng

    2017-08-01

    During a name-your-own-price (NYOP) auction, buyers can learn a lot of knowledge from their socially connected peers. Such social learning process makes them become more active to attend the auction and also helps them make decisions on what price to submit. Combining an information diffusion model and a belief decision model, we explore three effects of bidders' information sharing on the buyers' behaviors and the seller profit. The results indicate that information sharing significantly increases the NYOP popularity and the seller profit. When enlarging the quality or quantity of information sharing, or increasing the spreading efficiency of the network topology, the number of attenders and the seller profit are increased significantly. However, the spread of information may make bidders be more likely to bid higher and consequently lose surplus. In addition, the different but interdependent influence of the successful information and failure information are discussed in this work.

  17. Equilibrium Strategy and Population-Size Effects in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Juul, Jeppe; Galster, Gorm; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2012-02-01

    In lowest unique bid auctions, N players bid for an item. The winner is whoever places the lowest bid, provided that it is also unique. We use a grand canonical approach to derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium distribution of strategies. We then study the properties of the solution as a function of the mean number of players, and compare them with a large data set of internet auctions. The theory agrees with the data with striking accuracy for small population-size N, while for larger N a qualitatively different distribution is observed. We interpret this result as the emergence of two different regimes, one in which adaptation is feasible and one in which it is not. Our results question the actual possibility of a large population to adapt and find the optimal strategy when participating in a collective game.

  18. Attacks and Improvement of Quantum Sealed-Bid Auction with EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Fang; Ji, Sai; Qu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Recently, an experimentally feasible three-party quantum sealed-bid auction protocol based on EPR pairs [Z.Y. Wang, Commun. Theor. Phys. 54 (2010) 997] was proposed. However, this study points out Wang's protocol cannot resist some internal bidders' attacks, such as the Twice-CNOT attack, the collusion attack. A malicious bidder can launch the Twice-CNOT attack to obtain the other's bid, or the dishonest auctioneer may collude with one bidder and help him/her win the action by changing his/her bid. For preventing against these attacks, a simple solution by using the QKD-based message encryption and a post-confirmation mechanism by adopting the hash function are proposed.

  19. Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithms for the Winner Determination Problem in Combinatorial Auctions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carlos Eduardo; Toso, Rodrigo Franco; Resende, Mauricio G C; Miyazawa, Flávio Keidi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of picking a subset of bids in a general combinatorial auction so as to maximize the overall profit using the first-price model. This winner determination problem assumes that a single bidding round is held to determine both the winners and prices to be paid. We introduce six variants of biased random-key genetic algorithms for this problem. Three of them use a novel initialization technique that makes use of solutions of intermediate linear programming relaxations of an exact mixed integer linear programming model as initial chromosomes of the population. An experimental evaluation compares the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with the standard mixed linear integer programming formulation, a specialized exact algorithm, and the best-performing heuristics proposed for this problem. The proposed algorithms are competitive and offer strong results, mainly for large-scale auctions.

  20. A Supplier Bidding Strategy Through Q-Learning Algorithm in Electricity Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as a kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impacts of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price are analyzed under uniform pricing rule and discriminatory pricing rule. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  1. A Q-Learning-Based Supplier Bidding Strategy in Electricity Auction Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as one kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power and all suppliers winning the market are paid based on their own bid prices. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impact of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price is analyzed. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  2. Collective induction without cooperation? Learning and knowledge transfer in cooperative groups and competitive auctions.

    PubMed

    Maciejovsky, Boris; Budescu, David V

    2007-05-01

    There is strong evidence that groups perform better than individuals do on intellective tasks with demonstrably correct solutions. Typically, these studies assume that group members share common goals. The authors extend this line of research by replacing standard face-to-face group interactions with competitive auctions, allowing for conflicting individual incentives. In a series of studies involving the well-known Wason selection task, they demonstrate that competitive auctions induce learning effects equally impressive as those of standard group interactions, and they uncover specific and general knowledge transfers from these institutions to new reasoning problems. The authors identify payoff feedback and information pooling as the driving factors underlying these findings, and they explain these factors within the theoretical framework of collective induction.

  3. Innovations in Defense Acquisition Auctions: Lessons Learned and Alternative Mechanism Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-21

    which contractor will ultimately produce the aircraft, with the winning contractor generally being the one capable of providing the greatest “ bang for...the buck”—“ bang ” being specifically measured by the weights placed on the various dimensions of quality. While there will typically be many different...guide. Retrieved June 1, 2007, from http://www.orbisonline.com/reverse_auction_guide8-29-02.pdf Gitelson, G., J. W. Bing and L. Laroche (2001, March

  4. A Centralized Auction Mechanism for the Disability and Survivors Insurance in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes H., Gonzalo

    As part of the pension reform recently approved in Chile, the government introduced a centralized auction mechanism to provide the Disability and Survivors (D&S) Insurance that covers recent contributors among the more than 8 million participants in the mandatory private pension system. This paper is intended as a case study presenting the main distortions found in the decentralized operation of the system that led to this reform and the challenges faced when designing a competitive auction mechanism to be implemented jointly by the Pension Fund Managers (AFP). In a typical bilateral contract the AFP retained much of the risk and the Insurance Company acted in practice as a reinsurer. The process to hire this contract was not competitive and colligated companies ended up providing the service. Several distortions affected competition in the market through incentives to cream-skim members by AFPs (since they bear most of the risk) or efforts to block disability claims. Since the price of this insurance is hidden in the fees charged by AFPs for the administration of individual accounts and pension funds there was lack of price transparency. Since new AFPs have no history of members’ disability and mortality profile the insurance contract acted as a barrier to entry in the market of AFP services, especially when D&S insurance costs reached 50% of total costs. Cross-subsidies between members of the same AFP, inefficient risk pooling (due to pooling occurring at the AFP rather than at the system level) and regulatory arbitrage, since AFPs provided insurance not being regulated as an insurance company, were also present. A centralized auction mechanism solves these market failures, but also gives raise to new challenges, such as how to design a competitive auction that attracts participation and deters collusion. Design features that were incorporated in the regulation to tackle these issues, such as dividing coverage into predefined percentage blocks, are presented

  5. Evaluation of Aviation Career Pay Incentives Among the Naval Aviation Enterprise Utilizing Auction Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    efficiently utilize the required resources and maximize combat readiness. The typical career path for a Navy aviation officer includes five stages...AVIATION CAREER PAY INCENTIVES AMONG THE NAVAL AVIATION ENTERPRISE UTILIZING AUCTION MECHANISMS by Brett M. Williams March 2015 Thesis Advisor...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS EVALUATION OF AVIATION CAREER PAY INCENTIVES

  6. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction

    PubMed Central

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, GH

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer’s utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  7. Research at the auction block: Problems for the fair benefits approach to international research.

    PubMed

    London, Alex John; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2010-01-01

    The "fair benefits" approach to international research is designed to produce results that all can agree are fair without taking a stand on divisive questions of justice. But its appealing veneer of collaboration masks ambiguities at both a conceptual and an operational level. An attempt to put it into practice would look a lot like an auction, leaving little reason to think the outcomes will satisfy even minimal conditions of fairness.

  8. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hundredth of a whole percentage point, for example, 17.13%. (b) Determining the interest rate for new note and bond issues. We set the interest rate at a 1/8 of one percent increment. If a Treasury note or bond auction results in a yield lower than 0.125 percent, the interest rate will be set at 1/8 of one...

  9. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hundredth of a whole percentage point, for example, 17.13%. (b) Determining the interest rate for new note and bond issues. We set the interest rate at a 1/8 of one percent increment. If a Treasury note or bond auction results in a yield lower than 0.125 percent, the interest rate will be set at 1/8 of one...

  10. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hundredth of a whole percentage point, for example, 17.13%. (b) Determining the interest rate for new note and bond issues. We set the interest rate at a 1/8 of one percent increment. If a Treasury note or bond auction results in a yield lower than 0.125 percent, the interest rate will be set at 1/8 of one...

  11. A Hierarchical Auction-Based Mechanism for Real-Time Resource Allocation in Cloud Robotic Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lujia; Liu, Ming; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing enables users to share computing resources on-demand. The cloud computing framework cannot be directly mapped to cloud robotic systems with ad hoc networks since cloud robotic systems have additional constraints such as limited bandwidth and dynamic structure. However, most multirobotic applications with cooperative control adopt this decentralized approach to avoid a single point of failure. Robots need to continuously update intensive data to execute tasks in a coordinated manner, which implies real-time requirements. Thus, a resource allocation strategy is required, especially in such resource-constrained environments. This paper proposes a hierarchical auction-based mechanism, namely link quality matrix (LQM) auction, which is suitable for ad hoc networks by introducing a link quality indicator. The proposed algorithm produces a fast and robust method that is accurate and scalable. It reduces both global communication and unnecessary repeated computation. The proposed method is designed for firm real-time resource retrieval for physical multirobot systems. A joint surveillance scenario empirically validates the proposed mechanism by assessing several practical metrics. The results show that the proposed LQM auction outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for resource allocation.

  12. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  13. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  14. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... live animals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the...

  15. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... live animals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the...

  16. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... live animals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the...

  17. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... live animals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the...

  18. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall...

  19. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall...

  20. Comparing the performance of the public, social security and private health subsystems in Argentina by core dimensions of primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Báscolo, Ernesto Pablo; Haggerty, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Most Latin American health systems are comprised of public (PubS), social security (SSS) and private (PrS) subsystems. These subsystems coexist, causing health care fragmentation and population segmentation. Objective. To estimate the extent of subsystem cross-coverage in a geographically bounded population (Rosario city) and to compare the subsystems’ performance on primary health care (PHC) dimensions. Methods. Through a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey to a representative sample (n = 822) of the Rosario population, we measured the percentage of cross-coverage (people with usual source of care in one subsystem but also covered by another subsystem) and the health services’ performance by core PHC dimensions, as reported by each subsystem’s usual users. We compared the subsystems’ performance using chi-square analysis and one-way analysis of variance testing. We analyzed whether the observed differences were coherent with the predominant institutional and organizational features of each subsystem. Results. Overall, 39.3% of the population was affiliated with the PubS, 44.8% with the SSS and 15.9% with the PrS. Cross-coverage was reported by 40.6% of respondents. The performance of the PubS was weak on accessibility but strong on person-and-community-oriented care, the opposite of the PrS. The SSS combined the strengths of the other two subsystems. Conclusion. Rosario’s health system has a high percentage of cross-coverage, contributing to issues of fragmentation, segmentation, financial inequity and inefficiency. The overall performance of the SSS was better than that of the PrS and PubS, though each subsystem had a particular performance pattern with areas of strength and weakness that were consistent with their institutional and organizational profiles. PMID:27377651

  1. Exercise-referral scheme to promote physical activity among hypertensive patients: design of a cluster randomized trial in the Primary Health Care Units of Mexico's Social Security System.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; García-Peña, Carmen; Salmerón, Jorge; Salgado-de-Snyder, Velia Nelly; Vázquez-Cabrer, Gabriel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-07-09

    Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution. We will describe the methods of a cluster randomized trial study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise referral scheme to increasing physical activity in hypertensive patients compared to a non-referral scheme. Four PHCU were selected for the study; the PHCU will take part as the unit of randomization and sedentary hypertensive patients as the unit of assessment. 2 PHCU of control group (GC) will provide information to hypertensive patients about physical activity benefits and ways to increase it safely. 2 PHCU of intervention group (IG) will refer patients to sports facilities at the same institution, to follow a group-based PA program developed to increase the PA levels with a designed based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. To evaluate the effects of the intervention as well as short-term maintenance of the intervention's effects, PA will be assessed at baseline, at 24 and 32 weeks of follow-up.The main outcome will be the difference before and after intervention in the percentage of participants meeting recommended levels of PA between and within intervention and control groups. PA will be measured through self-report and with objective measure by accelerometer. This study will allow us to evaluate a multidisciplinary effort to link the primary care and community-based areas of the same

  2. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  3. 75 FR 32773 - Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz Service Licenses Scheduled for December 7...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum or provide service to certain areas in their geographic..., Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For auction legal questions: Sayuri Rajapakse at (202) 418-0660; for... 89 will include a total of 1,868 licenses. These include licenses for spectrum not previously...

  4. The impact of product information and trials on demand for smokeless tobacco and cigarettes: Evidence from experimental auctions

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; O'Connor, Richard; Thrasher, James F; June, Kristie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests lower risk of smokeless tobacco (ST) products compared to cigarettes. Less is known, however, about consumer perceptions and use of novel forms of ST, including snus and dissolvable tobacco. Methods In this study, we conducted in-person experimental auctions in Buffalo, NY, Columbia, SC, and Selinsgrove, PA with 571 smokers to test the impact of information and product trials on smokers’ preferences. Auctions were conducted between November 2010-November 2011. Results We found no evidence of an impact of product trials on demand in our auctions. Anti-ST information increased demand for cigarettes when presented alone, but when presented with Pro-ST information it decreased demand for cigarettes. It did not decrease demand for ST products. Anti-smoking information increased demand for ST products, but did not affect cigarette demand. Conclusions These findings suggest that credible and effective communications about tobacco harm reduction should reinforce the negative effects of smoking. PMID:24321456

  5. Food security is related to adult type 2 diabetes control over time in a United States safety net primary care clinic population.

    PubMed

    Shalowitz, M U; Eng, J S; McKinney, C O; Krohn, J; Lapin, B; Wang, C-H; Nodine, E

    2017-05-15

    Successful Type 2 diabetes management requires adopting a high nutrient-density diet made up of food items that both meet dietary needs and preferences and can be feasibly obtained on a regular basis. However, access to affordable, nutrient-dense foods often is lacking in poorer neighbourhoods. Therefore, low food security should directly impair glucose control, even when patients have full access to and utilize comprehensive medical management. The present study sought to determine whether food security is related longitudinally to glucose control, over-and-above ongoing medication management, among Type 2 diabetes patients receiving comprehensive care at a Midwestern multi-site federally qualified health centre (FQHC). In this longitudinal observational study, we completed a baseline assessment of patients' food security (using the US Household Food Security Module), demographics (via Census items), and diabetes history/management (using a structured clinical encounter form) when patients began receiving diabetes care at the health centre. We then recorded those patients' A1C levels several times during a 24-month follow-up period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients (56% with low food security) had a baseline A1c measurement; a subsample of 336 (median age=52 years; 56% female; 60% Hispanic, 27% African American, and 9% White) also had at least one follow-up A1c measurement. Patients with lower (vs higher) food security were more likely to be on insulin and have higher A1c levels at baseline. Moreover, the disparity in glucose control by food security status persisted throughout the next 2 years. Although results were based on one multi-site FQHC, potentially limiting their generalizability, they seem to suggest that among Type 2 diabetes patients, low food security directly impairs glucose control-even when patients receive full access to comprehensive medical management-thereby increasing their long-term risks of high morbidity, early mortality, and high

  6. Challenges posed to the traceability of weaner pigs following live auction.

    PubMed

    Sithole, F; Toribio, J; Schembri, N; Holyoake, P K

    2009-04-01

    To gather demographic data on live pig sales through a peri-urban saleyard in Camden, New South Wales, and to demonstrate the difficulties in tracing the subsequent movements of pigs, particularly weaner pigs. Records of pig sales held weekly at the Camden saleyards for the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 financial years were analysed. Saleyard data on a number of variables were entered into a purpose-designed database. Distributions of pig sales according to pig class (weaner/porker/baconer/backfatter), purchaser type (butcher/non-butcher), and transaction type (cash/account) were determined. More weaners (3192 in 2003/2004 and 3940 in 2004/2005) were sold than any other class of pig, accounting for 45% of the total pigs sold during this period. During 2003/2004, 3802 pigs were bought by 329 non-butcher purchasers including 1631 weaners (43%) purchased by 153 non-butchers (47%). The majority of these non-butchers during the study period (86%) paid cash for their pigs and did not provide the necessary information to allow the end destination of pigs to be determined. Location data was available for all vendors but only 25% of purchasers. This study highlights the challenges posed in tracing movement of pigs following sale by auction. A high proportion of weaners sold at this peri-urban saleyard would not have been slaughtered immediately. This study highlights the potential difficulties in tracing pig movements after sale, for disease control purposes. We recommend that legislation be amended requiring the identification of weaner pigs sold live at auction in all states of Australia and the recording of the property identification code of all vendors and purchasers of pigs sold live at auction.

  7. The Allocation of Runway Slots by Auction. Volume I. Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-15

    7.3 Net Earnings After Slot Payments, After Taxes 32 7.4 Small Communities Average Enplanements/Day 34 Vill I. BACKGROUND The Airline Deregulation Act...34 HUREAU OF TANDARLS 1%3 Volume I The Allocation ofRunway Slots by----IN__ Auction Office of Aviation Policy Washington, D.C. 20590 xecutive Summary...Princeton, NJ 08540 / DOT-FA79WA-4374 , 13 Type of Repor, end Ps.,od Co.e.ed 12. Sp.onseorn Agency Name and Addess Office of Aviation Policy Final Report

  8. A Winner Determination Algorithm for Combinatorial Auctions Based on Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Genrang; Lin, ZhengChun

    The problem of winner determination in combinatorial auctions is a hotspot electronic business, and a NP hard problem. A Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(HAFSA), which is combined with First Suite Heuristic Algorithm (FSHA) and Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA), is proposed to solve the problem after probing it base on the theories of AFSA. Experiment results show that the HAFSA is a rapidly and efficient algorithm for The problem of winner determining. Compared with Ant colony Optimization Algorithm, it has a good performance with broad and prosperous application.

  9. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  10. The impact of free trial acceptance on demand for alternative nicotine products: evidence from experimental auctions.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James M; Thrasher, James F

    2015-06-11

    This study explored the relationship between product trials and consumer demand for alternative nicotine products (ANP). An experimental auction was conducted with 258 adult smokers, wherein participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. The participants received the opportunity to try, but did not have to accept, one of three relatively novel ST products (i.e., snus, dissolvable tobacco, or medicinal nicotine), or they were placed into a control group (i.e., no trial). All the participants then bid on all three of these products, as well as on cigarettes. We assessed interest in using ANP based on both trial of the product and bids placed for the products in the experimental auction. Fewer smokers were willing to try snus (44%) than dissolvable tobacco (64%) or medicine nicotine (68%). For snus, we find modest evidence suggesting that willingness to try is associated with greater demand for the product. For dissolvable tobacco or medicinal nicotine, we find no evidence that those who accept the product trial have higher demand for the product. Free trials of a novel ANP were not strongly associated with product demand, as assessed by willingness to pay. Given the debate over the potential for ANP to reduce the harm from smoking, these results are important in understanding the impact of free trial offers on adoption of ST product as a strategy to reduce harm from tobacco use.

  11. 75 FR 22792 - Closed Auction of Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for July 20, 2010; Notice and Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... guarantee of business success. iv. Use of Integrated Spectrum Auction System 27. The Commission will make... deadline, such as the acquisition of attributable interests in media of mass communications, may cause... deadline. Thus, any change in control of an applicant, resulting from a merger, for example, will be...

  12. 76 FR 21350 - Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Scheduled for July 19, 2011; Notice and Filing Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... such geographic area licensees to use certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum or provide... of the electromagnetic spectrum or provide ] service to certain areas in their geographic license... Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For legal questions: Lynne Milne at (202)...

  13. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.308 How will MMS conduct an auction...

  14. Reputation mechanism: From resolution for truthful online auctions to the model of optimal one-gambler problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.

  15. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  16. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. 97.721 Section 97.721 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 2...

  17. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. 97.621 Section 97.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... control period in 2014 and 2015. (d) By July 1, 2014, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group 1...

  18. 49 CFR 599.402 - Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. 599.402 Section 599.402 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  19. 49 CFR 599.402 - Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. 599.402 Section 599.402 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  20. 81 FR 3465 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Competitive Sealed-Bid, Oral Auction Sale and Segregation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-01-21

    ... Competitive Sealed-Bid, Oral Auction Sale and Segregation of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau... to offer a parcel of public land totaling 120.84 acres in Owyhee County, Idaho, by competitive sealed... sale is consistent with the 1999 Owyhee Resource Management Plan (RMP), Record of Decision,...

  1. 77 FR 22575 - The Auction Block Company, an Alaska Corporation v. the City of Homer, a Municipal Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION The Auction Block Company, an Alaska Corporation v. the City of Homer, a Municipal Corporation and Its Port of Homer; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment Notice is given that a complaint has been...

  2. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... applicant to submit a right-of-way (ROW) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on... solicitations of interest and ROW applications within two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes East...

  3. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  4. 75 FR 38545 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Auction of Public Lands in White Pine County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management [LLNVL01000 L14300000.EU0000 241A; N-86667; 10-08807; MO 4500012445; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Auction of Public Lands in White Pine County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004. 27.1213 Section 27.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004. 27.1213 Section 27.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004. 27.1213 Section 27.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS...

  8. 76 FR 76174 - Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry-Auction Format...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy... auction formats which may be used to issue commercial renewable energy leases on the Outer Continental... offshore renewable energy industry, including economic matters that promote or detract from continued...

  9. 78 FR 72081 - Closed Auction of AM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for May 6, 2014; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... number, for example, DA 13-2168. The Auction 84 Comment Public Notice and related documents also are... will be awarded for each MX group identified in Attachment A. III. Due Diligence 4. Each potential... existence of pending administrative or judicial proceedings that might affect its decisions regarding...

  10. 77 FR 61771 - Facility Security Officer Training Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Facility Security Officer Training Requirements AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... receive comments on the development of a Facility Security Officer training program, with the primary... training requirements, and to coordinate with the Maritime Administrator of the Department...

  11. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  12. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  13. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  14. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  15. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  16. The remote security station (RSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform.

  17. Effects of scarcity, aesthetics and ecology on wildlife auction prices of large African mammals.

    PubMed

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, María; Muñiz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Plácido

    2017-08-22

    For successful integration of biological conservation into economic markets, economic processes need to capture ecological values. South African wildlife ranching is a tourist-based activity that generates unique information on the economic value of wildlife species. We used public data from South African wildlife auctions to evaluate if annual prices 1991-2012 related to species characteristics associated with scarcity, aesthetics and ecology of South African carnivores and ungulates. While none of the species characteristics influenced carnivore prices, ungulate prices were related to characteristics associated with novelty and aesthetics, which relative importance had increased over time. We raise both ecological and economic concerns for this apparent focus. Our results also suggest a potential importance of non-species-related factors, such as market and buyer characteristics. We encourage further evaluation of the relative influences of species characteristics versus factors that are intrinsically linked to economic processes on price variations in South African wildlife.

  18. A novel method for strategy acquisition and its application to a double-auction market game.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Steve; McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a method for strategy acquisition in nonzero-sum n -player games and empirically validate it by applying it to a well-known benchmark problem in this domain, namely, the double-auction market. Many existing approaches to strategy acquisition focus on attempting to find strategies that are robust in the sense that they are good all-round performers against all-comers. We argue that, in many economic and multiagent scenarios, the robustness criterion is inappropriate; in contrast, our method focuses on searching for strategies that are likely to be adopted by participating agents, which is formalized as the size of a strategy's basins of attraction under the replicator dynamics.

  19. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  20. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  1. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  2. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  3. Salary Auctions and Matching as Incentives for Recruiting to Positions that are Hard to Fill in the Norwegian Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    represent common examples of items having independent private-values. This can be illustrated by an auction for a ticket to the Ice- hockey Final in...the second person prefers Skiing or Biathlon. The third person is a real ice- hockey fan and his favorite team has just qualified for the Olympics...increases54. Bidding more aggressively is not just a general reflex to increased competition, but rather a feature that differs between the different

  4. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Information Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    NOTES 2002 Command & Control Research & Technology Symposium 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...information security including this list of definitions. Definitions: * Confidentiality . Unintended recipients can’t read our traffic. Confidentiality ...attacks. * Traffic analysis. Ability to derive intelligence from the addresses of messages, even if the contents are confidentiality -protected

  8. The impact of product information and trials on demand for smokeless tobacco and cigarettes: evidence from experimental auctions.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; O'Connor, Richard J; Thrasher, James F; June, Kristie M; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests lower risk of smokeless tobacco (ST) products compared to cigarettes. Less is known, however, about consumer perceptions and use of novel forms of ST, including snus and dissolvable tobacco. In this study, we conducted in-person experimental auctions in Buffalo, NY, Columbia, SC, and Selinsgrove, PA with 571 smokers to test the impact of information and product trials on smokers' preferences. Auctions were conducted between November 2010-November 2011. We found no evidence of an impact of product trials on demand in our auctions. Anti-ST information increased demand for cigarettes when presented alone, but when presented with pro-ST information it decreased demand for cigarettes. It did not decrease demand for ST products. Anti-smoking information increased demand for ST products, but did not affect cigarette demand. These findings suggest that credible and effective communications about tobacco harm reduction should reinforce the negative effects of smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Auction-Based Spectrum Leasing Mechanism for Mobile Macro-Femtocell Networks of IoT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Lei; Qiu, Tie; Li, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a vision of the upcoming society. It can provide pervasive communication between two or more entities using 4G-LTE (Long Term Evolution) communication technology. In 4G-LTE networks, there are two important problems: helping manage the spectrum demands of IoT devices and achieving much more revenue with the limited resource. This paper proposes a pricing framework to investigate the spectrum leasing in mobile heterogeneous networks with single macrocell and multiple femtocells. We modeled the leasing procedure between the macrocell service provider (MSP) and femtocell holders (FHs) as an auction to motivate the MSP to lease its spectrum resource. All FHs act as the bidders, and the monopolist MSP acts as the auctioneer. In the auction, FHs submit their bids to rent the spectrum resource so that they can make a profit by selling it to their subscribers. The MSP determines the spectrum leasing amount and chooses the winning FHs by solving the dynamic programming-based 0–1 knapsack problem. In our proposed framework, we focus on the spectrum pricing strategy and revenue maximization of the MSP. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides effective motivation for the MSP to lease the spectrum to FHs, and both the MSP and FHs can benefit from spectrum leasing. PMID:28212317

  10. An Auction-Based Spectrum Leasing Mechanism for Mobile Macro-Femtocell Networks of IoT.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Lei; Qiu, Tie; Li, Zhuo

    2017-02-16

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a vision of the upcoming society. It can provide pervasive communication between two or more entities using 4G-LTE (Long Term Evolution) communication technology. In 4G-LTE networks, there are two important problems: helping manage the spectrum demands of IoT devices and achieving much more revenue with the limited resource. This paper proposes a pricing framework to investigate the spectrum leasing in mobile heterogeneous networks with single macrocell and multiple femtocells. We modeled the leasing procedure between the macrocell service provider (MSP) and femtocell holders (FHs) as an auction to motivate the MSP to lease its spectrum resource. All FHs act as the bidders, and the monopolist MSP acts as the auctioneer. In the auction, FHs submit their bids to rent the spectrum resource so that they can make a profit by selling it to their subscribers. The MSP determines the spectrum leasing amount and chooses the winning FHs by solving the dynamic programming-based 0-1 knapsack problem. In our proposed framework, we focus on the spectrum pricing strategy and revenue maximization of the MSP. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides effective motivation for the MSP to lease the spectrum to FHs, and both the MSP and FHs can benefit from spectrum leasing.

  11. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  12. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  13. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  14. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  15. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  16. Diagnosis security.

    PubMed

    Crumbley, James R

    2005-01-01

    How one hospital (designed with multiple entrances intended to ease traffic flow, rather than prevent unauthorized entry) assessed and improved its physical security and loss prevention programs while it upgraded its supply chain controls.

  17. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  18. Robotic Security Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    robotic security platforms that automatically respond in an adaptive fashion to potential disturbances reported by a broad-area field of fixed unattended...sensors represents a powerful new defensive tool for mitigating the terrorist threat. Background The primary purpose of any robotic system is to...mobile robots , the predominant challenge is one of perception, in that the very nature of mobility introduces a never-ending sequence of dynamically

  19. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  20. Genetic relationships between temperament of calves at auction and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Inoue, Keiichi

    2017-10-01

    Correlations of calves' temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.13 to -0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  2. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated. PMID:26911226

  3. Emergence of Cooperative Long-Term Market Loyalty in Double Auction Markets

    PubMed Central

    Alorić, Aleksandra; Sollich, Peter; McBurney, Peter; Galla, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Loyal buyer-seller relationships can arise by design, e.g. when a seller tailors a product to a specific market niche to accomplish the best possible returns, and buyers respond to the dedicated efforts the seller makes to meet their needs. We ask whether it is possible, instead, for loyalty to arise spontaneously, and in particular as a consequence of repeated interaction and co-adaptation among the agents in a market. We devise a stylized model of double auction markets and adaptive traders that incorporates these features. Traders choose where to trade (which market) and how to trade (to buy or to sell) based on their previous experience. We find that when the typical scale of market returns (or, at fixed scale of returns, the intensity of choice) become higher than some threshold, the preferred state of the system is segregated: both buyers and sellers are segmented into subgroups that are persistently loyal to one market over another. We characterize the segregated state analytically in the limit of large markets: it is stabilized by some agents acting cooperatively to enable trade, and provides higher rewards than its unsegregated counterpart both for individual traders and the population as a whole. PMID:27120473

  4. Emergence of Cooperative Long-Term Market Loyalty in Double Auction Markets.

    PubMed

    Alorić, Aleksandra; Sollich, Peter; McBurney, Peter; Galla, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Loyal buyer-seller relationships can arise by design, e.g. when a seller tailors a product to a specific market niche to accomplish the best possible returns, and buyers respond to the dedicated efforts the seller makes to meet their needs. We ask whether it is possible, instead, for loyalty to arise spontaneously, and in particular as a consequence of repeated interaction and co-adaptation among the agents in a market. We devise a stylized model of double auction markets and adaptive traders that incorporates these features. Traders choose where to trade (which market) and how to trade (to buy or to sell) based on their previous experience. We find that when the typical scale of market returns (or, at fixed scale of returns, the intensity of choice) become higher than some threshold, the preferred state of the system is segregated: both buyers and sellers are segmented into subgroups that are persistently loyal to one market over another. We characterize the segregated state analytically in the limit of large markets: it is stabilized by some agents acting cooperatively to enable trade, and provides higher rewards than its unsegregated counterpart both for individual traders and the population as a whole.

  5. Reverse Auction: A Potential Strategy for Reduction of Pharmacological Therapy Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Sara Michelly Gonçalves; Issa, Victor Sarli; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Storer, Samantha; Gonçalves, Bianca Gigliotti; Santos, Valter Garcia; Carvas Junior, Nelson; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. Objective We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. Methods We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. Results The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. Conclusion RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment. PMID:26200898

  6. Auction-Based Resource Allocation for Cooperative Video Transmission Protocols over Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhu; Su, Guan-Ming; Wang, Haohong; Ci, Song; Su, Weifeng

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative transmission has been proposed as a novel transmission strategy that takes advantage of broadcast nature of wireless networks, forms virtual MIMO system, and provides diversity gains. In this paper, wireless video transmission protocols are proposed, in which the spectrum resources are first allocated for the source side to broadcast video packets to the relay and destination, and then for the relay side to transmit side information generated from the received packets. The proposed protocols are optimized to minimize the end-to-end expected distortion via choosing bandwidth/power allocation, configuration of side information, subject to bandwidth and power constraints. For multiuser cases, most of current resource allocation approaches cannot be naturally extended and applied to the networks with relay nodes for video transmission. This paper extends the share auction approach into the cooperative video communication scenarios and provides a near-optimal solution for resource allocation. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach has significant advantage of up to 4 dB gain in single user case and 1.3 dB gain in multiuser case over the reference systems in terms of peak-to-signal-noise ratio. In addition, it reduces the formidable computational complexity of the optimal solution to linear complexity with performance degradation of less than 0.3 dB.

  7. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand.

  8. Starting low but ending high: a reversal of the anchoring effect in auctions.

    PubMed

    Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D; Murnighan, J Keith

    2006-06-01

    Counter to the "start high, end high" effect of anchors in individual judgments and dyadic negotiations, 6 studies using a diverse set of methodologies document how and why, in the social setting of auctions, lower starting prices result in higher final prices. Three processes contribute to this effect. First, lower starting prices reduce barriers to entry, which increase traffic and generate higher final prices. Second, lower starting prices entice bidders to invest time and energy (creating sunk costs) and, consequently, escalate their commitments. Third, the traffic generated by lower starting prices can lead bidders to infer value in the item, thereby explaining previous findings that traffic begets more traffic. The authors show that barriers to entry that limit traffic (e.g., a misspelled brand name) lead to anchoring's normal assimilative effect rather than its reversal. By broadening the understanding of anchors to extended social interactions and open markets, the authors identify when and why starting prices anchor. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Reverse auction: a potential strategy for reduction of pharmacological therapy cost.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sara Michelly Gonçalves; Issa, Victor Sarli; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Storer, Samantha; Gonçalves, Bianca Gigliotti; Santos, Valter Garcia; Carvas Junior, Nelson; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2015-09-01

    Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment.

  10. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-02-25

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated.

  11. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated.

  12. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  13. Evaluation of PersianCAT Agent's Accepting Policy in Continuous Double Auction, Participant in CAT 2007 Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honari, Sina; Fos-Hati, Amin; Ebadi, Mojtaba; Gomrokchi, Maziar

    As there is a growing tendency towards online auctions, online Multi Agent Systems for economic activities like stock exchanges is more in demand. CAT (CATallactics) competition has produced a great opportunity for researchers since 2007 to put their theories into practice in a real-time economic-based competition, combining traders and brokers. As one of participants, we evaluated our new accepting policy by putting it to challenge. In this paper we give a general overview of one of our policies in the market.

  14. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  15. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  16. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  17. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K R

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  18. Scalable Group Key Management for Secure Multicast: A Taxonomy and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sencun; Jajodia, Sushil

    Many multicast-based applications (e.g., pay-per-view, online auction, and teleconferencing) require a secure communication model to prevent disclosure of distributed data to unauthorized users. One solution for achieving this goal is to let all members in a group share a key that is used for encrypting data. To provide backward and forward confidentiality [23] (i.e., a new member should not be allowed to decrypt the earlier communication and a revoked user should not be able to decrypt the future communication), this shared group key should be updated and redistributed to all authorized members in a secure, reliable, and timely fashion upon a membership change. This process is referred to as group rekeying.

  19. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  20. Image Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- ers...protection for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  1. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  2. A Virtual Field Trip to the Real World of Cap and Trade: Environmental Economics and the EPA SO[subscript 2] Allowance Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lynne Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, Bates College Environmental Economics classes bought their first sulfur dioxide emissions allowance at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual auction, then conducted by the Chicago Board of Trade. In the spring of 2010, they bought their 22nd through 34th allowances. This article describes a three-part method for…

  3. A Virtual Field Trip to the Real World of Cap and Trade: Environmental Economics and the EPA SO[subscript 2] Allowance Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lynne Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, Bates College Environmental Economics classes bought their first sulfur dioxide emissions allowance at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual auction, then conducted by the Chicago Board of Trade. In the spring of 2010, they bought their 22nd through 34th allowances. This article describes a three-part method for…

  4. A revealed preference approach to estimating supply curves for ecosystem services: use of auctions to set payments for soil erosion control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jack, B Kelsey; Leimona, Beria; Ferraro, Paul J

    2009-04-01

    To supply ecosystem services, private landholders incur costs. Knowledge of these costs is critical for the design of conservation-payment programs. Estimating these costs accurately is difficult because the minimum acceptable payment to a potential supplier is private information. We describe how an auction of payment contracts can be designed to elicit this information during the design phase of a conservation-payment program. With an estimate of the ecosystem-service supply curve from a pilot auction, conservation planners can explore the financial, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences of alternative scaled-up programs. We demonstrate the potential of our approach in Indonesia, where soil erosion on coffee farms generates downstream ecological and economic costs. Bid data from a small-scale, uniform-price auction for soil-conservation contracts allowed estimates of the costs of a scaled-up program, the gain from integrating biophysical and economic data to target contracts, and the trade-offs between poverty alleviation and supply of ecosystem services. Our study illustrates an auction-based approach to revealing private information about the costs of supplying ecosystem services. Such information can improve the design of programs devised to protect and enhance ecosystem services.

  5. Homeland Security, A Primary Army Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing, water, transportation, health care, and emergency services. 3" DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) DoD’s regional planning focus placed no...destruction, where civilian law enforcement is incapable of taking action "* To execute quarantine and health laws, and "* To protect or advance a variety...preserving public health and safety in the event of a major domestic disaster, which would include a WMD attack. ś’ Ibid., 25. According to Stevens

  6. When trust defies common security sense.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2008-09-01

    Primary care medical practices fail to recognize the seriousness of security threats to their patient and practice information. This can be attributed to a lack of understanding of security concepts, underestimation of potential threats and the difficulty in configuration of security technology countermeasures. To appreciate the factors contributing to such problems, research into general practitioner security practice and perceptions of security was undertaken. The investigation focused on demographics, actual practice, issues and barriers, and practitioner perception. Poor implementation, lack of relevant knowledge and inconsistencies between principles and practice were identified as key themes. Also the results revealed an overwhelming reliance on trust in staff and in computer information systems. This clearly identified that both cultural and technical attributes contribute to the deficiencies in information security practice. The aim of this research is to understand user needs and problems when dealing with information security practice.

  7. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  8. 77 FR 75459 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Information'' in order to both make clear that the rule should apply to IPO Auctions and to make a change to... auction (an ``IPO Auction''), and an auction in the event of a halt of trading in the security (a ``Halt... apply to both IPO Auctions and Halt Auctions, and to make a change to the data that will be disseminated...

  9. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  10. Exercise-referral scheme to promote physical activity among hypertensive patients: design of a cluster randomized trial in the Primary Health Care Units of Mexico’s Social Security System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution. Methods and design We will describe the methods of a cluster randomized trial study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise referral scheme to increasing physical activity in hypertensive patients compared to a non-referral scheme. Four PHCU were selected for the study; the PHCU will take part as the unit of randomization and sedentary hypertensive patients as the unit of assessment. 2 PHCU of control group (GC) will provide information to hypertensive patients about physical activity benefits and ways to increase it safely. 2 PHCU of intervention group (IG) will refer patients to sports facilities at the same institution, to follow a group-based PA program developed to increase the PA levels with a designed based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. To evaluate the effects of the intervention as well as short-term maintenance of the intervention’s effects, PA will be assessed at baseline, at 24 and 32 weeks of follow-up. The main outcome will be the difference before and after intervention in the percentage of participants meeting recommended levels of PA between and within intervention and control groups. PA will be measured through self-report and with objective measure by accelerometer. Discussion This study will allow us to evaluate a multidisciplinary effort to link the primary

  11. National security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the views presented on October 31, 1991, at a GAO-sponsored conference on worldwide threats to U.S. national security. The conference was designed to provide insight into potential military threats to U.S. security interests and necessary modifications to current and planned U.S. forces to meet those threats. Conference participants, including defense analysts and retired military officers, discussed and analyzed the possibility of U.S. and allied involvement in various regional contingencies in Europe and the Soviet Union, Eat Asia and the Pacific, and the Near East and South Asia. Topics ranged from the possibility of nuclear war to a general discussion of low-intensity conflict. To serve as a starting point for discussion, we asked several of the participants to provide papers representing a wide range of views. The participants agreed that for many years the Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat to Europe shaped U.S. force planning but that the Soviet union no longer posed a conventional threat. Nuclear weapons held by the former Soviet republics and other nations, however, remain a concern. There was no agreement of the methodology for sizing U.S. forces. Some argued for sizing based on specific threats; other argued for flexibility to meet any and all contingencies and cited the Gulf War as a example.

  12. Investor structure and the price-volume relationship in a continuous double auction market: An agent-based modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Zhengzheng; Shen, Dehua

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of investor structure on the price-volume relationship by simulating a continuous double auction market. Connected with the underlying mechanisms of the price-volume relationship, i.e., the Mixture of Distribution Hypothesis (MDH) and the Sequential Information Arrival Hypothesis (SIAH), the simulation results show that: (1) there exists a strong lead-lag relationship between the return volatility and trading volume when the number of informed investors is close to the number of uninformed investors in the market; (2) as more and more informed investors entering the market, the lead-lag relationship becomes weaker and weaker, while the contemporaneous relationship between the return volatility and trading volume becomes more prominent; (3) when the informed investors are in absolute majority, the market can achieve the new equilibrium immediately. Therefore, we can conclude that the investor structure is a key factor in affecting the price-volume relationship.

  13. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  14. Effect of brand and advertising medium on demand for e-cigarettes: Evidence from an experimental auction.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; O'Connor, Richard; Corrigan, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Print and television advertisements for e-cigarettes are currently legal in the United States. Given that e-cigarettes are a lower-risk alternative to cigarettes, these ads could have a positive public health impact if they motivate smokers to switch to e-cigarettes. However, the public health impact of e-cigarette ads could be negative if ads increase demand for both e-cigarettes and cigarettes. We use experimental auctions -in which participants bid in real auctions and winners pay for the items they purchase - to study the effect of print and TV e-cigarettes ads on demand for the brand from the ad, for another e-cigarettes brand, and for cigarettes. We ran experiments with 288 Pennsylvania smokers in November 2014-March 2015 and we found that in cases where an ad affects demand for e-cigarettes, the ad moves demand for cigarettes in the same direction. For example, the Blu print ad increases demand for Blu e-cigarettes and cigarettes among non-white participants. The Vuse TV ad reduces demand for both types of e-cigarettes and for cigarettes. We also find that non-white participants are willing to pay more for e-cigarettes in the absence of advertising, and that smokers who worry most about their health are willing to pay more for e-cigarettes. The results of this study point to the need for greater scrutiny of advertising for e-cigarette products such that they do not also induce demand for tobacco cigarettes.

  15. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  19. Predictive Dynamic Security Assessment through Advanced Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu

    2014-11-30

    Abstract— Traditional dynamic security assessment is limited by several factors and thus falls short in providing real-time information to be predictive for power system operation. These factors include the steady-state assumption of current operating points, static transfer limits, and low computational speed. This addresses these factors and frames predictive dynamic security assessment. The primary objective of predictive dynamic security assessment is to enhance the functionality and computational process of dynamic security assessment through the use of high-speed phasor measurements and the application of advanced computing technologies for faster-than-real-time simulation. This paper presents algorithms, computing platforms, and simulation frameworks that constitute the predictive dynamic security assessment capability. Examples of phasor application and fast computation for dynamic security assessment are included to demonstrate the feasibility and speed enhancement for real-time applications.

  20. 31 CFR 356.11 - How are bids submitted in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK... issue the awarded securities in the commercial book-entry system, in TreasuryDirect ®, or in Legacy..., whether or not such bids are authorized. (b) Commercial book-entry system. (1) If you are a submitter...

  1. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  2. Responses to the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking EPA published on June 6, 1996 regarding changes to the EPA allowance auctions and elimination of the direct sale

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    On June 6, 1996, EPA`s Acid Rain Program published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register seeking comment on: (1) whether to change the design of the annual sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance auctions; (2) whether to change the timing of the allowance auctions; (3) whether to change the requirement that the minimum price of offered allowances must be in whole dollars, and (4) whether EPA should propose the ability to submit allowance transfers electronically. EPA also published on that day a proposed and direct final rule on whether to eliminate the direct sale. This paper documents the issues addressed in the ANPRM, the comments EPA received, and EPA`s responses to those comments. EPA received comments from 14 separate commenters.

  3. Estimating the impact of various menu labeling formats on parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children: An experimental auction.

    PubMed

    Hobin, Erin; Lillico, Heather; Zuo, Fei; Sacco, Jocelyn; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2016-10-01

    This study experimentally tested whether parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children is influenced by various menu labeling formats disclosing calorie and sodium information. The study also examined the effect of various menu labeling formats on parents' ability to identify fast-food kids' meals with higher calorie and sodium content. Online surveys were conducted among parents of children aged 3-12. Parents were randomized to view 1 of 5 menu conditions: 1) No Nutrition Information; 2) Calories-Only; 3) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); 4) Calories, Sodium, + CS; and, 5) Calorie and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Using an established experimental auction study design, parents viewed replicated McDonald's menus according to their assigned condition and were asked to bid on 4 Happy Meals. A randomly selected price was chosen; bids equal to or above this price "won" the auction, and bids less than this price "lost" the auction. After the auction, participants were asked to identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories and sodium content. Adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates, the Calories, Sodium, + CS menu had a mean attributed value across all 4 Happy Meals which was 8% lower (-$0.31) than the Calories + CS menu (p < 0.05). Significantly more parents in the 4 menu conditions providing calories were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories (p < 0.0001) and significantly more parents in the 2 conditions providing sodium information were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest sodium content (p < 0.0001). Menus disclosing both calories and sodium information may reduce demand for fast-food kids' meals and better support parents in making more informed and healthier food choices for their children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Current status of illegal trade in pharmaceutical products on Internet auction sites in Japan and responses of site administrators to such transactions].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Hisakazu; Imaoka, Ayuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, it is illegal to sell pharmaceuticals on Internet auction sites, although a considerable number of pharmaceuticals are listed on such sites. We investigated the current situation regarding the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on Japanese Internet auction sites and the responses of site administrators to such transactions. We searched for pharmaceuticals and "gray" items that were suspected of being pharmaceuticals on Yahoo-oku! (Yahoo! Auctions, Japan) over a 37-day period and then submitted violation reports indicating that selling pharmaceuticals is illegal or that the description of an item was insufficient. The reports were directed to the site administrators and forwarded to the sellers. One hundred and six pharmaceutical products and 34 gray items were identified during the study period. After the submission of the violation reports, only 28 of the pharmaceutical products and one of the gray items were deleted by the administrator, while 18 of the pharmaceutical products and 7 of the gray items were withdrawn by their sellers. However, 41 pharmaceuticals and 20 gray items were sold. Most of the gray items were listed using characteristic terms or abbreviations without photographic images. More than 70% of the identified pharmaceuticals had a contraindication(s) other than hypersensitivity. In conclusion, the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on Internet auction sites remains a serious problem in Japan, and the responses of site administrators to such transactions are inadequate. The government and pharmaceutical industry may have to take measures such as providing public and administrative guidance to stop the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on the Internet.

  5. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services.

  6. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  7. Examining the relationship between psychosocial and behavioral proxies for future consumption behavior: self-reported impact and bidding behavior in an experimental auction study on cigarette labeling.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; Thrasher, James F

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and observational research often involves asking consumers to self-report the impact of some proposed option. Because self-reported responses involve no consequence to the respondent for falsely revealing how he or she feels about an issue, self-reports may be subject to social desirability and other influences that bias responses in important ways. In this article, we analyzed data from an experiment on the impact of cigarette packaging and pack warnings, comparing smokers' self-reported impact (four-item scale) and the bids they placed in experimental auctions to estimate differences in demand. The results were consistent across methods; however, the estimated effect size associated with different warning labels was two times greater for the four-item self-reported response scale when compared to the change in demand as indicated by auction bids. Our study provides evidence that self-reported psychosocial responses provide a valid proxy for behavioral change as reflected by experimental auction bidding behavior. More research is needed to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economic methods and traditional self-report approaches to evaluating health behavior change interventions.

  8. Examining the relationship between psychosocial and behavioral proxies for future consumption behavior: self-reported impact and bidding behavior in an experimental auction study on cigarette labeling

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; Thrasher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and observational research often involves asking consumers to self-report the impact of some proposed option. Because self-reported responses involve no consequence to the respondent for falsely revealing how he or she feels about an issue, self-reports may be subject to social desirability and other influences that bias responses in important ways. In this article, we analyzed data from an experiment on the impact of cigarette packaging and pack warnings, comparing smokers’ self-reported impact (four-item scale) and the bids they placed in experimental auctions to estimate differences in demand. The results were consistent across methods; however, the estimated effect size associated with different warning labels was two times greater for the four-item self-reported response scale when compared to the change in demand as indicated by auction bids. Our study provides evidence that self-reported psychosocial responses provide a valid proxy for behavioral change as reflected by experimental auction bidding behavior. More research is needed to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economic methods and traditional self-report approaches to evaluating health behavior change interventions. PMID:24399267

  9. Effect of management, marketing, and certified health programs on the sale price of beef calves sold through a livestock video auction service from 1995 through 2009.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Jon T; King, Michael E; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Rogers, Glenn M; Stokka, Gerald S

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate and update the previously quantified effects of management, marketing, and certified health programs on the sale price of beef calves sold through a livestock video auction service. Longitudinal study. 41,657 lots representing 5,042,272 beef calves sold from 1995 through 2009. Data describing each lot of beef calves marketed from 1995 through 2009 by a livestock video auction service were obtained from sale catalogues. For each year of the study, multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of management, marketing, and certified health programs on sale price. Sale date, base sale weight, quadratic effect of base weight, sex of calf, region of origin, breed description, inclusion in a certified health program, and number of calves in the lot significantly affected sale price for every year of the study. Variation in body weight, flesh score, and number of days between sale and delivery date had significant effects on price in most of the years; frame score and calves with horns affected price in 7 of 15 years; age and source verification influenced sale price in every year since source verification was introduced in 2005; and the auction service's progressive genetics program increased price during the 1 year that program was available. Some management, marketing, and certified health initiatives have consistently increased the sale price of beef calves, and producers can increase the price of their calves by implementing these practices.

  10. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  11. Unix Security Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, S. C.

    This document has been written to help Site Managers secure their Unix hosts from being compromised by hackers. I have given brief introductions to the security tools along with downloading, configuring and running information. I have also included a section on my recommendations for installing these security tools starting from an absolute minimum security requirement.

  12. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  13. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  14. School Security Roundtable, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    A roundtable discussion is presented revealing what experts say about school security problems and how they are being addressed. Also included are trend data from the School Security 2000 survey revealing top security concerns, strategies, and security equipment preferences; how site surveys can be used to keep schools safe; and how creating a…

  15. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of security in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program are: (1) to ensure the protection of information which, if related, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation; and (2) to safeguard the plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors in order that research and production programs will not be interrupted. To achieve these objectives, security responsibilities have been divided into three interdependent categories: personnel security, physical security, and security education and quality audits. This guide presents instructions for implementing a security program at a contractor/subcontractor site.

  16. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research.

  17. Encouraging stormwater management using a reverse auction: potential to restore stream ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff is the primary mechanism by which urbanizing landscapes disrupt natural, stream ecosystems. Source control management has been demonstrated as an effective and cost-efficient method for reducing stormwater runoff; however, sufficiently widespread implementation...

  18. Encouraging stormwater management using a reverse auction: potential to restore stream ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff is the primary mechanism by which urbanizing landscapes disrupt natural, stream ecosystems. Source control management has been demonstrated as an effective and cost-efficient method for reducing stormwater runoff; however, sufficiently widespread implementation...

  19. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  20. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  1. Detection of equine herpesvirus-4 and physiological stress patterns in young Thoroughbreds consigned to a South African auction sale.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Marcha; Page, Patrick; Ganswindt, Andre; Laver, Peter; Guthrie, Alan; Schulman, Martin

    2015-06-02

    The prevalence of equine herpesvirus types-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and -4) in South African Thoroughbreds at auction sales is currently undefined. Commingling of young Thoroughbreds from various populations together with physiological stress related to their transport and confinement at a sales complex, may be associated with shedding and transmission of EHV-1 and -4. This prospective cohort study sampled 90 young Thoroughbreds consigned from eight farms, originating from three provinces representative of the South African Thoroughbred breeding demographic to a sales complex. Nasal swabs for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect EHV-1 and -4 nucleic acid and blood samples for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for EHV-1 and -4 antibodies were collected from all horses on arrival and departure. Additional nasal swabs for qPCR were obtained serially from those displaying pyrexia and, or nasal discharge. Daily faecal samples were used for determination of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a measurement of physiological stress and these values were modelled to determine the factors best explaining FGM variability. EHV-4 nucleic acid was detected in 14.4 % and EHV-1 from none of the animals in the study population. Most (93.3 %) and very few (1.1 %) of this population showed antibodies indicating prior exposure to EHV-4 and EHV-1 respectively. Pyrexia and nasal discharge were poor predictors for detecting EHV-4 nucleic acid. The horses' FGM concentrations increased following arrival before decreasing for most of the remaining study period including the auction process. Model averaging showed that variation in FGM concentrations was best explained by days post-arrival and transport duration. In this study population, sales consignment was associated with limited detection of EHV-4 nucleic acid in nasal secretions, with most showing prior exposure to EHV-4 and very few to EHV-1. The physiological stress response shown by

  2. Homeland security challenges in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Boatright, Connie; McGlown, K Joanne

    2005-09-01

    Nurses need a comprehensive knowledge of doctrine, laws, regulations,programs, and processes that build the operational framework for health care preparedness. Key components of this knowledge base reside in the areas of: evolution of homeland security: laws and mandates affecting health care and compliance and regulatory issues for health care organizations. This article addresses primary components in both of these areas, after first assessing the status of nursing's involvement (in homeland security), as portrayed in the professional literature.

  3. DoD Installation Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    Opportunities  New revenue streams ● DoD Drivers  Economics  Energy security Smart MicroGrids 3 Military Installations and Energy Markets...58.8 MW Military Installations Often Do Not Look Like Commercial Facilities 5 DoD and Microgrids ● Must include an interconnected set of loads...grid and the local utility market Primary goal of DoD installation microgrids is to provide energy security in a cost effective manner. 6

  4. Poisson-process generalization for the trading waiting-time distribution in a double-auction mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, Silvano; Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Scalas, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, empirical analyses and computational experiments are presented on high-frequency data for a double-auction (book) market. Main objective of the paper is to generalize the order waiting time process in order to properly model such empirical evidences. The empirical study is performed on the best bid and best ask data of 7 U.S. financial markets, for 30-stock time series. In particular, statistical properties of trading waiting times have been analyzed and quality of fits is evaluated by suitable statistical tests, i.e., comparing empirical distributions with theoretical models. Starting from the statistical studies on real data, attention has been focused on the reproducibility of such results in an artificial market. The computational experiments have been performed within the Genoa Artificial Stock Market. In the market model, heterogeneous agents trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents have zero intelligence and issue random limit or market orders depending on their budget constraints. The price is cleared by means of a limit order book. The order generation is modelled with a renewal process. Based on empirical trading estimation, the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive orders is modelled by a mixture of exponential processes. Results show that the empirical waiting-time distribution can be considered as a generalization of a Poisson process. Moreover, the renewal process can approximate real data and implementation on the artificial stocks market can reproduce the trading activity in a realistic way.

  5. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  6. Practical Computer Security through Cryptography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNab, David; Twetev, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The core protocols upon which the Internet was built are insecure. Weak authentication and the lack of low level encryption services introduce vulnerabilities that propagate upwards in the network stack. Using statistics based on CERT/CC Internet security incident reports, the relative likelihood of attacks via these vulnerabilities is analyzed. The primary conclusion is that the standard UNIX BSD-based authentication system is by far the most commonly exploited weakness. Encryption of Sensitive password data and the adoption of cryptographically-based authentication protocols can greatly reduce these vulnerabilities. Basic cryptographic terminology and techniques are presented, with attention focused on the ways in which technology such as encryption and digital signatures can be used to protect against the most commonly exploited vulnerabilities. A survey of contemporary security software demonstrates that tools based on cryptographic techniques, such as Kerberos, ssh, and PGP, are readily available and effectively close many of the most serious security holes. Nine practical recommendations for improving security are described.

  7. Practical Computer Security through Cryptography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNab, David; Twetev, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The core protocols upon which the Internet was built are insecure. Weak authentication and the lack of low level encryption services introduce vulnerabilities that propagate upwards in the network stack. Using statistics based on CERT/CC Internet security incident reports, the relative likelihood of attacks via these vulnerabilities is analyzed. The primary conclusion is that the standard UNIX BSD-based authentication system is by far the most commonly exploited weakness. Encryption of Sensitive password data and the adoption of cryptographically-based authentication protocols can greatly reduce these vulnerabilities. Basic cryptographic terminology and techniques are presented, with attention focused on the ways in which technology such as encryption and digital signatures can be used to protect against the most commonly exploited vulnerabilities. A survey of contemporary security software demonstrates that tools based on cryptographic techniques, such as Kerberos, ssh, and PGP, are readily available and effectively close many of the most serious security holes. Nine practical recommendations for improving security are described.

  8. SAS: A Secure Aglet Server

    SciTech Connect

    Jean, Evens; Jiao, Yu; Hurson, Ali R.; Potok, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that mobile agents have received increasing attention in various research efforts, the use of the paradigm in practical applications has yet to fully emerge. With the presence of infrastructure to support the development of mobile agent applications, security concerns act as the primary deterrent against such trends. Numerous studies have been conducted to address the security issues of mobile agents with a strong focus on the theoretical aspect of the problem. This work attempts to bridge the gap from theory to practice by analyzing the security mechanisms available in Aglet. We herein propose several mechanisms, stemming from theoretical advancements, intended to protect both agents and hosts in order to foster the development of business applications that fully exploit the benefits of agent technology. The proposed mechanisms lay the foundation for implementation of application specific protocols dotted with access control, secured communication and ability to detect tampering of agent data. We demonstrate our contribution through application scenarios of a prototyped Information Retrieval system.

  9. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Cybersecurity Awareness Month 1 October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month. HP - SCF 2017 Hurricanes HP - SCF ... theme is, “Inclusion Drives Innovation.” Oct 10 Blog Cyber Security Awareness Month Is Here You do not have ...

  10. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  11. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  12. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  13. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  14. Secure Database Management Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    3.1.2 McCauleYls Security Atoms Additional concepts are introduced in (MCCAES) which enhance the security aspects of the attribute- bar id model...sLgnificance. Physical access remains as an overriding factor of system security. Without protection of the physeal operating environment (computer

  15. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  16. Security of Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    8 2. Message Confidentiality ........................................................................8 3. Message Integrity...SUMMARY Security in sensor networks is an active but wide-open research field. Past experiences with other wireless technologies have shown that...layer security because, like other wireless networking technologies , the threat of interception by an adversary is always present. The security

  17. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  18. Filling a Security Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A new type of public facility security system, utilizing a radio system and voice logging recorder, has effectively improved security at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The system monitors security operations, provides a reliable record in the case of conflicting claims, and accurately pinpoints the time of events. (DS)

  19. School Violence: Physical Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial…

  20. Structuring Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    20 AIRPORT SECURITY .............................................................................................. 20...using an existing command and control structure. Since September 11, 2001 airport security has been of heightened importance to the American public...In order to use Reserves to provide airport security the airports themselves should be made federal property. This would allow greater flexibility for

  1. Lemnos interoperable security project.

    SciTech Connect

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2010-03-01

    With the Lemnos framework, interoperability of control security equipment is straightforward. To obtain interoperability between proprietary security appliance units, one or both vendors must now write cumbersome 'translation code.' If one party changes something, the translation code 'breaks.' The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available security functions and protocols like IPsec - to form a secure communications channel - and Syslog, to exchange security log messages. Using this model, security appliances from two or more different vendors can clearly and securely exchange information, helping to better protect the total system. Simplify regulatory compliance in a complicated security environment by leveraging the Lemnos framework. As an electric utility, are you struggling to implement the NERC CIP standards and other regulations? Are you weighing the misery of multiple management interfaces against committing to a ubiquitous single-vendor solution? When vendors build their security appliances to interoperate using the Lemnos framework, it becomes practical to match best-of-breed offerings from an assortment of vendors to your specific control systems needs. The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available open-source security functions and protocols like IPsec and Syslog to create a secure communications channel between appliances in order to exchange security data.

  2. Introduction to Retail Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James E., Ed.

    This collection consists of 15 articles dealing with retail security. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Retail Security--an Introduction," by Andrew J. Thacker and Linda Cressman; "Systematic Planning and Retail Security," by Linda T. Thomas; "Identifying Potentially Dishonest Employees," by James E.…

  3. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  4. The Potential Impact of an Auction Based Retention Bonus and Other Factors on Continuation Rates of General Dentists Completing Their Initial Obligation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Agreement ($$) Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons 25,000 38,000 50,000 Comprehensive/Operative Dentistry 20,000 30,000 40,000 Endodontics 20,000 30,000 40,000... Endodontics (Advanced Clinical Practice) 13,000 19,000 25,000 General Dentistry [Comprehensive Dentistry] (Advanced Clinical Practice) 13,000 19,000...84 R. Preston McAfee and John McMillan, “Auctions and Bidding,” Journal of Economic Literature XXV

  5. Information Security Management (ISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šalgovičová, Jarmila; Prajová, Vanessa

    2012-12-01

    Currently, all organizations have to tackle the issue of information security. The paper deals with various aspects of Information Security Management (ISM), including procedures, processes, organizational structures, policies and control processes. Introduction of Information Security Management should be a strategic decision. The concept and implementation of Information Security Management in an organization are determined by the corporate needs and objectives, security requirements, the processes deployed as well as the size and structure of the organization. The implementation of ISM should be carried out to the extent consistent with the needs of the organization.

  6. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  7. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  8. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  9. Medical database security evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G J

    1993-01-01

    Users of medical information systems need confidence in the security of the system they are using. They also need a method to evaluate and compare its security capabilities. Every system has its own requirements for maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability. In order to meet these requirements a number of security functions must be specified covering areas such as access control, auditing, error recovery, etc. Appropriate confidence in these functions is also required. The 'trust' in trusted computer systems rests on their ability to prove that their secure mechanisms work as advertised and cannot be disabled or diverted. The general framework and requirements for medical database security and a number of parameters of the evaluation problem are presented and discussed. The problem of database security evaluation is then discussed, and a number of specific proposals are presented, based on a number of existing medical database security systems.

  10. 33 CFR 126.35 - Primary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as relieving the masters, owners, operators, and agents of vessels, docks, piers, wharves, or other waterfront facilities from their primary responsibility for the security of such vessels, docks, piers...

  11. Securing clean water: A secret to success

    Treesearch

    Michael Somerville; Dino DeSimone

    2000-01-01

    Securing clean water is a primary goal for many agencies, organizations, and concerned citizens. To achieve that goal, agencies have traditionally taken a mostly regulatory approach. In recent years, however, a major trend in government has been to move decision-making and action-taking to the local level. Conservation Districts, watershed organizations, and other...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general railroad...) Serves as the primary contact for intelligence information and security-related activities and...

  13. Software Security Assurance: A State-of-Art Report (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-31

    8 1.3.1 Primary Audience... 8 1.3.2 Secondary Audiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4 Scope...281 Section 8 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 8.1 What “Secure Software

  14. What is Security? A perspective on achieving security

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation provides a perspective on achieving security in an organization. It touches upon security as a mindset, ability to adhere to rules, cultivating awareness of the reason for a security mindset, the quality of a security program, willingness to admit fault or acknowledge failure, peer review in security, science as a model that can be applied to the security profession, the security vision, security partnering, staleness in the security program, security responsibilities, and achievement of success over time despite the impossibility of perfection.

  15. PACS image security server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    Medical image security in a PACS environment has become a pressing issue as communications of images increasingly extends over open networks, and hospitals are currently hard-pushed by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to be HIPPA complaint for ensuring health data security. Other security-related guidelines and technical standards continue bringing to the public attention in healthcare. However, there is not an infrastructure or systematic method to implement and deploy these standards in a PACS. In this paper, we first review DICOM Part15 standard for secure communications of medical images and the HIPAA impacts on PACS security, as well as our previous works on image security. Then we outline a security infrastructure in a HIPAA mandated PACS environment using a dedicated PACS image security server. The server manages its own database of all image security information. It acts as an image Authority for checking and certificating the image origin and integrity upon request by a user, as a secure DICOM gateway to the outside connections and meanwhile also as a PACS operation monitor for HIPAA supporting information.

  16. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  17. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  18. Securing your financial future.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Parag R

    2009-04-01

    Securing one's financial future requires dedication and planning. A clear plan must be implemented and continually re-examined to assure an individual remains on track to achieve this security. True success of the plan will be dependent upon taking the appropriate steps to protecting one's assets against unfortunate events along with building assets with a clear end goal in mind. This article will cover the fundamental steps an individual can take to secure their financial future.

  19. Auditing Organizational Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    and risks, including the control of security, human factors and other activities that affect the organization’s performance , condition or safety...Managing organizational security is no different from managing any other of the command’s missions. Establish your policies, goals and risk...parameters; implement, train, measure and benchmark them. And then audit, audit, audit. Today, more than ever, Organizational Security is an essential

  20. National Security Policy: Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    military service or government agency. ------- NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY: MEXICO L TIC BY OELEc-re LIEUTENANT COLONEL HUGH SCRUGGS JUL 2 8 96 DISTRIBUTION...PERIOD COVERED National Security Policy: Mexico SMDENr EnSAY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NLMBER 7. AUTNOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) LTC Hugh...national security and sovereignty of Mexico and to determine the capability of the Nexican armed forces to meet these threats. Through literary research

  1. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  2. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  3. Kaliningrad and Baltic Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    impossible to solve. By shifting the paradigm toward regional development and regional cooperation to address common problems, the future security relationship of the Baltic littoral becomes more optimistic.

  4. Laser security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Ivan S.; Stoeva, Ivelina S.

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the development of single-beam barrier laser security system. The system utilizes the near infrared (IR) range λ=(850-900)nm. The security system consists of several blocks: Transmitter; Receiver; Logical Unit; Indication; Power Supply. There are four individually software programmable security zones Z1 - Z4. The control logic is implemented on a PIC16F84 MCU. The infrared beam is a pulse pack, coded and modulated in the transmitter with frequency of 36 kHz. The receiver demodulates and decodes the beam. The software for the MCU is developed along with the electrical circuits of the security system.

  5. secureBLAST.

    PubMed

    Wiezer, Arnim; Merkl, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    secureBLAST supplements NCBI wwwblast with features necessary to control in an easy manageable way usage of BLAST data sets and their update. The concept we implemented allows to offer on a single BLAST server several data sets with individually configurable access rights. Security is provided by user authentication and encryption of the http traffic via SSL. By using secureBLAST, the administration of users and databases can be done via a web interface. Therefore, secureBLAST is valuable for institutions that have to restrict access to their datasets or just want to administer BLAST servers via a web interface.

  6. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  7. Secure E-mailing Between Physicians and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Terhilda; Meng, Di; Wang, Jian J.; Palen, Ted E.; Kanter, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Secure e-mailing between Kaiser Permanente physicians and patients is widespread; primary care providers receive an average of 5 e-mails from patients each workday. However, on average, secure e-mailing with patients has not substantially impacted primary care provider workloads. Secure e-mail has been associated with increased member retention and improved quality of care. Separate studies associated patient portal and secure e-mail use with both decreased and increased use of other health care services, such as office visits, telephone encounters, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Directions for future research include more granular analysis of associations between patient-physician secure e-mail and health care utilization. PMID:24887522

  8. The CSCE forum for security cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.; George, B.

    1993-10-01

    What are the next steps for arms control in Europe, given the tectonic changes that have shaken the continent over the past four years? Negotiators in Europe, who labored for nearly two decades on the details of conventional force reductions and confidence-building measures, are grappling with that question. On September 22, 1992, a fresh, if perhaps belated, attempt to adapt to the new conditions of the post-Cold War era began in Vienna with the creation of the 54-member Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC). The FSC is the security component of the multifaceted Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCEO), which deals with a range of issues, including human rights, in addition to the various items on the security agenda. The forum is facing a task unprecedented in the scope of the CSCE: it is simultaneously trying to address arms control negotiations, security enhancement and cooperation, and conflict prevention. The primary objective of the forum will be to adapt the traditional tools of arms control, including those applied to military activity, to the contemporary {open_quotes}security parlance{close_quotes} of preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace building.

  9. The Canadian Forces Use of Private Security in Afghanistan: A Consequence of National Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    rise of PSCs, Elke Krahmann, Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Bristol, stated three primary causes that have...International Security: the Rise of Private Military Companies. Contemporary Security Studies. New York: Rutledge, 2006. 49 Krahmann, Elke , Simon...2009. Krahmann, Elke . Private Security Companies and the State Monopoly on Violence:A Case of Norm. Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, 2009. Krugman

  10. 49 CFR 387.303 - Security for the protection of the public: Minimum limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... security means public liability coverage provided by the insurance or surety company responsible for the first dollar of coverage. (2) Excess security means public liability coverage above the primary security... kilograms) GVWR Property (non-hazardous) $300,000 (ii) Passenger carriers. Passenger Carriers: Kind...

  11. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is PRIMARY HYPERPARATH YROIDIS M? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition ...

  12. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  13. School Security Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade electronic security technology has evolved from an exotic possibility into an essential safety consideration. Before resorting to high-tech security solutions, school officials should think carefully about the potential for unintended consequences. Technological fixes may be mismatched to the problems being addressed. They can…

  14. Router Security Configuration Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Providing Router Security Guidance............................................................ 9 1.3. Typographic and Diagrammatic Conventions Used in this...and available software. Router Security Configuration Guide UNCLASSIFIED 10 UNCLASSIFIED Version 1.0g 1.3. Typographic and Diagrammatic... typographic conventions are used as part of presenting the examples. § Specific router and host commands are identified in the text using Courier bold

  15. Security Engineering Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-31

    demonstrate the effectiveness of the System-Aware design patterns in Phase 1, specific examples were developed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV...32 3.1.2.4 Determining the Security Effectiveness ...Determining the Resources Necessary to Develop the System-Aware Architecture ..... 37 3.1.4.3 Determining the Security Effectiveness

  16. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  17. EU Research for Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-25

    biometrics, smart card , IPv6, Economic, business and social aspects of security in Information Society Research and Technology FP6, FP7 (Security...wireless and reconfigurability – Next generation networks and computing models – Smart Cards and Access technologies – Biometrics – Pre-normative/standards

  18. Technology's Role in Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of technology to bolster the school security system, tips on selecting a security consultant, and several basic strategies to make buildings and grounds safer. Technological ideas discussed include the use of telephones in classrooms to expedite care in emergency situations, surveillance cameras to reduce crime, and metal…

  19. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  20. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  1. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  2. Securing the Internet frontier.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J

    1996-10-21

    Just as in the Wild West, security strategies are being mobilized for the untamed Internet frontier. Technology developed by settlers from the banking and merchandising industries is being retooled for healthcare, where security-conscious industries see a big market opportunity.

  3. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  4. Systems Security Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-22

    microelectronics , printed circuit boards, computing systems, software, mobile telephony, satellite communications and networks). Critical Program...security. The challenge is meant to mirror the gauntlet of canonical hard math problems presented by Hilbert to the International Congress of...threat deflection and internal trust assurance. Research modules in this section propose a new way of approaching security metrics that involve

  5. Security in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  6. STS-127 Pad Security

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-11

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Security Officer, Jack "Supr Jac" Hilderbrand talks on the phone at the security gate to Pad 39a just a day shy of his 70th birthday and the planned launch of the space shuttle Endeavour with the STS-127 crew. Hilderbrand has been working for the space program since 1960. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  8. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  9. Water Security Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  10. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  11. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  12. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  13. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee... and cost, and have a lower impact on the commerce of aviation. The Aviation Security...

  14. National Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) Glossary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Systems Security Engineering ISSM Information Systems Security Manager ISSO Information Systems Security Officer IT Information Technology ITAR ...Digital Net Radio Interface Unit SDNS Secure Data Network System SDR System Design Review SFA Security Fault Analysis SHA Secure Hash Algorithm

  15. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  16. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  17. Wireless physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  18. Wireless physical layer security

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments. PMID:28028211

  19. Wireless physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Poor, H Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F

    2017-01-03

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  20. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.