Science.gov

Sample records for security environmental monitoring

  1. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  2. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry of Strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Hamilton, T F; Hillegonds, D J

    2008-03-03

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from {sup 90}Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of {approx} 10{sup 8} atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g., redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 10{sup 6} atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health.

  4. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. A network security monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1989-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  8. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001). Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements

  10. National environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Findings of the Council of Environmental Quality's interagency task force on environmental data and monitoring are summarized and the degree of followup on its recommendations is assessed. The quality of the data, coordination of environmental monitoring and data activities, and major issues that need to be addressed regarding monitoring of air and water quality are examined. Participation of the private sector in toxic monitoring is considered.

  11. Recent biosensing developments in environmental security.

    PubMed

    Wanekaya, Adam K; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2008-06-01

    Environmental security is one of the fundamental requirements of our well being. However, it still remains a major global challenge. Therefore, in addition to reducing and/or eliminating the amounts of toxic discharges into the environment, there is need to develop techniques that can detect and monitor these environmental pollutants in a sensitive and selective manner to enable effective remediation. Because of their integrated nature, biosensors are ideal for environmental monitoring and detection as they can be portable and provide selective and sensitive rapid responses in real time. In this review we discuss the main concepts behind the development of biosensors that have most relevant applications in the field of environmental monitoring and detection. We also review and document recent trends and challenges in biosensor research and development particularly in the detection of species of environmental significance such as organophosphate nerve agents, heavy metals, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins. Special focus will be given to the trends that have the most promising applications in environmental security. We conclude by highlighting the directions towards which future biosensors research in environmental security sector might proceed.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  13. Environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  15. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  16. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union must prepare a written report setting forth, for each security held, the fair value and dollar...

  17. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring securities. 703.12 Section 703.12... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union must prepare a written report setting forth, for each security held, the fair value and dollar...

  18. Environmental Monitoring without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kaseke, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of environmental variables is essential in most environmental projects. However, due to economic constraints, many students from underrepresented groups and developing countries often have limited access to "standardized" data logging and monitoring techniques. We assessed the student's learning in rural settings and worked with student without strong science background to utilize various environmental sensors to conduct innovative projects. We worked with students in Namibia and a minority high school student in Indianapolis to conduct relative humidity monitoring in creative ways. This high school student is from Indianapolis Project Seed program (sponsored by American Chemical Society, http://www.indyprojectseed.org) and worked in Wang's lab for two months in summer 2014. The experience showed us the potential of working with people with minimum exposure to modern scientific instrumentation to carry out innovative projects.

  19. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  20. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  1. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  2. 1984 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program has been designed to ensure that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. A listing, as required by DOE Order 5484.1 of BNL facilities, of environmental agencies and permits is provided in the Environmental Program Information Section 3.0, Table B. Since the aquifer underlying Long Island has been designated a ''sole source'' aquifer, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Standards have been used in the assessment of ground water data. However, the limits prescribed in the regulations are not directly applicable to the monitoring well data since (1) the standards apply to a community water supply system, i.e., one serving more than 25 individuals, and (2) the standards represent an annual average concentration. Since the monitoring wells are not components of the Laboratory's water supply system, the EPA drinking water standards are employed as reference criteria to which the surveillance well data is compared. The standards also serve as guidance levels for any appropriate remedial action. 36 refs., 9 figs., 40 tabs.

  3. Environmental monitoring plan - environmental monitoring section. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.C.; Tate, P.J.; Brigdon, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the environmental monitoring plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A site characterization is provided along with monitoring and measurement techniques and quality assurance measures.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  5. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  6. Environmental Security: Evolution of a New Concept in Security Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    A New Security Concept In 1982, Johan Galtung wrote of a new approach to security in his book, Environmental Development and Human Activity: Towards... Galtung presents a viable argument that stable ecosystems, security, and environmental degradation are interconnected and that the greatest threats are...Population Growth May End Wars,� page 165. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 33(1): 164-180. 16 Ibid., page 177. 17 Ibid., page 179. 18 Galtung , Johan

  7. Environmental Monitoring Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, Jason R.

    2004-04-21

    A set of database management tools, data processing tools, and auxiliary support functionality for processing and handling semi-structured environmental monitoring data. The system provides a flexible description language for describing the data, allowing the database to store disparate data from many different sources without changes to the configuration. The system employs XML to support unlimited named allribute/value pairs for each object defined in the system.

  8. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  9. Environmental monitoring equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Perugini, F.

    1995-12-31

    For over 10 years GEOGUARD has been serving the waste industry with innovative, relevant and high quality products for ground water sampling, remediation pumping, and ground water monitoring. GEOGUARD has four advanced technology products for environmental monitoring. (1) MASTER-FLO{trademark} PUMPS collect accurate ground water samples and standardize field sampling procedures. MASTER-FLO{trademark} PUMPS are based upon a time proven bladder squeeze pump, the most accepted ground water sampling pump available, which can be operated with a flow through cell and low flow rates to minimize sample aeration and turbidity. (2) RELIA-FLO{trademark} PUMPS simplifiy ground water pollution clean ups. Pump and Test Remediation depends upon reliable pumping systems that can operate continually year after year in the most hostile environments. RELIA-FLO{trademark} PUMPS combine simplicity with versatility to satisfy the most demanding ground water pollution clean-up projects. (3) TUBER{trademark} measures and combines the latest sensor technology with a dedicated logger into one integrated unit, which can record well water levels, temperatures, pH and conductivity in two inch or larger wells. (4) TERRAPROBE{trademark} offers a versatile, portable alternative to drilling Wells for shallow ground penetration up to 30 feet. With TERRAPROBE{trademark}, samples for soil gas, water or soil can be easily acquired where vehicle access is not possible.

  10. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  11. Information security implementations for remote monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the United States would ensure that its fissile material meet the {open_quotes}highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability.{close_quotes} Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. A successful implementation of a comprehensive remote monitoring system, however, requires significant attention to a variety of information security issues. In pursuing Project Straight-Line and the follow-on Storage Monitoring System, Sandia National Laboratories developed remote monitoring implementations that can satisfy a variety of information security requirements. Special emphasis was given to developing methods for using the Internet to disseminate the data securely. This paper describes the various information security implementations applied to the Project Straight-Line and the Storage Monitoring System. Also included is a discussion of the security provided by the Windows NT operating system.

  12. The FAO/NASA/NLR Artemis system - An integrated concept for environmental monitoring by satellite in support of food/feed security and desert locust surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hielkema, J. U.; Howard, J. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Van Ingen Schenau, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    The African real time environmental monitoring using imaging satellites (Artemis) system, which should monitor precipitation and vegetation conditions on a continental scale, is presented. The hardware and software characteristics of the system are illustrated and the Artemis databases are outlined. Plans for the system include the use of hourly digital Meteosat data and daily NOAA/AVHRR data to study environmental conditions. Planned mapping activities include monthly rainfall anomaly maps, normalized difference vegetation index maps for ten day and monthly periods with a spatial resolution of 7.6 km, ten day crop/rangeland moisture availability maps, and desert locust potential breeding activity factor maps for a plague prevention program.

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  14. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview chapter examines the roles that environmental monitoring and assessment can play in the development of environmental policy. It takes a case study approach, focusing on the key roles played by monitoring data in policy formulation in acid deposition, stratospheric...

  15. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview chapter examines the roles that environmental monitoring and assessment can play in the development of environmental policy. It takes a case study approach, focusing on the key roles played by monitoring data in policy formulation in acid deposition, stratospheric...

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan - February 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G. M.; Bertoldo, N. A.; Blake, R. G.; Fish, C. B.; Grayson, A. R.; Griffin, D. M.; Jones, H. E.; Patterson, L. E.; Revelli, M. A.; Rosene, C. A.; Wegrecki, T M; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection oft/ic Pubile and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the hiota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements.

  17. Cooperative monitoring and its role in regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.; Olsen, J.; Lincoln, R.; Wehling, F.

    1997-03-01

    Cooperative monitoring systems can play an important part in promoting the implementation of regional cooperative security agreements. These agreements advance the national security interests of the United States in a post Cold War environment. Regional issues as widely varying as nuclear nonproliferation, trade and environmental pollution can be the source of tensions which may escalate to armed conflict which could have global implications. The Office of National Security Policy Analysis at the US Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in seeking ways to promote regional cooperation that can reduce the threats posed by regional conflict. DOE technologies and technical expertise can contribute to developing solutions to a wide variety of these international problems. Much of this DOE expertise has been developed in support of the US nuclear weapons and arms control missions. It is now being made available to other agencies and foreign governments in their search for regional security and cooperation. This report presents two examples of interest to DOE in which monitoring technologies could be employed to promote cooperation through experimentation. The two scenarios include nuclear transparency in Northeast Asia and environmental restoration in the Black Sea. Both offer the potential for the use of technology to promote regional cooperation. The issues associated with both of these monitoring applications are presented along with examples of appropriate monitoring technologies, potential experiments and potential DOE contributions to the scenarios.

  18. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of lighting...

  19. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of lighting...

  20. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of lighting...

  1. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of lighting...

  2. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  3. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  4. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union... since the prior month-end, with summary information for the entire portfolio. (b) At least quarterly, a... each member of its board of directors must receive a copy of the reports described in paragraphs...

  5. 12 CFR 703.12 - Monitoring securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.12 Monitoring securities. (a) At least monthly, a Federal credit union... since the prior month-end, with summary information for the entire portfolio. (b) At least quarterly, a... each member of its board of directors must receive a copy of the reports described in paragraphs...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2913 - Security monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security monitoring. 193.2913 Section 193.2913 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  11. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  13. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report (NNSSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NNSS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NNSSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NNSS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NNSSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NNSS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The NNSS is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national security-related missions and high-risk operations. The NNSS is located about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The approximately 1,360-square-mile site is one of the largest restricted access areas in the United States. It is surrounded by federal installations with strictly controlled access, as well as by lands that are open to public entry.

  15. Improved Security Via ''Town Crier'' Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, A. N.

    2003-02-26

    Waste managers are increasingly expected to provide good security for the hazardous materials they marshal. Good security requires, among other things, effective tamper and intrusion detection. We have developed and demonstrated a new method for tamper and intrusion detection which we call the ''town crier method''. It avoids many of the problems and vulnerabilities associated with traditional approaches, and has significant advantages for hazardous waste transport. We constructed two rudimentary town crier prototype systems, and tested them for monitoring cargo inside a truck. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  16. Polar Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Schulteis, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    The present and projected benefits of the polar regions were reviewed and then translated into information needs in order to support the array of polar activities anticipated. These needs included measurement sensitivities for polar environmental data (ice/snow, atmosphere, and ocean data for integrated support) and the processing and delivery requirements which determine the effectiveness of environmental services. An assessment was made of how well electromagnetic signals can be converted into polar environmental information. The array of sensor developments in process or proposed were also evaluated as to the spectral diversity, aperture sizes, and swathing capabilities available to provide these measurements from spacecraft, aircraft, or in situ platforms. Global coverage and local coverage densification options were studied in terms of alternative spacecraft trajectories and aircraft flight paths.

  17. Environmental Security and Preventative Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    environmental groups are pressing for a ban on Saphirian agricultural products and the Italian government has announced that it may soon be forced to embargo...According to its press release issued today, NATO wishes to address the issue. “The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is concerned that the un-addressed...0800-0815 Administrative Anouncements Introduction Main Conference Room All Team Participants 0815-1000 Game Begins/Teams Develop Regional

  18. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  19. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Markin, J.T.; Scurry, T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation monitors for nuclear safeguards and security depend on internal control circuits to determine when diversion of special nuclear materials is taking place. Early monitors depended on analog circuits for this purpose, subsequently, digital logic controllers made better monitoring methods possible. Now, versatile microprocessor systems permit new, more efficient, and more useful monitoring methods. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false-alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quantitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high- to low-energy gamma-ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. In addition, microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble-shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set bias levels in plastic scintillators and a state-of-health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  20. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-07-01

    The Pinellas Plant Environmental Monitoring Program is comprised of two major activities as follows: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. The collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants, assessing radiation exposures to members of the public, providing a means to control effluents at or near the point of discharge, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. The collection and analysis of samples or direct measurements of air, water, soil, food stuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs for the purpose of determining compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, assessing radiation exposure to members of the public, and assessing the effects, if any, on the local environment. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at the Pinellas Plant include monitoring liquid and airborne effluents, groundwater, surface water, soil, and local weather conditions.

  1. Near-facility environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the routine near-facility environmental monitoring programs which are presently being conducted at the Hanford Site. Several types of environmental media are sampled near nuclear facilities to monitor the effectiveness of waste management and restoration activities, and effluent treatment and control practices. These media include air, surface water and springs, surface contamination, soil and vegetation, investigative sampling (which can include wildlife), and external radiation. Sampling and analysis information and analytical results for 1994 for each of these media are summarized in this section. Additional data and more detailed information may be found in Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Annual Report, Calendar Year 1994.

  2. 1979 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1979 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory.

  3. 1982 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Naidu, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1982 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 30 references, 9 figures, 18 tables.

  4. 1981 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1982-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1981 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 28 references, 9 figures, 20 tables.

  5. Monitoring environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, C.N.; Calder, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, billions of public and private dollars have been spent on pollution control and other costs of compliance with environmental regulations in coastal and estuarine areas of the US. Much of this investment has been made without comprehensive, high quality, and continuing information about the status and trends of environmental quality in these areas. Are general conditions getting better or worse. How do existing conditions among different estuaries and coastal areas compare. Are these conditions approaching or exceeding levels that are known to be harmful to living resources. Since 1984 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted a national program that will answer these questions. Progress has been made on the cleanup of conventional pollutants (oxygen-demanding materials, particulate matter and nutrients) in the water column, and now increasing attention is being directed toward toxic substances in animals and sediments. Emphasis of the National Status and Trends Program is on the measurement of these chemicals and observations of the effects they may cause. The program is measuring existing levels of toxic chemical contaminants in bivalves (mussels and oysters), bottom-fish (flounders), and associated sediments.

  6. 1983 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.E.; Naidu, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1983 are summarized. The amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactivity of air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. The amounts of radioactivity released in airborne and liquid effluents from laboratory facilities to the environment were within allowable standards as stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1. Other pollutants, such as metals, organic compounds, etc., in the effluents released from the Laboratory were well below federal, state and local standards as applied to site specific conditions. 34 references, 9 figures, 17 tables.

  7. Environmental monitoring in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sol, S.; Garcia, R.; Sánchez, D.; Ramirez, G.; Chavarin, E. U.; Rivera, T.

    2017-01-01

    The procedures in Interventional Radiology involve long times of exposure and high number of radiographic images that bring higher radiation doses to patients, staff and environmental than those received in conventional Radiology. Currently for monitoring the dose, the thermoluminescent dosimetry use is recommended. The aim of this work was to carry out the monitoring of the environmental scattered radiation inside the IR room using two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100 (reference dosimeter), CaSO4:Dy (synthesized in our laboratory). The results indicate that the TLD-100 is not effective for the environmental monitoring of low-energy Rx rooms. The CaSO4:Dy presented good behaviour over the 6 months of study. The results will be specific to each room so it is recommended such studies as part of the program of quality control of each Rx room.

  8. Environmental monitoring using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2003-11-01

    An overview of optical techniques for environmental monitoring is presented. Range-resolved measurements of atmospheric pollutants can be performed using the differential absorption lidar technique. Fluorescence lidar allows assessment of vegetation status and also the conditions of the facades of historical buildings. Diode lasers provide particularly realistic schemes for atmospheric gas analysis, where certain wavelength ranges, which are not easily directly assessed, can be reached by sum- and difference frequency generation. Finally, the gas correlation principle can be used for real-time imaging of hydrocarbons. Several types of such optical environmental monitoring are illustrated with examples from research at the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  9. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  10. Enlisting qualitative methods to improve environmental monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring tracks ecological changes in order to support environmental management decisions. Monitoring design is driven by natural scientists, usually lacking a formal social science basis. However, human perspectives drive environmental resource decisions, with ...

  11. Enlisting qualitative methods to improve environmental monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring tracks ecological changes in order to support environmental management decisions. Monitoring design is driven by natural scientists, usually lacking a formal social science basis. However, human perspectives drive environmental resource decisions, with ...

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sharon D.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) environmental surveillance is to characterize radiological and nonradiological conditions of the off-site environs and estimate public doses related to these conditions, confirm estimations of public dose based on effluent monitoring data, and, where appropriate, provide supplemental data to support compliance monitoring for applicable environmental regulations. This environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is intended to document the rationale, frequency, parameters, and analytical methods for the ORR environmental surveillance program and provides information on ORR site characteristics, environmental pathways, dose assessment methods, and quality management. ORR-wide environmental monitoring activities include a variety of media including air, surface water, vegetation, biota, and wildlife. In addition to these activities, site-specific effluent, groundwater, and best management monitoring programs are conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). This is revision 5.

  13. Environmental monitoring network for India

    Treesearch

    P.V. Sundareshwar; R. Murtugudde; G. Srinivasan; S. Singh; K.J. Ramesh; R. Ramesh; S.B. Verma; D. Agarwal; D. Baldocchi; C.K. Baru; K.K. Baruah; G.R. Chowdhury; V.K. Dadhwal; C.B.S. Dutt; J. Fuentes; Prabhat Gupta; W.W. Hardgrove; M. Howard; C.S. Jha; S. Lal; W.K. Michener; A.P. Mitra; J.T. Morris; R.R. Myneni; M. Naja; R. Nemani; R. Purvaja; S. Raha; S.K. Santhana Vanan; M. Sharma; A. Subramaniam; R. Sukumar; R.R. Twilley; P.R. Zimmerman

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of global environmental change and its mitigation will require an integrated global effort of comprehensive long-term data collection, synthesis, and action (1). The last decade has seen a dramatic global increase in the number of networked monitoring sites. For example, FLUXNET is a global collection of >300 micrometeorological...

  14. Environmental Monitoring Plan: Environmental Monitoring Section. Appendix A, Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information about the environmental monitoring program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: air sampling; air tritium calibrations; storm water discharge; non-storm water discharge; sampling locations; ground water sampling; noise and blast forecasting; analytical laboratory auditing; document retention; procedure writing; quality assurance programs for sampling; soil and sediment sampling; sewage sampling; diversion facility tank sampling; vegetation and foodstuff sampling; and radiological dose assessments.

  15. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  16. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  17. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  18. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  19. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  20. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T; Carvalho, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  1. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  2. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  3. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  4. Conductometric Microbiosensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the principles of conductometric measurements in ionic media and the equivalent electrical circuits of different designs for conductometric measurements. These types of measurements were first applied for monitoring biocatalytic reactions. The use of conductometric microtransducers is then presented and detailed in the case of pollutant detection for environmental monitoring. Conductometric biosensors have advantages over other types of transducers: they can be produced through inexpensive thin- film standard technology, no reference electrode is needed and differential mode measurements allow cancellation of a lot of interferences. The specifications obtained for the detection of different pesticides, herbicides and heavy metal ions, based on enzyme inhibition, are presented as well as those obtained for the detection of formaldehyde, 4- chlorophenol, nitrate and proteins as markers of dissolved organic carbon based on enzymatic microbiosensors. PMID:27879836

  5. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  6. GIMS- technology for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is directed to the widening of cumulative experience in the development of effective and reliable information modeling technologies for the equipping of microwave and optical monitoring of hydrological systems having different spatial scales. The problem urgency is caused by the necessity of perfecting the existing information technologies including Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) in the direction of broadening their functions and optimization of instrumental tools for hydrological monitoring with the orientation on the detection of extreme hydrological processes. GIMS - technology develops GIS technology towards the realization of the formula: GIMS = GIS + model. In other words, the functions of GIS enlivened by the introduction of a new grid-time scale. The result is a forecasting tool and, therefore, may carry out a dynamic integration of environmental information.

  7. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  8. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  12. Report: Information Security Series: Security Practices Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00019, March 28, 2006. OSWER’s implemented practices to ensure production servers were being monitored for known vulnerabilities and personnel with significant security responsibility completed the Agency’s recommended security training.

  13. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of directors...

  14. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of directors...

  15. Environmental Monitoring Using Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Fu, S.; Acevedo, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental observatories, consisting of a variety of sensor systems, computational resources and informatics, are important for us to observe, model, predict, and ultimately help preserve the health of the nature. The commoditization and proliferation of coin-to-palm sized wireless sensors will allow environmental monitoring with unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolution. Once scattered around, these sensors can identify themselves, locate their positions, describe their functions, and self-organize into a network. They communicate through wireless channel with nearby sensors and transmit data through multi-hop protocols to a gateway, which can forward information to a remote data server. In this project, we describe an environmental observatory called Texas Environmental Observatory (TEO) that incorporates a sensor network system with intertwined wired and wireless sensors. We are enhancing and expanding the existing wired weather stations to include wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and telemetry using solar-powered cellular modems. The new WSNs will monitor soil moisture and support long-term hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic models are helpful in predicting how changes in land cover translate into changes in the stream flow regime. These models require inputs that are difficult to measure over large areas, especially variables related to storm events, such as soil moisture antecedent conditions and rainfall amount and intensity. This will also contribute to improve rainfall estimations from meteorological radar data and enhance hydrological forecasts. Sensor data are transmitted from monitoring site to a Central Data Collection (CDC) Server. We incorporate a GPRS modem for wireless telemetry, a single-board computer (SBC) as Remote Field Gateway (RFG) Server, and a WSN for distributed soil moisture monitoring. The RFG provides effective control, management, and coordination of two independent sensor systems, i.e., a traditional datalogger-based wired

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  17. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  19. Microalgae as embedded environmental monitors.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2017-02-15

    In marine ecosystems, microalgae are an important component as they transform large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass and thereby impact environmental chemistry. Of particular relevance is phytoplankton's sequestration of atmospheric CO2, a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algae blooms. On the other hand, microalgae sensitively respond to changes in their chemical environment, which initiates an adaptation of their chemical composition. Analytical methodologies were developed in this study that utilize microalgae's adaptation as a novel approach for in-situ environmental monitoring. Longterm applications of these novel methods are investigations of environmental impacts on phytoplankton's sequestration performance and their nutritional value to higher organisms feeding on them. In order to analyze the chemical composition of live microalgae cells (Nannochloropsis oculata), FTIR-ATR spectroscopy has been employed. From time series of IR spectra, the formation of bio-sediment can be monitored and it has been shown that the nutrient availability has a small but observable impact. Since this bio-sediment formation is governed by several biological parameters of the cells such as growth rate, size, buoyancy, number of cells, etc., this enables studies of chemical environment's impact on biomass formation and the cells' physical parameters. Moreover, the spectroscopic signature of these microalgae has been determined from cultures grown under 25 different CO2 and NO3(-) mixtures (200 ppm-600 ppm CO2, 0.35 mM-0.75 mM NO3(-)). A novel, nonlinear modeling methodology coined 'Predictor Surfaces' is being presented by means of which the nonlinear responses of the cells to their chemical environment could reliably be described. This approach has been utilized to measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the phytoplankton culture as well as the nitrate concentration dissolved in their growing environment. The achieved precision of

  20. Global environmental security implications of advanced coal combustion options

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Lipfert, F.W.; Saroff, L.

    1996-12-31

    Global environmental security is of growing national and international concern. Demand and supply of energy is a contributor to many problems threatening global environmental security deforestation, decertification, climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water pollution, land contamination, and solid waste management. In this paper, costs and benefits of conventional and advanced energy supply options are characterized in terms of these security concerns. Special attention is focused on changes in fuel demands and operating characteristics of energy supply options. The specific circumstances under which advanced coal combustion options enhance environmental security will be qualitatively and quantitatively characterized.

  1. A prototype ground support system security monitor for space based power system health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Donald F.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    This paper reports on the work Rocketdyne is performing in the area of power system security monitoring for space-based system health monitoring. The Integrated Power Advisory Controller, which represents a portion of a ground-based system security monitor and uses an object-oriented knowledge design, is discussed. The simulation environment used to develop and test the system is described.

  2. What Good Is Security Without Monitoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Makes a case for integrating the emergency action plan with improvements in physical security and communications to outside authorities that are poised to assist in an emergency. Current technology is explored, including tips for using computers to manage school security for each and every school in the community or district. (GR)

  3. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  4. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  5. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  6. Security warning system monitors up to fifteen remote areas simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Security warning system consisting of 15 television cameras is capable of monitoring several remote or unoccupied areas simultaneously. The system uses a commutator and decommutator, allowing time-multiplexed video transmission. This security system could be used in industrial and retail establishments.

  7. REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) supports the development and utilization of ecological monitoring as a critical component of environmental management and protection. Its authorization is provided under the Clean Water Act, as amended, Public L...

  8. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  9. Monitoring environmental change with color slides

    Treesearch

    Arthur W. Magill

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring human impact on outdoor recreation sites and view landscapes is necessary to evaluate influences which may require corrective action and to determine if management is achieving desired goals. An inexpensive method to monitor environmental change is to establish camera points and use repeat color slides. Successful monitoring from slides requires the observer...

  10. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  12. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlau, P. E.; Pratt, J. C.; Markin, J. T.; Scurry, T., Jr.

    Versatile microprocessor systems permit more efficient, and more useful methods for monitoring nuclear materials. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quntitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high to low energy gamma ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. Microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set hias levels in plastic scintillators and a state of health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  13. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY85 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. All of the tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), has a full year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the RF Test Facility were in operation. The phased approach to TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the establishment of locations for off-site monitoring. An environmental committee established in December 1984 reviewed items of environmental importance. During CY85 no adverse effects to the environmental resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  14. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY84 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and PPPL's largest tokamak, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) had a complete year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak was in operation and the RF Test Facility came on-line. The phased approach of TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the addition of neutron monitors. During CY84 there were no adverse effects to the environment resulting from any operational program at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations.

  15. Environmental Assessment: Security and Traffic Upgrades at Peterson AFB, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius preblei Listed Threatened Arkansas darter Etheostoma cragini Candidate for Listing Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus...Final November 2004 Security and Traffic Upgrades Environmental Assessment Peterson AFB, Colorado Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Environmental Assessment: Security and Traffic Upgrades at Peterson AFB, Colorado 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  16. BIOSEPARATION AND BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing use of antibody-based separation methods has paralleled the expansion of immunochemical detection methods in moving beyond the clinical diagnostic field to applications in environmental monitoring. In recent years high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography, which ...

  17. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  18. Federal Environmental Monitoring: Will the Bubble Burst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stan

    1978-01-01

    A quality assurance program for environmental monitoring is identified as necesary for the collection of reliable, interchangeable, and legally defensible data. The article defines quality assurance and describes the EPA quality assurance program. (MA)

  19. BIOSEPARATION AND BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing use of antibody-based separation methods has paralleled the expansion of immunochemical detection methods in moving beyond the clinical diagnostic field to applications in environmental monitoring. In recent years high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography, which ...

  20. Federal Environmental Monitoring: Will the Bubble Burst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stan

    1978-01-01

    A quality assurance program for environmental monitoring is identified as necesary for the collection of reliable, interchangeable, and legally defensible data. The article defines quality assurance and describes the EPA quality assurance program. (MA)

  1. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  2. Women's Environmental Literacy As Social Capital In Environmental Management For Environmental Security of Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asteria, Donna; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.

    2016-02-01

    This study is about experience of women's role in environmental management to raise environmental security and form of women's emancipation movement. Environmental concerns conducted by residents of urban women who become environmental activists based on environmental literacy. Because of that, women's experience in interacting with both physic and social environment have differences in managing the environment including managing household waste by applying the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) and their persuasive efforts on their communities. This is the key to achieving sustainable development by anticipating environmental problem and preserving the environment. This study is conducted qualitative research method and its type is descriptive-explanative. The result of this study is environmental literacy of women activist on pro-environment action in their community that has achieved spiritual environmental literacy. Environmental literacy may differ due to internal and external condition of each individual. Pro-environment activities conducted as a form of responsibility of environmental concern such as eco-management, educational, and economic action, by persuading residents to proactively and consistently continue to do environmental management and develop a sense of community in shaping the networks of environmental concern in local context for global effect.

  3. The community environmental monitoring program: a model for stakeholder involvement in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Shafer, David S.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily operation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is funded by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongoing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km{sup 2} area of Nevada, Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorological instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Station sensors are wired to state-of-the-art data-loggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tandem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technologies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The WRCC platform allows for near real-time upload and display of current monitoring information in tabular and graphical formats on a public web site. Archival data for each station are also available on-line, providing the ability to perform trending analyses or calculate

  4. The environmental radiation monitoring network in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Ming-Chi Horng; Yu-Ming Lin

    1994-12-31

    The environmental radiation monitoring network includes direct gamma radiation monitors, a coolant water monitor, moving filter particulate monitors, gamma low energy radiation discrimination monitoring systems, and an integrated information data base. It has the function of daily 24-hour on line continuous automatic monitoring. Personal computers are the major equipment to be used in all monitoring stations to collect and store both radiation levels and meteorological data. The relevant data collected are transmitted to Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) via the telephone network of the telecommunication bureau as commanded by the main computer {mu} VAX II. Then the data are displayed in real time and dynamic mode. A large display board is installed at the TRMC where the data are shown and updated every hour. The high speed data transmission system of the TRMC combines with the emergency response system of the National Nuclear Emergency Management Committee to make a proper decision in case of a nuclear accident.

  5. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) collects data that are used to statistically assess the environmental condition of large geographic regions. These data are then posted on the EMAP web site so that anyone can use them. Databases used for the statistical ...

  6. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale

    Treesearch

    Robert V. O' Neill; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Paul M. Schwartz; Iris A. Goodman; Barbara L. Jackson; William S. Baillargeon

    1997-01-01

    Over the past century, technological advances have greatly improved the standard of living in the United States. But these same advances have caused sweeping environmental changes, often unforeseen and potentially irreparable. Ethical stewardship of the environment requires that society monitor and assess environmental changes at the national scale with a view toward...

  7. ICPP environmental monitoring report CY-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Protection Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The Environmental Department updated the Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1992. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, LITCO methods were used.

  8. ICPP environmental monitoring report CY-1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Protection Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs). The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The Environmental Department updated the Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1992. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) methods were used.

  9. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    PubMed

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  10. Nanotechnology-based Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, Willi

    2010-03-01

    COINS mission is to inspire and realize applications directed towards sensing of environmental conditions using nano-mechanical technology, integrated with suitable societal implications studies and educational, outreach, and knowledge transfer programs. Specifically, the technical focus of COINS is to develop the means for realizing its two major technology applications -- personal and community-based environmental monitoring (PACMON) and tagging tracking and locating (TTL). These platforms combine technologies of molecular recognition and signal transduction, energy harvesting and conversion, efficient signal processing and wireless communications, and mobility. In this talk, I will give an overview of some of the recent advances in our environmental monitoring sensor development.

  11. Environmental radiation protection: philosophy, monitoring and standards.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Augustin

    2004-01-01

    The Euratom Treaty confers important powers to the European Commission with regard to monitoring and assessment of levels of radioactivity in the environment and discharges with effluents (Articles 35-37 of the Euratom Treaty). Current developments in the area relate to harmonised reporting of environmental data and to harmonisation of effluent monitoring data. Both developments relate to the requirement under the new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for a realistic assessment of population exposure. Guidance to this effect is being prepared by the Article 31 Group of Experts. In the context of Article 36 intercomparison exercises for radionuclides measurements in environmental samples are organised. New challenges for environmental monitoring result from the requirement under the BSS to regulate also industries processing NORM materials. Also the international move towards extending the scope of environmental radioactivity to the protection of biota opens new perspectives.

  12. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  13. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  14. Monitoring Items in Real Time to Enhance CAT Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An IRT-based sequential procedure is developed to monitor items for enhancing test security. The procedure uses a series of statistical hypothesis tests to examine whether the statistical characteristics of each item under inspection have changed significantly during CAT administration. This procedure is compared with a previously developed…

  15. Monitoring Items in Real Time to Enhance CAT Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An IRT-based sequential procedure is developed to monitor items for enhancing test security. The procedure uses a series of statistical hypothesis tests to examine whether the statistical characteristics of each item under inspection have changed significantly during CAT administration. This procedure is compared with a previously developed…

  16. The Security-Stability-Sustainability Nexus: Environmental Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    health and environmental security are often intertwined, and while not traditionally viewed as „threats‟ to U.S. national security, they will affect ...Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Feb 12, 2009 Instability and Fragile States (FM 3-0) Trends Affecting Ground Force...urbanization – highest rate for decades World’s highest rate of deforestation Land degradation leading to desertification Estimated 65% of agricultural

  17. Two essays on environmental and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner

    The first essay of this dissertation, "estimating non-market economic benefits of using biodiesel fuel: a stochastic double bounded approach", is an attempt to incorporate uncertainty into double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. The double bounded approach, which entails asking respondents a follow-up question after they have answered a first question, has emerged as a means to increase efficiency in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates. However, several studies have found inconsistency between WTP estimates generated by the first and second questions. In this study, it is posited that this inconsistency is due to uncertainty facing the respondents when the second question is introduced. The author seeks to understand whether using a follow-up question in a stochastic format, which allows respondents to express uncertainty, would alleviate the inconsistency problem. In a contingent valuation survey to estimate non-market economic benefits of using more biodiesel vs. petroleum diesel fuel in an airshed encompassing South Eastern and Central Ohio, it is found that the gap between WTP estimates produced by the first and the second questions reduces when respondents are allowed to express uncertainty. The proposed stochastic follow-up approach yields more efficient WTP estimates than the conventional follow-up approach while maintaining efficiency gain over the single bounded model. From a methodological standpoint, this study distinguishes from previous research by being the first to implement a double bounded contingent valuation survey with a stochastic follow-up question. In the second essay, "analyzing the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in developing countries: an instrumental variable panel data approach", instrumental variable panel data techniques are applied to estimate the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in a sample of 73 developing countries from 1970 to 2002. The number of hungry in

  18. TOR station for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Y.; Arshinova, V. G.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kovalevskii, Valentin K.; Plotnikov, Aleksandr P.; Pokrovskii, Evgenii V.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    1997-05-01

    In December 1992 a station for atmospheric observations has been put into operation at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics within the frameworks of the program of ecological monitoring of Siberia. The station provides for acquiring data on gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere, on meteorological quantities, and the background of gamma radiation. The station operates day and night and the whole year round. All the measurement procedures are fully automated. Readouts from the measuring devices are performed very hour 10 minutes averaged. In addition, synoptic information is also received at the station. Periodically gas chromatographic analysis is being done to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons from the methane row. Occasionally, chemical composition of suspended matter is determined relative to 39 ingredients. The station is located to the north-east of Tomsk, Akademgorodok. Therefore sometimes it measures air mass coming from Tomsk down town area and sometimes the air mass from rural areas. As a result information obtained at this station should be typical for recreation zones around Tomsk.

  19. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    The results of the 1988 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), were in operation during the year. The Environmental Committee, which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB), continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY88 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Over the last two years the Department of Energy conducted major environmental audits at all of its facilities, including PPPL. No significant environmental concerns were noted as a result of the inspection and sampling at PPPL. 43 refs., 25 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  1. ICCP Environmental Monitoring Report CY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1993-07-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. This report covers the period from December 21, 1991 through December 20, 1992 and details airborne and liquid effluents from the Chemical Processing Plant.

  2. Understanding Environmental Security: A Military Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-14

    Biodiversity and the rainforests - Desertification - Hazardous wastes Water as a scarce resource - Oceans Jerome Glenn and others. Defining Environmental...period the land produces less and less until it becomes unusable. As we will see in our discussion of desertification , people can do this to the entire... desertification , and deforestation are prime examples of this. The data are uncertain in producing absolutes of where impacts will be seen, but does

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement

  4. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  5. Secure remote health monitoring with unreliable mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Minho

    2012-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare information infrastructure continues to evolve, new technologies promise to provide readily accessible health information that can help people address personal and community health concerns. In particular, wearable and implantable medical sensors and portable computing devices present many opportunities for providing timely health information to health providers, public health professionals, and consumers. Concerns about privacy and information quality, however, may impede the development and deployment of these technologies for remote health monitoring. Patients may fail to apply sensors correctly, device can be stolen or compromised (exposing the medical data therein to a malicious party), low-cost sensors controlled by a capable attacker might generate falsified data, and sensor data sent to the server can be captured in the air by an eavesdropper; there are many opportunities for sensitive health data to be lost, forged, or exposed. In this paper, we design a framework for secure remote health-monitoring systems; we build a realistic risk model for sensor-data quality and propose a new health-monitoring architecture that is secure despite the weaknesses of common personal devices. For evaluation, we plan to implement a proof of concept for secure health monitoring.

  6. Secure Remote Health Monitoring with Unreliable Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minho

    2012-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare information infrastructure continues to evolve, new technologies promise to provide readily accessible health information that can help people address personal and community health concerns. In particular, wearable and implantable medical sensors and portable computing devices present many opportunities for providing timely health information to health providers, public health professionals, and consumers. Concerns about privacy and information quality, however, may impede the development and deployment of these technologies for remote health monitoring. Patients may fail to apply sensors correctly, device can be stolen or compromised (exposing the medical data therein to a malicious party), low-cost sensors controlled by a capable attacker might generate falsified data, and sensor data sent to the server can be captured in the air by an eavesdropper; there are many opportunities for sensitive health data to be lost, forged, or exposed. In this paper, we design a framework for secure remote health-monitoring systems; we build a realistic risk model for sensor-data quality and propose a new health-monitoring architecture that is secure despite the weaknesses of common personal devices. For evaluation, we plan to implement a proof of concept for secure health monitoring. PMID:22910449

  7. Monitoring and Forecasting Reference Evapotranspiration for Food Security Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Husak, G. J.; Dewes, C.; McNally, A.; Huntington, J. L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (Ref ET; driven by temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation) and precipitation are the two most important climatic drivers of seasonal crop yields, which are directly associated with food security in several parts of the globe. In the last decade or so, significant strides have been made by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team and collaborators, towards improving precipitation monitoring. However, efforts to improve Ref ET monitoring and forecasting have thus far lagged by comparison. This presentation describes ongoing activities of the FEWS NET team and collaborators towards the development and implementation of a near-real time Ref ET monitoring and forecasting system, focusing primarily on the food-insecure FEWS NET countries. Due to a lack of in situ observations of meteorological forcings, the Ref ET monitoring dataset, which is calculated using the Penman-Monteith formulation of the ASCE Standardized Reference ET, uses NASA's MERRA-2 atmospheric forcings and is spatially downscaled using a finer resolution climatology of the International Water Management Institute global PET dataset. Ref ET forecasts (up to 6 months lead time) are calculated using seasonal climate forecasts from NCEP's CFSv2 and NASA's GEOS-5 models. Long-term (since early 1980s through 2015) evaluation of Ref ET monitoring and forecast datasets and the approach to provide operational updates of both datasets in near-real time, are summarized in this presentation. As a case study, the influence of improved Ref ET monitoring and Ref ET forecasts on crop yield estimates and food security outlooks in East Africa is also examined using the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index model. In summary, this presentation highlights the importance of monitoring and forecasting Ref ET for food security assessments and early warning.

  8. ICPP environmental monitoring report, CY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Assurance (EA) Section of the Environmental Compliance and SIS Operations (EC/SIS) Department. Published in response to DOE Order 5484.1, Chap. 3, this report covers the period from December 20, 1988 through December 19, 1989. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5,400.05, and the State of Idaho Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EA Section completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the Collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  10. Annual environmental monitoring report: calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1982-04-21

    The environment locally surrounding Mound was monitored primarily for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for CY-1981. The environmental medium analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the applicable standards (adopted by the US DOE) for radioactive species.

  11. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  12. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    Treesearch

    Michael M. Hansen; Isabelle Olivieri; Donald M. Waller; Einar E. Nielsen; F. W. Allendorf; M. K. Schwartz; C. S. Baker; D. P. Gregovich; J. A. Jackson; K. C. Kendall; L. Laikre; K. McKelvey; M. C. Neel; N. Ryman; R. Short Bull; J. B. Stetz; D. A. Tallmon; C. D. Vojta; R. S. Waples

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis...

  13. FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to decades of neglect as well as ever-increasing industrial activity, environmental monitoring has become an important issue. Given the expense and time constraints associated with classical laboratory analysis, there exists a growing interest in cost-effective and real-time ...

  14. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  15. Finding Protection in Definitions: The Quest for Environmental Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda-Bahm, Kenneth T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the definitional move of linking environmental concerns to security concerns. Reviews and critiques the arguments for and against this definitional change based on the degree to which they functionally view definitional argument as a strategy rather than as a truth claim. (SC)

  16. Environmental degradation: Implications for national security. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, J.D.

    1990-03-30

    As the United States prepares to move into the 21st century, the threat of armed conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union appears to have receded into the realm of the improbable. At the same time, however, a new and perhaps more ominous threat is emerging to challenge the security of nations: environmental degradation. Burgeoning world populations and the quest for industrial/economic development have begun seriously to erode the capability of the earth's environment to sustain itself. The phenomena of global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification and many forms of pollution are destroying the delicate life support systems upon which humanity depends for its very survival. National security, therefore, must be redefined and in this instance must be viewed in a context outside the traditional concept of military capability. This paper examines economic, social, political and military implications of environmental degradation as threats to the security of the United States and to world security. The paper concludes that a new level of international cooperation and technological innovation are required to reduce the negative impact of environmental degradation. An appendix provides additional data on specific forms of environmental degradation.

  17. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  18. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  19. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  20. ISFET Based Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Orozco, Jahir; Baldi, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The use of microsensors for in-field monitoring of environmental parameters is gaining interest due to their advantages over conventional sensors. Among them microsensors based on semiconductor technology offer additional advantages such as small size, robustness, low output impedance and rapid response. Besides, the technology used allows integration of circuitry and multiple sensors in the same substrate and accordingly they can be implemented in compact probes for particular applications e.g., in situ monitoring and/or on-line measurements. In the field of microsensors for environmental applications, Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) have a special interest. They are particularly helpful for measuring pH and other ions in small volumes and they can be integrated in compact flow cells for continuous measurements. In this paper the technologies used to fabricate ISFETs and a review of the role of ISFETs in the environmental field are presented. PMID:22315527

  1. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.

  2. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

  3. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  4. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    The results of the 1987 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1987. The Environmental Committee which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY87 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations. 41 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Environmental monitoring report for Calendar Year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The results of the 1986 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three large tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) were in operation during the year. The Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) was shut down in December 1985 to undergo major modifications, and will recommence operations in 1987. PLT was shut down in December 1986. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the Radio-Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) were operated on a limited basis in 1986. The Environmental Committee became a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB) and continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY86 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  6. ICPP environmental monitoring report for CY-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Affairs Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including airborne, liquid, and solid waste. Quality Assurance activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) methods were used.

  7. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  8. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  9. Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1994-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and operational environmental monitoring performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company as it implements the Operational Environmental Monitoring program. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in implementing the Operational Environmental Monitoring program at the Hanford Site.

  10. The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ng, Henry Kin Shing; Chow, Tak Sang

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1-2) and a first-person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource-security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2-3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304-314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ICPP environmental monitoring report CY-1993: Environmental characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Department. This report is published in response to DOE Order 5400.1. This report covers the period from December 21, 1992 through December 20, 1993. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE in accordance with the Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) as presented in DOE Order 5400.5. The State of Idaho regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The ES&H Department updated the Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1992. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP`s implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no EPA methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, WINCO methods were used.

  12. Environmental monitoring and in situ gamma spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klusoň, J.

    2001-06-01

    In situ gamma ray spectrometry is widely used for monitoring of natural as well as man-made radionuclides and corresponding gamma fields in the environment or working places. It finds effective application in the operational and accidental monitoring of nuclear facilities and their vicinity, spent fuel storages and waste depositories, radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, geological prospecting and mapping, etc. Progressive spectrometric methods based on scintillation and semiconductor spectrometry and spectral deconvolution are discussed, including experimental arrangement as well as detection system responses/response matrixes simulation using stochastic (Monte Carlo) models. Methods for ground-level and airborne measurements are presented.

  13. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  14. Monitoring environmental hazards and public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Saying that no national system exists to monitor public health problems linked to environmental hazards, former U.S. Senator Lowell Weicker, Jr., announced on May 11 the launch of a Pew Charitable Trusts blue ribbon panel to focus on this issue.The panel, which includes representatives from academia and health care organizations, will focus on how the United States tracks diseases and recommend ways to fill data gaps; review what tools are needed to improve disease tracking; and focus on children's health issues, such as asthma, childhood cancer, and birth defects that may be linked to the environment, according to Pew Environmental Health Commission Executive Director Shelley Hearne.

  15. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    In environmental radiation monitoring, the time-variable natural gamma radiation background complicates the nuclide identification and analysis of a gamma spectrum. A full spectrum analysis based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method for the description of the time-variable background and adjustment calculations is a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared with a peak-based analysis, if applied to a time series of gamma spectra. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental radiation monitoring. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  17. Environmental monitoring for tritium at jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, A.C.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Patel, B.; Serio, L.

    1995-10-01

    JET progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring programme well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. Prior to the first JET tritium experiment (PTE) in 1991, an extensive programme was in place and agreed with the regulatory authority. This consisted of tritium in air, rain, ground and river water, and crops on and off the JET site. Air is sampled continuously and averaged monthly. Other samples are taken quarterly or, at an appropriate point in the growing season. The discharges of tritium from the JET stacks are monitored by on-line instrumentation and silica gel-based samplers. The performance of these is described and improvements arising from the PTE experience are discussed. In particular the implications of tritiated methane on sampling and analysis are considered. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and comparisons made with predictions from discharges made during the PTE and subsequent operations. The implications of washout on the site liquid discharge authorization is considered. From a comparison of observed and predicted concentrations, routine releases of tritium from JET will have insignificant environmental impact. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Environmental perverse incentives in coastal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Mark T

    2013-08-15

    It can be argued that the intensity of monitoring of coastal marine environments lags behind the equivalent terrestrial environments. This results in a paucity of long-term time series of key environmental parameters such as turbidity. This lack of management information of the sources and sinks, and causes and impacts of stressors to the coastal marine environment, along with a lack of co-ordination of information collection is compromising the ability of environmental impact assessments of major coastal developments to discriminate between local and remote anthropogenic impacts, and natural or background processes. In particular, the quasi outsourcing of the collection of coastal information can lead to a perverse incentive whereby in many cases nobody is actively or consistently monitoring the coastal marine environment effectively. This is particularly the case with regards to the collection of long-term and whole-of-system scale data. This lack of effective monitoring can act to incentivise poor environmental performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the efficiency of environmental monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, Carrie R.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Lampman, Gregory G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lynch, Jason; Schoch, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources.

  20. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  1. Environmental Monitoring of Microbe Metabolic Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad (Inventor); Fleming, Erich (Inventor); Piccini, Matthew (Inventor); Beasley, Christopher (Inventor); Bebout, Leslie (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile system and method for monitoring environmental parameters involved in growth or metabolic transformation of algae in a liquid. Each of one or more mobile apparati, suspended or partly or wholly submerged in the liquid, includes at least first and second environmental sensors that sense and transmit distinct first and second environmental, growth or transformation parameter values, such as liquid temperature, temperature of gas adjacent to and above the exposed surface, liquid pH, liquid salinity, liquid turbidity, O.sub.2 dissolved in the liquid, CO.sub.2 contained in the liquid, oxidization and reduction potential of the liquid, nutrient concentrations in the liquid, nitrate concentration in the liquid, ammonium concentration in the liquid, bicarbonate concentration in the liquid, phosphate concentration in the liquid, light intensity at the liquid surface, electrical conductivity of the liquid, and a parameter.alpha.(alga) associated with growth stage of the alga, using PAM fluorometry or other suitable parameter measurements.

  2. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Cultivating Strategic Foresight for Energy and Environmental Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, David A.; Costigan, Sean; Daum, Keith; Lavoix, Helene; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Pallaris, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Disastrous social, economic, and political instability can result from limited energy resources or deteriorating environmental conditions. Historically, understanding and preparing for potential turbulent events posed significant challenges for governments, due in part to complex connections and dependencies associated with multiple, inter-related issues. Moving forward, we propose world governments can better mitigate and even avert energy and environmental disasters by cultivating a shared, diverse community of physical and social scientists, engineers, security analysts, and other professionals from related fields to share concerns, discuss ideas, and coalesce key concepts from the vast amount of data available about energy and environmental issues. Bringing relevant parties from multiple disciplines into a dynamic, diverse, and more transparent forum will produce a greater range of discussion, deliberation, and feasible solutions to help address uncertain, global energy and environmental concerns of both the present-day and our future.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  6. Environmental remediation monitoring using chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong X. Li

    1996-12-31

    Monitoring is one of the most critical steps in environmental site remediation. However, the conventional technique of monitoring {open_quotes}inlet{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outlet{close_quotes} of a process stream is no longer applicable in many in-situ remedial processes such as bioventing, biosparging, and intrinsic bioremediation. Traditional soil sampling and analysis is also unsuitable for monitoring biodegradation process because of chemical and biological inhomogeneity in soil. Soil gas measurement, on the other hand, is one of the few techniques available which is ideally suited for monitoring in-situ processes, since bioremediation processes involve gaseous components such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. In addition to oxygen and carbon dioxide, contaminant vapors and other trace gaseous components found in the pores of unsaturated soils also provide information on the spatial distribution and the extent of biodegradation. These gaseous components are very mobile, which are ideal analytes for chemical sensors. In this study, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon subsurface chemical sensors were employed for monitoring in-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  7. Quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Shigeru; Park, Jong-Won; Aizawa, Hidenobu; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents discussion of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensors for environmental monitoring. Factors limiting the practical application of antibodies to analytical problems are also presented. Among several candidates for the QCM immunosensor device, selected QCM devices and oscillating circuits were tested thoroughly and developed to obtain highly stable and sensitive frequency signals. The biointerface of QCM immunosensor was designed and controlled to immobilize antibody on the QCM surface, to reduce non-specific binding and to suppress denaturation of immobilizing antibody by self-assembled monolayer technique and artificial phospholipid (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)) polymer. MPC polymer as a antibody-stabilizing reagent was added to reduce non-specific binding of the antigen solution and stabilize the immunologic activity of the antibody-immobilized QCM. In addition, it provides examples for detection and quantitation of environmental samples using QCM immunosensors. The analytical results for fly ash extracted samples of dioxins using the QCM immunosensor indicated a good relationship with GC/MS methods. The integrating protocols of the competitive immunoassay and signal-enhancing step are for detecting low molecular analytes with extremely low detection limits using an QCM immunosensor. Furthermore, its detect limitation was extended from 0.1 to 0.01 ng/ml by the signal-enhancing step when the anti-bisphenol-A antibody conjugated MPC polymeric nanoparticles was used. The QCM immunosensor method has demonstrated its effectiveness as an alternative screening method for environmental monitoring because these results were compared with results obtained through environmental monitoring methods such as ELISA and GC/MS.

  8. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation

    DOE PAGES

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples ofmore » the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.« less

  10. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  11. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi; Howard, David

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) is a project focused on evolving existing and maturing emerging 'closed loop' atmosphere revitalization (AR) life support systems that produce clean, breathable air for crewmembers, and developing a suite of low mass, low power environmental monitors to detect and measure air- and waterborne constituents and contaminants. The objective is to improve reliability and efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and increase recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide created by human metabolism from 43% to greater than 90%. The technology developments under ARREM are vital to extending human space missions from low-Earth orbit like the International Space Station to destinations deeper into space such as Mars where dependency on Earth for resupply of maintenance items and critical life support elements such as water and oxygen is not possible. The primary goal of the ARREM project is to demonstrate that systems meet the more stringent performance parameters for deep space exploration and are compatible with other systems within closed loop life support through a series of integrated tests performed in an environmental test chamber capable of simulating human metabolic activities and measuring systems outputs.

  12. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1995-08-01

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figs.

  13. Magnetoelastic sensors for remote query environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.; Loiselle, K.; Stoyanov, P. G.; Kouzoudis, D.; Liu, Y.; Tong, C.; Tefiku, F.

    1999-10-01

    Magnetoelastic thin film sensors can be considered the magnetic analog of surface acoustic wave sensors, with the characteristic resonant frequency of the magnetoelastic sensor changing in response to different environmental parameters. We report on the application of magnetoelastic sensors for remote query measurement of pressure, temperature, liquid viscosity and, in combination with a glucose-responding mass-changing polymer, glucose concentrations. The advantage of using magnetoelastic sensors is that no direct physical connections, such as wires or cables, are required to obtain sensor information allowing the sensor to be monitored from inside sealed containers. Furthermore since it is the frequency response of the sensor that is monitored, rather than the amplitude, the relative orientation of the sensor with respect to the query field is unimportant.

  14. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the 1982 annual effluent and environmental monitoring program for the Pinellas Plant. Average maximum ground level concentrations of tritium, carbon 14 and krypton 85 were all less than 0.2% of the standard for continuous monoccupational exposure. Offsite releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. No plutonium was released to the environment and monitoring data showed background levels. Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton 85 and carbon 14. (ASR)

  15. Method for monitoring environmental and corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1995-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  16. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably be... HCT/Ps to communicable disease agents, you must adequately control environmental conditions and provide proper conditions for operations. Where appropriate, you must provide for the following control...

  17. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, John J.

    The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for delineation of natural and human causes and effects of global change has ushered in new mathematical approaches to the pursuit of a global environmental system science. Judging from the reports of several international conferences—for example, The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change, 2000—a consistent theme has emerged, calling for the development of an effective ethical framework of global stewardship and strategies (modeling and monitoring) for Earth system management.

  18. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This volume covers planning, design, and data analysis. It offers statistical methods for designing environmental sampling and monitoring programs as well as analyzing the resulting data. Statistical sample survey methods to problems of estimating average and total amounts of environmental pollution are presented in detail. The book also provides a broad array of statistical analysis methods for many purposes...numerous examples...three case studies...end-of-chapter questions...computer codes (showing what output looks like along with its interpretation)...a discussion of Kriging methods for estimating pollution concentration contours over space and/or time...nomographs for determining the number of samples required to detect hot spots with specified confidence...and a description and tables for conducting Rosner's test to identify outlaying (usually large) pollution measurements in a data set.

  19. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  20. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  1. Environmental security of the port and harbors' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Davorin, Sudac; Matika, Dario; Pavić, Ivica

    2009-05-01

    While polluted sediments present a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem and indirectly to the public health, ammunition dump sites being mostly unprotected and neglected, present a serious threat to human security, environmental security and could be possible objects of misuse. Of special interest are sediments in ports and marinas. Those are the places where any suspicious object needs to be analyzed for the presence of explosives and CW. After analyzing several hundreds of sediment samples collected along the Adriatic coast, it has been found that they could be grouped in 7 categories: bays, beaches, villages, ports, marinas - pier area, marina - service areas and others. We have shown that the sediments in ports and harbors contain increased values of elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, As, Zn and Pb). Their presence modifies the response of survey probes while screening the sea floor for the presence of explosives and CW.

  2. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Richard O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  3. Diagnosing water security in the rural North with an environmental security framework.

    PubMed

    Penn, Henry J F; Loring, Philip A; Schnabel, William E

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns. Health practitioners and state agencies, on the other hand, contend that much progress has been made, and that nearly all rural households have access to safe drinking water, though many are still lacking 'modern' in-home water service. Here, we draw on a synthesis of ethnographic research alongside data from state agencies to show that the persistent water insecurity problems in rural Alaska are not a problem of access to or availability of clean water, or a lack of 'modern' infrastructure, but instead are rooted in complex human dimensions of water resources management, including the political legacies of state and federal community development schemes that did not fully account for local needs and challenges. The diagnostic approach we implement here helps to identify solutions to these challenges, which accordingly focus on place-based needs and empowering local actors. The framework likewise proves to be broadly applicable to exploring water security concerns elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  5. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  6. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-03-22

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-todate guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported.

  7. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-01-01

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-to-date guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported. PMID:27879807

  8. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr.; Phipps, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  9. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  10. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  11. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  12. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  13. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  14. Continuous Security and Configuration Monitoring of HPC Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lomeli, H. D.; Bertsch, A. D.; Fox, D. M.

    2015-05-08

    Continuous security and configuration monitoring of information systems has been a time consuming and laborious task for system administrators at the High Performance Computing (HPC) center. Prior to this project, system administrators had to manually check the settings of thousands of nodes, which required a significant number of hours rendering the old process ineffective and inefficient. This paper explains the application of Splunk Enterprise, a software agent, and a reporting tool in the development of a user application interface to track and report on critical system updates and security compliance status of HPC Clusters. In conjunction with other configuration management systems, the reporting tool is to provide continuous situational awareness to system administrators of the compliance state of information systems. Our approach consisted of the development, testing, and deployment of an agent to collect any arbitrary information across a massively distributed computing center, and organize that information into a human-readable format. Using Splunk Enterprise, this raw data was then gathered into a central repository and indexed for search, analysis, and correlation. Following acquisition and accumulation, the reporting tool generated and presented actionable information by filtering the data according to command line parameters passed at run time. Preliminary data showed results for over six thousand nodes. Further research and expansion of this tool could lead to the development of a series of agents to gather and report critical system parameters. However, in order to make use of the flexibility and resourcefulness of the reporting tool the agent must conform to specifications set forth in this paper. This project has simplified the way system administrators gather, analyze, and report on the configuration and security state of HPC clusters, maintaining ongoing situational awareness. Rather than querying each cluster independently, compliance checking

  15. Ultra-wide fast fisheye for security and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, Ahmed M.; Gao, Zhishan

    2014-11-01

    A 1.5mm focal length, F/4and F/3.75, miniature fisheye all spherical optical lens systems with 220 degree full field of view are designed in this paper, a brief discussion for a series of limiting factors is achieved, the performance evaluation is done by ZEMAX optical design and analysis software, which shows that the two designed fisheye lenses are perfect lateral color and axial chromatic aberration corrected, the maximum wavefront OPD at the full FOV is 0.6λ and 1.2λ, the RMS spot size is 3.75-3.9microns across the full FOV in both lens systems, and have diffraction encircled energy, as above 80% energy can be included in 4.8 μm radius circle. Finally, the modulation transfer function of these two designs produces a high-resolution projection with uniform in brightness over the entire range of field angles for security, monitoring, and tracking applications.

  16. Determining ecoregions for environmental and GMO monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Graef, F; Schmidt, G; Schröder, W; Stachow, U

    2005-09-01

    A representative environmental monitoring network at the regional scale cannot use raster-based or random sampling designs, but requires a stratified sampling procedure integrating different information layers, and it has to occur in ecologically differing homogeneous regions (ecoregions). These we have determined using a set of spatial strata with ecological variables which we analysed with classification and regression trees (CART). We present a framework for environmental monitoring, that covers different scales, and we transfer the framework to a potential GMO (genetically modified organisms) monitoring network. We use ecoregion and other environmental strata together with existing environmental monitoring networks to determine GMO monitoring sites more precisely.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  18. Construction on Practical Talents Training Mode in Environmental Monitoring Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Monitoring is a basic and comprehensive course for students majoring in environmental sciences and engineering. Based on the characteristics of this course, a new teaching mode in application of practical talents training in Environmental Monitoring Curriculum teaching mode is proposed including the new scheme of training applied…

  19. Environmental monitoring of North Merritt Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact of the space shuttle operation on North Merritt Island was studied mainly by means of color infrared photos and field visits. An attempt was also made to generate character maps of the Island using LANDSAT data with a view to decreasing the cost of monitoring and making the process more flexible in terms of rapid estimation of the extent of selected ground features. It seems possible that the IMAGE-100 output can be improved by using it in conjunction with software systems which are used for generating character maps. All the methods for generating maps show six main plant associations on North Merritt Island. It was shown that the six associations are related by ecological succession, merge into their neighbors in terms of component species and can be observed for changes in terms of component species.

  20. A Microinstrumentation System for Remote Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Andrew; Baer, Wayne G.; Wise, Kensall D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on a hybrid micro-instrumentation system that includes a embedded micro-controller, transducers for monitoring environmental parameters, interface/readout electronics for linking the controller and the transducers, and custom circuitry for system power management. Sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration are included in the initial system, which operates for more than 180 days and dissipates less than 700 microW from a 6V battery supply. The sensor scan rate is adaptive and can be event triggered. The system communicates internally over a 1 MHz, nine-line intramodule sensor bus and outputs data over a hard-wired serial interface or a 315MHz wireless link. The use of folding platform packaging allows an internal system volume as small as 5 cc.

  1. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    As a one dimensional material, a Single-walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) is made of a rolled up graphene sheet. With a diameter of 1˜2 nm, the SWNTs exhibit many unique properties, such as high aspect ratios, ballistic carrier transport, high mechanical strength and thermal stability. These properties enable SWNTs to have superior performances in various applications including electronics and sensors. SWNT based sensors are extremely sensitive to slight electrostatic changes in their environment and have a fast response where conductance of an SWNT is observed to change in less than 2 sec upon exposure. In addition, SWNT sensors have size advantage over traditional sensors. Hence, SWNTs have been widely explored as active sensing elements for chemical and biomolecule detection. Despite high sensitivities observed from nanotube sensors, one drawback is their lack of selectivity. The conductance of SWNTs is susceptible to many gas molecules in air, including oxygen and moisture which are abundantly present in the ambient environment. Due to this nonspecificity, the presence of any type of gas vapors can possibly interfere with the induced signals from the target gas vapors and hence reduce S/N ratio during detection. To minimize the effects of undesirable interference signals from the environment, several functionalization methods have been developed to customize the affinities of SWNTs to specific targets, including metal nano particles, conducting polymers and biomolecules. The objective of this thesis is to utilize SWNTs in environmental applications. The proposed research topics include: investigating the sensing characteristics of RNA oligomers on carbon nanotubes; analyzing the sensing characteristics of DNA with different sequence lengths on carbon nanotubes; integration of DNA decorated SWNTs onto CMOS chip for toxic and explosive gas monitoring; building nanosensor array based on multi-functionalized SWNTs for air quality monitoring and exploring the sensing

  2. Report: EPA Needs to Strengthen Financial Database Security Oversight and Monitor Compliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00017, March 29, 2007. Weaknesses in how EPA offices monitor databases for known security vulnerabilities, communicate the status of critical system patches, and monitor the access to database administrator accounts and privileges.

  3. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-06-20

    A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument.

  4. Multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at Hanford.

    PubMed

    Gray, R H

    1993-07-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for almost 50 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. Data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1989, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River were in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with river water taken downstream of the Site showed radionuclide levels that were similar to those found in foodstuffs from control areas. Low levels of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in most onsite wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from on- and offsite locations were typical of those attributable to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual (i.e., based on hypothetical, worst-case assumptions for all routes of exposure) in 1989 (0.05 mrem/yr) was similar to those calculated for 1985 through 1988.In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. The Hanford Site currently serves as a refuge for Canada goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and coyotes (Canis latrans).

  5. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  6. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: AMBIENT AMMONIA MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  9. 45 CFR 155.280 - Oversight and monitoring of privacy and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... security requirements. (a) General. HHS will oversee and monitor the Federally-facilitated Exchanges and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oversight and monitoring of privacy and security requirements. 155.280 Section 155.280 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services...

  10. 45 CFR 155.280 - Oversight and monitoring of privacy and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... security requirements. (a) General. HHS will oversee and monitor the Federally-facilitated Exchanges and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oversight and monitoring of privacy and security requirements. 155.280 Section 155.280 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2007-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  12. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

  13. Understanding International Environmental Security: A Strategic Military Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    the t w o co m po ne nt s at thi s ti m e. I n at t em p t i ng to unde r s t an d gl oba l cl i m a t e ch an ge, t hi s st u dy be gi ns by pr es en...ou s to dr i n k . In t he de ve l op ed wo r l d thi s wat er woul d not be con su m ed or wou l d be t r e at e d to sa f e st an da r ds . How ev...tion systems ( GIS ) analysis to determine more precisely “Where” environmental security problems and conflicts may occur. The GIS process is a powerful

  14. Integrated particle detection chip for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Park, Dongho; Hwang, Jungho; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports an integrated particle detection chip for low-cost and point-of-interest environmental monitoring; it consists of a micro virtual impactor and a micro corona discharger. With this system, airborne particles are introduced into the micro virtual impactor of the chip where they are classified according to their aerodynamic diameters. The particles are then charged and their number-concentration is detected in the micro corona discharger from the electrical current carried by the charged particles. The characteristics of each component were first analyzed, and the components were then integrated into a single chip. The micro virtual impactor was designed to have a cut-off diameter of 600 nm or 1.0 microm. Its classification characteristics were examined by classifying polydisperse particles-dioctyl sebacate particles ranging in diameter from 100 to 600 nm and carbon particles ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 10 microm. From the classification results, the cut-off diameter of the micro virtual impactor was measured to be either 550 nm or 1.1 microm. The micro corona discharger was fabricated based on a sharp silicon tip and a planar electrode and charged particles at 1.3 kV. Using the integrated particle detection chip comprising the micro virtual impactor and the micro corona discharger, the sensitivity for monodisperse particles-500 nm dioctyl sebacate in diameter-was measured to be 8 x 10(-7) pA/(particle cm(-3)).

  15. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  16. Environmental monitoring at Mound: 1987 report

    SciTech Connect

    Carfagno, D.G.; Farmer, B.M.

    1988-04-25

    The local environment around Mound as monitored primarily for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for 1987. Environmental media analyzed included air, water, vegetation, food-stuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium 238 and tritium were within the DOE interim air and water Derived Concentration Guides (DCG) for these radionuclides. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium oxide in air measured at all offsite locations during 1987 were 4.6 x 10/sup -18/ ..mu..Ci/mL and 12.9 x 10/sup -12/ ..mu..Ci/mL, respectively. These correspond to 0.02% and 0.01%, respectively, of the DOE DCGs for uncontrolled areas. The average incremental concentration of plutonium-238 measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1987 was 1.4 x 10/sup - 12/ ..mu..Ci/mL which is 0.0004% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1987 was 0.07 x 10/sup -6/ ..mu..Ci/mL which is 0.004% of the DOE DCG. The dose equivalent estimates for the average air, water, and foodstuff concentrations indicate that the levels are 1% of the DOE standard of 100 mrem. 23 refs., 5 figs., 34 tabs.

  17. Image-based spectroscopy for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmakov, Eduard; Molina, Carolyn; Wynne, Rosalind

    2014-03-01

    An image-processing algorithm for use with a nano-featured spectrometer chemical agent detection configuration is presented. The spectrometer chip acquired from Nano-Optic DevicesTM can reduce the size of the spectrometer down to a coin. The nanospectrometer chip was aligned with a 635nm laser source, objective lenses, and a CCD camera. The images from a nanospectrometer chip were collected and compared to reference spectra. Random background noise contributions were isolated and removed from the diffraction pattern image analysis via a threshold filter. Results are provided for the image-based detection of the diffraction pattern produced by the nanospectrometer. The featured PCF spectrometer has the potential to measure optical absorption spectra in order to detect trace amounts of contaminants. MATLAB tools allow for implementation of intelligent, automatic detection of the relevant sub-patterns in the diffraction patterns and subsequent extraction of the parameters using region-detection algorithms such as the generalized Hough transform, which detects specific shapes within the image. This transform is a method for detecting curves by exploiting the duality between points on a curve and parameters of that curve. By employing this imageprocessing technique, future sensor systems will benefit from new applications such as unsupervised environmental monitoring of air or water quality.

  18. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  19. Real-time and secure wireless health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dağtaş, S; Pekhteryev, G; Sahinoğlu, Z; Cam, H; Challa, N

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework for a wireless health monitoring system using wireless networks such as ZigBee. Vital signals are collected and processed using a 3-tiered architecture. The first stage is the mobile device carried on the body that runs a number of wired and wireless probes. This device is also designed to perform some basic processing such as the heart rate and fatal failure detection. At the second stage, further processing is performed by a local server using the raw data transmitted by the mobile device continuously. The raw data is also stored at this server. The processed data as well as the analysis results are then transmitted to the service provider center for diagnostic reviews as well as storage. The main advantages of the proposed framework are (1) the ability to detect signals wirelessly within a body sensor network (BSN), (2) low-power and reliable data transmission through ZigBee network nodes, (3) secure transmission of medical data over BSN, (4) efficient channel allocation for medical data transmission over wireless networks, and (5) optimized analysis of data using an adaptive architecture that maximizes the utility of processing and computational capacity at each platform.

  20. The Cooperative Monitoring Center: Achieving cooperative security objectives through technical collaborations

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.

    1996-08-01

    The post cold war security environment poses both difficult challenges and encouraging opportunities. Some of the most difficult challenges are related to regional conflict and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. New and innovative approaches to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are essential. More effort must be focused on underlying factors that motivate countries to seek weapons of mass destruction. Historically the emphasis has been on denial: denying information, denying technology, and denying materials necessary to build such weapons. Though still important, those efforts are increasingly perceived to be insufficient, and initiatives that address underlying motivational factors are needed. On the opportunity side, efforts to establish regional dialogue and confidence-building measures are increasing in many areas. Such efforts can result in cooperative agreements on security issues such as border control, demilitarized zones, weapons delivery systems, weapons of mass destruction free zones, environmental agreements, and resource sharing. In some cases, implementing such cooperative agreements will mean acquiring, analyzing, and sharing large quantities of data and sensitive information. These arrangements for ``cooperative monitoring`` are becoming increasingly important to the security of individual countries, regions, and international institutions. However, many countries lack sufficient technical and institutional infrastructure to take full advantage of these opportunities. Constructing a peaceful twenty-first century will require that technology is brought to bear in the most productive and innovative ways to meet the challenges of proliferation and to maximize the opportunities for cooperation.

  1. Mapping the environmental risk of a tourist harbor in order to foster environmental security: Objective vs. subjective assessments.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, Irene; Irene, Petrosillo; Vassallo, Paolo; Paolo, Vassallo; Valente, Donatella; Donatella, Valente; Mensa, Jean Alberto; Alberto, Mensa Jean; Fabiano, Mauro; Mauro, Fabiano; Zurlini, Giovanni; Giovanni, Zurlini

    2010-07-01

    A new definition of environmental security gives equal importance to the objective and subjective assessments of environmental risk. In this framework, the management of tourist harbors has to take into account managers' perceptions. The subject of the present study is a tourist harbor in southern Italy where six different managers are present. This paper aims to assess subjectively and objectively the environmental risks associated with the harbor, and to compare the results to provide estimates of environmental security. Hereby managers have been interviewed and a simple model is used for making preliminary assessment of environmental risks. The comparison of the results highlighted a common mismatch between risk perception and risk assessment. We demonstrated that the old part of the harbor is less secure than the new part. In addition, one specific manager representing a public authority showed a leading role in ensuring the environmental security of the whole harbor.

  2. Environmental Monitoring at the Savannah River Plant, Annual Report - 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, C.

    2001-07-26

    An environmental monitoring program has been in existence at SRP since 1951. The original preoperational surveys have evolved into an extensive environmental monitoring program in which sample types from approximately 500 locations are analyzed for radiological and/or nonradiological parameters. The results of these analyses for 1981 are presented in this report.

  3. Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Data (REMAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) was initiated to test the applicability of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) approach to answer questions about ecological conditions at regional and local scales. Using EMAP's statistical design and indicator concepts, REMAP conducts projects at smaller geographic scales and in shorter time frames than the national EMAP program.

  4. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  5. Near Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    2000-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards.

  6. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, Annual report, October 1, 1987-September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. The compliance monitoring data and implementation of supplemental sampling for source monitoring and industrial hygiene monitoring are described.

  7. The Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Program CY-93

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Operational Environmental Monitoring Program (OEMP) provides facility-specific environmental monitoring to protect the environment adjacent to facilities under the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and assure compliance with WHC requirements and local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The objectives of the OEMP are to evaluate: compliance with federal (DOE, EPA), state, and internal WHC environmental radiation protection requirements and guides; performance of radioactive waste confinement systems; and trends of radioactive materials in the environment at and adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites. This paper identifies the monitoring responsibilities and current program status for each area of responsibility.

  8. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Clifford K.; Robinson, Alex; Miller, David R.; Davis, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  9. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  10. Community Environmental Monitoring Program: a case study of public education and involvement in radiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shafer, David S; Hartwell, William T

    2011-11-01

    The public's trust in the source of information about radiation is a key element of its acceptance. The public tends to trust two groups where risk communication is concerned: (1) scientists with expertise who are viewed as acting independently; and (2) friends, family, and other close associates who are viewed as sharing the same interests and concern, even if they have less knowledge of the subject. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) bridges both of these groups by having members of the public help operate and communicate results of a network of 29 radiation monitoring stations around the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal continental location where the United States conducted nuclear tests. The CEMP stations, spread across a 160,000 km area, help provide evidence to the public that no releases of radiation of health concern are occurring from the NNSS to public receptors. The stations provide continuous measurements of gamma radiation and collect air particulate samples that are analyzed for radioactivity and meteorological measurements that aid in interpreting variations in background radiation. A public website (http://cemp.dri.edu) provides data for most instruments. Twenty-three of the 29 stations upload their data in near-real time to a public website as well as to digital readout displays at the stations, both of which are key elements in the CEMP's transparency. The remaining six stations upload their data hourly. Public stakeholders who are direct participants provide the most significant element of the CEMP. The "Community Environmental Monitors," who are residents of towns where the stations are located, are part of the chain-of-custody for the air samples, perform minor station maintenance, and most significantly in terms of trust, serve as lay experts on issues concerning the NNSS and on ionizing radiation and nuclear technologies in general. The CEMP meets nearly all

  11. Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site.

  12. Environmental monitoring at Mound: 1986 report

    SciTech Connect

    Carfagno, D.G.; Farmer, B.M.

    1987-05-11

    The local environment around Mound was monitored for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for 1986. Environmental media analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the DOE interim air and water Derived Concentration Guides (DCG) for these radionuclides. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium oxide in air measured at all offsite locations during 1986 were 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, of the DOE DCGs for uncontrolled areas. The average incremental concentration of plutonium-238 measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.0005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 found during 1986 in surface and area drinking water were less than 0.00006% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium in surface water was less than 0.005% of the DOE DCG. All tritium in drinking water data is compared to the US EPA Drinking Water Standard. The average concentrations in local private and municipal drinking water systems were less than 25% and 1.5%, respectively. Although no DOE DCG is available for foodstuffs, the average concentrations are a small fraction of the water DCG (0.04%). The concentrations of sediment samples obtained at offsite surface water sampling locations were extremely low and therefore represent no adverse impact to the environment. The dose equivalent estimates for the average air, water, and foodstuff concentrations indicate that the levels are within 1% of the DOE standard of 100 mrem. None of these exceptions, however, had an adverse impact on the water quality of the Great Miami River or caused the river to exceed Ohio Stream Standards. 20 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms, to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess the concentrations of these discharges in the environment. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for this site. Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. Excursions above permit limits were experienced in the results for suspended solids, fecal coliforms, iron and mercury. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.43% of the nonoccupational standard. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Calculation were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton-85 and carbon-14 to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site.

  14. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  15. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  16. 3 CFR - Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Improving Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental Protection Through a Transformation of Our Nation's Fleet of Cars... Energy Security, American Competitiveness and Job Creation, and Environmental Protection Through...

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Robert Boehlecke

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  18. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental conditions could reasonably be expected to cause contamination or cross-contamination of HCT/Ps or... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195..., TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.195 Environmental...

  19. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental conditions could reasonably be expected to cause contamination or cross-contamination of HCT/Ps or... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195..., TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.195 Environmental...

  20. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  2. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  3. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  4. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  5. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  6. Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2012-01-01

    Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.

  7. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation of long-term effects and the need for mitigative measures. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early warning of releases of radionuclides from the disposal site before they leave the... closure and stabilization of the disposal site. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early...

  8. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evaluation of long-term effects and the need for mitigative measures. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early warning of releases of radionuclides from the disposal site before they leave the... closure and stabilization of the disposal site. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early...

  9. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... evaluation of long-term effects and the need for mitigative measures. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early warning of releases of radionuclides from the disposal site before they leave the... closure and stabilization of the disposal site. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early...

  10. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evaluation of long-term effects and the need for mitigative measures. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early warning of releases of radionuclides from the disposal site before they leave the... closure and stabilization of the disposal site. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early...

  11. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... evaluation of long-term effects and the need for mitigative measures. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early warning of releases of radionuclides from the disposal site before they leave the... closure and stabilization of the disposal site. The monitoring system must be capable of providing early...

  12. [Planning of monitoring points for agricultural products security based on integrated weighted clustering method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui-Chao; Chen, Lian-Cheng; Wang, Lu; Li, Qing; Xue, Yue-Ju; Du, Guo-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Integrated weighted clustering method was applied to plan the monitoring points for agricultural products security. Definite amounts of key monitoring sampling points were mined out from enormous monitoring objects to make the fewer monitoring sampling points cover the product categories, yields, and regions as more as possible. Among the 10172 agricultural products security enterprises all over the China, 2.46% of them were selected. The tested categories, yields, and regions of agricultural safety products covered 32.71%, 44.29%, and 75% of the total, and their coverage increased by 2.80%, 10.85%, 5.56%, respectively, compared with that by using conventional monitoring and management methods, which suggested that it could be more effective to apply integrated weighted clustering method in setting the monitoring points for agricultural products security.

  13. Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hauke; Middelhoff, Ulrike; Graef, Frieder; Verhoeven, Richard; Batz, Thomas; Weis, Martin; Schmidt, Gunther; Schröder, Winfried; Breckling, Broder

    2010-09-01

    European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and evaluate the monitoring data. A structure for an Information System for Monitoring GMO (ISMO) was developed by a multidisciplinary research team. It is based on the requirement to organise all relevant information in a logical, readily accessible and functional manner. For the ISMO, we present a combination of three interrelated components: Firstly, an ISMO should comprise a knowledge database structured according to information related to the different scale levels of biological organisation relevant to GMO monitoring and scientific hypotheses on cause-effects which should be validated by monitoring data. Secondly, a monitoring database should be part of an ISMO containing GMO-specific monitoring data and meta-data. This monitoring database should be linked with monitoring data from other monitoring programmes which are relevant for GMO-related questions. Thirdly, an ISMO should encompass a database covering administrative and procedural data. Neither national nor international approaches to an ISMO exist yet. An ISMO as designed in this paper could support competent authorities in both the GMO notification process and in post-market monitoring. This includes evaluating the environmental risks of experimentally releasing GMO and placing them on the market, assessing monitoring plans and evaluating monitoring results. The ISMO should be implemented on both the national and international level, preferably combining different administrative scales. Harmonisation approaches towards GMO monitoring data are at an initial stage, but they are a precondition to coordinated GMO monitoring and to successfully

  14. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  15. National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center Environmental Programs Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, D. D.; Rohde, K.

    2003-02-26

    As environmental restoration (ER) projects move toward completion, the planning, integration, and documentation of long-term environmental stewardship (LTES) activities is increasingly important for ensuring smooth transition to LTES. The Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook (Handbook) prepared by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Service Center Environmental Programs Department (EPD) outlines approaches for integrating site-specific LTES planning and implementation into site ER baseline documentation. Since LTES will vary greatly from site to site, the Handbook also provides for flexibility in addressing LTES in ER Project life-cycle baselines, while clearly identifying Environmental Management (EM) requirements. It provides suggestions for enacting LTES principles and objectives through operational activities described in site-specific LTES plans and life cycle ER Project baseline scope, cost, and schedule documentation and tools for more thorough planning, better quantification, broader understanding of risk and risk management factors, and more comprehensive documentation. LTES planning applied to baselines in a phased approach will facilitate seamlessly integrating LTES into site operational activities, thereby minimizing the use of resources.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Dow Syngas Project. Quarterly report: Third quarter, 1988. Report for 1 July-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, G.

    1988-11-29

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Dow Syngas Project design is a high-temperature entrained-flow slagging-type gasifier that began operating in 1987. Dow agreed to comply with existing environmental regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in areas of potential environmental and health concern, relative to synthetic-fuels facilities. The phases of monitoring in the EMP will test parameters of interest in air, water, and solid waste for evaluating plant operations and for establishing a data base of information for resolving environmental uncertainties relative to replication of synthetic-fuels plants. Monitoring described includes 1486 samples, submission of a permit to burn syngas, ground-water monitoring of the solid waste landfill, and performance testing of the incinerator and gas turbine stacks.

  17. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  19. Environmental monitoring plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is an omnibus document providing a single point of reference for the effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORR areas outside specific facility boundaries. Authorization and requirement for the EMP are contained in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 Chapter 4, which states that environmental monitoring consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. This EMP is intended to document the rationale and design criteria for the effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs, extent and frequency of sampling and analysis, analytical laboratory procedures, quality assurance, implementation, and reporting. The EMP describes one of several programs that collect and analyze data to assess the impacts of ORR on the environment and human health. Others include the Environmental Restoration Program and the Clinch River Remedial Investigation Program. While the ultimate goal for DOE may be to integrate information from all these programs into a formalized assessment of risk to ecosystems and human health, that level of integration is beyond the scope of the EMP. The EMP outlines the goals of environmental monitoring for the ORR and its facilities and includes activities that are not presently conducted. In general, the programs described in this EMP represent an increase in surveillance activities over past practices.

  20. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  1. Report: EPA’s Office of Environmental Information Should Improve Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard Computer Room Security Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0879, September 26, 2012. The security posture and in-place environmental control review of the computer rooms in the Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard buildings revealed numerous security and environmental control deficiencies.

  2. Multispectral image processing for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.; Lazaroff, Mark B.; Brennan, Mark W.

    1993-03-01

    New techniques are described for detecting environmental anomalies and changes using multispectral imagery. Environmental anomalies are areas that do not exhibit normal signatures due to man-made activities and include phenomena such as effluent discharges, smoke plumes, stressed vegetation, and deforestation. A new region-based processing technique is described for detecting these phenomena using Landsat TM imagery. Another algorithm that can detect the appearance or disappearance of environmental phenomena is also described and an example illustrating its use in detecting urban changes using SPOT imagery is presented.

  3. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  4. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  5. Astronaut-Deployable Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Smith, M. D.; Khayat, A.; Conrad, P.

    2017-06-01

    Geophysical and environmental monitoring stations could be deployed by astronauts exploring Mars to create a broad network that would collect high-value scientific information while also enhancing astronaut safety.

  6. Astronaut-Deployable Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Smith, M. D.; Khayat, A.; Conrad, P.

    2017-02-01

    Geophysical and environmental monitoring stations could be deployed by astronauts exploring Mars, the Moon, or asteroids, and create a broad network that would collect high-value scientific information while also enhancing astronaut safety.

  7. Environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Matugina, E. G.; Bagamaev, B. M.; Tokhov, Yu M.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Gorchakov, E. V.; Sotnikova, T. V.; Shilova, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The environmental monitoring of natural waters in Krasnodar (Uspensky and Novokubansky districts) and Stavropol (Kochubeyevsky District) Territories was conducted. In the course of study, various elements and compounds harmful to animals and humans, which exceed maximum permissible concentrations, were identified.

  8. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  9. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  10. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides. (ERB)

  11. An integrated water-energy-food-livelihoods approach for assessing environmental livelihood security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Boruff, B.; Bruce, E.; Neef, A.; McNeill, K.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Haworth, B.; Duce, S.; Horsley, J.; Pauli, N.; Curnow, J.; Imanari, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental livelihood security refers to the challenges of maintaining global food security and universal access to freshwater and energy to sustain livelihoods and promote inclusive economic growth, whilst sustaining key environmental systems' functionality, particularly under variable climatic regimes. Environmental security is a concept complementary to sustainable development, and considers the increased vulnerability people have to certain environmental stresses, such as climatic change. Bridging links between the core component concepts of environmental security is integral to future human security, and in an attempt to create this bridge, the nexus approach to human protection has been created, where water resource availability underpins food, water and energy security. The water-energy-food nexus has an influential role in attaining human security, yet little research has made the link between the nexus and livelihoods. In this research we provide a critical appraisal of the synergies between water-energy-food nexus framings and sustainable livelihoods approaches, both of which aim to promote sustainable development. In regions where livelihoods are dependent on environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development is critical for ensuring future environmental and human security. Given our appraisal we go on to develop an integrated framework for assessing environmental livelihood security of multiscale and multi-level systems. This framework provides a tangible approach for assessing changes in the water-energy-food-livelihood indicators of a system. Examples of where system applications may occur are discussed for the Southeast Asia and Oceania region. Our approach will be particularly useful for policy-makers to inform evidence-based decision-making, especially in localities where climate change increases the vulnerability of impoverished communities and extenuates environmental livelihood insecurity.

  12. Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

    2009-05-18

    We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

  13. Environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure in California workplaces.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, L; Sharp, D S; Samuels, S; Perkins, C; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure were surveyed in lead-using industries in California. Employer self-reporting indicates a large proportion of potentially lead-exposed workers have never participated in a monitoring program. Only 2.6 percent of facilities have done environmental monitoring for lead, and only 1.4 percent have routine biological monitoring programs. Monitoring practices vary by size of facility, with higher proportions in industries in which larger facilities predominate. Almost 80 percent of battery manufacturing employees work in job classifications which have been monitored, versus only 1 percent of radiator-repair workers. These findings suggest that laboratory-based surveillance for occupational lead poisoning may seriously underestimate the true number of lead poisoned workers and raise serious questions regarding compliance with key elements of the OSHA Lead Standard. PMID:2368850

  14. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, W.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Buddemeir, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Information on monitoring activities is reported in two sections for EDB/ERA/INIS. The first section covers all information reported except Appendix D, which gives details of sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A separate abstract was prepared for Appendix D. (JGB)

  17. Perimeter radiation monitors for the control and physical security of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Perimeter radiation monitors are gamma-ray and neutron measurement systems that can provide timely notice of theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). The monitors may be hand-held instruments operated by security inspectors or automatic pedestrian or vehicle monitors located in exit pathways. A monitor's performance depends on its design, the characteristics of SNM and the operating environment, and proper monitor calibration and maintenance. Goals of ASTM Subcommittee C26.12 are to describe monitoring technology, how to apply it, and how to test its performance. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Monitoring of environmental pollutants by bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Girotti, Stefano; Ferri, Elida Nora; Fumo, Maria Grazia; Maiolini, Elisabetta

    2008-02-04

    This review deals with the applications of bioluminescent bacteria to the environmental analyses, published during the years 2000-2007. The ecotoxicological assessment, by bioassays, of the environmental risks and the luminescent approaches are reported. The review includes a brief introduction to the characteristics and applications of bioassays, a description of the characteristics and applications of natural bioluminescent bacteria (BLB), and a collection of the main applications to organic and inorganic pollutants. The light-emitting genetically modified bacteria applications, as well as the bioluminescent immobilized systems and biosensors are outlined. Considerations about commercially available BLB and BLB catalogues are also reported. Most of the environmental applications, here mentioned, of luminescent organisms are on wastewater, seawater, surface and ground water, tap water, soil and sediments, air. Comparison to other bioindicators and bioassay has been also made. Various tables have been inserted, to make easier to take a rapid glance at all possible references concerning the topic of specific interest.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Curriculum System and Application-Oriented Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Through building the environmental monitoring curriculum system for application-oriented talents, the comprehensive design and practice were constructed from the syllabus, textbooks, web-based courses, top-quality courses, test paper bank, open laboratory and scientific research etc. The aims are to promote environmental science professional,…

  20. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Quarterly report. Second quarter 1989. Report for 1 April-30 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described and the rationale for Tier I and Tier II monitoring are explained in the Environmental Monitoring Plan.

  1. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  2. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  3. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  4. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  5. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  6. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  7. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  8. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Dow Syngas Project. Quarterly report: Third quarter, 1986. Report for 1 July-30 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, G.

    1986-11-25

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Dow Syngas Project design is a high-temperature entrained-flow slagging-type gasifier that began operating in 1987. Dow agreed to comply with existing environmental regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in areas of potential environmental and health concern, relative to synthetic-fuels facilities. The phases of monitoring in the EMP will test parameters of interest in air, water and solid waste for evaluating plant operations and for establishing a data base of information for resolving environmental uncertainties relative to replication of synthetic fuels plants. This report summarizes activities completed for construction monitoring, review of solid-waste landfill operations, laboratory equipment installation, and development of health and safety reviews.

  10. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  11. BNL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN TRIENNIAL UPDATE, JANUARY 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is located on a 5,265-acre site in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. BNL has a comprehensive Environmental Management System (EMS) in place, which meets the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization 14001 EMS Standard, as described in the BNL EMS Manual. BNL's extensive environmental monitoring program is one component of the EMS, and the BNL Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes this program in detail. The data derived from systematically monitoring the various environmental media on site enable BNL to make informed decisions concerning the protection of human health and the environment and to be responsive to community concerns.

  12. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

    2007-07-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

  13. The environmental dimension of national security: A test of systems analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1992-11-01

    The systems approach permits us to analyze national security as a cluster of interconnected elements, in which the environmental dimension appears to be the most important one. The environmental problem is divided into two main aspects: environmental security per se and the impact of environment on the overall status of a nation's security. It is argued here that the quality of life and health serve as both the main objective and the principal criterion of environmental security in a social system. Indices of these two factors are used in this article as indicators of the state of this type of security. They confirm that vast areas of Russia, the Ukraine, and Central Asia (especially the Aral Sea region) should be considered as presenting a substantial risk to local people and even producing global impacts on both natural and man-made systems. Environmental factors that destabilize national security are also divided into two groups: those that impact social systems directly and negatively (mainly natural disasters) and technological and sociopolitical agents that cause indirect impacts, in both war and peace time, as well as in the civil and military sectors of the economy. Developments in the former Soviet Union (the Commonwealth of Independent States) are used as an illustration of the consequences that such impacts may have on the status of national security.

  14. Wireless Sensor Networks Applied on Environmental Monitoring in Fowl Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fangwu; Zhang, Naiqing

    Aiming at the real time monitoring requirement of poultry farms on the environment, a online monitoring system is proposed for poultry farms on the environment based on ZigBee, its application of ZigBee wireless networks and sensor technology. supply a network structure of monitoring system, monitoring system node controller of data acquisition, data transmission and control node, which is TI's CC2430 based on ZigBee technology. CO2 sensors use TGS4161, temperature and humidity sensors use SHT75 to detect environmental parameters. designed circuit diagram of parameter testing node and system master control node, CC2430 as a data processing chip. through the analysis of data transmission of system, simplifying the ZigBee protocol stack, designed data transmission protocols and communication formats of the system. given program flow chart of sensors nodes and main node. practical application shows that the performance ratio cable monitoring system is better, Especially in real-time systems and anti-jamming, it so superior on the current forms of environmental monitoring SCM cable system which cost lower than the SCM cable control system about 30%.Successfully achieved the Monitoring of fowlery's CO2 concentration, temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for large-scale poultry farming, and to provide a new monitoring environment technologie.

  15. Secure and Time-Aware Communication of Wireless Sensors Monitoring Overhead Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wydra, Michal; Ksiezopolski, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs. PMID:28696390

  16. Secure and Time-Aware Communication of Wireless Sensors Monitoring Overhead Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wydra, Michal; Ksiezopolski, Bogdan

    2017-07-11

    Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs.

  17. EC intercomparisons for laboratories monitoring environmental radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wätjen, U; Szántó, Zs; Altzitzoglou, T; Sibbens, G; Keightley, J; Hult, M

    2006-01-01

    International measurement comparisons are organised regularly for EU laboratories involved in monitoring radioactivity, with emphasis on meeting routine measurement conditions. Using the recent comparison of 137Cs in air filters as an example, the whole cycle is described: establishment of traceable reference values, spiking of individual filters for the comparison and their quality assurance, treatment and measurement of filters in the participating laboratories and evaluation of comparison results. The treatment of an individual result, deviating widely from the reference value, is discussed. Monte-Carlo simulations allow to estimate the maximum errors possibly made due to a non-suitable measurement geometry.

  18. Environmental charging effects monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    A set of three instruments has been developed that can provide early detection of potentially dangerous geomagnetic substorm conditions, and monitor the spacecraft response. The set consists of three instruments: (1) a 'surface voltage sensor' that measures the characteristic energy of collected electrons or ions from +100 to -20,000 volts; (2) a 'nanoammeter' or logarithmic current density sensor that measures local electron flux by measuring currents from 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -5th A; and (3) a 'transient events counter' that counts the spurious pulses from electrostatic discharges that are coupled into the spacecraft wiring harness. Performance characteristics, specifications, and application of these instruments are discussed.

  19. PREDICT: Privacy and Security Enhancing Dynamic Information Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    Advances in Geographic Information Systems ( ACM SIGSPATIAL), 2015. [4] Xiaofeng Xu, Li Xiong, Vaidy Sunderam, Jinfei Liu, Jun Lo. VPIndexer: Velocity...based Partitioning for Indexing Moving Objects (Demo), Submitted, 23rd Intl. Conf. on Advances in Geographic Information Systems ( ACM SIGSPATIAL...under Temporal Correlations. To appear, 22nd ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), 2015 [8] Jinfei Liu, Li Xiong, Jian Pei

  20. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of the possible effects of weather or of a power disruption; (3) Monitors the facility area... provided by the vessel itself; and (6) Limits lighting effects, such as glare, and their impact on...

  1. Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks.

    PubMed

    Messer, Hagit; Zinevich, Artem; Alpert, Pinhas

    2006-05-05

    The global spread of wireless networks brings a great opportunity for their use in environmental studies. Weather, atmospheric conditions, and constituents cause propagation impairments on radio links. As such, while providing communication facilities, existing wireless communication systems can be used as a widely distributed, high-resolution atmospheric observation network, operating in real time with minimum supervision and without additional cost. Here we demonstrate how measurements of the received signal level, which are made in a cellular network, provide reliable measurements for surface rainfall. We compare the estimated rainfall intensity with radar and rain gauge measurements.

  2. Monitoring environmental change in an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; López, I; Molnár, S

    2008-09-01

    The monitoring and analysis of the processes taking place in an ecosystem is a key issue for a sustainable human activity. A system of populations, as the biotic component of a complex ecosystem is usually affected by the variation of its abiotic environment. Even in nearly natural ecosystems an abiotic effect like climatic implications of global warming may cause important changes in the dynamics of the population system. In ecosystems involving field cultivation or any industrial activity; the abiotic parameter in question may be the concentration of a substance, changing, e.g. as a result of pollution, application of a pesticide, or a fertilizer, etc. In many cases the observation of the densities of each population may be technically complicated or expensive, therefore the question arises whether from the observation of the densities of certain (indicator) populations, the whole state process of the population system can be uniquely recovered. The paper is aimed at a methodological development of the state monitoring, under the conditions of a changing environment. It is shown, how the technique of mathematical systems theory can be applied not only for the approximate calculation of the state process on the basis of the observed data, even under the effect of an exogene abiotic change with known dynamics; but in certain cases, also for the estimation of the unknown biological effect of the change of an abiotic parameter. The proposed methodology is applied to simple illustrative examples concerning a three-species predator-prey system.

  3. Versatile electrochemical microsensors for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Hong, K.C. . Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.); Ashley, K. . Dept. of Chemistry); Granstaff, V.E. )

    1991-10-01

    The fabrication of novel multielement microelectrode array sensors is reported. With regard to individual array elements, two main concepts are pursued. One involves the use of relatively non-selective microelectrode elements, coupled with pattern recognition methods, for data analysis. This strategy is most applicable when prior knowledge about the chemical environment is limited, or when mainly qualitative information is sought. The second concept involves the development of arrays containing intrinsically more selective microelectrode elements. Our main concern here is the determination of specific contaminants. Most of our current emphasis is in the selection and development of appropriate elements for microelectrode arrays of this type, with a goal of quantitative analysis for a variety of compounds and elements. Other efforts are concerned with defining the behavior of microelectrodes and devising mass fabrication methods for these sensors. Two designs for the arrays are discussed, one employing photolithographic fabrication methods and another in which individual microelectrodes are encased in glass. Potential applications for these sensors include monitoring for toxic contaminants in natural waters, monitoring waste streams, and process control. 35 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  5. Lidar techniques for environmental and ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2015-04-01

    An overview of optical probing of the atmosphere will be given, where mostly active remote- sensing techniques of the laser-radar type will be covered, but also some passive techniques employing ambient radiation. Atmospheric objects of quite varying sizes can be studied. Mercury is the only pollutant in atomic form in the atmosphere, while other pollutants are either molecular or in particle form. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) techniques allow three-dimensional mapping of such constituents, and examples from atmospheric lidar work in Lund and in Guangzhou will be given. Recently, much larger lidar targets have been studied. Monitoring of flying insects and birds is of considerable ecological interest, and several projects have been pursued in collaboration with biologists. Mostly, elastic backscattering and fluorescence techniques are employed. Some references to recent activities by the author and his colleagues are given below. [1] Z.G. Guan, L. Mei, P. Lundin, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, Vertical Lidar Sounding of Air Pollutants in a Major Chinese City, Appl. Phys. B 101, 465 (2010) [2] L. Mei, G.Y. Zhou and S. Svanberg, Differential Absorption Lidar System Employed for Background Atomic Mercury Vertical Profiling in South China, Lasers Opt. Eng. 55, 128 (2013) [3] Z.G. Guan, M. Brydegaard, P. Lundin, M. Wellenreuther, E. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, Insect Monitoring with Fluorescence LIDAR techniques - Field experiments, Appl. Optics 48, 5668 (2010) [4] A. Runemark, M. Wellereuther, H. Jayaweera, S. Svanberg and M. Brydegaard, Rare Events in Remote Dark Field Spectroscopy: An Ecological Case study of Insects, IEEE JSTQE 18, 1573 (2011) [5] L. Mei, Z.G. Guan, H.J. Zhou, J. Lv, Z.R. Zhu, J.A. Cheng, F.J. Chen, C. Löfstedt, S. Svanberg, and G. Somesfalean, Agricultural Pest Monitoring using Fluorescence Lidar Techniques, Applied Physics B 106, 733 (2011) [6] P. Lundin, P. Samuelsson, S. Svanberg, A. Runemark, S. Åkesson, and M. Brydegaard, Remote

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  8. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  10. Comfort monitoring? Environmental assessment follow-up under community-industry negotiated environmental agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram; Birk, Jasmine

    2011-01-15

    Negotiated environmental agreements are becoming common practice in the mining industry. In principle, negotiated environmental agreements are said to respond to many of the shortcomings of environmental impact assessment by providing for improved follow-up of project impacts through, among other things, data provision, engaging stakeholders in the monitoring and management of project impacts, and building capacity at the local level to deal with project-induced environmental change. In practice, however, little is known about the efficacy of follow-up under negotiated environmental agreements between proponents and communities and the demonstrated value added to project impact management. This paper examines follow-up practice under negotiated environmental agreements with a view to understanding whether and how community-based monitoring under privatized agreements actually contributes to improved follow-up and impact management. Based on lessons emerging from recent experiences with environmental agreements in Canada's uranium industry, we show that follow-up under negotiated agreements may be described as 'comfort monitoring'. While such monitoring does improve community-industry relations and enhance corporate image, it does little to support effects-based management. If follow-up under negotiated agreements is to be credible over the long term, there is a need to ensure that monitoring results are useful for, and integrated with, regulatory-based monitoring and project impact management practices.

  11. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  12. Environmental monitoring plan, July 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, DOE Oversight Division (TDEC/DOE-O) under the terms of the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) are providing annual reports: reporting of State`s monitoring and analysis, and findings of DOE`s quality and effectiveness of DOE`s monitoring and surveillance. This report blends some of both of the required annual reports as described in the TOA section A.7.2.2. The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) integrates the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report presents the results of environmental monitoring in Tennessee in the following areas: surface waters; ground water; air; and fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  13. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  14. The community environmental monitoring program: a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, L.H.; Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Giles, K.

    2007-07-01

    With the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) entering its 26. year of monitoring the offsite areas around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a look back on the history and the hows and whys of its formation is in order. In March of 1979, the accident at Three-Mile Island Nuclear Power Generating Plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania occurred, and Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV), along with other governmental agencies such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was requested to provide monitoring personnel. Public concerns over the accident were high, especially for those living around the power plant. It was found that involving the local community in the sample collection process helped to ease some of the concerns, and the Citizens Monitoring Program (CMP) was instituted. This idea was brought back to Las Vegas and in 1981, the NTS Community Monitoring Program was started to involve the communities surrounding and downwind of the NTS, who were experiencing many of the same concerns, in the monitoring of the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. By reviewing the history of the CEMP, one can see what the concerns of the local communities were, how they were addressed, and the effect this has had on them. From the standpoint of stakeholders, getting information on radiation safety issues from an informed local citizen rather than from a government agency official living elsewhere can only have a positive effect on how the public views the reliability of the monitoring data. (authors)

  15. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Environmental charging effects monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    A set of three instruments was developed that can provide early detection of potentially dangerous geomagnetic substorm conditions, and monitor the spacecraft response. The set consists of three instruments: A Surface Voltage Sensor that measures the characteristic energy of collected electrons or ions from +100 to -20,000 volts; a logarithmic current density sensor or Nanoammeter that measures local electron flux by measuring currents from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 5th power A; and a Transient Events Counter that counts the spurious pulses from electrostatic discharges that are coupled into the spacecraft wiring harness. An amplitude threshold can be set to count only pulses that are large enough to cause circuit malfunction. Performance characteristics, specifications, and application of these instruments are discussed. Size, weight, and power requirements were minimized. The Surface Voltage Sensor and Nanoammeter are packaged together in a box that is 10.1 by 11.3 by 9.5 cm and weighs 0.82 kg. The transient Events Counter measures 10.1 by 11.3 by 5.4 cm and weighs 0.55 kg. Both operate from a nominal 28 V dc input and require a total of 3/4 watt for both. Although designed for flight use, these instruments are also suitable for laboratory use.

  17. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  18. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    PubMed

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  19. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert.

  20. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1999 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. 1993 environmental monitoring report for the naval reactors facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. 1997 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1997 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2000 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  4. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2001 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  5. Naval Reactors Facility Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2003 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y.

    1994-08-01

    Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

  8. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program FY 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1995 through September 1996. The Radioactive Solid Waste Operations Group (RSWOG) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) and the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established ASEMP in 1989. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North as required by Chapters 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  9. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  10. Environmental monitoring report, 1980: Pinellas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Results of the monitoring program at the Pinellas Plant are described. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity, and zinc. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed above, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.20% of the nonoccupational exposure guide. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers (6 miles) from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Small sealed plutonium sources containing approximately 80% plutonium-238 oxide and 20% plutonium-239 oxide and other isotopes, are utilized at this site. No plutonium was released to the environment.Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 14/C to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site. The total dose commitment to the population residing within 80 kilometers was determined to be 0.55 man-rem as compared to the annual dose from natural radiation of 223,165 man-rem.

  11. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  12. Report Calls for Balancing Energy Security, Energy Equity, and Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-12-01

    Balancing the sometimes conflicting needs for energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability—including trying to limit average global temperature increases—can be a daunting task for countries. A new report focuses on the challenges and potential pathways to achieving this energy "trilemma" of meeting energy and environmental needs.

  13. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, third quarter, July 1-September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-30

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains nine compliance reports and results of comprehensive and supplemental environmental monitoring conducted during the third quarter of 1991.

  14. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1990-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains summaries of compliance and supplemental environmental and industrial hygiene and health surveillance monitoring conducted during the period; compliance permits, permit changes, and Notices of Violations discussions; statistical significance of Employee General Health information, medical histories, physical exams, pulmonary functions, clinical tests and demographics; independent audit reports; and a description of retorted shale disposal activities.

  15. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  16. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  17. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  18. Environmental Scarcity and Global Security. Headline Series No. 300.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.

    This book examines the two global trends of rising population and output on environmental change in the 21st century. These environmental changes can be thought of as "scarcities" of vital resources such as soil, water, and a stable climate and may cause widespread social disorder and violence. Contemporary examples of conflict are featured to…

  19. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  2. Wireless video monitoring and robot control in security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkkala, Eero A.; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roning, Juha

    1998-10-01

    This research focuses on applications based on wireless monitoring and robot control, utilizing motion image and augmented reality. These applications include remote services and surveillance-related functions such as remote monitoring. A remote service can be, for example, a way to deliver products at a hospital or old people's home. Due to the mobile nature of the system, monitoring at places with privacy concerns is possible. On the other hand, mobility demands wireless communications. Suitable and present technologies for wireless video transfer are weighted. Identification of objects with the help of Radio Frequency Identifying (RFID) technology and facial recognition results in intelligent actions, for example, where the control of a robot does not require extensive workload from the user. In other words, tasks can be partially autonomous, RFID can be also used in augmentation of the video view with virtual objects. As a real-life experiment, a prototype environment is being constructed that consists of a robot equipped with a video camera and wireless links to the network and multimedia computer.

  3. Environmental monitoring report, May 10, 1993--June 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) DOE Oversight Division (DOE-O) monitoring effort will serve as oversight with ongoing compliance and ambient sampling by Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor staff programs. These sources provide a comprehensive database which must be reviewed and analyzed in order to streamline DOE-O sampling efforts. DOE-O monitoring is necessary to provide quality control, to ensure compliance, to ensure completeness, and to assure protection of public health and the environment. The Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA), includes a section on Environmental Monitoring as Attachment A. To accomplish these objectives, DOE-O will implement the following monitoring programs: surface waters; ground water; air; fish and wildlife. In addition, radiation monitoring has been conducted in all of these areas.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

  5. Early Action on the Global Environmental Monitoring System. A Report of the International Environmental Programs Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Studies Board.

    The Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) is one of four components of Earthwatch, a part of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The purpose of GEMS is to provide early warning of impending natural or man-induced environmental changes or trends that threaten direct or indirect harm to human health or well-being. In 1975, the…

  6. 1987 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.K.

    1988-04-01

    Sandia National Labortories conduct various research activities related to Department of Energy interests which have the potential for release of hazardous materials or radionuclides to the environment. A strict environmental control program places maximum emphasis on limiting releases. The environmental monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and augmented by Sandia is designed to measure the performance of the environmental controls. The program includes analysis of air, water, soil, vegetation, sewer effluent, ground water, and foodstuffs for various toxic, hazardous, or radioactive materials. Based on these studies, the releases of materials of concern at Sandia during 1987 were well below applicable Department of Energy standards. 8 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan - supplemental environmental. Volume 1. Trip 2 report. Rept. for 1988-90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains results of three years of supplemental environmental sampling (Trial Trip, 1988; Trip 1, 1989; and Trip 2, 1990); Trip 2 sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance and quality control procedures; sampling and analytical methods; and corrected data from 1988 and 1989 gas and particulate concentrations.

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for the Boles Wells Field Perimeter Security Improvement Project Otero County, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-03

    findings of the Final Environmental Assessment of the Boles Wells Field Security Improvement Project, dated 3 Oct 05, no significant impact on human health ...Other resource impacts identified in the EA were considered to determine the potential for high and adverse health and environmental impacts to human ...as necessary, to protect human health and the environment. - Noted. To be accomplished asnecesary. Final Environmental Assessment - Boles Wells

  9. Monitoring and research strategy for forests - environmental monitoring and assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.J.; Ritters, K.H.; Strickland, T.; Cassell, D.L.; Byers, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    To protect, manage, and use forest resources effectively, the condition of these resources must be known. Concern about documented and potential effects of air pollutants in combination with other multiple, interacting stresses has been a major impetus behind the development of monitoring programs in forests. During the past two years, the forest component of the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-Forests) has been working closely with the Forest Service's Forest Health Monitoring (FS-FHM) program and other government agencies to develop a multi-agency program to monitor the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems. The purpose of the document is to present a strategy that can be used as a starting point by all government agencies interested in participating in a nationwide FHM program. Monitoring issues such as design, indicator selection, and assessment are presented along with approaches to resolving these issues.

  10. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  11. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  12. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  13. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms. PMID:24855446

  15. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms.

  16. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  17. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database contains estuarine and coastal data that EMAP and Regional-EMAP have collected since 1990 from thousands of stations along the U.S. coasts. These data include water column data, sediment contaminants and toxicity data, and benthic macroinvertebrate and demersal fish community and contaminant data.

  18. 72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) LOCATED AT WEST END OF LONG CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. [Environmental and biological monitoring in the plating industry].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, D M; Cattaneo, A

    2012-01-01

    The work environment in the electroplating industry is characterized by a large amount of chemical substances used in the production process. The present work is a brief review of the time evolution of methods and strategies for the assessment of exposures to chromium and nickel by means of environmental and biological monitoring.

  20. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial Trip 1 sampling results. Quarterly report, September 1989-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-16

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains results for supplemental monitoring at sixteen sites; five particulates, 15 gas, 1 liquid and three solid samples are included. Concentrations are compared to environmental levels of significance.

  1. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Czajkowski, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  3. Monitoring and Predicting the African Climate for Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiaw, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the greatest challenges in Africa due to its impact on access to sanitary water and food. In response to this challenge, the international community has mobilized to develop famine early warning systems (FEWS) to bring safe food and water to populations in need. Over the past several decades, much attention has focused on advance risk planning in agriculture and water. This requires frequent updates of weather and climate outlooks. This paper describes the active role of NOAA's African Desk in FEWS. Emphasis is on the operational products from short and medium range weather forecasts to subseasonal and seasonal outlooks in support of humanitarian relief programs. Tools to provide access to real time weather and climate information to the public are described. These include the downscaling of the U.S. National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) to improve seasonal forecasts in support of Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs). The subseasonal time scale has emerged as extremely important to many socio-economic sectors. Drawing from advances in numerical models that can now provide a better representation of the MJO, operational subseasonal forecasts are included in the African Desk product suite. These along with forecasts skill assessment and verifications are discussed. The presentation will also highlight regional hazards outlooks basis for FEWSNET food security outlooks.

  4. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  5. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  6. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  7. New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

    2010-07-01

    We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

  8. Environmental security as related to scale mismatches of disturbance patterns in a panarchy of social-ecological landscapes

    Treesearch

    Giovanni Zurlini; Irene Petrosillo; Nicola Zaccarelli; Kurt Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Environmental security, as the opposite of environmental fragility (vulnerability), is multilayered, multi-scale and complex, existing in both the objective realm of biophysics and society, and the subjective realm of individual human perception. For ecological risk assessments (ERAs), the relevant objects of environmental security are social-ecological landscapes (...

  9. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  10. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

    2013-11-13

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users.

  11. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  12. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  13. Estimating linear temporal trends from aggregated environmental monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Gray, Brian R.; Eager, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    Trend estimates are often used as part of environmental monitoring programs. These trends inform managers (e.g., are desired species increasing or undesired species decreasing?). Data collected from environmental monitoring programs is often aggregated (i.e., averaged), which confounds sampling and process variation. State-space models allow sampling variation and process variations to be separated. We used simulated time-series to compare linear trend estimations from three state-space models, a simple linear regression model, and an auto-regressive model. We also compared the performance of these five models to estimate trends from a long term monitoring program. We specifically estimated trends for two species of fish and four species of aquatic vegetation from the Upper Mississippi River system. We found that the simple linear regression had the best performance of all the given models because it was best able to recover parameters and had consistent numerical convergence. Conversely, the simple linear regression did the worst job estimating populations in a given year. The state-space models did not estimate trends well, but estimated population sizes best when the models converged. We found that a simple linear regression performed better than more complex autoregression and state-space models when used to analyze aggregated environmental monitoring data.

  14. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  15. Augmented Citizen Science for Environmental Monitoring and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, B.; de Lange, N.; Xu, S.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental monitoring and ecological studies detect and visualize changes of the environment over time. Some agencies are committed to document the development of conservation and status of geotopes and geosites, which is time-consuming and cost-intensive. Citizen science and crowd sourcing are modern approaches to collect data and at the same time to raise user awareness for environmental changes. Citizen scientists can take photographs of point of interests (POI) with smartphones and the PAN App, which is presented in this article. The user is navigated to a specific point and is then guided with an augmented reality approach to take a photo in a specific direction. The collected photographs are processed to time-lapse videos to visualize environmental changes. Users and experts in environmental agencies can use this data for long-term documentation.

  16. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not easily distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1983, the maximum approximated neutron dose near the site boundary was 5 mrem. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. We have never found any evidence of radioactivity in ground water in excess of natural background radioactivity from uranium and thorium decay chains and potassium-40. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site-boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard. 8 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1979, the maximum measured neutron dose near the site boundary was not distinguishable from the cosmic ray neutron background. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1979. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be reestablished as soon as construction activities permit (mid 1980). Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard.

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1982, the maximum measured neutron dose near the site boundary was not distinguishable from the cosmic ray neutron background. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard.

  19. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance.

  20. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  1. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    As open access market principles are applied to power systems, significant changes are happening in their planning, operation and control. In the emerging marketplace, systems are operating under higher loading conditions as markets focus greater attention to operating costs than stability and security margins. Since operating stability is a basic requirement for any power system, there is need for newer tools to ensure stability and security margins being strictly enforced in the competitive marketplace. This dissertation investigates issues associated with incorporating voltage security into the unbundled operating environment of electricity markets. It includes addressing voltage security in the monitoring, operational and planning horizons of restructured power system. This dissertation presents a new decomposition procedure to estimate voltage security usage by transactions. The procedure follows physical law and uses an index that can be monitored knowing the state of the system. The expression derived is based on composite market coordination models that have both PoolCo and OpCo transactions, in a shared stressed transmission grid. Our procedure is able to equitably distinguish the impacts of individual transactions on voltage stability, at load buses, in a simple and fast manner. This dissertation formulates a new voltage stability constrained optimal power flow (VSCOPF) using a simple voltage security index. In modern planning, composite power system reliability analysis that encompasses both adequacy and security issues is being developed. We have illustrated the applicability of our VSCOPF into composite reliability analysis. This dissertation also delves into the various applications of voltage security index. Increasingly, FACT devices are being used in restructured markets to mitigate a variety of operational problems. Their control effects on voltage security would be demonstrated using our VSCOPF procedure. Further, this dissertation investigates

  2. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan quarterly report, third quarter, 1988. Report for 1 July-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and twenty-two supplemental monitoring points for water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. This report contains results of industrial hygiene monitoring, operational compliance monitoring, monitoring audits, and a description of the first supplemental sampling campaign.

  3. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks.

  4. Establishing security of quantum key distribution without monitoring disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koashi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, the information leak to an eavesdropper is estimated through the basic principle of quantum mechanics dictated in the original version of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The amount of leaked information on a shared sifted key is bounded from above essentially by using information-disturbance trade-off relations, based on the amount of signal disturbance measured via randomly sampled or inserted probe signals. Here we discuss an entirely different avenue toward the private communication, which does not rely on the information disturbance trade-off relations and hence does not require a monitoring of signal disturbance. The independence of the amount of privacy amplification from that of disturbance tends to give it a high tolerance on the channel noises. The lifting of the burden of precise statistical estimation of disturbance leads to a favorable finite-key-size effect. A protocol based on the novel principle can be implemented by only using photon detectors and classical optics tools: a laser, a phase modulator, and an interferometer. The protocol resembles the differential-phase-shift QKD protocol in that both share a simple binary phase shift keying on a coherent train of weak pulses from a laser. The difference lies in the use of a variable-delay interferometer in the new protocol, which randomly changes the combination of pulse pairs to be superposed. This extra randomness has turned out to be enough to upper-bound the information extracted by the eavesdropper, regardless of how they have disturbed the quantum signal.

  5. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, fourth quarter, October 1-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-28

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains environmental compliance data collected in the fourth quarter of 1991, contents of reports on compliance data submitted to regulatory agencies, and supplemental analytical results from retorted shale pile runoff water collected following a storm event during the third quarter of 1991.

  6. In-situ gamma spectrometry in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J

    2010-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry (scintillation or semiconductor) can be used effectively for monitoring natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations, together with the corresponding photon fields, in the environment and in workplaces. It is applied in operational and emergency monitoring of nuclear facilities, waste storage facilities and the uranium industry, in radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, etc. Methods for processing and interpreting data, experimental techniques (ground or airborne arrangement), calibration and verification and examples of applications are discussed in this paper. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  8. 1996 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1996 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The NRF is located on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and contains three naval reactor prototypes and the Expended Core Facility, which examines developmental nuclear fuel material samples, spent naval fuel, and irradiated reactor plant components/materials. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sing; Yip, Tsan Pong; Mok, Esmond

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS) are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i) position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii) on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii) data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments. PMID:25420154

  10. Environmental Security: What is DoD’s Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form...installations will be sharing the common goals and standards of performance associated with the restoration program. DOD shields 189,000 acres of undeveloped... standards related to the endangered Red Cockaded Woodpecker. The environmental management effort there has been so successful that when the base

  11. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for

  12. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  13. UNOCAL 76: Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan annual report, January 1-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental-monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. The Program site includes three entities: the Mine/Retort, atop Long Ridge; the Upgrade Facility down valley; and the Retorted Shale Disposal area at the base of Long Ridge. Results of the first year of EMP monitoring are summarized in the document with emphasis on worker health surveillance.

  14. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2016-01-01

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes. PMID:27023540

  15. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-03-24

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes.

  16. Security monitoring system based on a line structure Sagnac interferometer with 3×3 coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Li; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Damage action, such as human disruption, is one of the major threats to pipeline operation. It is essential to monitor perturbation behavior and locate the position in real time. A pipeline security monitoring system is proposed using a line structure Sagnac distributed optic fiber interferometer with a 3×3 coupler that can modulate the optic signal phase without special modulation and demodulation. The optic structure of the system is simplified, signal processing accuracy improved, and the effect of polarization reduced. The working principle of the monitoring in ideal conditions and phase demodulation are analyzed and the location of the possible damage point is formulated. Simulation and validation tests confirm the feasibility of the proposed monitoring system and indicate that the low frequency signals <1 kHz can be detected effectively. A disturbance can be accurately located over long monitoring distances.

  17. A Pilot System for Environmental Monitoring Through Domestic Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabe, Calvin W.; Sawyer, John; Martin, Wayne

    1971-01-01

    A pilot system for environmental monitoring is in its early phases of development in Northern California. It is based upon the existing nation wide Federal-State Market Cattle Testing (14CT) program for brucellosis in cattle. This latter program depends upon the collection of blood program at the time of identified cattle. As the cattle Population of California is broadly distributed throughout the state, we intend to utilize these blood samples to biologically monitor the distribution and intensity of selected environmental pollutants. In a 2-year preliminary trial, the feasibility of retrieving, utilizing for a purpose similar to this, and tracing back to their geographic areas of origin of MCT samples have been demonstrated.

  18. A Pilot System for Environmental Monitoring Through Domestic Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabe, Calvin W.; Sawyer, John; Martin, Wayne

    1971-01-01

    A pilot system for environmental monitoring is in its early phases of development in Northern California. It is based upon the existing nation wide Federal-State Market Cattle Testing (14CT) program for brucellosis in cattle. This latter program depends upon the collection of blood program at the time of identified cattle. As the cattle Population of California is broadly distributed throughout the state, we intend to utilize these blood samples to biologically monitor the distribution and intensity of selected environmental pollutants. In a 2-year preliminary trial, the feasibility of retrieving, utilizing for a purpose similar to this, and tracing back to their geographic areas of origin of MCT samples have been demonstrated.

  19. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  20. Sensors in outdoor environmental monitoring and site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, B.M.

    1993-09-01

    A special session on sensors in outdoor environmental monitoring and site remediation was held as part of the NIST Workshop on Gas Sensors. This manuscript summarizes the main points of the workshop. Application areas, issues of concern, and potentially fruitful areas for further research and development were discussed. The main conclusion of the group was that the problems and potential solutions to problems in environmental monitoring were common to other application areas of sensing as well. Of particular concern to the group were the many barriers to final development and commercialization of sensors. Barriers included lack of information on potential markets lack of support of development, (as opposed to more basic research), and difficulties in developing the final packaging for a device. The characterization and development of chemically selective materials for sensor coatings was viewed by the group as a particularly important area for future research.

  1. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  2. Discrete choice modeling of environmental security. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, K.S.

    1998-10-01

    The presence of overpopulation or unsustainable population growth may place pressure on the food and water supplies of countries in sensitive areas of the world. Severe air or water pollution may place additional pressure on these resources. These pressures may generate both internal and international conflict in these areas as nations struggle to provide for their citizens. Such conflicts may result in United States intervention, either unilaterally, or through the United Nations. Therefore, it is in the interests of the United States to identify potential areas of conflict in order to properly train and allocate forces. The purpose of this research is to forecast the probability of conflict in a nation as a function of it s environmental conditions. Probit, logit and ordered probit models are employed to forecast the probability of a given level of conflict. Data from 95 countries are used to estimate the models. Probability forecasts are generated for these 95 nations. Out-of sample forecasts are generated for an additional 22 nations. These probabilities are then used to rank nations from highest probability of conflict to lowest. The results indicate that the dependence of a nation`s economy on agriculture, the rate of deforestation, and the population density are important variables in forecasting the probability and level of conflict. These results indicate that environmental variables do play a role in generating or exacerbating conflict. It is unclear that the United States military has any direct role in mitigating the environmental conditions that may generate conflict. A more important role for the military is to aid in data gathering to generate better forecasts so that the troops are adequntely prepared when conflicts arises.

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  4. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Tunable Infrared Lasers: Preparing for Expanded use in Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Killinger, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on the use of tunable infrared lasers, for atmospheric trace gas detection and monitoring is about 25 years of age. However, this field, whith its myriad of potential application areas, has always been driven by the available laser technology. As new or improved laser devices become available, with characteristics which lend themselves to operation in compact, nearly autonomous instruments, their application to atmospheric science and environmental measurements expands.

  6. The importance of metrological metadata in the environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Márcio A. A.; Guimarães, Patrícia L. O.; Almêida, Eugênio S.; Eklin, Tero

    2016-07-01

    The metrological metadata propagation contributes significantly to improve the data analysis of the meteorological observation systems. An overview of the scenarios data and metadata treatment in environmental monitoring is presented in this article. We also discussed the ways of use of the calibration results on the meteorological measurement systems as well as the convergence of the methods used in the corrections treatment and estimation of the measuring uncertainty in metrological and meteorological areas.

  7. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  8. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Environmental monitoring and remedial actions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are reported. The local climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, and demography are briefly reviewed. Among the activities reported are waste solvent tank remedial action and testing of underground storage tanks. The SLAC Linear Collider Project is discussed insofar as it impacts the environment. Neutron radiation dose to the surrounding environment and radioactive effluents are reported. (LEW)

  9. Norwegian Security Policy and new environmental challenges. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of Norwegian security policy is a result of the evolving post-Cold War political order in Europe and the relationship that Norway has vis-a-vis its neighbors. A new set of priorities is emerging. With the end of the Cold War the factors which influenced the security policies of Norway since World War II have changed to include more non-traditional factors. In the past, Norway`s security concerns were primarily dictated by the military threat from the Soviet Union. Now, as the twenty-first century approaches, the former Soviet Union does not pose an immediate military threat. However, the Arctic still remains strategically important for Norway and NATO. These new priorities emphasize a foreign and security policy which stabilizes the region through political and economic aspects vice military means. This change however does not delete the traditional emphasis on the military aspects. Environmental degradation is one aspect of the non-traditional influences with which Norway is now concerned. The presence of a decaying Russian (former Soviet Union) nuclear submarine fleet coupled with the largest concentration of nuclear reactors in the world in the Kola Peninsula region pose a threat to Norway. Environmental issues have come to the forefront of Norwegian security and foreign policy concerns and in response, Norway has become a leader in emphasizing the importance of addressing environmental problems internationally.

  10. Environmental assessment and planning at Mound - environmental monitoring capabilities and personnel profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Through its long experience with radioactive materials, Mound has developed a comprehensive, routine, offsite, environmental surveillance program to safeguard its employees, the physical plant, and the integrity of the surrounding environment from any potential adverse effects of its widely diverse operations. Effluent samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological parameters. The environment surrounding Mound Facility is continuously monitored - air, water, foodstuffs, vegetation, soil, and silt samples are analyzed to ensure that radioisotopic concentrations and other possible pollutants are well within the stringent standards adopted by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agencies (both federal and state), and various regional and local agencies. Moreover, this environmental surveillance program has been designed to ensure that the facility is designed, constructed, managed, operated, and maintained in a manner that continues to meet all federal, state, and local standards for environmental protection. Work in environmental science has been broadened to assess environmental factors associated with various aspects of the National Energy Plan. Both the management and staff at Mound have undertaken a firm commitment to make Mound`s environmental monitoring capabilities available to agencies that have the responsibility for the resolution of important environmental issues.

  11. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining.

  12. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  14. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  15. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  16. The Greening of Global Security: The U.S. Military and International Environmental Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-16

    of the global threat from deforestation . Even the concept that the Amazon Rainforest acts as the "world’s lungs" may not be entirely correct. German...Sake," The New York Times, 15 Jun 1992. 5. Sioli, H., "The Effects of Deforestation in Amazonia," Change in the Amazon Basin: Man’s Impact on Forests...specific environmental issues are examined in detail: deforestation , fresh water, nuclear contamination, overpopulation, and ecological terrorism. Ten

  17. Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

  18. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  19. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1984-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1983 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 19 references, 8 figures, 49 tables.

  20. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.

    1981-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1980 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  1. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1981 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  2. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1984 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 20 refs., 8 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1983-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  4. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures

  5. A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.; Bates, D.J.; Mart, E.I.; Hanf, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a guide to the work accomplished by the Environmental Monitoring Data Task, which is one of the tasks in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task was to recover, evaluate, process, and/or reconstruct the environmental monitoring data for the period 1945--1972. The period of time for which environmental monitoring data were sought was determined by the start-up and shut-down dates of the Hanford facilities that emitted the majority of radionuclides to the two major pathways: air and the Columbia River. Radionuclide emissions to the air were mainly the result of the operation of the chemical separations plants from 1944--1972 (Heeb 1994). Radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River were mainly the result of the operation of the single-pass production reactors from 1944--1971 (Heeb and Bates 1994). Therefore, the historical environmental monitoring data sought were for the period 1945--1972. Within the period of 1945--1972, specific periods of interest to the HEDR Project vary depending on the pathway. For example, 1945--1951 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the air and hence vegetation uptake of radionuclides, while 1956--1965 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River and hence fish uptake of radionuclides. However, adequate historical data were not always available for the periods of interest. In the case of vegetation measurements, conversion and correction factors had to be developed to convert the historical measurements to modern standard measurements. Table S.1 lists the reports that explain these conversion and correction factors. In the case of Columbia River fish and waterfowl, bioconcentration factors were developed for use in any year where the river pathway data are insufficient.

  6. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, annual report, October 1, 1988-September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of monitoring 18 supplemental sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids is given. Results of Industrial Hygiene Supplemental Monitoring are discussed; no trends or relationships were evident in the data. Permit compliance and quality assurance/quality control activities are discussed.

  7. Activity Learning as a Foundation for Security Monitoring in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Jessamyn; Thomas, Brian L.; Cook, Diane J.; Wang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Smart environment technology has matured to the point where it is regularly used in everyday homes as well as research labs. With this maturation of the technology, we can consider using smart homes as a practical mechanism for improving home security. In this paper, we introduce an activity-aware approach to security monitoring and threat detection in smart homes. We describe our approach using the CASAS smart home framework and activity learning algorithms. By monitoring for activity-based anomalies we can detect possible threats and take appropriate action. We evaluate our proposed method using data collected in CASAS smart homes and demonstrate the partnership between activity-aware smart homes and biometric devices in the context of the CASAS on-campus smart apartment testbed. PMID:28362342

  8. Activity Learning as a Foundation for Security Monitoring in Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Jessamyn; Thomas, Brian L; Cook, Diane J; Wang, Xiaobo

    2017-03-31

    Smart environment technology has matured to the point where it is regularly used in everyday homes as well as research labs. With this maturation of the technology, we can consider using smart homes as a practical mechanism for improving home security. In this paper, we introduce an activity-aware approach to security monitoring and threat detection in smart homes. We describe our approach using the CASAS smart home framework and activity learning algorithms. By monitoring for activity-based anomalies we can detect possible threats and take appropriate action. We evaluate our proposed method using data collected in CASAS smart homes and demonstrate the partnership between activity-aware smart homes and biometric devices in the context of the CASAS on-campus smart apartment testbed.

  9. [Data security and the handling of patient data in home monitoring systems].

    PubMed

    Heydenreich, F; Jürgens, C; Tost, F

    2009-09-01

    Data security must be considered seriously in the context of telemedical home monitoring because of the transmission and communication of patients' personal data. The contract governing medical treatment allows the ophthalmologist to process all data relevant to treatment. In Germany the legal framework for this purpose is provided by the Data Protection Act, various German hospital acts, and codes of medical professional conduct. In principle, these rules apply to telemedical home monitoring as well as to common physician-patient relationships. The patient must be informed extensively in an understandable manner and must give his or her written consent. However, the advanced options of new IT technologies demand the development of technical and organizational concepts that guarantee compliance with legal and regulatory affairs, assure data security, and prevent data abuse.

  10. FPGA-based prototype of portable environmental radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Benahmed, A.; Elkarch, H.

    2015-07-01

    This new portable radiological environmental monitor consists of 2 main components, Gamma ionization chamber and a FPGA-based electronic enclosure linked to convivial software for treatment and analyzing. The HPIC ion chamber is the heart of this radiation measurement system and is running in range from 0 to 100 mR/h, so that the sensitivity at the output is 20 mV/μR/h, with a nearly flat energy response from 0,07 to 10 MEV. This paper presents a contribution for developing a new nuclear measurement data acquisition system based on Cyclone III FPGA Starter Kit ALTERA, and a user-friendly software to run real-time control and data processing. It was developed to substitute the older radiation monitor RSS-112 PIC installed in CNESTEN's Laboratory in order to improve some of its functionalities related to acquisition time and data memory capacity. As for the associated acquisition software, it was conceived under the virtual LabView platform from National Instrument, and offers a variety of system setup for radiation environmental monitoring. It gives choice to display both the statistical data and the dose rate. Statistical data shows a summary of current data, current time/date and dose integrator values, and the dose rate displays the current dose rate in large numbers for viewing from a distance as well as the date and time. The prototype version of this new instrument and its data processing software has been successfully tested and validated for viewing and monitoring the environmental radiation of Moroccan nuclear center. (authors)

  11. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1981-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) and other Laboratory facilities are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. A summary of the radioactivity found in the environment is presented. The ALRR ceased operation on December 1, 1977. Decommissioning activities began January 3, 1978, and are scheduled for completion October 1, 1981. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR on-site station showed no radioactivity that could be attributed to ALRR operations. The radiosotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium (H-3). The yearly individual dose from H-3 at the exclusion fence was estimated to be 0.016 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 26.6 man-Rem. These values are 0.0032% and 0.026%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. On September 1, 1978, the ALRR site was connected to the City of Ames sanitary sewage system. All liquids (except building foundation and roof water) from the ALRR complex are now discharged to the sewage system negating the requirement for monitoring chemical constituents of effluent and environmental waters. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, H-3 was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.68% of the dose derived from the concentration guide. Building foundation and roof water are discharged to a drainage gulch on site.

  12. Monitoring and process control of environmental laboratories: A multidisciplinary approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, N.C.; Farley, E.T.; Fedler, C.B.

    1996-12-31

    Faculty and students in three colleges and seven departments at Texas Tech University have jointly collaborated on research projects funded through the Texas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. These biological and environmental projects were strengthened by inclusion of engineers, engineering technologists, computer scientists and others. The interdisciplinary team has identified technological limitations as well as designed, fabricated and tested low cost equipment to monitor and accurately control temperature, pressure, light intensity, and other conditions in environmental laboratories. Data gathered from up to 256 sensors are multiplexed and transmitted by an on-site 8085 microprocessor at 5-second intervals. The processed data are averaged once each minute by a 386-computer running the process control and archiving software. Data from the archives are displayed using Visual Basic and integrated into a graphic information system (GIS) capturing data through Arc/Info. Components of the process control and communication include a microprocessor controller module, an input and output module and a primary multiplexer module that interfaces with up to sixteen multiplexers or signal conditioning modules. The system is designed to monitor and regulate environmental conditions for culture and propagation of plants, fish, salamanders and other organisms. Simulation of seasonal changes can be programmed into the computer in addition to alarm conditions in the event of process failure. Benefits of this interdisciplinary project include not only providing state-of-the-art environmental monitoring and control of research facilities, but also real life experiences for students to define problems, design solutions, fabricate, install and test hardware and software. Perhaps, most importantly, is the opportunity for students and faculty in diverse fields to communicate and apply their expertise to solve real world problems.

  13. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial trip sampling results. Report for 1 January 1988-31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. Results of monitoring 18 supplemental sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids, are given. Up to 47 constituents, primarily non-criteria parameters were checked. Analyses used and quality assurance/quality control results are given.

  14. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  15. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments.

  16. Environmental security control of resource utilization of shale gas' drilling cuttings containing heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Qiang; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Chun; Mei, Xu-Dong

    2017-08-07

    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the heavy metals environmental security control of resource utilization of shale gas' drilling cuttings. To achieve this objective, we got through theoretical calculation and testing, ultimately and preliminarily determine the content of heavy metals pollutants, and compared with related standards at domestically and abroad. The results indicated that using the second Fike's law, the theoretical model of the release amount of heavy metal can be made, and the groundwater environmental risk as main point compared with soil. This study can play a role of standard guidance on environmental security control of drilling cuttings resource utilization by the exploration and development of shale gas in our country.

  17. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  18. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  19. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Lluís; Sánchez, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes--and therefore pollutants, or ``chemical threats''--can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These ``self-powered remediation systems'' could be seen as a new generation of ``smart devices'' for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future.

  20. Catalytic nanomotors for environmental monitoring and water remediation

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Self-propelled nanomotors hold considerable promise for developing innovative environmental applications. This review highlights the recent progress in the use of self-propelled nanomotors for water remediation and environmental monitoring applications, as well as the effect of the environmental conditions on the dynamics of nanomotors. Artificial nanomotors can sense different analytes—and therefore pollutants, or “chemical threats”—can be used for testing the quality of water, selective removal of oil, and alteration of their speeds, depending on the presence of some substances in the solution in which they swim. Newly introduced micromotors with double functionality to mix liquids at the microscale and enhance chemical reactions for the degradation of organic pollutants greatly broadens the range of applications to that of environmental. These “self-powered remediation systems” could be seen as a new generation of “smart devices” for cleaning water in small pipes or cavities difficult to reach with traditional methods. With constant improvement and considering the key challenges, we expect that artificial nanomachines could play an important role in environmental applications in the near future. PMID:24752489

  1. An Innovative Unmanned System for Advanced Environmental Monitoring: Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Ennio; Giordano, Laura; Evangelista, Lorenza; Iengo, Antonio; di Filippo, Alessandro; Coppola, Aniello

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarizes the design and development of a new technology and tools for real-time coordination and control of unmanned vehicles for advanced environmental monitoring. A new Unmanned System has been developed at Institute for Coastal Marine Environmental - National Research Council (Italy), in the framework of two National Operational Programs (PON): Technological Platform for Geophysical and Environmental Marine Survey-PITAM and Integrated Systems and Technologies for Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring in coastal-marine areas-STIGEAC. In particular, the system includes one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and two Unmanned Marine Vehicles (UMV). Major innovations concern the implementation of a new architecture to control each drone and/or to allow the cooperation between heterogeneous vehicles, the integration of distributed sensing techniques and real-time image processing capabilities. Part of the research in these projects involves, therefore, an architecture, where the ground operator can communicate with the Unmanned Vehicles at various levels of abstraction using pointing devices and video viewing. In detail, a Ground Control Station (GCS) has been design and developed to allow the government in security of the drones within a distance up to twenty kilometers for air explorations and within ten nautical miles for marine activities. The Ground Control Station has the following features: 1. hardware / software system for the definition of the mission profiles; 3. autonomous and semi-autonomous control system by remote control (joystick or other) for the UAV and UMVs; 4. integrated control system with comprehensive visualization capabilities, monitoring and archiving of real-time data acquired from scientific payload; 5. open structure to future additions of systems, sensors and / or additional vehicles. In detail, the UAV architecture is a dual-rotor, with an endurance ranging from 55 to 200 minutes, depending on payload weight (maximum 26 kg) and

  2. Cough frequency monitors: can they discriminate patient from environmental coughs?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Natalie M.; Kalra, Lalit; Moxham, John; Birring, Surinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Objective cough frequency measurements are increasingly applied in clinical research. Technological advances enable automated detection and counting of cough events from sound recordings of many hours’ duration. A possible limitation of sound-based cough frequency measurement is the contamination of recordings by environmental coughs (coughs from persons other than the patient). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of a sound-based cough monitor for detecting and discriminating patient cough from environmental cough. Methods As part of a stroke trial (ISRCTN40298220), patients on a hospital ward underwent 15-minute recordings using the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), a sound-based cough monitor (‘semi-automated counts’). Participants and other persons in the environment were prompted to cough. An observer present in the room recorded the number of patient and environmental coughs (‘live counts’). LCM counts were also compared against a manual cough count, the most commonly used gold standard to determine accuracy (‘manual sound counts’ from listening to recordings), by a blinded assessor who cross-referenced timed cough events from the respective methods. Data for automated, manual and live cough counts were analyzed using agreement statistics. Results On sound recordings from five patients, there were 65 patient coughs and 78 environmental coughs (manual counts). Absolute agreement for patient cough count between all three measurement methods (LCM automated, live, and manual sound counts) was high, with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.94 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.74, 0.99]. The proportion of exact agreements for patient cough between LCM and manual count was 0.92, and kappa was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.93). The LCM showed sensitivity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.98), specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.96), positive predictive value of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.95) and negative predictive value of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.86, 0

  3. Remote Environmental Monitoring With a Wireless Sensor Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizito, F.; Hopmans, J. W.; Bales, R.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.

    2007-12-01

    Wireless sensors have the potential to reveal dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes at reduced long-term costs and offer a promising approach to revolutionize environmental monitoring. Better management of surface water in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of a deployed wireless network system, consisting of various soil moisture sensors. Soil water potential sensors with an imbedded thermistor were deployed in a remote meadow along a topographic gradient with dense tree canopies in Wolverton Meadows in Sequoia National Park. The sensors responded to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless system met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to rainfall and snowmelt. The deployed sensor system functioned well during harsh winter conditions at 7000 feet, requiring low power. The study highlights measurement accuracy limitations and presents an alternative, robust wireless Zigbee sensor network, using Crossbow motes. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with current technologies.

  4. Large scale remote sensing for environmental monitoring of infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Matthew J; Fuchs, Michael P; Janoyan, Kerop D

    2008-07-01

    Recent developments in wireless sensor technology afford the opportunity to rapidly and easily deploy large-scale, low-cost, and low-power sensor networks across relatively sizeable environmental regions. Furthermore, the advancement of increasingly smaller and less expensive wireless hardware is further complemented by the rapid development of open-source software components. These software protocols allow for interfacing with the hardware to program and configure the onboard processing and communication settings. In general, a wireless sensor network topology consists of an array of microprocessor boards, referred to as motes, which can engage in two-way communication among each other as well as with a base station that relays the mote data to a host computer. The information can then be either logged and displayed on the local host or directed to an http server for network monitoring remote from the site. A number of wireless sensor products are available that offer off-the-shelf network hardware as well as sensor solutions for environmental monitoring that are compatible with the TinyOS open-source software platform. This paper presents an introduction to wireless sensing and to the use of external antennas for increasing the antenna radiation intensity and shaping signal directivity for monitoring applications requiring larger mote-to-mote communication distances.

  5. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors.

  6. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  7. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    PubMed

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  8. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: Calendar year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR site showed detectable amounts of /sup 60/Co. This isotope was 1.5 x 10/sup -4/% of the concentration guide (1) and was probably due to ALRR operations. The radioisotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium. The average yearly individual dose from /sup 3/H at the exclusion fence was estimated to 0.0038 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 6.31 man-Rem. These values are 0.00076% and 0.0063%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, /sup 3/H was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.59% of the dose derived from the concentration guide.

  9. Improvement of Environmental Monitoring for the SeaQuest Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, Elizabeth; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    SeaQuest (E906), is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the anti-down to anti-up quark asymmetry in the nucleon sea. Recording environmental conditions is important for a particle physics detector, since detector performance and response can vary depending on conditions such as temperature and pressure. SeaQuest uses many drift chambers, and monitoring their performance can be aided by having these environmental measurements. Due to the size of the detector hall, there are vertical temperature gradients, so temperature must be measured at varying heights. Another important need is to monitor temperature in electronics racks to know when they are overheating. The requirements of the equipment to be used were that it had to be ethernet based and rely only on non-proprietary software. Also, in order to be used during a data run, it had to be fast enough to be recorded between beam spills. This poster will focus on our solution for measuring environmental conditions, such as decreasing the sensor readout from 17.5 seconds to 6.9 seconds. Supported in part by the U.S. DOE under Grant #DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  10. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  11. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  12. Space in environmental diplomacy: Exploring the role of earth observing satellites for monitoring international environmental agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Shaida Sahami

    This research determines under what conditions, and for what types of environmental treaties, Earth observation (EO) is useful for monitoring international environmental agreements. The research extracts specific monitoring requirements from nine multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and explores how satellite EO data can be used to support them. The technical characteristics of the sensor systems and science data products associated with current and planned EO satellites were analyzed and mapped to the MEA requirements, providing a significant step toward linking the EO community with the international treaty community implementing these environmental agreements. The research results include a listing and analysis of the positive and negative factors that influence whether EO data are useful for monitoring and verifying MEAs, analysis of existing international EO institutions, and a set of key findings describing the conditions under which EO data are most useful to the treaties. The use of EO data in various treaty phases is also analyzed, drawing the conclusion that EO data are most useful for monitoring and treaty refinement and not very useful for compliance verification or enforcement. MEAs manage compliance using governance structures that offer expertise and resources to assist states that are reported to be in non-compliance, rather than enforce compliance with sanctions or other punishments. In addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current and planned fleet of satellites does not provide the required detail needed for MEA verification. Identifying specific treaty implementation deficiencies requires additional information that cannot be gathered from EO data; on-site economic, social, and environmental conditions are critical elements in assessing compliance verification. But for environmental monitoring and assessments, MEA effectiveness reviews, and national reporting required for each MEA, EO data are very useful. They provide

  13. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1983-04-01

    In order to establish whether LBL research activities produces any impact on the population surrounding the Laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1982, as in the previous several years, doses attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG). The maximum perimeter dose equivalent was less than or equal to 24.0 mrem (the 1982 dose equivalent measured at the Building 88 monitoring station B-13A, about 5% of the RPG). The total population dose equivalent attributable to LBL operations during 1982 was less than or equal to 16 man-rem, about 0.002% of the RPG of 170 mrem/person to a suitable sample of the population.

  15. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  16. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1992 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State in 1992. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and to control the impacts of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the workers and the local environment. Additionally, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although impacts from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and are slightly elevated when compared to offsite, these impacts are less than in previous years.

  17. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  18. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  19. Subsurface radiowave tomography imaging in environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarczyk, Larry G.

    1993-08-01

    Toxic waste has been deposited in a wide variety of containment structures. Leakage creates concerns and environmental risk. Risk assessment requires site characterization of the underlying geology and monitoring of fluid pathways to the biosphere. Subsurface imaging will play an increasing important role in site characterization and monitoring. Imaging will play an even greater role in remediation. Radio wave energy propagation has been applied in crosswell data acquisition and tomography inversion algorithms have reconstructed images of electrical conductivity variations in the geologic zone of concern. The variation in conductivity delineated structural geology and mapped the contaminant plume. This paper describes the application of the radio wave tomography imaging in chemical waste landfill and in situ mine site characterization and remediation.

  20. ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING THROUGH AN IMPROVED AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D

    2010-06-07

    Environmental sampling (ES) is a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguarding approaches throughout the world. Performance of ES (e.g. air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) supports the IAEAs mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a State and has been available since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the IAEA Board of Governors (1992-1997). A recent step-change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities is an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Utilizing commonly used equipment throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories for particle analysis, researchers are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) silicon substrate has been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. The new collection equipment will allow IAEA nuclear safeguards inspectors to develop enhanced safeguarding approaches for complicated facilities. This paper will explore the use of air monitoring to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility that could be used for comparison of consistencies in declared operations. The implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Technical aspects of the air monitoring device and the analysis of its environmental samples will demonstrate the essential parameters required for successful application of the system.

  1. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  2. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  3. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of

  4. Data Acquisition and Environmental Monitoring of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Samuel; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Low-background non-accelerator experiments have unique requirements for their data acquisition and environmental monitoring. Background signals can easily overwhelm the signals of interest, so events which could contribute to the background must be identified. There is a need to correlate events between detectors and environmental conditions, and data integrity must be maintained. Here, we describe several of the software and hardware techniques achieved by the MAJORANA Collaboration for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, such as using the Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software package. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  5. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1979 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, Argonne effluent water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and foodstuffs; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environemetal penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measuremenets were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  6. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  8. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  9. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  10. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  12. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-19

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  13. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  14. Calendar Year 2003 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program), and address requirements of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 2003a) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality: (1) in areas which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring) and (2) in areas where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (DOE Order 5400.1 exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2003 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic context and generalized extent of groundwater

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  18. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Guez, Oded; Messer, Hagit; David, Noam; Harel, Oz; Eshel, Adam; Cohen, Ori

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links Pinhas Alpert, H. Messer, N. David, O. Guez, O. Cohen, O. Harel, A. Eshel Tel Aviv University, Israel The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert in Israel with comparison to hydrological measurements in the Dead Sea area. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, fog, dew, atmospheric moisture. References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure-the future of fog monitoring?" BAMS (Oct. issue), 1687-1698, 2015. O. Harel, David, N., Alpert, P. and Messer, H., "The potential of microwave communication networks to detect dew using the GLRT- experimental study", IEEE Journal of Selected

  19. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan, quarterly report, second quarter, April 1-June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of this project is to produce 10,000 per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains compliance monitoring results, copies of regulatory reports and independent audits performed on compliance air quality, water quality, and supplemental analytical programs.

  20. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program environmental monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1989-September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of compliance and supplemental activities is included in the report. Health monitoring results, safety summaries and a status report of the retorted shale laydown area, with photos, are also given.