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Sample records for security protocol development

  1. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ ENG /12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...States AFIT/GCS/ ENG /12-03 SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/GCS/ ENG /12-03 SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS Matthew F. Steele, B.S.E.E. Captain, USAF

  2. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  3. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  4. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  5. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rahayu, Triana Mugia; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both. PMID:26131669

  6. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Triana Mugia; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2015-06-26

    The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  7. Genomics-Based Security Protocols: From Plaintext to Cipherprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry; Hussein, Sayed; Helgert, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The evolving nature of the internet will require continual advances in authentication and confidentiality protocols. Nature provides some clues as to how this can be accomplished in a distributed manner through molecular biology. Cryptography and molecular biology share certain aspects and operations that allow for a set of unified principles to be applied to problems in either venue. A concept for developing security protocols that can be instantiated at the genomics level is presented. A DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) inspired hash code system is presented that utilizes concepts from molecular biology. It is a keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) capable of being used in secure mobile Ad hoc networks. It is targeted for applications without an available public key infrastructure. Mechanics of creating the HMAC are presented as well as a prototype HMAC protocol architecture. Security concepts related to the implementation differences between electronic domain security and genomics domain security are discussed.

  8. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610

  9. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  10. Toward Synthesis, Analysis, and Certification of Security Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann

    2004-01-01

    Implemented security protocols are basically pieces of software which are used to (a) authenticate the other communication partners, (b) establish a secure communication channel between them (using insecure communication media), and (c) transfer data between the communication partners in such a way that these data only available to the desired receiver, but not to anyone else. Such an implementation usually consists of the following components: the protocol-engine, which controls in which sequence the messages of the protocol are sent over the network, and which controls the assembly/disassembly and processing (e.g., decryption) of the data. the cryptographic routines to actually encrypt or decrypt the data (using given keys), and t,he interface to the operating system and to the application. For a correct working of such a security protocol, all of these components must work flawlessly. Many formal-methods based techniques for the analysis of a security protocols have been developed. They range from using specific logics (e.g.: BAN-logic [4], or higher order logics [12] to model checking [2] approaches. In each approach, the analysis tries to prove that no (or at least not a modeled intruder) can get access to secret data. Otherwise, a scenario illustrating the &tack may be produced. Despite the seeming simplicity of security protocols ("only" a few messages are sent between the protocol partners in order to ensure a secure communication), many flaws have been detected. Unfortunately, even a perfect protocol engine does not guarantee flawless working of a security protocol, as incidents show. Many break-ins and security vulnerabilities are caused by exploiting errors in the implementation of the protocol engine or the underlying operating system. Attacks using buffer-overflows are a very common class of such attacks. Errors in the implementation of exception or error handling can open up additional vulnerabilities. For example, on a website with a log-in screen

  11. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    PubMed

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  12. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing “Fog Node-End Device” layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard. PMID:29757988

  13. A model based security testing method for protocol implementation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  14. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  15. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview ofmore » security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)« less

  16. Security analysis of standards-driven communication protocols for healthcare scenarios.

    PubMed

    Masi, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Rosario; Tiezzi, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    The importance of the Electronic Health Record (EHR), that stores all healthcare-related data belonging to a patient, has been recognised in recent years by governments, institutions and industry. Initiatives like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) have been developed for the definition of standard methodologies for secure and interoperable EHR exchanges among clinics and hospitals. Using the requisites specified by these initiatives, many large scale projects have been set up for enabling healthcare professionals to handle patients' EHRs. The success of applications developed in these contexts crucially depends on ensuring such security properties as confidentiality, authentication, and authorization. In this paper, we first propose a communication protocol, based on the IHE specifications, for authenticating healthcare professionals and assuring patients' safety. By means of a formal analysis carried out by using the specification language COWS and the model checker CMC, we reveal a security flaw in the protocol thus demonstrating that to simply adopt the international standards does not guarantee the absence of such type of flaws. We then propose how to emend the IHE specifications and modify the protocol accordingly. Finally, we show how to tailor our protocol for application to more critical scenarios with no assumptions on the communication channels. To demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of our protocols we have fully implemented them.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  18. Secure authentication protocol for Internet applications over CATV network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Le-Pond

    1998-02-01

    An authentication protocol is proposed in this paper to implement secure functions which include two way authentication and key management between end users and head-end. The protocol can protect transmission from frauds, attacks such as reply and wiretap. Location privacy is also achieved. A rest protocol is designed to restore the system once when systems fail. The security is verified by taking several security and privacy requirements into consideration.

  19. Quantum And Relativistic Protocols For Secure Multi-Party Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger

    2009-11-01

    After a general introduction, the thesis is divided into four parts. In the first, we discuss the task of coin tossing, principally in order to highlight the effect different physical theories have on security in a straightforward manner, but, also, to introduce a new protocol for non-relativistic strong coin tossing. This protocol matches the security of the best protocol known to date while using a conceptually different approach to achieve the task. In the second part variable bias coin tossing is introduced. This is a variant of coin tossing in which one party secretly chooses one of two biased coins to toss. It is shown that this can be achieved with unconditional security for a specified range of biases, and with cheat-evident security for any bias. We also discuss two further protocols which are conjectured to be unconditionally secure for any bias. The third section looks at other two-party secure computations for which, prior to our work, protocols and no-go theorems were unknown. We introduce a general model for such computations, and show that, within this model, a wide range of functions are impossible to compute securely. We give explicit cheating attacks for such functions. In the final chapter we discuss the task of expanding a private random string, while dropping the usual assumption that the protocol's user trusts her devices. Instead we assume that all quantum devices are supplied by an arbitrarily malicious adversary. We give two protocols that we conjecture securely perform this task. The first allows a private random string to be expanded by a finite amount, while the second generates an arbitrarily large expansion of such a string.

  20. Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol

    PubMed

    Shor; Preskill

    2000-07-10

    We prove that the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based on entanglement purification, which can be proven secure using methods from Lo and Chau's proof of security for a similar protocol. We then show that the security of this protocol implies the security of BB84. The entanglement purification based protocol uses Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, and properties of these codes are used to remove the use of quantum computation from the Lo-Chau protocol.

  1. Unconditional security of a three state quantum key distribution protocol.

    PubMed

    Boileau, J-C; Tamaki, K; Batuwantudawe, J; Laflamme, R; Renes, J M

    2005-02-04

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols are cryptographic techniques with security based only on the laws of quantum mechanics. Two prominent QKD schemes are the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and Bennett 1992 protocols that use four and two quantum states, respectively. In 2000, Phoenix et al. proposed a new family of three-state protocols that offers advantages over the previous schemes. Until now, an error rate threshold for security of the symmetric trine spherical code QKD protocol has been shown only for the trivial intercept-resend eavesdropping strategy. In this Letter, we prove the unconditional security of the trine spherical code QKD protocol, demonstrating its security up to a bit error rate of 9.81%. We also discuss how this proof applies to a version of the trine spherical code QKD protocol where the error rate is evaluated from the number of inconclusive events.

  2. An eCK-Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol without Random Oracles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Daisuke; Okamoto, Tatsuaki

    This paper presents a (PKI-based) two-pass authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that is secure in the extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) security model. The security of the proposed protocol is proven without random oracles (under three assumptions), and relies on no implementation techniques such as a trick by LaMacchia, Lauter and Mityagin (so-called the NAXOS trick). Since an AKE protocol that is eCK-secure under a NAXOS-like implementation trick will be no more eCK-secure if some realistic information leakage occurs through side-channel attacks, it has been an important open problem how to realize an eCK-secure AKE protocol without using the NAXOS tricks (and without random oracles).

  3. Secure satellite communication using multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Punekar, Nikhil; Verma, Pramode K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes the potential of a multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol to secure satellite communication. For securing satellite communication, quantum cryptography is the only known unconditionally secure method. A number of recent experiments have shown feasibility of satellite-aided global quantum key distribution (QKD) using different methods such as: Use of entangled photon pairs, decoy state methods, and entanglement swapping. The use of single photon in these methods restricts the distance and speed over which quantum cryptography can be applied. Contemporary quantum cryptography protocols like the BB84 and its variants suffer from the limitation of reaching the distances of only Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at the data rates of few kilobits per second. This makes it impossible to develop a general satellite-based secure global communication network using the existing protocols. The method proposed in this paper allows secure communication at the heights of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The benefits of the proposed method are two-fold: First it enables the realization of a secure global communication network based on satellites and second it provides unconditional security for satellite networks at GEO heights. The multi-photon approach discussed in this paper ameliorates the distance and speed issues associated with quantum cryptography through the use of contemporary laser communication (lasercom) devices. This approach can be seen as a step ahead towards global quantum communication.

  4. Security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which potentially makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. However, there are few works concerning their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise they can tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Zou et al. (Phys Rev A 79:052312, 2009). We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that for all error rates that are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. We make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance that the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter q. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.

  5. Distance bounded energy detecting ultra-wideband impulse radio secure protocol.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Daniel S; Kollmann, Daniel T; Gibson, Paul L; Riehle, Timothy H; Seifert, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of a novel protocol for secure transmissions on a Ultra-wideband impulse radio that includes distance bounding. Distance bounding requires radios to be within a certain radius to communicate. This new protocol can be used in body area networks for medical devices where security is imperative. Many current wireless medical devices were not designed with security as a priority including devices that can be life threatening if controlled by a hacker. This protocol provides multiple levels of security including encryption and a distance bounding test to prevent long distance attacks.

  6. Provably-Secure (Chinese Government) SM2 and Simplified SM2 Key Exchange Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. PMID:25276863

  7. A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

    2013-05-01

    There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for correlations among patients within sites through

  8. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivan, B.; Kaliappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986

  9. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  10. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  11. A Secured Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das’ protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs. PMID:22163874

  12. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  13. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  14. 3D Digital Legos for Teaching Security Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Li; Harrison, L.; Lu, Aidong; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Weichao

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and developed a 3D digital Lego system as an education tool for teaching security protocols effectively in Information Assurance courses (Lego is a trademark of the LEGO Group. Here, we use it only to represent the pieces of a construction set.). Our approach applies the pedagogical methods learned from toy construction sets by…

  15. A Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Credential Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose a leakage-resilient and proactive authenticated key exchange (called LRP-AKE) protocol for credential services which provides not only a higher level of security against leakage of stored secrets but also secrecy of private key with respect to the involving server. And we show that the LRP-AKE protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model with the reduction to the computational Difie-Hellman problem. In addition, we discuss about some possible applications of the LRP-AKE protocol.

  16. A secure distributed logistic regression protocol for the detection of rare adverse drug events

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Arbuckle, Luk; Tamblyn, Robyn; Earle, Craig; Kantarcioglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited capacity to assess the comparative risks of medications after they enter the market. For rare adverse events, the pooling of data from multiple sources is necessary to have the power and sufficient population heterogeneity to detect differences in safety and effectiveness in genetic, ethnic and clinically defined subpopulations. However, combining datasets from different data custodians or jurisdictions to perform an analysis on the pooled data creates significant privacy concerns that would need to be addressed. Existing protocols for addressing these concerns can result in reduced analysis accuracy and can allow sensitive information to leak. Objective To develop a secure distributed multi-party computation protocol for logistic regression that provides strong privacy guarantees. Methods We developed a secure distributed logistic regression protocol using a single analysis center with multiple sites providing data. A theoretical security analysis demonstrates that the protocol is robust to plausible collusion attacks and does not allow the parties to gain new information from the data that are exchanged among them. The computational performance and accuracy of the protocol were evaluated on simulated datasets. Results The computational performance scales linearly as the dataset sizes increase. The addition of sites results in an exponential growth in computation time. However, for up to five sites, the time is still short and would not affect practical applications. The model parameters are the same as the results on pooled raw data analyzed in SAS, demonstrating high model accuracy. Conclusion The proposed protocol and prototype system would allow the development of logistic regression models in a secure manner without requiring the sharing of personal health information. This can alleviate one of the key barriers to the establishment of large-scale post-marketing surveillance programs. We extended the secure protocol to account for

  17. Feasibility of Developing a Protocol for Automated Protist Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Acquisition Directorate Research & Development Center Report No: CG-D-02-ll Feasibility of Developing a Protocol for Automated Protist Analysis...Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. March 2010 Homeland Security Feasibility of Developing a Protocol for Automated Protist ...March 21)10 Feasibility of Developing a Protocol for Automated Protist Analysis 00 00 o CM Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No CG-D

  18. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  19. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  20. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  1. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack. PMID:26751443

  2. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-06

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  3. Multi-party quantum key agreement protocol secure against collusion attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Sun, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2017-07-01

    The fairness of a secure multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol requires that all involved parties are entirely peer entities and can equally influence the outcome of the protocol to establish a shared key wherein no one can decide the shared key alone. However, it is found that parts of the existing MQKA protocols are sensitive to collusion attacks, i.e., some of the dishonest participants can collaborate to predetermine the final key without being detected. In this paper, a multi-party QKA protocol resisting collusion attacks is proposed. Different from previous QKA protocol resisting N-1 coconspirators or resisting 1 coconspirators, we investigate the general circle-type MQKA protocol which can be secure against t dishonest participants' cooperation. Here, t < N. We hope the results of the presented paper will be helpful for further research on fair MQKA protocols.

  4. Security of Y-00 and Similar Quantum Cryptographic Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    security of Y-00 type protocols is clarified. Key words: Quantum cryptography PACS: 03.67.Dd Anew approach to quantum cryptog- raphy called KCQ, ( keyed ...classical- noise key generation [2] or the well known BB84 quantum protocol [3]. A special case called αη (or Y-00 in Japan) has been experimentally in... quantum noise for typical op- erating parameters. It weakens both the data and key security , possibly information-theoretically and cer- tainly

  5. Security of modified Ping-Pong protocol in noisy and lossy channel

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun-Guang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    The “Ping-Pong” (PP) protocol is a two-way quantum key protocol based on entanglement. In this protocol, Bob prepares one maximally entangled pair of qubits, and sends one qubit to Alice. Then, Alice performs some necessary operations on this qubit and sends it back to Bob. Although this protocol was proposed in 2002, its security in the noisy and lossy channel has not been proven. In this report, we add a simple and experimentally feasible modification to the original PP protocol, and prove the security of this modified PP protocol against collective attacks when the noisy and lossy channel is taken into account. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical. PMID:24816899

  6. Security of modified Ping-Pong protocol in noisy and lossy channel.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun-Guang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-05-12

    The "Ping-Pong" (PP) protocol is a two-way quantum key protocol based on entanglement. In this protocol, Bob prepares one maximally entangled pair of qubits, and sends one qubit to Alice. Then, Alice performs some necessary operations on this qubit and sends it back to Bob. Although this protocol was proposed in 2002, its security in the noisy and lossy channel has not been proven. In this report, we add a simple and experimentally feasible modification to the original PP protocol, and prove the security of this modified PP protocol against collective attacks when the noisy and lossy channel is taken into account. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical.

  7. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  8. Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, Christian

    2010-09-15

    We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. Koenig, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from Koenig et al. suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from Koenig et al. requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our ''canonical'' protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters.more » Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.« less

  9. A Secured Authentication Protocol for SIP Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tien-Ho; Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Hsiang, Han-Chen; Shih, Wei-Kuan

    Session initiation protocol (SIP) is a technology regularly performed in Internet Telephony, and Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) as digest authentication is one of the major methods for SIP authentication mechanism. In 2005, Yang et al. pointed out that HTTP could not resist server spoofing attack and off-line guessing attack and proposed a secret authentication with Diffie-Hellman concept. In 2009, Tsai proposed a nonce based authentication protocol for SIP. In this paper, we demonstrate that their protocol could not resist the password guessing attack and insider attack. Furthermore, we propose an ECC-based authentication mechanism to solve their issues and present security analysis of our protocol to show that ours is suitable for applications with higher security requirement.

  10. A secure RFID mutual authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Jining

    2015-03-01

    Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is an automatic identification technology, which can be widely used in healthcare environments to locate and track staff, equipment and patients. However, potential security and privacy problems in RFID system remain a challenge. In this paper, we design a mutual authentication protocol for RFID based on elliptic curve cryptography(ECC). We use pre-computing method within tag's communication, so that our protocol can get better efficiency. In terms of security, our protocol can achieve confidentiality, unforgeability, mutual authentication, tag's anonymity, availability and forward security. Our protocol also can overcome the weakness in the existing protocols. Therefore, our protocol is suitable for healthcare environments.

  11. Protecting Privacy and Securing the Gathering of Location Proofs - The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michelle; Gray, David

    As wireless networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the demand for a method of locating a device has increased dramatically. Location Based Services are now commonplace but there are few methods of verifying or guaranteeing a location provided by a user without some specialised hardware, especially in larger scale networks. We propose a system for the verification of location claims, using proof gathered from neighbouring devices. In this paper we introduce a protocol to protect this proof gathering process, protecting the privacy of all involved parties and securing it from intruders and malicious claiming devices. We present the protocol in stages, extending the security of this protocol to allow for flexibility within its application. The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol (SLVPGP) has been designed to function within the area of Vehicular Networks, although its application could be extended to any device with wireless & cryptographic capabilities.

  12. A secure RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-05-01

    With the fast advancement of the wireless communication technology and the widespread use of medical systems, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in healthcare environments. As the first important protocol for ensuring secure communication in healthcare environment, the RFID authentication protocols derive more and more attentions. Most of RFID authentication protocols are based on hash function or symmetric cryptography. To get more security properties, elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) has been used in the design of RFID authentication protocol. Recently, Liao and Hsiao proposed a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC and claimed their protocol could withstand various attacks. In this paper, we will show that their protocol suffers from the key compromise problem, i.e. an adversary could get the private key stored in the tag. To enhance the security, we propose a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC. Detailed analysis shows the proposed protocol not only could overcome weaknesses in Liao and Hsiao's protocol but also has the same performance. Therefore, it is more suitable for healthcare environments.

  13. SPAR: a security- and power-aware routing protocol for wireless ad hoc and sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberoi, Vikram; Chigan, Chunxiao

    2005-05-01

    Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WAHSNs) are vulnerable to extensive attacks as well as severe resource constraints. To fulfill the security needs, many security enhancements have been proposed. Like wise, from resource constraint perspective, many power aware schemes have been proposed to save the battery power. However, we observe that for the severely resource limited and extremely vulnerable WAHSNs, taking security or power (or any other resource) alone into consideration for protocol design is rather inadequate toward the truly "secure-and-useful" WAHSNs. For example, from resource constraint perspective, we identify one of the potential problems, the Security-Capable-Congestion (SCC) behavior, for the WAHSNs routing protocols where only the security are concerned. On the other hand, the design approach where only scarce resource is concerned, such as many power-aware WAHSNs protocols, leaves security unconsidered and is undesirable to many WAHSNs application scenarios. Motivated by these observations, we propose a co-design approach, where both the high security and effective resource consumption are targeted for WAHSNs protocol design. Specifically, we propose a novel routing protocol, Security- and Power- Aware Routing (SPAR) protocol based on this co-design approach. In SPAR, the routing decisions are made based on both security and power as routing criteria. The idea of the SPAR mechanism is routing protocol independent and therefore can be broadly integrated into any of the existing WAHSNs routing protocols. The simulation results show that SPAR outperforms the WAHSNs routing protocols where security or power alone is considered, significantly. This research finding demonstrates the proposed security- and resource- aware co-design approach is promising towards the truly "secure-and-useful" WAHSNs.

  14. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property.

  15. Security proof of a three-state quantum-key-distribution protocol without rotational symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, C.-H.F.; Lo, H.-K.

    2006-10-15

    Standard security proofs of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols often rely on symmetry arguments. In this paper, we prove the security of a three-state protocol that does not possess rotational symmetry. The three-state QKD protocol we consider involves three qubit states, where the first two states |0{sub z}> and |1{sub z}> can contribute to key generation, and the third state |+>=(|0{sub z}>+|1{sub z}>)/{radical}(2) is for channel estimation. This protocol has been proposed and implemented experimentally in some frequency-based QKD systems where the three states can be prepared easily. Thus, by founding on the security of this three-state protocol, we prove that thesemore » QKD schemes are, in fact, unconditionally secure against any attacks allowed by quantum mechanics. The main task in our proof is to upper bound the phase error rate of the qubits given the bit error rates observed. Unconditional security can then be proved not only for the ideal case of a single-photon source and perfect detectors, but also for the realistic case of a phase-randomized weak coherent light source and imperfect threshold detectors. Our result in the phase error rate upper bound is independent of the loss in the channel. Also, we compare the three-state protocol with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. For the single-photon source case, our result proves that the BB84 protocol strictly tolerates a higher quantum bit error rate than the three-state protocol, while for the coherent-source case, the BB84 protocol achieves a higher key generation rate and secure distance than the three-state protocol when a decoy-state method is used.« less

  16. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs. PMID:24919012

  17. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  18. A Secure RFID Tag Authentication Protocol with Privacy Preserving in Telecare Medicine Information System.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based solutions are widely used for providing many healthcare applications include patient monitoring, object traceability, drug administration system and telecare medicine information system (TMIS) etc. In order to reduce malpractices and ensure patient privacy, in 2015, Srivastava et al. proposed a hash based RFID tag authentication protocol in TMIS. Their protocol uses lightweight hash operation and synchronized secret value shared between back-end server and tag, which is more secure and efficient than other related RFID authentication protocols. Unfortunately, in this paper, we demonstrate that Srivastava et al.'s tag authentication protocol has a serious security problem in that an adversary may use the stolen/lost reader to connect to the medical back-end server that store information associated with tagged objects and this privacy damage causing the adversary could reveal medical data obtained from stolen/lost readers in a malicious way. Therefore, we propose a secure and efficient RFID tag authentication protocol to overcome security flaws and improve the system efficiency. Compared with Srivastava et al.'s protocol, the proposed protocol not only inherits the advantages of Srivastava et al.'s authentication protocol for TMIS but also provides better security with high system efficiency.

  19. Impersonation attack on a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol with improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerimehr, Ali; Hadain Dehkordi, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the security of a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol based on single photons. We first give an impersonation attack on the protocol. The cryptanalysis shows that there is a gap in the authentication procedure of the protocol so that an opponent can reveal the secret information by an undetectable attempt. We then propose an improvement for the protocol and show it closes the gap by applying a mutual authentication procedure. In the improved protocol single photons are transmitted once in a session, so it is easy to implement as the primary protocol. Furthermore, we use a novel technique for secret order rearrangement of photons by which not only quantum storage is eliminated also a secret key can be reused securely. So the new protocol is applicable in practical approaches like embedded system devices.

  20. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  1. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  2. Security of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kejia, Zhang; Dan, Li; Qi, Su

    2014-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the study of arbitrated quantum signature (AQS). Among these studies, the cryptanalysis of some AQS protocols and a series of improved ideas have been proposed. Compared with the previous analysis, we present a security criterion, which can judge whether an AQS protocol is able to prevent the receiver (i.e. one participant in the signature protocol) from forging a legal signature. According to our results, it can be seen that most AQS protocols which are based on the Zeng and Keitel (ZK) model are susceptible to a forgery attack. Furthermore, we present an improved idea of the ZK protocol. Finally, some supplement discussions and several interesting topics are provided.

  3. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  4. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  5. Performance evaluation of secured DICOM image communication with next generation internet protocol IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fenghai; Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Next Generation Internet (NGI) technology with new communication protocol IPv6 emerges as a potential solution for low-cost and high-speed networks for image data transmission. IPv6 is designed to solve many of the problems of the current version of IP (known as IPv4) with regard to address depletion, security, autoconfiguration, extensibility, and more. We choose CTN (Central Test Node) DICOM software developed by The Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to implement IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM communication software on different operating systems (Windows/Linux), and used this DICOM software to evaluate the performance of the IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM image communication with different security setting and environments. We compared the security communications of IPsec with SSL/TLS on different TCP/IP protocols (IPv6/IPv4), and find that there are some trade-offs to choose security solution between IPsec and SSL/TLS in the security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 communication networks.

  6. On the security of a simple three-party key exchange protocol without server's public keys.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  7. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server's Public Keys

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol. PMID:25258723

  8. A lightweight and secure two factor anonymous authentication protocol for Global Mobility Networks.

    PubMed

    Baig, Ahmed Fraz; Hassan, Khwaja Mansoor Ul; Ghani, Anwar; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Imran; Ashraf, Muhammad Usman

    2018-01-01

    Global Mobility Networks(GLOMONETs) in wireless communication permits the global roaming services that enable a user to leverage the mobile services in any foreign country. Technological growth in wireless communication is also accompanied by new security threats and challenges. A threat-proof authentication protocol in wireless communication may overcome the security flaws by allowing only legitimate users to access a particular service. Recently, Lee et al. found Mun et al. scheme vulnerable to different attacks and proposed an advanced secure scheme to overcome the security flaws. However, this article points out that Lee et al. scheme lacks user anonymity, inefficient user authentication, vulnerable to replay and DoS attacks and Lack of local password verification. Furthermore, this article presents a more robust anonymous authentication scheme to handle the threats and challenges found in Lee et al.'s protocol. The proposed protocol is formally verified with an automated tool(ProVerif). The proposed protocol has superior efficiency in comparison to the existing protocols.

  9. A lightweight and secure two factor anonymous authentication protocol for Global Mobility Networks

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Global Mobility Networks(GLOMONETs) in wireless communication permits the global roaming services that enable a user to leverage the mobile services in any foreign country. Technological growth in wireless communication is also accompanied by new security threats and challenges. A threat-proof authentication protocol in wireless communication may overcome the security flaws by allowing only legitimate users to access a particular service. Recently, Lee et al. found Mun et al. scheme vulnerable to different attacks and proposed an advanced secure scheme to overcome the security flaws. However, this article points out that Lee et al. scheme lacks user anonymity, inefficient user authentication, vulnerable to replay and DoS attacks and Lack of local password verification. Furthermore, this article presents a more robust anonymous authentication scheme to handle the threats and challenges found in Lee et al.’s protocol. The proposed protocol is formally verified with an automated tool(ProVerif). The proposed protocol has superior efficiency in comparison to the existing protocols. PMID:29702675

  10. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations.

  11. A Source Anonymity-Based Lightweight Secure AODV Protocol for Fog-Based MANET

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Weidong; Zhang, Wuxiong; Xiao, Jinchao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Fog-based MANET (Mobile Ad hoc networks) is a novel paradigm of a mobile ad hoc network with the advantages of both mobility and fog computing. Meanwhile, as traditional routing protocol, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol has been applied widely in fog-based MANET. Currently, how to improve the transmission performance and enhance security are the two major aspects in AODV’s research field. However, the researches on joint energy efficiency and security seem to be seldom considered. In this paper, we propose a source anonymity-based lightweight secure AODV (SAL-SAODV) routing protocol to meet the above requirements. In SAL-SAODV protocol, source anonymous and secure transmitting schemes are proposed and applied. The scheme involves the following three parts: the source anonymity algorithm is employed to achieve the source node, without being tracked and located; the improved secure scheme based on the polynomial of CRC-4 is applied to substitute the RSA digital signature of SAODV and guarantee the data integrity, in addition to reducing the computation and energy consumption; the random delayed transmitting scheme (RDTM) is implemented to separate the check code and transmitted data, and achieve tamper-proof results. The simulation results show that the comprehensive performance of the proposed SAL-SAODV is a trade-off of the transmission performance, energy efficiency, and security, and better than AODV and SAODV. PMID:28629142

  12. A Source Anonymity-Based Lightweight Secure AODV Protocol for Fog-Based MANET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weidong; Zhang, Wuxiong; Xiao, Jinchao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-17

    Fog-based MANET (Mobile Ad hoc networks) is a novel paradigm of a mobile ad hoc network with the advantages of both mobility and fog computing. Meanwhile, as traditional routing protocol, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol has been applied widely in fog-based MANET. Currently, how to improve the transmission performance and enhance security are the two major aspects in AODV's research field. However, the researches on joint energy efficiency and security seem to be seldom considered. In this paper, we propose a source anonymity-based lightweight secure AODV (SAL-SAODV) routing protocol to meet the above requirements. In SAL-SAODV protocol, source anonymous and secure transmitting schemes are proposed and applied. The scheme involves the following three parts: the source anonymity algorithm is employed to achieve the source node, without being tracked and located; the improved secure scheme based on the polynomial of CRC-4 is applied to substitute the RSA digital signature of SAODV and guarantee the data integrity, in addition to reducing the computation and energy consumption; the random delayed transmitting scheme (RDTM) is implemented to separate the check code and transmitted data, and achieve tamper-proof results. The simulation results show that the comprehensive performance of the proposed SAL-SAODV is a trade-off of the transmission performance, energy efficiency, and security, and better than AODV and SAODV.

  13. A secure RFID authentication protocol adopting error correction code.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shuai-Min; Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance.

  14. A Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Adopting Error Correction Code

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance. PMID:24959619

  15. An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.

  16. Security of a semi-quantum protocol where reflections contribute to the secret key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawec, Walter O.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a proof of unconditional security for a semi-quantum key distribution protocol introduced in a previous work. This particular protocol demonstrated the possibility of using X basis states to contribute to the raw key of the two users (as opposed to using only direct measurement results) even though a semi-quantum participant cannot directly manipulate such states. In this work, we provide a complete proof of security by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we are able to find an error threshold value such that for all error rates less than this threshold, it is guaranteed that A and B may distill a secure secret key; for error rates larger than this threshold, A and B should abort. We demonstrate that this error threshold compares favorably to several fully quantum protocols. We also comment on some interesting observations about the behavior of this protocol under certain noise scenarios.

  17. Improving security of the ping-pong protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    A security layer for the asymptotically secure ping-pong protocol is proposed and analyzed in the paper. The operation of the improvement exploits inevitable errors introduced by the eavesdropping in the control and message modes. Its role is similar to the privacy amplification algorithms known from the quantum key distribution schemes. Messages are processed in blocks which guarantees that an eavesdropper is faced with a computationally infeasible problem as long as the system parameters are within reasonable limits. The introduced additional information preprocessing does not require quantum memory registers and confidential communication is possible without prior key agreement or some shared secret.

  18. Privacy Preserved and Secured Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks.

    PubMed

    Meganathan, Navamani Thandava; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation and security provision against internal attacks in wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are more demanding than in wired networks due to the open nature and mobility of certain nodes in the network. Several schemes have been proposed to preserve privacy and provide security in WMNs. To provide complete privacy protection in WMNs, the properties of unobservability, unlinkability, and anonymity are to be ensured during route discovery. These properties can be achieved by implementing group signature and ID-based encryption schemes during route discovery. Due to the characteristics of WMNs, it is more vulnerable to many network layer attacks. Hence, a strong protection is needed to avoid these attacks and this can be achieved by introducing a new Cross-Layer and Subject Logic based Dynamic Reputation (CLSL-DR) mechanism during route discovery. In this paper, we propose a new Privacy preserved and Secured Reliable Routing (PSRR) protocol for WMNs. This protocol incorporates group signature, ID-based encryption schemes, and CLSL-DR mechanism to ensure strong privacy, security, and reliability in WMNs. Simulation results prove this by showing better performance in terms of most of the chosen parameters than the existing protocols.

  19. Generic framework for the secure Yuen 2000 quantum-encryption protocol employing the wire-tap channel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaljevic, Miodrag J.

    2007-05-15

    It is shown that the security, against known-plaintext attacks, of the Yuen 2000 (Y00) quantum-encryption protocol can be considered via the wire-tap channel model assuming that the heterodyne measurement yields the sample for security evaluation. Employing the results reported on the wire-tap channel, a generic framework is proposed for developing secure Y00 instantiations. The proposed framework employs a dedicated encoding which together with inherent quantum noise at the attacker's side provides Y00 security.

  20. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-12-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  1. Quantum cryptography with finite resources: unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Scarani, Valerio; Renner, Renato

    2008-05-23

    We derive a bound for the security of quantum key distribution with finite resources under one-way postprocessing, based on a definition of security that is composable and has an operational meaning. While our proof relies on the assumption of collective attacks, unconditional security follows immediately for standard protocols such as Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-states protocol. For single-qubit implementations of such protocols, we find that the secret key rate becomes positive when at least N approximately 10(5) signals are exchanged and processed. For any other discrete-variable protocol, unconditional security can be obtained using the exponential de Finetti theorem, but the additional overhead leads to very pessimistic estimates.

  2. Using software security analysis to verify the secure socket layer (SSL) protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    nal Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have tens of thousands of networked computer systems and applications. Software Security vulnerabilities present risks such as lost or corrupted data, information the3, and unavailability of critical systems. These risks represent potentially enormous costs to NASA. The NASA Code Q research initiative 'Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach '' offers, among its capabilities, formal verification of software security properties, through the use of model based verification (MBV) to address software security risks. [1,2,3,4,5,6] MBV is a formal approach to software assurance that combines analysis of software, via abstract models, with technology, such as model checkers, that provide automation of the mechanical portions of the analysis process. This paper will discuss: The need for formal analysis to assure software systems with respect to software and why testing alone cannot provide it. The means by which MBV with a Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) accomplishes the necessary analysis task. An example of FMF style MBV in the verification of properties over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration.

  3. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  4. A Hybrid Analysis for Security Protocols with State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 14-1013. A Hybrid Analysis for Security Protocols with State∗ John D. Ramsdell Daniel J ...their consequences in the anno - tated protocol theory Tannot(Π, ) use only the limited vocabulary of Tbnd(Π); we call them bridge lemmas. Lemma 3 is a...and we proved it using pvs. Lemma 1 (Prefix Boot Extend). ∀π ∈ path, t :>, i, k ∈ N. i ≤ k ∧ π(k) has t ⊃ subterm(π(i), π(k)) ∨ ∃ j ∈ N. i ≤ j < k ∧ π

  5. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  6. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  7. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-06-22

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery.

  8. Adequate Security Protocols Adopt in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the problems of security of the information of the civil registries and identification at world level that are considered strategic. The objective is to adopt the appropriate security protocols in a conceptual model in the identity management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. In this phase, the appropriate security protocols were determined in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management with Authentication, Authorization and Auditing (AAA). We used the deductive method and exploratory research to define the appropriate security protocols to be adopted in the identity model: IPSec, DNSsec, Radius, SSL, TLS, IEEE 802.1X EAP, Set. It was a prototype of the location of the security protocols adopted in the logical design of the technological infrastructure considering the conceptual model for Identity, Authentication, Authorization, and Audit management. It was concluded that the adopted protocols are appropriate for a distributed database and should have a direct relationship with the algorithms, which allows vulnerability and risk mitigation taking into account confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA).

  9. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System.

    PubMed

    You, Ilsun; Kwon, Soonhyun; Choudhary, Gaurav; Sharma, Vishal; Seo, Jung Taek

    2018-06-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN), but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security) is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO) and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO). The protocol is validated through Burrows⁻Abadi⁻Needham (BAN) logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with the two

  10. Secure Transaction Protocol for CEPS Compliant EPS in Limited Connectivity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devane, Satish; Phatak, Deepak

    Common Electronic Purse Specification (CEPS) used by European countries, elaborately defines the transaction between customer’s CEP card and merchant’s point of sales (POS) terminal. However it merely defines the specification to transfer the transactions between the Merchant and Merchant Acquirer (MA). This paper proposes a novel approach by introducing an entity, mobile merchant acquirer (MMA) which is a trusted agent of MA and principally works on man in middle concept, but facilitates remote two fold mutual authentication and secure transaction transfer between Merchant and MA through MMA. This approach removes the bottle-neck of connectivity issues between Merchant and MA in limited connectivity environment. The proposed protocol ensures the confidentiality, integrity and money atomicity of transaction batch. The proposed protocol has been verified for correctness by Spin, a model checker and security properties of the protocol have been verified by avispa.

  11. An Improved Protocol for Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jason; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-03-01

    In early 2009, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(2) 333-337 2009) presented a controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol via a newly constructed five-qubit entangled quantum state. Later, Qin et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(13), 2656-2658 2009) pointed out two security loopholes in Xiu et al.'s protocol: (1) A correlation-elicitation (CE) attack can reveal the entire secret message; (2) A leakage of partial information for the receiver is noticed. Then, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 283(2), 344-347 2010) presented a revised CDSQC protocol to remedy the CE attack problem. However, the information leakage problem still remains open. This work proposes a new CDSQC protocol using the same five-qubit entangled state which can work without the above mentioned security problems. Moreover, the Trojan Horse attacks can be automatically avoided without using detecting devices in the new CDSQC.

  12. An Improved Protocol for Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Using Five-Qubit Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jason; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-06-01

    In early 2009, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(2) 333-337 2009) presented a controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol via a newly constructed five-qubit entangled quantum state. Later, Qin et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(13), 2656-2658 2009) pointed out two security loopholes in Xiu et al.'s protocol: (1) A correlation-elicitation (CE) attack can reveal the entire secret message; (2) A leakage of partial information for the receiver is noticed. Then, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 283(2), 344-347 2010) presented a revised CDSQC protocol to remedy the CE attack problem. However, the information leakage problem still remains open. This work proposes a new CDSQC protocol using the same five-qubit entangled state which can work without the above mentioned security problems. Moreover, the Trojan Horse attacks can be automatically avoided without using detecting devices in the new CDSQC.

  13. Three-pass protocol scheme for bitmap image security by using vernam cipher algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmawati, D.; Budiman, M. A.; Aulya, L.

    2018-02-01

    Confidentiality, integrity, and efficiency are the crucial aspects of data security. Among the other digital data, image data is too prone to abuse of operation like duplication, modification, etc. There are some data security techniques, one of them is cryptography. The security of Vernam Cipher cryptography algorithm is very dependent on the key exchange process. If the key is leaked, security of this algorithm will collapse. Therefore, a method that minimizes key leakage during the exchange of messages is required. The method which is used, is known as Three-Pass Protocol. This protocol enables message delivery process without the key exchange. Therefore, the sending messages process can reach the receiver safely without fear of key leakage. The system is built by using Java programming language. The materials which are used for system testing are image in size 200×200 pixel, 300×300 pixel, 500×500 pixel, 800×800 pixel and 1000×1000 pixel. The result of experiments showed that Vernam Cipher algorithm in Three-Pass Protocol scheme could restore the original image.

  14. Reducing software security risk through an integrated approach research initiative model based verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John D.

    2003-01-01

    This document discusses the verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration of the Model Based Verification (MBV) portion of the verification instrument set being developed under the Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach research initiative. Code Q of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds this project. The NASA Goddard Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) facility manages this research program at the NASA agency level and the Assurance Technology Program Office (ATPO) manages the research locally at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California institute of Technology) where the research is being carried out.

  15. A secure protocol for protecting the identity of providers when disclosing data for disease surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Mercer, Jay; Peyton, Liam; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley; Buckeridge, David; Samet, Saeed; Earle, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Background Providers have been reluctant to disclose patient data for public-health purposes. Even if patient privacy is ensured, the desire to protect provider confidentiality has been an important driver of this reluctance. Methods Six requirements for a surveillance protocol were defined that satisfy the confidentiality needs of providers and ensure utility to public health. The authors developed a secure multi-party computation protocol using the Paillier cryptosystem to allow the disclosure of stratified case counts and denominators to meet these requirements. The authors evaluated the protocol in a simulated environment on its computation performance and ability to detect disease outbreak clusters. Results Theoretical and empirical assessments demonstrate that all requirements are met by the protocol. A system implementing the protocol scales linearly in terms of computation time as the number of providers is increased. The absolute time to perform the computations was 12.5 s for data from 3000 practices. This is acceptable performance, given that the reporting would normally be done at 24 h intervals. The accuracy of detection disease outbreak cluster was unchanged compared with a non-secure distributed surveillance protocol, with an F-score higher than 0.92 for outbreaks involving 500 or more cases. Conclusion The protocol and associated software provide a practical method for providers to disclose patient data for sentinel, syndromic or other indicator-based surveillance while protecting patient privacy and the identity of individual providers. PMID:21486880

  16. On the security of semi-device-independent QKD protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Anubhav; Ray, Maharshi; Veynar, Ryszard; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    While fully device-independent security in (BB84-like) prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) is impossible, it can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent (SDI) scenario, wherein no assumptions are made on the characteristics of the hardware used except for an upper bound on the dimension of the communicated system. Studying security under such minimal assumptions is especially relevant in the context of the recent quantum hacking attacks wherein the eavesdroppers can not only construct the devices used by the communicating parties but are also able to remotely alter their behavior. In this work, we study the security of a SDIQKD protocol based on the prepare-and-measure quantum implementation of a well-known cryptographic primitive, the random access code (RAC). We consider imperfect detectors and establish the critical values of the security parameters (the observed success probability of the RAC and the detection efficiency) required for guaranteeing security against eavesdroppers with and without quantum memory. Furthermore, we suggest a minimal characterization of the preparation device in order to lower the requirements for establishing a secure key.

  17. Domain Name Server Security (DNSSEC) Protocol Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    all the time. For mobile devices, end-system validation is much more difficult due to the state of their networks, many of which do not allow...way to distribute keying information than the current public-key infrastructure (PKI) allows. In addition, it will take work to convince CDNs and...Control Protocol (TCP) or even DNS over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). One of the important outcomes of our work is the realization that that a " mobile

  18. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  19. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole.

  20. Molecules for security measures: from keypad locks to advanced communication protocols.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, J; Pischel, U

    2018-04-03

    The idea of using molecules in the context of information security has sparked the interest of researchers from many scientific disciplines. This is clearly manifested in the diversity of the molecular platforms and the analytical techniques used for this purpose, some of which we highlight in this Tutorial Review. Moreover, those molecular systems can be used to emulate a broad spectrum of security measures. For a long time, molecular keypad locks enjoyed a clear preference and the review starts off with a description of how these devices developed. In the last few years, however, the field has evolved into something larger. Examples include more complex authentication protocols (multi-factor authentication and one-time passwords), the recognition of erroneous procedures in data transmission (parity devices), as well as steganographic and cryptographic protection.

  1. Secure and Lightweight Cloud-Assisted Video Reporting Protocol over 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the vehicular networks, the real-time video reporting service is used to send the recorded videos in the vehicle to the cloud. However, when facilitating the real-time video reporting service in the vehicular networks, the usage of the fourth generation (4G) long term evolution (LTE) was proved to suffer from latency while the IEEE 802.11p standard does not offer sufficient scalability for a such congested environment. To overcome those drawbacks, the fifth-generation (5G)-enabled vehicular network is considered as a promising technology for empowering the real-time video reporting service. In this paper, we note that security and privacy related issues should also be carefully addressed to boost the early adoption of 5G-enabled vehicular networks. There exist a few research works for secure video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. However, their usage is limited because of public key certificates and expensive pairing operations. Thus, we propose a secure and lightweight protocol for cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. Compared to the conventional public key certificates, the proposed protocol achieves entities’ authorization through anonymous credential. Also, by using lightweight security primitives instead of expensive bilinear pairing operations, the proposed protocol minimizes the computational overhead. From the evaluation results, we show that the proposed protocol takes the smaller computation and communication time for the cryptographic primitives than that of the well-known Eiza-Ni-Shi protocol. PMID:28946633

  2. Secure and Lightweight Cloud-Assisted Video Reporting Protocol over 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks.

    PubMed

    Nkenyereye, Lewis; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2017-09-23

    In the vehicular networks, the real-time video reporting service is used to send the recorded videos in the vehicle to the cloud. However, when facilitating the real-time video reporting service in the vehicular networks, the usage of the fourth generation (4G) long term evolution (LTE) was proved to suffer from latency while the IEEE 802.11p standard does not offer sufficient scalability for a such congested environment. To overcome those drawbacks, the fifth-generation (5G)-enabled vehicular network is considered as a promising technology for empowering the real-time video reporting service. In this paper, we note that security and privacy related issues should also be carefully addressed to boost the early adoption of 5G-enabled vehicular networks. There exist a few research works for secure video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. However, their usage is limited because of public key certificates and expensive pairing operations. Thus, we propose a secure and lightweight protocol for cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. Compared to the conventional public key certificates, the proposed protocol achieves entities' authorization through anonymous credential. Also, by using lightweight security primitives instead of expensive bilinear pairing operations, the proposed protocol minimizes the computational overhead. From the evaluation results, we show that the proposed protocol takes the smaller computation and communication time for the cryptographic primitives than that of the well-known Eiza-Ni-Shi protocol.

  3. Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Security Systems 103 varieties of the BB84 scheme have been developed, and other forms of quantum key distribution have been proposed. Rapid progress has led... key . Capability Gaps Existing quantum cryptographic protocols may also have weaknesses. Although BB84 is generally regarded as secure , researchers...complement agency-specific prioritization and R&D planning efforts in cyber security and information assurance. The Plan also describes the key Federal

  4. Protocol and the post-human performativity of security techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Nathaniel

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the deployment of exercises by the United Kingdom Fire and Rescue Service. Exercises stage, simulate and act out potential future emergencies and in so doing help the Fire and Rescue Service prepare for future emergencies. Specifically, exercises operate to assess and develop protocol; sets of guidelines which plan out the actions undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service in responding to a fire. In the article I outline and assess the forms of knowledge and technologies, what I call the 'aesthetic forces', by which the exercise makes present and imagines future emergencies. By critically engaging with Karen Barad's notion of post-human performativity, I argue that exercises provide a site where such forces can entangle with one another; creating a bricolage through which future emergencies are evoked sensually and representatively, ultimately making it possible to experience emergencies in the present. This understanding of exercises allows also for critical appraisal of protocol both as phenomena that are produced through the enmeshing of different aesthetic forces and as devices which premise the operation of the security apparatus on contingency.

  5. Improved Wireless Security through Physical Layer Protocol Manipulation and Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    radios in a cognitive radio network using a radio frequency fingerprinting based method. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC...IMPROVEDWIRELESS SECURITY THROUGH PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL MANIPULATION AND RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING DISSERTATION Benjamin W. Ramsey, Captain...PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOL MANIPULATION AND RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and

  6. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A.; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A.

    2016-01-01

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol’s semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. PMID:27338411

  7. Security Enhanced EMV-Based Mobile Payment Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant's reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer's credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions. PMID:25302334

  8. Security enhanced EMV-based mobile payment protocol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Hour

    2014-01-01

    Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant's reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer's credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions.

  9. Can the use of the Leggett-Garg inequality enhance security of the BB84 protocol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

    2017-08-01

    Prima facie, there are good reasons to answer in the negative the question posed in the title: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is provably secure subject to the assumption of trusted devices, while the Leggett-Garg-type inequality (LGI) does not seem to be readily adaptable to the device independent (DI) or semi-DI scenario. Nevertheless, interestingly, here we identify a specific device attack, which has been shown to render the standard BB84 protocol completely insecure, but against which our formulated LGI-assisted BB84 protocol (based on an appropriate form of LGI) is secure.

  10. [A security protocol for the exchange of personal medical data via Internet: monitoring treatment and drug effects].

    PubMed

    Viviani, R; Fischer, J; Spitzer, M; Freudenmann, R W

    2004-04-01

    We present a security protocol for the exchange of medical data via the Internet, based on the type/domain model. We discuss two applications of the protocol: in a system for the exchange of data for quality assurance, and in an on-line database of adverse reactions to drug use. We state that a type/domain security protocol can successfully comply with the complex requirements for data privacy and accessibility typical of such applications.

  11. A secure medical data exchange protocol based on cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Yang, Tsai-Tung; Shih, Tzay-Farn

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, health care technologies already became matured such as electronic medical records that can be easily stored. However, how to get medical resources more convenient is currently concern issue. In spite of many literatures discussed about medical systems, but these literatures should face many security challenges. The most important issue is patients' privacy. Therefore, we propose a secure medical data exchange protocol based on cloud environment. In our scheme, we use mobile device's characteristics, allowing peoples use medical resources on the cloud environment to seek medical advice conveniently.

  12. A security analysis of version 2 of the Network Time Protocol (NTP): A report to the privacy and security research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1991-01-01

    The Network Time Protocol is being used throughout the Internet to provide an accurate time service. The security requirements are examined of such a service, version 2 of the NTP protocol is analyzed to determine how well it meets these requirements, and improvements are suggested where appropriate.

  13. Protocol and the post-human performativity of security techniques

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of exercises by the United Kingdom Fire and Rescue Service. Exercises stage, simulate and act out potential future emergencies and in so doing help the Fire and Rescue Service prepare for future emergencies. Specifically, exercises operate to assess and develop protocol; sets of guidelines which plan out the actions undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service in responding to a fire. In the article I outline and assess the forms of knowledge and technologies, what I call the ‘aesthetic forces’, by which the exercise makes present and imagines future emergencies. By critically engaging with Karen Barad’s notion of post-human performativity, I argue that exercises provide a site where such forces can entangle with one another; creating a bricolage through which future emergencies are evoked sensually and representatively, ultimately making it possible to experience emergencies in the present. This understanding of exercises allows also for critical appraisal of protocol both as phenomena that are produced through the enmeshing of different aesthetic forces and as devices which premise the operation of the security apparatus on contingency. PMID:29708110

  14. Efficiency and security problems of anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, Niu-Wang proposed an anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps in [Niu Y, Wang X. An anonymous key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps. Commun Nonlinear Sci Simulat 2011;16(4):1986-92]. Niu-Wang's protocol not only achieves session key agreement between a server and a user, but also allows the user to anonymously interact with the server. Nevertheless, this paper points out that Niu-Wang's protocol has the following efficiency and security problems: (1) The protocol has computational efficiency problem when a trusted third party decrypts the user sending message. (2) The protocol is vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) attack based on illegal message modification by an attacker.

  15. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-01-01

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network. PMID:27314351

  16. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-06-14

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  17. Backup key generation model for one-time password security protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyanthi, N.; Kundu, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    The use of one-time password (OTP) has ushered new life into the existing authentication protocols used by the software industry. It introduced a second layer of security to the traditional username-password authentication, thus coining the term, two-factor authentication. One of the drawbacks of this protocol is the unreliability of the hardware token at the time of authentication. This paper proposes a simple backup key model that can be associated with the real world applications’user database, which would allow a user to circumvent the second authentication stage, in the event of unavailability of the hardware token.

  18. A Unified Approach to Intra-Domain Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Andrew J.; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2009-01-01

    While a variety of mechanisms have been developed for securing individual intra-domain protocols, none address the issue in a holistic manner. We develop a unified framework to secure prominent networking protocols within a single domain. We begin with a secure version of the DHCP protocol, which has the additional feature of providing each host with a certificate. We then leverage these certificates to secure ARP, prevent spoofing within the domain, and secure SSH and VPN connections between the domain and hosts which have previously interacted with it locally. In doing so, we also develop an incrementally deployable public key infrastructuremore » which can later be leveraged to support inter-domain authentication.« less

  19. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a "splitting tree" technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the "Biased Random Walk" model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  20. A security proof of the round-robin differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol based on the signal disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The round-robin differential phase shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is a unique QKD protocol whose security has not been understood through an information-disturbance trade-off relation, and a sufficient amount of privacy amplification was given independently of signal disturbance. Here, we discuss the security of the RRDPS protocol in the asymptotic regime when a good estimate of the bit error rate is available as a measure of signal disturbance. The uniqueness of the RRDPS protocol shows up as a peculiar form of information-disturbance trade-off curve. When the length of a block of pulses used for encoding and the signal disturbance are both small, it provides a significantly better key rate than that from the original security proof. On the other hand, when the block length is large, the use of the signal disturbance makes little improvement in the key rate. Our analysis will bridge a gap between the RRDPS protocol and the conventional QKD protocols.

  1. Establishing rational networking using the DL04 quantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Tso, Raylin

    2018-06-01

    The first rational quantum secure direct communication scheme is proposed, in which we use the game theory with incomplete information to model the rational behavior of the participant, and give the strategy space and utility function. The rational participant can get his maximal utility when he performs the protocol faithfully, and then the Nash equilibrium of the protocol can be achieved. Compared to the traditional schemes, our scheme will be more practical in the presence of rational participant.

  2. An efficient and secure certificateless authentication protocol for healthcare system on wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks.

  3. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  4. Automating Security Protocol Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    language that allows easy representation of pattern interaction. Using CSP, Lowe tests whether a protocol achieves authentication. In the case of...only to correctly code whatever protocol they intend to evaluate. The tool, OCaml 3.04 [1], translates the protocol into Horn clauses and then...model protocol transactions. One example of automated modeling software is Maude [19]. Maude was the intended language for this research, but Java

  5. Design of Secure and Lightweight Authentication Protocol for Wearable Devices Environment.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, YoungHo

    2017-09-18

    Wearable devices are used in various applications to collect information including step information, sleeping cycles, workout statistics, and health related information. Due to the nature and richness of the data collected by such devices, it is important to ensure the security of the collected data. This paper presents a new lightweight authentication scheme suitable for wearable device deployment. The scheme allows a user to mutually authenticate his/her wearable device(s) and the mobile terminal (e.g., Android and iOS device) and establish a session key among these devices (worn and carried by the same user) for secure communication between the wearable device and the mobile terminal. The security of the proposed scheme is then demonstrated through the broadly-accepted Real-Or-Random model, as well as using the popular formal security verification tool, known as the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA). Finally, we present a comparative summary of the proposed scheme in terms of the overheads such as computation and communication costs, security and functionality features of the proposed scheme and related schemes, and also the evaluation findings from the NS2 simulation.

  6. Controlled quantum secure communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Wenping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. Based on the defined local collective unitary operations, the sender’s secret messages can be transmitted directly to the receiver through encoding secret messages on the particles. Only with the help of the third side, the receiver can reconstruct the secret messages. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information, so the cost of our protocol is less than others using entangled qubits. Moreover, the security of our QSDC network protocol is discussed comprehensively. It is shown that our new CQSDC protocol cannot only defend the outsider eavesdroppers’ several sorts of attacks but also the inside attacks. Besides, our protocol is feasible since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.

  7. Simple algorithm for improved security in the FDDI protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundy, G. M.; Jones, Benjamin

    1993-02-01

    We propose a modification to the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol based on a simple algorithm which will improve confidential communication capability. This proposed modification provides a simple and reliable system which exploits some of the inherent security properties in a fiber optic ring network. This method differs from conventional methods in that end to end encryption can be facilitated at the media access control sublayer of the data link layer in the OSI network model. Our method is based on a variation of the bit stream cipher method. The transmitting station takes the intended confidential message and uses a simple modulo two addition operation against an initialization vector. The encrypted message is virtually unbreakable without the initialization vector. None of the stations on the ring will have access to both the encrypted message and the initialization vector except the transmitting and receiving stations. The generation of the initialization vector is unique for each confidential transmission and thus provides a unique approach to the key distribution problem. The FDDI protocol is of particular interest to the military in terms of LAN/MAN implementations. Both the Army and the Navy are considering the standard as the basis for future network systems. A simple and reliable security mechanism with the potential to support realtime communications is a necessary consideration in the implementation of these systems. The proposed method offers several advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed, reliability, and standardization.

  8. Secured Communication for Business Process Outsourcing Using Optimized Arithmetic Cryptography Protocol Based on Virtual Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    Within a span of over a decade, India has become one of the most favored destinations across the world for Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) operations. India has rapidly achieved the status of being the most preferred destination for BPO for companies located in the US and Europe. Security and privacy are the two major issues needed to be addressed by the Indian software industry to have an increased and long-term outsourcing contract from the US. Another important issue is about sharing employee’s information to ensure that data and vital information of an outsourcing company is secured and protected. To ensure that the confidentiality of a client’s information is maintained, BPOs need to implement some data security measures. In this paper, we propose a new protocol for specifically for BPO Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMC). As there are many computations and surveys which involve confidential data from many parties or organizations and the concerned data is property of the organization, preservation and security of this data is of prime importance for such type of computations. Although the computation requires data from all the parties, but none of the associated parties would want to reveal their data to the other parties. We have proposed a new efficient and scalable protocol to perform computation on encrypted information. The information is encrypted in a manner that it does not affect the result of the computation. It uses modifier tokens which are distributed among virtual parties, and finally used in the computation. The computation function uses the acquired data and modifier tokens to compute right result from the encrypted data. Thus without revealing the data, right result can be computed and privacy of the parties is maintained. We have given a probabilistic security analysis of hacking the protocol and shown how zero hacking security can be achieved. Also we have analyzed the specific case of Indian BPO.

  9. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  10. Security of a discretely signaled continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol for high rate systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheshen; Voss, Paul L

    2009-07-06

    We propose a continuous variable based quantum key distribution protocol that makes use of discretely signaled coherent light and reverse error reconciliation. We present a rigorous security proof against collective attacks with realistic lossy, noisy quantum channels, imperfect detector efficiency, and detector electronic noise. This protocol is promising for convenient, high-speed operation at link distances up to 50 km with the use of post-selection.

  11. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-16

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  12. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  13. A Provably Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve for Healthcare Environments.

    PubMed

    Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad; Nawaz, Omer; Mahmood, Khalid; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the quality of healthcare in the management of chronic disease, telecare medical information systems have increasingly been used. Very recently, Zhang and Qi (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):47, 32), and Zhao (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):46, 33) separately proposed two authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. They claimed that their protocols achieve all security requirements including forward secrecy. However, this paper demonstrates that both Zhang and Qi's scheme, and Zhao's scheme could not provide forward secrecy. To augment the security, we propose an efficient RFID authentication scheme using elliptic curves for healthcare environments. The proposed RFID scheme is secure under common random oracle model.

  14. Live chat alternative security protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  15. Lemnos interoperable security project.

    SciTech Connect

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2010-03-01

    With the Lemnos framework, interoperability of control security equipment is straightforward. To obtain interoperability between proprietary security appliance units, one or both vendors must now write cumbersome 'translation code.' If one party changes something, the translation code 'breaks.' The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available security functions and protocols like IPsec - to form a secure communications channel - and Syslog, to exchange security log messages. Using this model, security appliances from two or more different vendors can clearly and securely exchange information, helping to better protect the total system. Simplify regulatory compliance inmore » a complicated security environment by leveraging the Lemnos framework. As an electric utility, are you struggling to implement the NERC CIP standards and other regulations? Are you weighing the misery of multiple management interfaces against committing to a ubiquitous single-vendor solution? When vendors build their security appliances to interoperate using the Lemnos framework, it becomes practical to match best-of-breed offerings from an assortment of vendors to your specific control systems needs. The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available open-source security functions and protocols like IPsec and Syslog to create a secure communications channel between appliances in order to exchange security data.« less

  16. Agents Based e-Commerce and Securing Exchanged Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jaljouli, Raja; Abawajy, Jemal

    Mobile agents have been implemented in e-Commerce to search and filter information of interest from electronic markets. When the information is very sensitive and critical, it is important to develop a novel security protocol that can efficiently protect the information from malicious tampering as well as unauthorized disclosure or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. In this chapter, we describe robust security techniques that ensure a sound security of information gathered throughout agent’s itinerary against various security attacks, as well as truncation attacks. A sound security protocol is described, which implements the various security techniques that would jointly prevent or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. We reason about the soundness of the protocol usingSymbolic Trace Analyzer (STA), a formal verification tool that is based on symbolic techniques. We analyze the protocol in key configurations and show that it is free of flaws. We also show that the protocol fulfils the various security requirements of exchanged information in MAS, including data-integrity, data-confidentiality, data-authenticity, origin confidentiality and data non-repudiability.

  17. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  18. GUI implementation of image encryption and decryption using Open CV-Python script on secured TFTP protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Rasool; Rao, Ch. Madhava

    2018-04-01

    Currently safety is one of the primary concerns in the transmission of images due to increasing the use of images within the industrial applications. So it's necessary to secure the image facts from unauthorized individuals. There are various strategies are investigated to secure the facts. In that encryption is certainly one of maximum distinguished method. This paper gives a sophisticated Rijndael (AES) algorithm to shield the facts from unauthorized humans. Here Exponential Key Change (EKE) concept is also introduced to exchange the key between client and server. The things are exchange in a network among client and server through a simple protocol is known as Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). This protocol is used mainly in embedded servers to transfer the data and also provide protection to the data if protection capabilities are integrated. In this paper, implementing a GUI environment for image encryption and decryption. All these experiments carried out on Linux environment the usage of Open CV-Python script.

  19. DICOM image secure communications with Internet protocols IPv6 and IPv4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Yu, Fenghai; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen

    2007-01-01

    Image-data transmission from one site to another through public network is usually characterized in term of privacy, authenticity, and integrity. In this paper, we first describe a general scenario about how image is delivered from one site to another through a wide-area network (WAN) with security features of data privacy, integrity, and authenticity. Second, we give the common implementation method of the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image communication software library with IPv6/IPv4 for high-speed broadband Internet by using open-source software. Third, we discuss two major security-transmission methods, the IP security (IPSec) and the secure-socket layer (SSL) or transport-layer security (TLS), being used currently in medical-image-data communication with privacy support. Fourth, we describe a test schema of multiple-modality DICOM-image communications through TCP/IPv4 and TCP/IPv6 with different security methods, different security algorithms, and operating systems, and evaluate the test results. We found that there are tradeoff factors between choosing the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 protocols. If the WAN networks only use IPv6 such as in high-speed broadband Internet, the choice is IPsec-based security. If the networks are IPv4 or the combination of IPv6 and IPv4, it is better to use SSL/TLS security. The Linux platform has more security algorithms implemented than the Windows (XP) platform, and can achieve better performance in most experiments of IPv6 and IPv4-based DICOM-image communications. In teleradiology or enterprise-PACS applications, the Linux operating system may be the better choice as peer security gateways for both the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based secure DICOM communications cross public networks.

  20. Double C-NOT attack and counterattack on `Three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jun; Lin, Po-hua; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-07-01

    Recently, Zou and Qiu (Sci China Phys Mech Astron 57:1696-1702, 2014) proposed a three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol allowing a classical participant who does not have a quantum register to securely send his/her secret message to a quantum participant. However, this study points out that an eavesdropper can use the double C-NOT attack to obtain the secret message. To solve this problem, a modification is proposed.

  1. A new method of enhancing telecommand security: the application of GCM in TC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tang, Chaojing; Zhang, Quan

    2007-11-01

    In recent times, security has grown to a topic of major importance for the space missions. Many space agencies have been engaged in research on the selection of proper algorithms for ensuring Telecommand security according to the space communication environment, especially in regard to the privacy and authentication. Since space missions with high security levels need to ensure both privacy and authentication, Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data schemes (AEAD) be integrated into normal Telecommand protocols. This paper provides an overview of the Galois Counter Mode (GCM) of operation, which is one of the available two-pass AEAD schemes, and some preliminary considerations and analyses about its possible application to Telecommand frames specified by CCSDS.

  2. Security of two-state and four-state practical quantum bit-commitment protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loura, Ricardo; Arsenović, Dušan; Paunković, Nikola; Popović, Duška B.; Prvanović, Slobodan

    2016-12-01

    We study cheating strategies against a practical four-state quantum bit-commitment protocol [A. Danan and L. Vaidman, Quant. Info. Proc. 11, 769 (2012)], 10.1007/s11128-011-0284-4 and its two-state variant [R. Loura et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052336 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052336 when the underlying quantum channels are noisy and the cheating party is constrained to using single-qubit measurements only. We show that simply inferring the transmitted photons' states by using the Breidbart basis, optimal for ambiguous (minimum-error) state discrimination, does not directly produce an optimal cheating strategy for this bit-commitment protocol. We introduce a strategy, based on certain postmeasurement processes and show it to have better chances at cheating than the direct approach. We also study to what extent sending forged geographical coordinates helps a dishonest party in breaking the binding security requirement. Finally, we investigate the impact of imperfect single-photon sources in the protocols. Our study shows that, in terms of the resources used, the four-state protocol is advantageous over the two-state version. The analysis performed can be straightforwardly generalized to any finite-qubit measurement, with the same qualitative results.

  3. Secure Publish-Subscribe Protocols for Heterogeneous Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Tapiador, Juan E.; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Suarez-Tangil, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Security and privacy issues in medical wireless body area networks (WBANs) constitute a major unsolved concern because of the challenges posed by the scarcity of resources in WBAN devices and the usability restrictions imposed by the healthcare domain. In this paper, we describe a WBAN architecture based on the well-known publish-subscribe paradigm. We present two protocols for publishing data and sending commands to a sensor that guarantee confidentiality and fine-grained access control. Both protocols are based on a recently proposed ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme that is lightweight enough to be embedded into wearable sensors. We show how sensors can implement lattice-based access control (LBAC) policies using this scheme, which are highly appropriate for the eHealth domain. We report experimental results with a prototype implementation demonstrating the suitability of our proposed solution. PMID:25460814

  4. Developing family planning nurse practitioner protocols.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J W; Roberto, D

    1984-01-01

    This article focuses on the process of development of protocols for family planning nurse practitioners. A rationale for the use of protocols, a definition of the types and examples, and the pros and cons of practice with protocols are presented. A how-to description for the development process follows, including methods and a suggested tool for critique and evaluation. The aim of the article is to assist nurse practitioners in developing protocols for their practice.

  5. SEAODV: A Security Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Celia; Wang, Zhuang; Yang, Cungang

    In this paper, we propose a Security Enhanced AODV routing protocol (SEAODV) for wireless mesh networks (WMN). SEAODV employs Blom's key pre-distribution scheme to compute the pairwise transient key (PTK) through the flooding of enhanced HELLO message and subsequently uses the established PTK to distribute the group transient key (GTK). PTK and GTK authenticate unicast and broadcast routing messages respectively. In WMN, a unique PTK is shared by each pair of nodes, while GTK is shared secretly between the node and all its one-hop neighbours. A message authentication code (MAC) is attached as the extension to the original AODV routing message to guarantee the message's authenticity and integrity in a hop-by-hop fashion. Security analysis and performance evaluation show that SEAODV is more effective in preventing identified routing attacks and outperforms ARAN and SAODV in terms of computation cost and route acquisition latency.

  6. Developing a Standard Method for Link-Layer Security of CCSDS Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggerstaff, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Communications security for space systems has been a specialized field generally far removed from considerations of mission interoperability and cross-support in fact, these considerations often have been viewed as intrinsically opposed to security objectives. The space communications protocols defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) have a twenty-five year history of successful use in over 400 missions. While the CCSDS Telemetry, Telecommand, and Advancing Orbiting Systems protocols for use at OSI Layer 2 are operationally mature, there has been no direct support within these protocols for communications security techniques. Link-layer communications security has been successfully implemented in the past using mission-unique methods, but never before with an objective of facilitating cross-support and interoperability. This paper discusses the design of a standard method for cryptographic authentication, encryption, and replay protection at the data link layer that can be integrated into existing CCSDS protocols without disruption to legacy communications services. Integrating cryptographic operations into existing data structures and processing sequences requires a careful assessment of the potential impediments within spacecraft, ground stations, and operations centers. The objective of this work is to provide a sound method for cryptographic encapsulation of frame data that also facilitates Layer 2 virtual channel switching, such that a mission may procure data transport services as needed without involving third parties in the cryptographic processing, or split independent data streams for separate cryptographic processing.

  7. A Security-façade Library for Virtual-observatory Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixon, G.

    2009-09-01

    The security-façade library implements, for Java, IVOA's security standards. It supports the authentication mechanisms for SOAP and REST web-services, the sign-on mechanisms (with MyProxy, AstroGrid Accounts protocol or local credential-caches), the delegation protocol, and RFC3820-enabled HTTPS for Apache Tomcat. Using the façade, a developer who is not a security specialist can easily add access control to a virtual-observatory service and call secured services from an application. The library has been an internal part of AstroGrid software for some time and it is now offered for use by other developers.

  8. Internetting tactical security sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Bryan, W. D.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    1998-08-01

    The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an additional radio transceiver, MSSMP can also function as a gateway between existing security/surveillance sensor systems such as TASS, TRSS, and IREMBASS, and IP-based networks, to support the timely distribution of both threat detection and threat assessment information. The MSSMP system makes maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. Its use of IP-based protocols allows it to freely interoperate with the Internet -- providing geographic transparency, facilitating development, and allowing fully distributed demonstration capability -- and prepares it for integration with the IP-based tactical radio networks that will evolve in the next decade. Unfortunately, the Internet's standard Transport layer protocol, TCP, is poorly matched to the requirements of security sensors and other quasi- autonomous systems in being oriented to conveying a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages. Also, its canonical 'socket' interface both conceals short losses of communications connectivity and simply gives up and forces the Application layer software to deal with longer losses. For MSSMP, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a reliable message-based Transport service. In addition, a Session layer protocol is being developed to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple control

  9. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP

  10. Development of a medical information system that minimizes staff workload and secures system safety at a small medical institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneda, Kiyofumi; Koyama, Tadashi

    2005-04-01

    We developed a secure system that minimizes staff workload and secures safety of a medical information system. In this study, we assess the legal security requirements and risks occurring from the use of digitized data. We then analyze the security measures for ways of reducing these risks. In the analysis, not only safety, but also costs of security measures and ease of operability are taken into consideration. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of security measures by employing our system in small-sized medical institution. As a result of the current study, we developed and implemented several security measures, such as authentications, cryptography, data back-up, and secure sockets layer protocol (SSL) in our system. In conclusion, the cost for the introduction and maintenance of a system is one of the primary difficulties with its employment by a small-sized institution. However, with recent reductions in the price of computers, and certain advantages of small-sized medical institutions, the development of an efficient system configuration has become possible.

  11. Security of two quantum cryptography protocols using the same four qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Branciard, Cyril; Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 46, rue Barrault, 75013 Paris; Gisin, Nicolas

    2005-09-15

    The first quantum cryptography protocol, proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 (BB84), has been widely studied in recent years. This protocol uses four states (more precisely, two complementary bases) for the encoding of the classical bit. Recently, it has been noticed that by using the same four states, but a different encoding of information, one can define a protocol which is more robust in practical implementations, specifically when attenuated laser pulses are used instead of single-photon sources [V. Scarani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004), referred to as the SARG04 protocol]. We present a detailed study ofmore » SARG04 in two different regimes. In the first part, we consider an implementation with a single-photon source: we derive bounds on the error rate Q for security against all possible attacks by the eavesdropper. The lower and the upper bound obtained for SARG04 (Q < or approx. 10.95% and Q > or approx. 14.9%, respectively) are close to those obtained for BB84 (Q < or approx. 12.4% and Q > or approx. 14.6%, respectively). In the second part, we consider a realistic source consisting of an attenuated laser and improve on previous analysis by allowing Alice to optimize the mean number of photons as a function of the distance. The SARG04 protocol is found to perform better than BB84, both in secret-key rate and in maximal achievable distance, for a wide class of Eve's attacks.« less

  12. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklavos, N.; Selimis, G.; Koufopavlou, O.

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given.

  13. IPv6 Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babik, M.; Chudoba, J.; Dewhurst, A.; Finnern, T.; Froy, T.; Grigoras, C.; Hafeez, K.; Hoeft, B.; Idiculla, T.; Kelsey, D. P.; López Muñoz, F.; Martelli, E.; Nandakumar, R.; Ohrenberg, K.; Prelz, F.; Rand, D.; Sciabà, A.; Tigerstedt, U.; Traynor, D.; Wartel, R.

    2017-10-01

    IPv4 network addresses are running out and the deployment of IPv6 networking in many places is now well underway. Following the work of the HEPiX IPv6 Working Group, a growing number of sites in the Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid (WLCG) are deploying dual-stack IPv6/IPv4 services. The aim of this is to support the use of IPv6-only clients, i.e. worker nodes, virtual machines or containers. The IPv6 networking protocols while they do contain features aimed at improving security also bring new challenges for operational IT security. The lack of maturity of IPv6 implementations together with the increased complexity of some of the protocol standards raise many new issues for operational security teams. The HEPiX IPv6 Working Group is producing guidance on best practices in this area. This paper considers some of the security concerns for WLCG in an IPv6 world and presents the HEPiX IPv6 working group guidance for the system administrators who manage IT services on the WLCG distributed infrastructure, for their related site security and networking teams and for developers and software engineers working on WLCG applications.

  14. A randomized controlled trial comparing Circle of Security Intervention and treatment as usual as interventions to increase attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers: Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Mühlhan, Christine; Romer, Georg; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Powell, Bert

    2014-01-30

    Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and inform hypotheses about which intervention

  15. A randomized controlled trial comparing Circle of Security Intervention and treatment as usual as interventions to increase attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. Methods/Design This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. Discussion The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and

  16. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  17. Cloud-assisted mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ta; Shih, Dong-Her; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2018-04-01

     With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies and the growing prevalence of smart devices, telecare medical information system (TMIS) allows patients to receive medical treatments from the doctors via Internet technology without visiting hospitals in person. By adopting mobile device, cloud-assisted platform and wireless body area network, the patients can collect their physiological conditions and upload them to medical cloud via their mobile devices, enabling caregivers or doctors to provide patients with appropriate treatments at anytime and anywhere. In order to protect the medical privacy of the patient and guarantee reliability of the system, before accessing the TMIS, all system participants must be authenticated.  Mohit et al. recently suggested a lightweight authentication protocol for cloud-based health care system. They claimed their protocol ensures resilience of all well-known security attacks and has several important features such as mutual authentication and patient anonymity. In this paper, we demonstrate that Mohit et al.'s authentication protocol has various security flaws and we further introduce an enhanced version of their protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which can ensure patient anonymity and patient unlinkability and prevent the security threats of report revelation and report forgery attacks.  The security analysis proves that our enhanced protocol is secure against various known attacks as well as found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. Compared with existing related protocols, our enhanced protocol keeps the merits of all desirable security requirements and also maintains the efficiency in terms of computation costs for cloud-assisted TMIS.  We propose a more secure mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which fixes the mentioned security weaknesses found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. According to our analysis, our authentication protocol satisfies most functionality features

  18. Secure and lightweight network admission and transmission protocol for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Zhang, Pingxin

    2013-05-01

    A body sensor network (BSN) is a wireless network of biosensors and a local processing unit, which is commonly referred to as the personal wireless hub (PWH). Personal health information (PHI) is collected by biosensors and delivered to the PWH before it is forwarded to the remote healthcare center for further processing. In a BSN, it is critical to only admit eligible biosensors and PWH into the network. Also, securing the transmission from each biosensor to PWH is essential not only for ensuring safety of PHI delivery, but also for preserving the privacy of PHI. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a secure network admission and transmission subsystem based on a polynomial-based authentication scheme. The procedures in this subsystem to establish keys for each biosensor are communication efficient and energy efficient. Moreover, based on the observation that an adversary eavesdropping in a BSN faces inevitable channel errors, we propose to exploit the adversary's uncertainty regarding the PHI transmission to update the individual key dynamically and improve key secrecy. In addition to the theoretical analysis that demonstrates the security properties of our system, this paper also reports the experimental results of the proposed protocol on resource-limited sensor platforms, which show the efficiency of our system in practice.

  19. Secure polarization-independent subcarrier quantum key distribution in optical fiber channel using BB84 protocol with a strong reference.

    PubMed

    Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S

    2016-02-08

    A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters.

  20. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  1. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET. PMID:25136697

  2. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  3. A Scenario-Based Protocol Checker for Public-Key Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takamichi

    Security protocol provides communication security for the internet. One of the important features of it is authentication with key exchange. Its correctness is a requirement of the whole of the communication security. In this paper, we introduce three attack models realized as their attack scenarios, and provide an authentication-protocol checker for applying three attack-scenarios based on the models. We also utilize it to check two popular security protocols: Secure SHell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS).

  4. Faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on hyperentanglement against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Higher channel capacity and security are difficult to reach in a noisy channel. The loss of photons and the distortion of the qubit state are caused by noise. To solve these problems, in our study, a hyperentangled Bell state is used to design faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol over collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noisy channel, which doubles the channel capacity compared with using an ordinary Bell state as a carrier; a logical hyperentangled Bell state immune to collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noise is constructed. The secret message is divided into several parts to transmit, however the identity strings of Alice and Bob are reused. Unitary operations are not used. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  5. Mongolia’s Economic Security: How can Economic Development Further Support Mongolian National Security through Developing its Mining Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    MONGOLIA’S ECONOMIC SECURITY: HOW CAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FURTHER SUPPORT MONGOLIAN NATIONAL SECURITY THROUGH DEVELOPING ITS MINING SECTOR... Economic Security: How can Economic Development Further Support Mongolian National Security through Developing its Mining Sector? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...geographic position between two political and economic powers (China and Russia) provides both opportunities and disadvantages for Mongolia’s economy

  6. Planning Considerations for Secure Network Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    distribution / management ) requirements needed to support network security services are examined. The thesis concludes by identifying tactical user network requirements and suggests security issues to be considered in concert with network

  7. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  8. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  9. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Byres, E. J.; Huffman, D.; Kube, N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large numbermore » of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)« less

  10. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-05-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  11. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  12. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  13. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-01-01

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  14. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IPmore » networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)« less

  15. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  16. Secure ICCP Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Dayley, Greg K.

    Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (ICCP), defined by the IEC 60870-6 TASE.2 standard, was developed to enable data exchange over wide area networks between electric system entities, including utility control centers, Independent System Operators (ISOs), Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs) and Independent Power Producers (IPP) also known as Non-Utility Generators (NUG). ICCP is an unprotected protocol, and as a result is vulnerable to such actions as integrity violation, interception or alteration, spoofing, and eavesdropping. Because of these vulnerabilities with unprotected ICCP communication, security enhancements, referred to as Secure ICCP, have been added and are included in the ICCP products that utilities havemore » received since 2003 when the standard was defined. This has resulted in an ICCP product whose communication can be encrypted and authenticated to address these vulnerabilities.« less

  17. Reasoning about Probabilistic Security Using Task-PIOAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggard, Aaron D.; Meadows, Catherine; Mislove, Michael; Segala, Roberto

    Task-structured probabilistic input/output automata (Task-PIOAs) are concurrent probabilistic automata that, among other things, have been used to provide a formal framework for the universal composability paradigms of protocol security. One of their advantages is that that they allow one to distinguish high-level nondeterminism that can affect the outcome of the protocol, from low-level choices, which can't. We present an alternative approach to analyzing the structure of Task-PIOAs that relies on ordered sets. We focus on two of the components that are required to define and apply Task-PIOAs: discrete probability theory and automata theory. We believe our development gives insight into the structure of Task-PIOAs and how they can be utilized to model crypto-protocols. We illustrate our approach with an example from anonymity, an area that has not previously been addressed using Task-PIOAs. We model Chaum's Dining Cryptographers Protocol at a level that does not require cryptographic primitives in the analysis. We show via this example how our approach can leverage a proof of security in the case a principal behaves deterministically to prove security when that principal behaves probabilistically.

  18. Development of an HPV Educational Protocol for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Caitlin; Tissot, Abbigail; Kollar, Linda M.; Hillard, Paula A.; Stone, Rachel; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives To develop an educational protocol about HPV and Pap tests for adolescents, to evaluate the protocol for understandability and clarity, and to evaluate the protocol for its effectiveness in increasing knowledge about HPV. Design In phase 1, investigators and adolescents developed the protocol. In phase 2, adolescents evaluated the protocol qualitatively, investigators evaluated its effectiveness in increasing HPV knowledge in a sample of adolescents, and the protocol was revised. In phase 3, investigators evaluated the effectiveness of the revised protocol in an additional adolescent sample. Setting Urban, hospital-based teen health center. Participants A total of 252 adolescent girls and boys in the three study phases. Main Outcome Measures Pre- and post-protocol knowledge about HPV, measured using a 10- or 11-item scale. Results Scores on the HPV knowledge scale increased significantly (p<.0001) among adolescents who participated in phases 2 and 3 after they received the protocol. Initial differences in scores based on race, insurance type and condom use were not noted post-protocol. Conclusion The protocol significantly increased knowledge scores about HPV in this population, regardless of sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Effective, developmentally appropriate educational protocols about HPV and Pap tests are particularly important in clinical settings as cervical cancer screening guidelines evolve, HPV DNA testing is integrated into screening protocols, and HPV vaccines become available. In-depth, one-on-one education about HPV may also prevent adverse psychosocial responses and promote healthy sexual and Pap screening behaviors in adolescents with abnormal HPV or Pap test results. Synopsis The investigators developed an educational protocol about HPV and Pap tests and evaluated its effectiveness in increasing knowledge about HPV among adolescents. PMID:17868894

  19. Security Services Discovery by ATM Endsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter; Tarman, Thomas

    This contribution proposes strawman techniques for Security Service Discovery by ATM endsystems in ATM networks. Candidate techniques include ILMI extensions, ANS extensions and new ATM anycast addresses. Another option is a new protocol based on an IETF service discovery protocol, such as Service Location Protocol (SLP). Finally, this contribution provides strawman requirements for Security-Based Routing in ATM networks.

  20. Security architecture for HL/7 message interchange.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Liao, B S; Lin, M G; Gough, T G

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of quality medical treatment is very important to the healthcare providers as well as to patients. It requires that the medical resources of different hospitals be combined to ensure that medical information is shared and that resources are not wasted. A computer-based patient record is one of the best methods to accomplish the interchange of the patient's clinical data. In our system, the Health Level/Seven (HL/7) format is used for the interchange of the clinical data, as it has been supported by many healthcare providers and become a â standard'. The security of the interchange of clinical data is a serious issue for people using the Internet for data communication. Several international well-developed security algorithms, models and secure policies are adopted in the design of a security handler for an HL/7 architecture. The goal of our system is to combine our security system with the end-to-end communication systems constructed from the HL/7 format to establish a safe delivery channel. A suitable security interchange environment is implemented to address some shortcomings in clinical data interchange. located at the application layer of the ISO/OSI reference model. The medical message components, sub-components, and related types of message event are the primary goals of the HL/7 protocols. The patient management system, the doctor's system for recording his advice, examination and diagnosis as well as any financial management system are all covered by the HL/7 protocols. Healthcare providers and hospitals in Taiwan are very interested in developing the HL/7 protocols as a common standard for clinical data interchange.

  1. Secure, Mobile, Wireless Network Technology Designed, Developed, and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2004-01-01

    The inability to seamlessly disseminate data securely over a high-integrity, wireless broadband network has been identified as a primary technical barrier to providing an order-of-magnitude increase in aviation capacity and safety. Secure, autonomous communications to and from aircraft will enable advanced, automated, data-intensive air traffic management concepts, increase National Air Space (NAS) capacity, and potentially reduce the overall cost of air travel operations. For the first time ever, secure, mobile, network technology was designed, developed, and demonstrated with state-ofthe- art protocols and applications by a diverse, cooperative Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center. This revolutionary technology solution will make fundamentally new airplane system capabilities possible by enabling secure, seamless network connections from platforms in motion (e.g., cars, ships, aircraft, and satellites) to existing terrestrial systems without the need for manual reconfiguration. Called Mobile Router, the new technology autonomously connects and configures networks as they traverse from one operating theater to another. The Mobile Router demonstration aboard the Neah Bay, a U.S. Coast Guard vessel stationed in Cleveland, Ohio, accomplished secure, seamless interoperability of mobile network systems across multiple domains without manual system reconfiguration. The Neah Bay was chosen because of its low cost and communications mission similarity to low-Earth-orbiting satellite platforms. This technology was successfully advanced from technology readiness level (TRL) 2 (concept and/or application formation) to TRL 6 (system model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment). The secure, seamless interoperability offered by the Mobile Router and encryption device will enable several new, vehicle-specific and systemwide technologies to perform such things as remote, autonomous aircraft performance monitoring and early detection and

  2. Secure Networks for First Responders and Special Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    When NASA needed help better securing its communications with orbiting satellites, the Agency called on Western DataCom Co., Inc., to help develop a prototype Internet Protocol (IP) router. Westlake, Ohio-based Western DataCom designs, develops, and manufactures hardware that secures voice, video, and data transmissions over any IP-based network. The technology that it jointly developed with NASA is now serving as a communications solution in military and first-response situations.

  3. On the verification of intransitive noninterference in mulitlevel security.

    PubMed

    Ben Hadj-Alouane, Nejib; Lafrance, Stéphane; Lin, Feng; Mullins, John; Yeddes, Mohamed Moez

    2005-10-01

    We propose an algorithmic approach to the problem of verification of the property of intransitive noninterference (INI), using tools and concepts of discrete event systems (DES). INI can be used to characterize and solve several important security problems in multilevel security systems. In a previous work, we have established the notion of iP-observability, which precisely captures the property of INI. We have also developed an algorithm for checking iP-observability by indirectly checking P-observability for systems with at most three security levels. In this paper, we generalize the results for systems with any finite number of security levels by developing a direct method for checking iP-observability, based on an insightful observation that the iP function is a left congruence in terms of relations on formal languages. To demonstrate the applicability of our approach, we propose a formal method to detect denial of service vulnerabilities in security protocols based on INI. This method is illustrated using the TCP/IP protocol. The work extends the theory of supervisory control of DES to a new application domain.

  4. Quantum Secure Group Communication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Hong; Zubairy, M Suhail; Al-Amri, M

    2018-03-01

    We propose a quantum secure group communication protocol for the purpose of sharing the same message among multiple authorized users. Our protocol can remove the need for key management that is needed for the quantum network built on quantum key distribution. Comparing with the secure quantum network based on BB84, we show our protocol is more efficient and securer. Particularly, in the security analysis, we introduce a new way of attack, i.e., the counterfactual quantum attack, which can steal information by "invisible" photons. This invisible photon can reveal a single-photon detector in the photon path without triggering the detector. Moreover, the photon can identify phase operations applied to itself, thereby stealing information. To defeat this counterfactual quantum attack, we propose a quantum multi-user authorization system. It allows us to precisely control the communication time so that the attack can not be completed in time.

  5. New secure communication-layer standard for medical image management (ISCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Kouichi; Nohara, Takashi; Hosoba, Minoru; Yachida, Masuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1999-07-01

    This paper introduces a summary of the standard draft of ISCL 1.00 which will be published by MEDIS-DC officially. ISCL is abbreviation of Integrated Secure Communication Layer Protocols for Secure Medical Image Management Systems. ISCL is a security layer which manages security function between presentation layer and TCP/IP layer. ISCL mechanism depends on basic function of a smart IC card and symmetric secret key mechanism. A symmetry key for each session is made by internal authentication function of a smart IC card with a random number. ISCL has three functions which assure authentication, confidently and integrity. Entity authentication process is done through 3 path 4 way method using functions of internal authentication and external authentication of a smart iC card. Confidentially algorithm and MAC algorithm for integrity are able to be selected. ISCL protocols are communicating through Message Block which consists of Message Header and Message Data. ISCL protocols are evaluating by applying to regional collaboration system for image diagnosis, and On-line Secure Electronic Storage system for medical images. These projects are supported by Medical Information System Development Center. These project shows ISCL is useful to keep security.

  6. Security of counterfactual quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Zhenqiang; Li Hongwei; Chen Wei

    2010-10-15

    Recently, a 'counterfactual' quantum-key-distribution scheme was proposed by T.-G. Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230501 (2009)]. In this scheme, two legitimate distant peers may share secret keys even when the information carriers are not traveled in the quantum channel. We find that this protocol is equivalent to an entanglement distillation protocol. According to this equivalence, a strict security proof and the asymptotic key bit rate are both obtained when a perfect single-photon source is applied and a Trojan horse attack can be detected. We also find that the security of this scheme is strongly related to not only the bitmore » error rate but also the yields of photons. And our security proof may shed light on the security of other two-way protocols.« less

  7. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014

  8. Electronic Clinical Trial Protocol Distribution via the World-Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Afrin, Lawrence B.; Kuppuswamy, Valarmathi; Slater, Barbara; Stuart, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Clinical trials today typically are inefficient, paper-based operations. Poor community physician awareness of available trials and difficult referral mechanisms also contribute to poor accrual. The Physicians Research Network (PRN) web was developed for more efficient trial protocol distribution and eligibility inquiries. The Medical University of South Carolina's Hollings Cancer Center trials program and two community oncology practices served as a testbed. In 581 man-hours over 18 months, 147 protocols were loaded into PRN. The trials program eliminated all protocol hardcopies except the masters, reduced photocopier use 59%, and saved 1.0 full-time equivalents (FTE), but 1.0 FTE was needed to manage PRN. There were no known security breaches, downtime, or content-related problems. Therefore, PRN is a paperless, user-preferred, reliable, secure method for distributing protocols and reducing distribution errors and delays because only a single copy of each protocol is maintained. Furthermore, PRN is being extended to serve other aspects of trial operations. PMID:8988471

  9. An economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Shi, Run-hua; Qin, Jia-qi; Peng, Zhen-wan

    2018-02-01

    We present an economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on single photons in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom, where each single photon can carry two bits of classical information. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has higher efficiency. In addition, we propose a secure post-confirmation mechanism without quantum entanglement to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction.

  10. Quantum key distribution with delayed privacy amplification and its application to the security proof of a two-way deterministic protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chau, H. F.; Cai, Qing-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Privacy amplification (PA) is an essential postprocessing step in quantum key distribution (QKD) for removing any information an eavesdropper may have on the final secret key. In this paper, we consider delaying PA of the final key after its use in one-time pad encryption and prove its security. We prove that the security and the key generation rate are not affected by delaying PA. Delaying PA has two applications: it serves as a tool for significantly simplifying the security proof of QKD with a two-way quantum channel, and also it is useful in QKD networks with trusted relays. To illustrate the power of the delayed PA idea, we use it to prove the security of a qubit-based two-way deterministic QKD protocol which uses four states and four encoding operations.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution protocols with a non-Gaussian modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe; Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau Cedex

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, we consider continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols which use non-Gaussian modulations. These specific modulation schemes are compatible with very efficient error-correction procedures, hence allowing the protocols to outperform previous protocols in terms of achievable range. In their simplest implementation, these protocols are secure for any linear quantum channels (hence against Gaussian attacks). We also show how the use of decoy states makes the protocols secure against arbitrary collective attacks, which implies their unconditional security in the asymptotic limit.

  12. Secure Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this thesis, I present new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that were secure against any intercept-resend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this thesis is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly gaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this thesis is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. I discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. In addition, I present a study characterizing the effects of turbulence on a communication system using OAM modes for encoding. The fourth and final technology presented in this thesis is a relatively

  13. Secure and scalable deduplication of horizontally partitioned health data for privacy-preserving distributed statistical computation.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Kassaye Yitbarek; Michalas, Antonis; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2017-01-03

    Techniques have been developed to compute statistics on distributed datasets without revealing private information except the statistical results. However, duplicate records in a distributed dataset may lead to incorrect statistical results. Therefore, to increase the accuracy of the statistical analysis of a distributed dataset, secure deduplication is an important preprocessing step. We designed a secure protocol for the deduplication of horizontally partitioned datasets with deterministic record linkage algorithms. We provided a formal security analysis of the protocol in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. The protocol was implemented and deployed across three microbiology laboratories located in Norway, and we ran experiments on the datasets in which the number of records for each laboratory varied. Experiments were also performed on simulated microbiology datasets and data custodians connected through a local area network. The security analysis demonstrated that the protocol protects the privacy of individuals and data custodians under a semi-honest adversarial model. More precisely, the protocol remains secure with the collusion of up to N - 2 corrupt data custodians. The total runtime for the protocol scales linearly with the addition of data custodians and records. One million simulated records distributed across 20 data custodians were deduplicated within 45 s. The experimental results showed that the protocol is more efficient and scalable than previous protocols for the same problem. The proposed deduplication protocol is efficient and scalable for practical uses while protecting the privacy of patients and data custodians.

  14. Security of counterfactual quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-10-01

    Recently, a “counterfactual” quantum-key-distribution scheme was proposed by T.-G. Noh [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.230501 103, 230501 (2009)]. In this scheme, two legitimate distant peers may share secret keys even when the information carriers are not traveled in the quantum channel. We find that this protocol is equivalent to an entanglement distillation protocol. According to this equivalence, a strict security proof and the asymptotic key bit rate are both obtained when a perfect single-photon source is applied and a Trojan horse attack can be detected. We also find that the security of this scheme is strongly related to not only the bit error rate but also the yields of photons. And our security proof may shed light on the security of other two-way protocols.

  15. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  16. Session Initiation Protocol Network Encryption Device Plain Text Domain Discovery Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-07

    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a...such as the TACLANE, have developed unique discovery methods to establish Plain Text Domain (PTD) Security Associations (SA). All of these techniques...can include network and host Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, Information System Security Office (ISSO) point of contact information and PTD status

  17. Quantum-key-distribution protocol with pseudorandom bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushechkin, A. S.; Tregubov, P. A.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers a way for establishing information-theoretical secure communications. An important part of QKD technology is a high-quality random number generator for the quantum-state preparation and for post-processing procedures. In this work, we consider a class of prepare-and-measure QKD protocols, utilizing additional pseudorandomness in the preparation of quantum states. We study one of such protocols and analyze its security against the intercept-resend attack. We demonstrate that, for single-photon sources, the considered protocol gives better secret key rates than the BB84 and the asymmetric BB84 protocols. However, the protocol strongly requires single-photon sources.

  18. Eavesdropping on the improved three-party quantum secret sharing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan

    2011-02-01

    Lin et al. [Song Lin, Fei Gao, Qiao-yan Wen, Fu-chen Zhu, Opt. Commun. 281 (2008) 4553] pointed out that the multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Zhan-jun Zhang, Gan Gao, Xin Wang, Lian-fang Han, Shou-hua Shi, Opt. Commun. 269 (2007) 418] is not secure and proposed an improved three-party quantum secret sharing protocol. In this paper, we study the security of the improved three-party quantum secret sharing protocol and find that it is still not secure. Finally, a further improved three-party quantum secret sharing protocol is proposed.

  19. A privacy preserving protocol for tracking participants in phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    El Emam, Khaled; Farah, Hanna; Samet, Saeed; Essex, Aleksander; Jonker, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Earle, Craig C

    2015-10-01

    Some phase 1 clinical trials offer strong financial incentives for healthy individuals to participate in their studies. There is evidence that some individuals enroll in multiple trials concurrently. This creates safety risks and introduces data quality problems into the trials. Our objective was to construct a privacy preserving protocol to track phase 1 participants to detect concurrent enrollment. A protocol using secure probabilistic querying against a database of trial participants that allows for screening during telephone interviews and on-site enrollment was developed. The match variables consisted of demographic information. The accuracy (sensitivity, precision, and negative predictive value) of the matching and its computational performance in seconds were measured under simulated environments. Accuracy was also compared to non-secure matching methods. The protocol performance scales linearly with the database size. At the largest database size of 20,000 participants, a query takes under 20s on a 64 cores machine. Sensitivity, precision, and negative predictive value of the queries were consistently at or above 0.9, and were very similar to non-secure versions of the protocol. The protocol provides a reasonable solution to the concurrent enrollment problems in phase 1 clinical trials, and is able to ensure that personal information about participants is kept secure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Securing Real-Time Sessions in an IMS-Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cennamo, Paolo; Fresa, Antonio; Longo, Maurizio; Postiglione, Fabio; Robustelli, Anton Luca; Toro, Francesco

    The emerging all-IP mobile network infrastructures based on 3rd Generation IP Multimedia Subsystem philosophy are characterised by radio access technology independence and ubiquitous connectivity for mobile users. Currently, great focus is being devoted to security issues since most of the security threats presently affecting the public Internet domain, and the upcoming ones as well, are going to be suffered by mobile users in the years to come. While a great deal of research activity, together with standardisation efforts and experimentations, is carried out on mechanisms for signalling protection, very few integrated frameworks for real-time multimedia data protection have been proposed in a context of IP Multimedia Subsystem, and even fewer experimental results based on testbeds are available. In this paper, after a general overview of the security issues arising in an advanced IP Multimedia Subsystem scenario, a comprehensive infrastructure for real-time multimedia data protection, based on the adoption of the Secure Real-Time Protocol, is proposed; then, the development of a testbed incorporating such functionalities, including mechanisms for key management and cryptographic context transfer, and allowing the setup of Secure Real-Time Protocol sessions is presented; finally, experimental results are provided together with quantitative assessments and comparisons of system performances for audio sessions with and without the adoption of the Secure Real-Time Protocol framework.

  1. Finalizing the CCSDS Space-Data Link Layer Security Protocol: Setup and Execution of the Interoperability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Daniel; Aguilar-Sanchez, Ignacio; Saba, Bruno; Moury, Gilles; Biggerstaff, Craig; Bailey, Brandon; Weiss, Howard; Pilgram, Martin; Richter, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    The protection of data transmitted over the space-link is an issue of growing importance also for civilian space missions. Through the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), space agencies have reacted to this need by specifying the Space Data-Link Layer Security (SDLS) protocol which provides confidentiality and integrity services for the CCSDS Telemetry (TM), Telecommand (TC) and Advanced Orbiting Services (AOS) space data-link protocols. This paper describes the approach of the CCSDS SDLS working group to specify and execute the necessary interoperability tests. It first details the individual SDLS implementations that have been produced by ESA, NASA, and CNES and then the overall architecture that allows the interoperability tests between them. The paper reports on the results of the interoperability tests and identifies relevant aspects for the evolution of the test environment.

  2. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  3. Quantum key distribution protocol based on contextuality monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaskaran; Bharti, Kishor; Arvind

    2017-06-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols hinges upon features of physical systems that are uniquely quantum in nature. We explore the role of quantumness, as qualified by quantum contextuality, in a QKD scheme. A QKD protocol based on the Klyachko-Can-Binicioğlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) contextuality scenario using a three-level quantum system is presented. We explicitly show the unconditional security of the protocol by a generalized contextuality monogamy relationship based on the no-disturbance principle. This protocol provides a new framework for QKD which has conceptual and practical advantages over other protocols.

  4. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  5. Comment on "flexible protocol for quantum private query based on B92 protocol"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Zhu, Jing-Min

    2017-03-01

    In a recent paper (Quantum Inf Process 13:805-813, 2014), a flexible quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on B92 protocol is presented. Here we point out that the B92-based QPQ protocol is insecure in database security when the channel has loss, that is, the user (Alice) will know more records in Bob's database compared with she has bought.

  6. A Standard Mutual Authentication Protocol for Cloud Computing Based Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Prerna; Amin, Ruhul; Karati, Arijit; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2017-04-01

    Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) supports a standard platform to the patient for getting necessary medical treatment from the doctor(s) via Internet communication. Security protection is important for medical records (data) of the patients because of very sensitive information. Besides, patient anonymity is another most important property, which must be protected. Most recently, Chiou et al. suggested an authentication protocol for TMIS by utilizing the concept of cloud environment. They claimed that their protocol is patient anonymous and well security protected. We reviewed their protocol and found that it is completely insecure against patient anonymity. Further, the same protocol is not protected against mobile device stolen attack. In order to improve security level and complexity, we design a light weight authentication protocol for the same environment. Our security analysis ensures resilience of all possible security attacks. The performance of our protocol is relatively standard in comparison with the related previous research.

  7. Evaluation and development the routing protocol of a fully functional simulation environment for VANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Azhar Tareq; Warip, Mohd Nazri Mohd; Yaakob, Naimah; Abduljabbar, Waleed Khalid; Atta, Abdu Mohammed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an area of wireless technologies that is attracting a great deal of interest. There are still several areas of VANETS, such as security and routing protocols, medium access control, that lack large amounts of research. There is also a lack of freely available simulators that can quickly and accurately simulate VANETs. The main goal of this paper is to develop a freely available VANETS simulator and to evaluate popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols in several VANETS scenarios. The VANETS simulator consisted of a network simulator, traffic (mobility simulator) and used a client-server application to keep the two simulators in sync. The VANETS simulator also models buildings to create a more realistic wireless network environment. Ad-Hoc Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) were initially simulated in a city, country, and highway environment to provide an overall evaluation.

  8. Development of Uniform Protocol for Alopecia Areata Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James A

    2015-11-01

    Developing a successful treatment for alopecia areata (AA), clearly has not been at the forefront of the agenda for new drug/device development among the pharmaceutical and medical device industry. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF), a patient advocacy group, initiated a plan to facilitate and drive clinical research toward finding safe and efficacious treatments for AA. As such, Alopecia Areata Uniform Protocols for clinical trials to test new treatments for AA were developed. The design of the uniform protocol is to accomplish the development of a plug-and-play template as well as to provide a framework wherein data from studies utilizing the uniform protocol can be compared through consistency of inclusions/exclusions, safety, and outcome assessment measures. A core uniform protocol for use by pharmaceutical companies in testing proof of concept for investigational products to treat AA. The core protocol includes standardized title, informed consent, inclusion/exclusion criteria, disease outcome assessments, and safety assessments. The statistical methodology to assess successful outcomes will also be standardized. The protocol as well as the informed consent form has been approved in concept by Liberty IRB and is ready to present to pharmaceutical companies.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  10. Communication security in open health care networks.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R

    1999-01-01

    Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation.

  11. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberger, S.

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will usemore » other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.« less

  12. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  13. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT (Information Technology) organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time assays of gene expression products.

  14. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time expression and assay of gene expression products.

  15. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  16. Secure multiparty computation of a comparison problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Shundong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiubo; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Private comparison is fundamental to secure multiparty computation. In this study, we propose novel protocols to privately determine [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text] in one execution. First, a 0-1-vector encoding method is introduced to encode a number into a vector, and the Goldwasser-Micali encryption scheme is used to compare integers privately. Then, we propose a protocol by using a geometric method to compare rational numbers privately, and the protocol is information-theoretical secure. Using the simulation paradigm, we prove the privacy-preserving property of our protocols in the semi-honest model. The complexity analysis shows that our protocols are more efficient than previous solutions.

  17. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  18. On the Composition of Public-Coin Zero-Knowledge Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-31

    only languages in BPP have public-coin black-box zero-knowledge protocols that are secure under an unbounded (polynomial) number of parallel...only languages in BPP have public-coin black-box zero-knowledge protocols that are secure under an unbounded (polynomial) number of parallel repetitions...and Krawczyk [GK96b] show that only languages in BPP have constant-round public-coin (stand-alone) black-box ZK protocols with negligible soundness

  19. Breaking Megrelishvili protocol using matrix diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzaki, Muhammad; Triantoro Murdiansyah, Danang; Adi Prabowo, Satrio

    2018-03-01

    In this article we conduct a theoretical security analysis of Megrelishvili protocol—a linear algebra-based key agreement between two participants. We study the computational complexity of Megrelishvili vector-matrix problem (MVMP) as a mathematical problem that strongly relates to the security of Megrelishvili protocol. In particular, we investigate the asymptotic upper bounds for the running time and memory requirement of the MVMP that involves diagonalizable public matrix. Specifically, we devise a diagonalization method for solving the MVMP that is asymptotically faster than all of the previously existing algorithms. We also found an important counterintuitive result: the utilization of primitive matrix in Megrelishvili protocol makes the protocol more vulnerable to attacks.

  20. SPOT: Optimization Tool for Network Adaptable Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Szalachowski, Pawel; Kotulski, Zbigniew

    Recently we have observed the growth of the intelligent application especially with its mobile character, called e-anything. The implementation of these applications provides guarantee of security requirements of the cryptographic protocols which are used in the application. Traditionally the protocols have been configured with the strongest possible security mechanisms. Unfortunately, when the application is used by means of the mobile devices, the strongest protection can lead to the denial of services for them. The solution of this problem is introducing the quality of protection models which will scale the protection level depending on the actual threat level. In this article we would like to introduce the application which manages the protection level of the processes in the mobile environment. The Security Protocol Optimizing Tool (SPOT) optimizes the cryptographic protocol and defines the protocol version appropriate to the actual threat level. In this article the architecture of the SPOT is presented with a detailed description of the included modules.

  1. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  2. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  3. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  4. A novel quantum solution to secure two-party distance computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhen-wan; Shi, Run-hua; Wang, Pan-hong; Zhang, Shun

    2018-06-01

    Secure Two-Party Distance Computation is an important primitive of Secure Multiparty Computational Geometry that it involves two parties, where each party has a private point, and the two parties want to jointly compute the distance between their points without revealing anything about their respective private information. Secure Two-Party Distance Computation has very important and potential applications in settings of high secure requirements, such as privacy-preserving Determination of Spatial Location-Relation, Determination of Polygons Similarity, and so on. In this paper, we present a quantum protocol for Secure Two-Party Distance Computation by using QKD-based Quantum Private Query. The security of the protocol is based on the physical principles of quantum mechanics, instead of difficulty assumptions, and therefore, it can ensure higher security than the classical related protocols.

  5. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  6. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use thismore » technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.« less

  7. Method of Performance-Aware Security of Unicast Communication in Hybrid Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baras, John S. (Inventor); Roy-Chowdhury, Ayan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus utilizes Layered IPSEC (LES) protocol as an alternative to IPSEC for network-layer security including a modification to the Internet Key Exchange protocol. For application-level security of web browsing with acceptable end-to-end delay, the Dual-mode SSL protocol (DSSL) is used instead of SSL. The LES and DSSL protocols achieve desired end-to-end communication security while allowing the TCP and HTTP proxy servers to function correctly.

  8. A Systematic Comprehensive Computational Model for Stake Estimation in Mission Assurance: Applying Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Grimaila, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we discuss how this infrastructure can be used in the subject domain of mission assurance as defined as the full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success. We address the opportunity to apply the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Carnegie Mellon University and Software Engineering Institute s Mission Assurance Analysismore » Protocol (MAAP) in this context.« less

  9. Continuous-variable protocol for oblivious transfer in the noisy-storage model.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Fabian; Gehring, Tobias; Schaffner, Christian; Pacher, Christoph; Schnabel, Roman; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-04-13

    Cryptographic protocols are the backbone of our information society. This includes two-party protocols which offer protection against distrustful players. Such protocols can be built from a basic primitive called oblivious transfer. We present and experimentally demonstrate here a quantum protocol for oblivious transfer for optical continuous-variable systems, and prove its security in the noisy-storage model. This model allows us to establish security by sending more quantum signals than an attacker can reliably store during the protocol. The security proof is based on uncertainty relations which we derive for continuous-variable systems, that differ from the ones used in quantum key distribution. We experimentally demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment the proposed oblivious transfer protocol for various channel losses by using entangled two-mode squeezed states measured with balanced homodyne detection. Our work enables the implementation of arbitrary two-party quantum cryptographic protocols with continuous-variable communication systems.

  10. Development, implementation, and experimentation of parametric routing protocol for sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassr, Matthew S.; Jun, Jangeun; Eidenbenz, Stephan J.; Frigo, Janette R.; Hansson, Anders A.; Mielke, Angela M.; Smith, Mark C.

    2006-09-01

    The development of a scalable and reliable routing protocol for sensor networks is traced from a theoretical beginning to positive simulation results to the end of verification experiments in large and heavily loaded networks. Design decisions and explanations as well as implementation hurdles are presented to give a complete picture of protocol development. Additional software and hardware is required to accurately test the performance of our protocol in field experiments. In addition, the developed protocol is tested in TinyOS on Mica2 motes against well-established routing protocols frequently used in sensor networks. Our protocol proves to outperform the standard (MINTRoute) and the trivial (Gossip) in a variety of different scenarios.

  11. Developing an evidence-based practice protocol: implications for midwifery practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, K C

    2000-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is defined and its importance to midwifery practice is presented. Guidelines are provided for the development of an evidence-based practice protocol. These include: identifying the clinical question, obtaining the evidence, evaluating the validity and importance of the evidence, synthesizing the evidence and applying it to the development of a protocol or clinical algorithm, and, finally, developing an evaluation plan or measurement strategy to see if the new protocol is effective.

  12. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  13. Development and Application of Skill Standards for Security Practitioners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Development and Application of Skill Standards for Security Practitioners Henry K. Simpson Northrop Grumman Technical Services Lynn F. Fischer...and Application of Skill Standards for Security Practitioners Henry K. Simpson, Northrop Grumman Technical Services Lynn F. Fischer, Defense...described in the present report was driven by a JSTC tasking to develop skill standards for security practitioners in seven different security

  14. Security Issues for Mobile Medical Imaging: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Chatterjee, Arindam R; Javan, Ramin; Radvany, Martin G; Shih, George

    2015-10-01

    The end-user of mobile device apps in the practice of clinical radiology should be aware of security measures that prevent unauthorized use of the device, including passcode policies, methods for dealing with failed login attempts, network manager-controllable passcode enforcement, and passcode enforcement for the protection of the mobile device itself. Protection of patient data must be in place that complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and U.S. Federal Information Processing Standards. Device security measures for data protection include methods for locally stored data encryption, hardware encryption, and the ability to locally and remotely clear data from the device. As these devices transfer information over both local wireless networks and public cell phone networks, wireless network security protocols, including wired equivalent privacy and Wi-Fi protected access, are important components in the chain of security. Specific virtual private network protocols, Secure Sockets Layer and related protocols (especially in the setting of hypertext transfer protocols), native apps, virtual desktops, and nonmedical commercial off-the-shelf apps require consideration in the transmission of medical data over both private and public networks. Enterprise security and management of both personal and enterprise mobile devices are discussed. Finally, specific standards for hardware and software platform security, including prevention of hardware tampering, protection from malicious software, and application authentication methods, are vital components in establishing a secure platform for the use of mobile devices in the medical field. © RSNA, 2015.

  15. Wireless networking for the dental office: current wireless standards and security protocols.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Arora, Sarika

    2004-11-15

    Digital radiography has gained immense popularity in dentistry today in spite of the early difficulty for the profession to embrace the technology. The transition from film to digital has been happening at a faster pace in the fields of Orthodontics, Oral Surgery, Endodontics, Periodontics, and other specialties where the radiographic images (periapical, bitewing, panoramic, cephalometric, and skull radiographs) are being acquired digitally, stored within a server locally, and eventually accessed for diagnostic purposes, along with the rest of the patient data via the patient management software (PMS). A review of the literature shows the diagnostic performance of digital radiography is at least comparable to or even better than that of conventional radiography. Similarly, other digital diagnostic tools like caries detectors, cephalometric analysis software, and digital scanners were used for many years for the diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. The introduction of wireless charged-coupled device (CCD) sensors in early 2004 (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY) has moved digital radiography a step further into the wireless era. As with any emerging technology, there are concerns that should be looked into before adapting to the wireless environment. Foremost is the network security involved in the installation and usage of these wireless networks. This article deals with the existing standards and choices in wireless technologies that are available for implementation within a contemporary dental office. The network security protocols that protect the patient data and boost the efficiency of modern day dental clinics are enumerated.

  16. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems.

  17. Design and Analysis of an Enhanced Patient-Server Mutual Authentication Protocol for Telecare Medical Information System.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Obaidat, Mohammad S

    2015-11-01

    In order to access remote medical server, generally the patients utilize smart card to login to the server. It has been observed that most of the user (patient) authentication protocols suffer from smart card stolen attack that means the attacker can mount several common attacks after extracting smart card information. Recently, Lu et al.'s proposes a session key agreement protocol between the patient and remote medical server and claims that the same protocol is secure against relevant security attacks. However, this paper presents several security attacks on Lu et al.'s protocol such as identity trace attack, new smart card issue attack, patient impersonation attack and medical server impersonation attack. In order to fix the mentioned security pitfalls including smart card stolen attack, this paper proposes an efficient remote mutual authentication protocol using smart card. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA simulation tool whose results make certain that the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Moreover, the rigorous security analysis proves that the proposed protocol provides strong security protection on the relevant security attacks including smart card stolen attack. We compare the proposed scheme with several related schemes in terms of computation cost and communication cost as well as security functionalities. It has been observed that the proposed scheme is comparatively better than related existing schemes.

  18. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions.

  19. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions. PMID:28883710

  20. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  1. A new quantum sealed-bid auction protocol with secret order in post-confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiang-Hua; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    A new security protocol for quantum sealed-bid auction is proposed to resist the collusion attack from some malicious bidders. The most significant feature of this protocol is that bidders prepare their particles with secret order in post-confirmation for encoding bids. In addition, a new theorem and its proof are given based on the theory of combinatorial mathematics, which can be used as evaluation criteria for the collusion attack. It is shown that the new protocol is immune to the collusion attack and meets the demand for a secure auction. Compared with those previous protocols, the security, efficiency and availability of the proposed protocol are largely improved.

  2. Dual watermarking scheme for secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Neelesh; Shandilya, Madhu

    2012-04-01

    A buyer-seller watermarking protocol utilize watermarking along with cryptography for copyright and copy protection for the seller and meanwhile it also preserve buyers rights for privacy. It enables a seller to successfully identify a malicious seller from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer and provide anonymity to buyer. Up to now many buyer-seller watermarking protocols have been proposed which utilize more and more cryptographic scheme to solve many common problems such as customer's rights, unbinding problem, buyer's anonymity problem and buyer's participation in the dispute resolution. But most of them are infeasible since the buyer may not have knowledge of cryptography. Another issue is the number of steps to complete the protocols are large, a buyer needs to interact with different parties many times in these protocols, which is very inconvenient for buyer. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper we proposed dual watermarking scheme in encrypted domain. Since neither of watermark has been generated by buyer so a general layman buyer can use the protocol.

  3. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Boubiche, Sabrina; Boubiche, Djallel Eddine; Bilami, Azzedine; Toral-Cruz, Homero

    2016-01-01

    Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes’ resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach. PMID:27077866

  4. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Boubiche, Sabrina; Boubiche, Djallel Eddine; Bilami, Azzedine; Toral-Cruz, Homero

    2016-04-12

    Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes' resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach.

  5. Reputation-Based Internet Protocol Security: A Multilayer Security Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    secure ad-hoc networks of mobile sensors deployed in a hostile environment . These sensors are normally small 86 and resource...Communications Magazine, 51, 2008. 45. Kumar, S.A. “Classification and Review of Security Schemes in Mobile Comput- ing”. Wireless Sensor Network , 2010... Networks ”. Wireless /Mobile Network Security , 2008. 85. Xiao, Y. “Accountability for Wireless LANs, Ad Hoc Networks , and Wireless

  6. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  7. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuming; Xu, Guoai; Ahmad, Haseeb; Guo, Yanhui

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.'s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash's scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure.

  8. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash’s scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash’s protocol. We point out that Farash’s protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.’s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash’s scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure. PMID:29547619

  9. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  10. Developing a computer security training program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    We all know that training can empower the computer protection program. However, pushing computer security information outside the computer security organization into the rest of the company is often labeled as an easy project or a dungeon full of dragons. Used in part or whole, the strategy offered in this paper may help the developer of a computer security training program ward off dragons and create products and services. The strategy includes GOALS (what the result of training will be), POINTERS (tips to ensure survival), and STEPS (products and services as a means to accomplish the goals).

  11. Automated monitoring of medical protocols: a secure and distributed architecture.

    PubMed

    Alsinet, T; Ansótegui, C; Béjar, R; Fernández, C; Manyà, F

    2003-03-01

    The control of the right application of medical protocols is a key issue in hospital environments. For the automated monitoring of medical protocols, we need a domain-independent language for their representation and a fully, or semi, autonomous system that understands the protocols and supervises their application. In this paper we describe a specification language and a multi-agent system architecture for monitoring medical protocols. We model medical services in hospital environments as specialized domain agents and interpret a medical protocol as a negotiation process between agents. A medical service can be involved in multiple medical protocols, and so specialized domain agents are independent of negotiation processes and autonomous system agents perform monitoring tasks. We present the detailed architecture of the system agents and of an important domain agent, the database broker agent, that is responsible of obtaining relevant information about the clinical history of patients. We also describe how we tackle the problems of privacy, integrity and authentication during the process of exchanging information between agents.

  12. Loss-tolerant quantum secure positioning with weak laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Xu, Feihu; Siopsis, George; Chitambar, Eric; Evans, Philip G.; Qi, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Quantum position verification (QPV) is the art of verifying the geographical location of an untrusted party. Recently, it has been shown that the widely studied Bennett & Brassard 1984 (BB84) QPV protocol is insecure after the 3 dB loss point assuming local operations and classical communication (LOCC) adversaries. Here, we propose a time-reversed entanglement swapping QPV protocol (based on measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography) that is highly robust against quantum channel loss. First, assuming ideal qubit sources, we show that the protocol is secure against LOCC adversaries for any quantum channel loss, thereby overcoming the 3 dB loss limit. Then, we analyze the security of the protocol in a more practical setting involving weak laser sources and linear optics. In this setting, we find that the security only degrades by an additive constant and the protocol is able to verify positions up to 47 dB channel loss.

  13. Facilitating Secure Sharing of Personal Health Data in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Surya; Glozier, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based applications are providing new ways of promoting health and reducing the cost of care. Although data can be kept encrypted in servers, the user does not have the ability to decide whom the data are shared with. Technically this is linked to the problem of who owns the data encryption keys required to decrypt the data. Currently, cloud service providers, rather than users, have full rights to the key. In practical terms this makes the users lose full control over their data. Trust and uptake of these applications can be increased by allowing patients to feel in control of their data, generally stored in cloud-based services. Objective This paper addresses this security challenge by providing the user a way of controlling encryption keys independently of the cloud service provider. We provide a secure and usable system that enables a patient to share health information with doctors and specialists. Methods We contribute a secure protocol for patients to share their data with doctors and others on the cloud while keeping complete ownership. We developed a simple, stereotypical health application and carried out security tests, performance tests, and usability tests with both students and doctors (N=15). Results We developed the health application as an app for Android mobile phones. We carried out the usability tests on potential participants and medical professionals. Of 20 participants, 14 (70%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt safer using our system. Using mixed methods, we show that participants agreed that privacy and security of health data are important and that our system addresses these issues. Conclusions We presented a security protocol that enables patients to securely share their eHealth data with doctors and nurses and developed a secure and usable system that enables patients to share mental health information with doctors. PMID:27234691

  14. Facilitating Secure Sharing of Personal Health Data in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Thilakanathan, Danan; Calvo, Rafael A; Chen, Shiping; Nepal, Surya; Glozier, Nick

    2016-05-27

    Internet-based applications are providing new ways of promoting health and reducing the cost of care. Although data can be kept encrypted in servers, the user does not have the ability to decide whom the data are shared with. Technically this is linked to the problem of who owns the data encryption keys required to decrypt the data. Currently, cloud service providers, rather than users, have full rights to the key. In practical terms this makes the users lose full control over their data. Trust and uptake of these applications can be increased by allowing patients to feel in control of their data, generally stored in cloud-based services. This paper addresses this security challenge by providing the user a way of controlling encryption keys independently of the cloud service provider. We provide a secure and usable system that enables a patient to share health information with doctors and specialists. We contribute a secure protocol for patients to share their data with doctors and others on the cloud while keeping complete ownership. We developed a simple, stereotypical health application and carried out security tests, performance tests, and usability tests with both students and doctors (N=15). We developed the health application as an app for Android mobile phones. We carried out the usability tests on potential participants and medical professionals. Of 20 participants, 14 (70%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt safer using our system. Using mixed methods, we show that participants agreed that privacy and security of health data are important and that our system addresses these issues. We presented a security protocol that enables patients to securely share their eHealth data with doctors and nurses and developed a secure and usable system that enables patients to share mental health information with doctors.

  15. A Lightweight RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Physical Unclonable Function.

    PubMed

    Xu, He; Ding, Jie; Li, Peng; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Ruchuan

    2018-03-02

    With the fast development of the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been widely applied into many areas. Nevertheless, security problems of the RFID technology are also gradually exposed, when it provides life convenience. In particular, the appearance of a large number of fake and counterfeit goods has caused massive loss for both producers and customers, for which the clone tag is a serious security threat. If attackers acquire the complete information of a tag, they can then obtain the unique identifier of the tag by some technological means. In general, because there is no extra identifier of a tag, it is difficult to distinguish an original tag and its clone one. Once the legal tag data is obtained, attackers can be able to clone this tag. Therefore, this paper shows an efficient RFID mutual verification protocol. This protocol is based on the Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and the lightweight cryptography to achieve efficient verification of a single tag. The protocol includes three process: tag recognition, mutual verification and update. The tag recognition is that the reader recognizes the tag; mutual verification is that the reader and tag mutually verify the authenticity of each other; update is supposed to maintain the latest secret key for the following verification. Analysis results show that this protocol has a good balance between performance and security.

  16. A Lightweight RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Physical Unclonable Function

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Ruchuan

    2018-01-01

    With the fast development of the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been widely applied into many areas. Nevertheless, security problems of the RFID technology are also gradually exposed, when it provides life convenience. In particular, the appearance of a large number of fake and counterfeit goods has caused massive loss for both producers and customers, for which the clone tag is a serious security threat. If attackers acquire the complete information of a tag, they can then obtain the unique identifier of the tag by some technological means. In general, because there is no extra identifier of a tag, it is difficult to distinguish an original tag and its clone one. Once the legal tag data is obtained, attackers can be able to clone this tag. Therefore, this paper shows an efficient RFID mutual verification protocol. This protocol is based on the Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and the lightweight cryptography to achieve efficient verification of a single tag. The protocol includes three process: tag recognition, mutual verification and update. The tag recognition is that the reader recognizes the tag; mutual verification is that the reader and tag mutually verify the authenticity of each other; update is supposed to maintain the latest secret key for the following verification. Analysis results show that this protocol has a good balance between performance and security. PMID:29498684

  17. New Results on Unconditionally Secure Multi-receiver Manual Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhong; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh

    Manual authentication is a recently proposed model of communication motivated by the settings where the only trusted infrastructure is a low bandwidth authenticated channel, possibly realized by the aid of a human, that connects the sender and the receiver who are otherwise connected through an insecure channel and do not have any shared key or public key infrastructure. A good example of such scenarios is pairing of devices in Bluetooth. Manual authentication systems are studied in computational and information theoretic security model and protocols with provable security have been proposed. In this paper we extend the results in information theoretic model in two directions. Firstly, we extend a single receiver scenario to multireceiver case where the sender wants to authenticate the same message to a group of receivers. We show new attacks (compared to single receiver case) that can launched in this model and demonstrate that the single receiver lower bound 2log(1/ɛ) + O(1) on the bandwidth of manual channel stays valid in the multireceiver scenario. We further propose a protocol that achieves this bound and provides security, in the sense that we define, if up to c receivers are corrupted. The second direction is the study of non-interactive protocols in unconditionally secure model. We prove that unlike computational security framework, without interaction a secure authentication protocol requires the bandwidth of the manual channel to be at least the same as the message size, hence non-trivial protocols do not exist.

  18. A novel quantum scheme for secure two-party distance computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhen-wan; Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2017-12-01

    Secure multiparty computational geometry is an essential field of secure multiparty computation, which computes a computation geometric problem without revealing any private information of each party. Secure two-party distance computation is a primitive of secure multiparty computational geometry, which computes the distance between two points without revealing each point's location information (i.e., coordinate). Secure two-party distance computation has potential applications with high secure requirements in military, business, engineering and so on. In this paper, we present a quantum solution to secure two-party distance computation by subtly using quantum private query. Compared to the classical related protocols, our quantum protocol can ensure higher security and better privacy protection because of the physical principle of quantum mechanics.

  19. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    PubMed

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  20. 15 CFR 781.2 - Purposes of the Additional Protocol and APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... and less any information to which the U.S. Government applies the national security exclusion, is... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purposes of the Additional Protocol...

  1. Replacing the CCSDS Telecommand Protocol with Next Generation Uplink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, Greg; Burleigh, Scott; Greenberg, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Better performing Forward Error Correction on the forward link along with adequate power in the data open an uplink operations trade space that enable missions to: Command to greater distances in deep space (increased uplink margin) Increase the size of the payload data (latency may be a factor) Provides space for the security header/trailer of the CCSDS Space Data Link Security Protocol Note: These higher rates could be used for relief of emergency communication margins/rates and not limited to improving top-end rate performance. A higher performance uplink could also reduce the requirements on flight emergency antenna size and/or the performance required from ground stations. Use of a selective repeat ARQ protocol may increase the uplink design requirements but the resultant development is deemed acceptable, due the factor of 4 to 8 potential increase in uplink data rate.

  2. Development of an alcohol withdrawal protocol: CNS collaborative exemplar.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Susan; Haycock, Camille; Boyle, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this process improvement project was to develop an Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) management protocol for acute care. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in our society presents challenges for health professionals, and few nurses have received formal education on the identification and treatment of AWS, which has frequently resulted in ineffective, nonstandardized care. However, nurses practicing in medical-surgical, emergency, trauma, and critical care settings must be astute in the assessment and management of AWS. DESIGN/BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: Following an analysis of existing management protocols, a behavioral health clinical nurse specialist was asked to lead a work team composed of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses to develop a new evidence-based alcohol withdrawal protocol for acute care. By implementing a standardized assessment tool and treatment protocol, clinical nurse specialists empowered nursing staff with strategies to prevent the serious medical complications associated with AWS. FINDINGS/OUTCOMES: The development and integration of a safe and effective treatment protocol to manage AWS was facilitated by collaborative, evidence-based decision making. Clinical experience and specialty expertise were integrated by clinical nurse specialists skilled in group dynamics, problem-solving, and the implementation of change. Improving care of patients in AWS is an exemplar for clinical nurse specialist roles as change agent and patient advocate.

  3. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security, and HIPAA Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Watzlaf, Valerie J.M.; Moeini, Sohrab; Firouzan, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems such as Adobe ConnectNow, Skype, ooVoo, etc. may include the use of software applications for telerehabilitation (TR) therapy that can provide voice and video teleconferencing between patients and therapists. Privacy and security applications as well as HIPAA compliance within these protocols have been questioned by information technologists, providers of care and other health care entities. This paper develops a privacy and security checklist that can be used within a VoIP system to determine if it meets privacy and security procedures and whether it is HIPAA compliant. Based on this analysis, specific HIPAA criteria that therapists and health care facilities should follow are outlined and discussed, and therapists must weigh the risks and benefits when deciding to use VoIP software for TR. PMID:25945172

  4. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security, and HIPAA Compliance.

    PubMed

    Watzlaf, Valerie J M; Moeini, Sohrab; Firouzan, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems such as Adobe ConnectNow, Skype, ooVoo, etc. may include the use of software applications for telerehabilitation (TR) therapy that can provide voice and video teleconferencing between patients and therapists. Privacy and security applications as well as HIPAA compliance within these protocols have been questioned by information technologists, providers of care and other health care entities. This paper develops a privacy and security checklist that can be used within a VoIP system to determine if it meets privacy and security procedures and whether it is HIPAA compliant. Based on this analysis, specific HIPAA criteria that therapists and health care facilities should follow are outlined and discussed, and therapists must weigh the risks and benefits when deciding to use VoIP software for TR.

  5. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  6. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO CONTAMINATION THREATS TO DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water/Water Security Division have jointly developed a Response Protocol Toolbox (RPTB) to address the complex, multi-faceted challenges of a water utility's planning and response to intentional contamination of drinking wate...

  7. Secure Infrastructure-Less Network (SINET)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    Protocol CNSA Commercial National Security Algorithm COMSEC Communications Security COTS Commercial off the Shelf CSfC Commercial Solutions for...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Military leaders and first responders desire the familiarity of commercial -off-the-shelf lightweight mobile devices while...since they lack reliable or secure communication infrastructure. Routine and simple mobile information-sharing tasks become a challenge over the

  8. Loss-tolerant quantum secure positioning with weak laser sources

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Xu, Feihu; Siopsis, George; ...

    2016-09-14

    Quantum position verification (QPV) is the art of verifying the geographical location of an untrusted party. It has recently been shown that the widely studied Bennett & Brassard 1984 (BB84) QPV protocol is insecure after the 3 dB loss point assuming local operations and classical communication (LOCC) adversaries. Here in this paper, we propose a time-reversed entanglement swapping QPV protocol (based on measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography) that is highly robust against quantum channel loss. First, assuming ideal qubit sources, we show that the protocol is secure against LOCC adversaries for any quantum channel loss, thereby overcoming the 3 dB loss limit.more » Then, we analyze the security of the protocol in a more practical setting involving weak laser sources and linear optics. Lastly, in this setting, we find that the security only degrades by an additive constant and the protocol is able to verify positions up to 47 dB channel loss.« less

  9. Interactive Programming Support for Secure Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities originating from insecure code are one of the leading causes of security problems people face today. Unfortunately, many software developers have not been adequately trained in writing secure programs that are resistant from attacks violating program confidentiality, integrity, and availability, a style of programming…

  10. Quantum technology and cryptology for information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed; Riguidel, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Cryptology and information security are set to play a more prominent role in the near future. In this regard, quantum communication and cryptography offer new opportunities to tackle ICT security. Quantum Information Processing and Communication (QIPC) is a scientific field where new conceptual foundations and techniques are being developed. They promise to play an important role in the future of information Security. It is therefore essential to have a cross-fertilizing development between quantum technology and cryptology in order to address the security challenges of the emerging quantum era. In this article, we discuss the impact of quantum technology on the current as well as future crypto-techniques. We then analyse the assumptions on which quantum computers may operate. Then we present our vision for the distribution of security attributes using a novel form of trust based on Heisenberg's uncertainty; and, building highly secure quantum networks based on the clear transmission of single photons and/or bundles of photons able to withstand unauthorized reading as a result of secure protocols based on the observations of quantum mechanics. We argue how quantum cryptographic systems need to be developed that can take advantage of the laws of physics to provide long-term security based on solid assumptions. This requires a structured integration effort to deploy quantum technologies within the existing security infrastructure. Finally, we conclude that classical cryptographic techniques need to be redesigned and upgraded in view of the growing threat of cryptanalytic attacks posed by quantum information processing devices leading to the development of post-quantum cryptography.

  11. Putting the Human Back in the Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Bruce

    Hello, everyone, and welcome to the 14th International Security Protocols Workshop. I’m going to start with a quotation from someone who, at least in principle, is in charge of a very different security community than ours:

  12. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-30

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In the ARO “ Cognitive Protocol Stack Design" project we proposed cognitive networking solutions published in international...areas related to cognitive networking, opening also new lines of research that was not possible to forecast at the beginning of the project. In a...Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Cognitive Protocol Stack Design The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s

  13. Practical and secure telemedicine systems for user mobility.

    PubMed

    Rezaeibagha, Fatemeh; Mu, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The application of wireless devices has led to a significant improvement in the quality delivery of care in telemedicine systems. Patients who live in a remote area are able to communicate with the healthcare provider and benefit from the doctor consultations. However, it has been a challenge to provide a secure telemedicine system, which captures users (patients and doctors) mobility and patient privacy. In this work, we present several secure protocols for telemedicine systems, which ensure the secure communication between patients and doctors who are located in different geographical locations. Our protocols are the first of this kind featured with confidentiality of patient information, mutual authentication, patient anonymity, data integrity, freshness of communication, and mobility. Our protocols are based on symmetric-key schemes and capture all desirable security requirements in order to better serve our objectives of research for secure telemedicine services; therefore, they are very efficient in implementation. A comparison with related works shows that our work contributes first comprehensive solution to capture user mobility and patient privacy for telemedicine systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dong-Huan; Xu, Guang-Bao

    2018-07-01

    Based on locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states, we propose a novel multiparty quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol. In this protocol, the private key information of each party is encoded as some orthogonal product states that cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communications. To ensure the security of the protocol with small amount of decoy particles, the different particles of each product state are transmitted separately. This protocol not only can make each participant fairly negotiate a shared key, but also can avoid information leakage in the maximum extent. We give a detailed security proof of this protocol. From comparison result with the existing QKA protocols, we can know that the new protocol is more efficient.

  15. Development and Demonstration of a Security Core Component

    SciTech Connect

    Turke, Andy

    In recent years, the convergence of a number of trends has resulted in Cyber Security becoming a much greater concern for electric utilities. A short list of these trends includes: · Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) have evolved from depending on proprietary hardware and operating software toward using standard off-the-shelf hardware and operating software. This has meant that these ICSs can no longer depend on “security through obscurity. · Similarly, these same systems have evolved toward using standard communications protocols, further reducing their ability to rely upon obscurity. · The rise of the Internet and the accompanying demand for more datamore » about virtually everything has resulted in formerly isolated ICSs becoming at least partially accessible via Internet-connected networks. · “Cyber crime” has become commonplace, whether it be for industrial espionage, reconnaissance for a possible cyber attack, theft, or because some individual or group “has something to prove.” Electric utility system operators are experts at running the power grid. The reality is, especially at small and mid-sized utilities, these SCADA operators will by default be “on the front line” if and when a cyber attack occurs against their systems. These people are not computer software, networking, or cyber security experts, so they are ill-equipped to deal with a cyber security incident. Cyber Security Manager (CSM) was conceived, designed, and built so that it can be configured to know what a utility’s SCADA/EMS/DMS system looks like under normal conditions. To do this, CSM monitors log messages from any device that uses the syslog standard. It can also monitor a variety of statistics from the computers that make up the SCADA/EMS/DMS: outputs from host-based security tools, intrusion detection systems, SCADA alarms, and real-time SCADA values – even results from a SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) system. When the system deviates from

  16. Developing a guideline for clinical trial protocol content: Delphi consensus survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has highlighted deficiencies in clinical trial protocols, having implications for many groups. Existing guidelines for randomized clinical trial (RCT) protocol content vary substantially and most do not describe systematic methodology for their development. As one of three prespecified steps for the systematic development of a guideline for trial protocol content, the objective of this study was to conduct a three-round Delphi consensus survey to develop and refine minimum content for RCT protocols. Methods Panellists were identified using a multistep iterative approach, met prespecified minimum criteria and represented key stakeholders who develop or use clinical trial protocols. They were asked to rate concepts for importance in a minimum set of items for RCT protocols. The main outcome measures were degree of importance (scale of 1 to 10; higher scores indicating higher importance) and level of consensus for items. Results were presented as medians, interquartile ranges, counts and percentages. Results Ninety-six expert panellists participated in the Delphi consensus survey including trial investigators, methodologists, research ethics board members, funders, industry, regulators and journal editors. Response rates were between 88 and 93% per round. Overall, panellists rated 63 of 88 concepts of high importance (of which 50 had a 25th percentile rating of 8 or greater), 13 of moderate importance (median 6 or 7) and 12 of low importance (median less than or equal to 5) for minimum trial protocol content. General and item-specific comments and subgroup results provided valuable insight for further discussions. Conclusions This Delphi process achieved consensus from a large panel of experts from diverse stakeholder groups on essential content for RCT protocols. It also highlights areas of divergence. These results, complemented by other empirical research and consensus meetings, are helping guide the development of a guideline for

  17. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  18. Recent biosensing developments in environmental security.

    PubMed

    Wanekaya, Adam K; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2008-06-01

    Environmental security is one of the fundamental requirements of our well being. However, it still remains a major global challenge. Therefore, in addition to reducing and/or eliminating the amounts of toxic discharges into the environment, there is need to develop techniques that can detect and monitor these environmental pollutants in a sensitive and selective manner to enable effective remediation. Because of their integrated nature, biosensors are ideal for environmental monitoring and detection as they can be portable and provide selective and sensitive rapid responses in real time. In this review we discuss the main concepts behind the development of biosensors that have most relevant applications in the field of environmental monitoring and detection. We also review and document recent trends and challenges in biosensor research and development particularly in the detection of species of environmental significance such as organophosphate nerve agents, heavy metals, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins. Special focus will be given to the trends that have the most promising applications in environmental security. We conclude by highlighting the directions towards which future biosensors research in environmental security sector might proceed.

  19. Distributed Network Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  20. Practical Computer Security through Cryptography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNab, David; Twetev, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The core protocols upon which the Internet was built are insecure. Weak authentication and the lack of low level encryption services introduce vulnerabilities that propagate upwards in the network stack. Using statistics based on CERT/CC Internet security incident reports, the relative likelihood of attacks via these vulnerabilities is analyzed. The primary conclusion is that the standard UNIX BSD-based authentication system is by far the most commonly exploited weakness. Encryption of Sensitive password data and the adoption of cryptographically-based authentication protocols can greatly reduce these vulnerabilities. Basic cryptographic terminology and techniques are presented, with attention focused on the ways in which technology such as encryption and digital signatures can be used to protect against the most commonly exploited vulnerabilities. A survey of contemporary security software demonstrates that tools based on cryptographic techniques, such as Kerberos, ssh, and PGP, are readily available and effectively close many of the most serious security holes. Nine practical recommendations for improving security are described.

  1. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  2. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  3. Draft Plan to Develop Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Test Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.

    2015-09-29

    This document presents a Draft Plan proposed to develop a common test protocol that can be used to evaluate the performance requirements of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Development on the test protocol will be focused on providing a consistent method that can be used to quantify and compare the performance characteristics of NILM products. Elements of the protocols include specifications for appliances to be used, metrics, instrumentation, and a procedure to simulate appliance behavior during tests. In addition, three priority use cases for NILM will be identified and their performance requirements will specified.

  4. Unconditional security of entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogias, Ioannis; Xiang, Yu; He, Qiongyi; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    The need for secrecy and security is essential in communication. Secret sharing is a conventional protocol to distribute a secret message to a group of parties, who cannot access it individually but need to cooperate in order to decode it. While several variants of this protocol have been investigated, including realizations using quantum systems, the security of quantum secret sharing schemes still remains unproven almost two decades after their original conception. Here we establish an unconditional security proof for entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum secret sharing schemes, in the limit of asymptotic keys and for an arbitrary number of players. We tackle the problem by resorting to the recently developed one-sided device-independent approach to quantum key distribution. We demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of our scheme, which can be implemented by Gaussian states and homodyne measurements, with no need for ideal single-photon sources or quantum memories. Our results contribute to validating quantum secret sharing as a viable primitive for quantum technologies.

  5. Building a gateway with open source software for secure-DICOM communication over insecure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmel, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Stohlmann, Lutz; Haderer, Alexander; Felix, Roland

    2002-05-01

    For Teleradiology the exchange of DICOM-images is needed for several purposes. Existing solutions often don't consider about the needs for data security and data privacy. Communication is done without any encryption over insecure networks or with encryption using proprietary solutions, which reduces the data communication possibilities to partners with the same equipment. Our goal was to build a gateway, which offers a transparent solution for secure DICOM-communication in a heterogeneous environment We developed a PC-based gateway system with DICOM-communication to the in-house network and secure DICOM communication for the communication over the insecure network. One gateway installed at each location is responsible for encryption/decryption. The sender just transfers the image data over the DICOM protocol to the local gateway. The gateway forwards the data to the gateway on the destination site using the secure DICOM protocol, which is part of the DICOM standard. The receiving gateway forwards the image data to the final destination again using the DICOM-Protocol. The gateway is based on Open Source software and runs under several operating systems. Our experience shows a reliable solution, which solves security issues for DICOM communication of image data and integrates seamless into a heterogeneous DICOM environment.

  6. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  7. Security of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Rui-Ling

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the security of a sessional blind signature protocol based on quantum cryptograph and show that there are two security leaks in this protocol. One is that the legal user Alice can change the signed message after she gets a valid blind signature from the signatory Bob, and the other is that an external opponent Eve also can forge a valid blind message by a special attack, which are not permitted for blind signature. Therefore, this protocol is not secure in the sense that it does not satisfy the non-forgeability of blind signatures. We also discuss the methods to prevent the attack strategies in the end.

  8. The research and application of the NDP protocol vulnerability attack and the defense technology based on SEND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-05-01

    Neighbor discovery protocol (NDP) is the underlying protocol in the IPv6 protocol, which is mainly used to solve the problem of interconnection between nodes on the same link. But with wide use of IPV6, NDP becomes the main objects of a variety of attacks due to a lack of security mechanism. The paper introduces the working principle of the NDP and methods of how the SEND protocol to enhance NDP security defense. It also analyzes and summarizes the security threats caused by the defects of the protocol itself. On the basis of the SEND protocol, the NDP data packet structure is modified to enhance the security of the SEND. An improved NDP cheating defense technology is put forward to make up the defects of the SEND protocol which can't verify the correctness of the public key and cannot bind the MAC address.

  9. Development and validation of a remote home safety protocol.

    PubMed

    Romero, Sergio; Lee, Mi Jung; Simic, Ivana; Levy, Charles; Sanford, Jon

    2018-02-01

    Environmental assessments and subsequent modifications conducted by healthcare professionals can enhance home safety and promote independent living. However, travel time, expense and the availability of qualified professionals can limit the broad application of this intervention. Remote technology has the potential to increase access to home safety evaluations. This study describes the development and validation of a remote home safety protocol that can be used by a caregiver of an elderly person to video-record their home environment for later viewing and evaluation by a trained professional. The protocol was developed based on literature reviews and evaluations from clinical and content experts. Cognitive interviews were conducted with a group of six caregivers to validate the protocol. The final protocol included step-by-step directions to record indoor and outdoor areas of the home. The validation process resulted in modifications related to safety, clarity of the protocol, readability, visual appearance, technical descriptions and usability. Our final protocol includes detailed instructions that a caregiver should be able to follow to record a home environment for subsequent evaluation by a home safety professional. Implications for Rehabilitation The results of this study have several implications for rehabilitation practice The remote home safety evaluation protocol can potentially improve access to rehabilitation services for clients in remote areas and prevent unnecessary delays for needed care. Using our protocol, a patient's caregiver can partner with therapists to quickly and efficiently evaluate a patient's home before they are released from the hospital. Caregiver narration, which reflects a caregiver's own perspective, is critical to evaluating home safety. In-home safety evaluations, currently not available to all who need them due to access barriers, can enhance a patient's independence and provide a safer home environment.

  10. Some observations on World Development Report 2011: conflict, security and development.

    PubMed

    Gangolli, Leena V

    2011-01-01

    The World Development Report 2011 describes the relationship between conflict, security and development and makes a strong argument in favour of strengthening legitimate institutions to reduce the fragility of countries facing protracted cycles of violence, and moving from violence to resilience in order to realise development goals. While highlighting some of the lessons learned from the report (the nature of violence in the 21st century, the global reach of seemingly local conflicts, the universality of conflict as an impediment to development, the role of the international community, and the impact on health), this comment discusses the role of development on conflict and security--particularly the role of imbalanced inequitable development on fuelling conflict and insecurity.

  11. Network security system for health and medical information using smart IC card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yoichi; Yachida, Masuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1998-07-01

    A new network security protocol that uses smart IC cards has been designed to assure the integrity and privacy of medical information in communication over a non-secure network. Secure communication software has been implemented as a library based on this protocol, which is called the Integrated Secure Communication Layer (ISCL), and has been incorporated into information systems of the National Cancer Center Hospitals and the Health Service Center of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Both systems have succeeded in communicating digital medical information securely.

  12. Anti-Noise Bidirectional Quantum Steganography Protocol with Large Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Chen, Siyi; Ji, Sai; Ma, Songya; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    An anti-noise bidirectional quantum steganography protocol with large payload protocol is proposed in this paper. In the new protocol, Alice and Bob enable to transmit classical information bits to each other while teleporting secret quantum states covertly. The new protocol introduces the bidirectional quantum remote state preparation into the bidirectional quantum secure communication, not only to expand secret information from classical bits to quantum state, but also extract the phase and amplitude values of secret quantum state for greatly enlarging the capacity of secret information. The new protocol can also achieve better imperceptibility, since the eavesdropper can hardly detect the hidden channel or even obtain effective secret quantum states. Comparing with the previous quantum steganography achievements, due to its unique bidirectional quantum steganography, the new protocol can obtain higher transmission efficiency and better availability. Furthermore, the new algorithm can effectively resist quantum noises through theoretical analysis. Finally, the performance analysis proves the conclusion that the new protocol not only has good imperceptibility, high security, but also large payload.

  13. Anti-Noise Bidirectional Quantum Steganography Protocol with Large Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Chen, Siyi; Ji, Sai; Ma, Songya; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-03-01

    An anti-noise bidirectional quantum steganography protocol with large payload protocol is proposed in this paper. In the new protocol, Alice and Bob enable to transmit classical information bits to each other while teleporting secret quantum states covertly. The new protocol introduces the bidirectional quantum remote state preparation into the bidirectional quantum secure communication, not only to expand secret information from classical bits to quantum state, but also extract the phase and amplitude values of secret quantum state for greatly enlarging the capacity of secret information. The new protocol can also achieve better imperceptibility, since the eavesdropper can hardly detect the hidden channel or even obtain effective secret quantum states. Comparing with the previous quantum steganography achievements, due to its unique bidirectional quantum steganography, the new protocol can obtain higher transmission efficiency and better availability. Furthermore, the new algorithm can effectively resist quantum noises through theoretical analysis. Finally, the performance analysis proves the conclusion that the new protocol not only has good imperceptibility, high security, but also large payload.

  14. Comment on "Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2016-12-01

    In this Comment, we reexamine the security of phase-encoded quantum private query (QPQ). We find that the current phase-encoded QPQ protocols, including their applications, are vulnerable to a probabilistic entangle-and-measure attack performed by the owner of the database. Furthermore, we discuss how to overcome this security loophole and present an improved cheat-sensitive QPQ protocol without losing the good features of the original protocol.

  15. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  16. A Comprehensive Comparison of Multiparty Secure Additions with Differential Privacy

    PubMed Central

    Goryczka, Slawomir; Xiong, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of secure data aggregation (mainly summation) in a distributed setting, while ensuring differential privacy of the result. We study secure multiparty addition protocols using well known security schemes: Shamir’s secret sharing, perturbation-based, and various encryptions. We supplement our study with our new enhanced encryption scheme EFT, which is efficient and fault tolerant. Differential privacy of the final result is achieved by either distributed Laplace or Geometric mechanism (respectively DLPA or DGPA), while approximated differential privacy is achieved by diluted mechanisms. Distributed random noise is generated collectively by all participants, which draw random variables from one of several distributions: Gamma, Gauss, Geometric, or their diluted versions. We introduce a new distributed privacy mechanism with noise drawn from the Laplace distribution, which achieves smaller redundant noise with efficiency. We compare complexity and security characteristics of the protocols with different differential privacy mechanisms and security schemes. More importantly, we implemented all protocols and present an experimental comparison on their performance and scalability in a real distributed environment. Based on the evaluations, we identify our security scheme and Laplace DLPA as the most efficient for secure distributed data aggregation with privacy. PMID:28919841

  17. A Comprehensive Comparison of Multiparty Secure Additions with Differential Privacy.

    PubMed

    Goryczka, Slawomir; Xiong, Li

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of secure data aggregation (mainly summation) in a distributed setting, while ensuring differential privacy of the result. We study secure multiparty addition protocols using well known security schemes: Shamir's secret sharing, perturbation-based, and various encryptions. We supplement our study with our new enhanced encryption scheme EFT, which is efficient and fault tolerant. Differential privacy of the final result is achieved by either distributed Laplace or Geometric mechanism (respectively DLPA or DGPA), while approximated differential privacy is achieved by diluted mechanisms. Distributed random noise is generated collectively by all participants, which draw random variables from one of several distributions: Gamma, Gauss, Geometric, or their diluted versions. We introduce a new distributed privacy mechanism with noise drawn from the Laplace distribution, which achieves smaller redundant noise with efficiency. We compare complexity and security characteristics of the protocols with different differential privacy mechanisms and security schemes. More importantly, we implemented all protocols and present an experimental comparison on their performance and scalability in a real distributed environment. Based on the evaluations, we identify our security scheme and Laplace DLPA as the most efficient for secure distributed data aggregation with privacy.

  18. Secure Multiparty AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgård, Ivan; Keller, Marcel

    We propose several variants of a secure multiparty computation protocol for AES encryption. The best variant requires 2200 + {{400}over{255}} expected elementary operations in expected 70 + {{20}over{255}} rounds to encrypt one 128-bit block with a 128-bit key. We implemented the variants using VIFF, a software framework for implementing secure multiparty computation (MPC). Tests with three players (passive security against at most one corrupted player) in a local network showed that one block can be encrypted in 2 seconds. We also argue that this result could be improved by an optimized implementation.

  19. Entanglement-secured single-qubit quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, P.; Resch, R.; Berryrieser, D.

    In single-qubit quantum secret sharing, a secret is shared between N parties via manipulation and measurement of one qubit at a time. Each qubit is sent to all N parties in sequence; the secret is encoded in the first participant's preparation of the qubit state and the subsequent participants' choices of state rotation or measurement basis. We present a protocol for single-qubit quantum secret sharing using polarization entanglement of photon pairs produced in type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion. We investigate the protocol's security against eavesdropping attack under common experimental conditions: a lossy channel for photon transmission, and imperfect preparation of themore » initial qubit state. A protocol which exploits entanglement between photons, rather than simply polarization correlation, is more robustly secure. We implement the entanglement-based secret-sharing protocol with 87% secret-sharing fidelity, limited by the purity of the entangled state produced by our present apparatus. We demonstrate a photon-number splitting eavesdropping attack, which achieves no success against the entanglement-based protocol while showing the predicted rate of success against a correlation-based protocol.« less

  20. LAB ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING UNKNOWN CONTAMINANTS: CONSIDERATIONS FROM THE USEPA RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water/Water Security Division have jointly developed a Response Protocol Toolbox (RPTB) to address the complex, multi-faceted challenges of a water utility's planning and response to intentional contamination of drinking wate...

  1. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange with provable security in the standard model.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Jinsoo; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000), which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks.

  2. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange with Provable Security in the Standard Model

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Jinsoo; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000), which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks. PMID:24977229

  3. Hybrid architecture for building secure sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Ken R., Jr.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2012-04-01

    Sensor networks have various communication and security architectural concerns. Three approaches are defined to address these concerns for sensor networks. The first area is the utilization of new computing architectures that leverage embedded virtualization software on the sensor. Deploying a small, embedded virtualization operating system on the sensor nodes that is designed to communicate to low-cost cloud computing infrastructure in the network is the foundation to delivering low-cost, secure sensor networks. The second area focuses on securing the sensor. Sensor security components include developing an identification scheme, and leveraging authentication algorithms and protocols that address security assurance within the physical, communication network, and application layers. This function will primarily be accomplished through encrypting the communication channel and integrating sensor network firewall and intrusion detection/prevention components to the sensor network architecture. Hence, sensor networks will be able to maintain high levels of security. The third area addresses the real-time and high priority nature of the data that sensor networks collect. This function requires that a quality-of-service (QoS) definition and algorithm be developed for delivering the right data at the right time. A hybrid architecture is proposed that combines software and hardware features to handle network traffic with diverse QoS requirements.

  4. Analysis and Improvement of Large Payload Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Without Information Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu

    2018-02-01

    As we know, the information leakage problem should be avoided in a secure quantum communication protocol. Unfortunately, it is found that this problem does exist in the large payload bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (BQSDC) protocol (Ye Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 11(5), 1350051 2013) which is based on entanglement swapping between any two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. To be specific, one half of the information interchanged in this protocol is leaked out unconsciously without any active attack from an eavesdropper. Afterward, this BQSDC protocol is revised to the one without information leakage. It is shown that the improved BQSDC protocol is secure against the general individual attack and has some obvious features compared with the original one.

  5. Controlled Secure Direct Communication with Seven-Qubit Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Kai; Zha, Xin-Wei; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new controlled secure direct communication protocol based on a maximally seven-qubit entangled state is proposed. the outcomes of measurement is performed by the sender and the controller, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way with unit successful probability.In this scheme,by using entanglement swapping, no qubits carrying secret messages are transmitted.Therefore, the protocol is completely secure.

  6. Supporting Research and Development of Security Technologies through Network and Security Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Research and development targeted at identifying and mitigating Internet security threats require current network data. To fulfill this need... researchers working for the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), a program at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) which is based at the...vetted network and security researchers using the PREDICT/IMPACT portal and legal framework. We have also contributed to community building efforts that

  7. A secure RFID-based WBAN for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

    2013-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years.

  8. Multiple Object Based RFID System Using Security Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Jung, Jongjin; Ryu, Ukjae; Ko, Hoon; Joe, Susan; Lee, Yongjun; Kim, Boyeon; Chang, Yunseok; Lee, Kyoonha

    2007-12-01

    RFID systems are increasingly applied for operational convenience in wide range of industries and individual life. However, it is uneasy for a person to control many tags because common RFID systems have the restriction that a tag used to identify just a single object. In addition, RFID systems can make some serious problems in violation of privacy and security because of their radio frequency communication. In this paper, we propose a multiple object RFID tag which can keep multiple object identifiers for different applications in a same tag. The proposed tag allows simultaneous access for their pair applications. We also propose an authentication protocol for multiple object tag to prevent serious problems of security and privacy in RFID applications. Especially, we focus on efficiency of the authentication protocol by considering security levels of applications. In the proposed protocol, the applications go through different authentication procedures according to security level of the object identifier stored in the tag. We implemented the proposed RFID scheme and made experimental results about efficiency and stability for the scheme.

  9. Secure and Efficient k-NN Queries⋆

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Hafiz; Vaidya, Jaideep; Shafiq, Basit; Adam, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Given the morass of available data, ranking and best match queries are often used to find records of interest. As such, k-NN queries, which give the k closest matches to a query point, are of particular interest, and have many applications. We study this problem in the context of the financial sector, wherein an investment portfolio database is queried for matching portfolios. Given the sensitivity of the information involved, our key contribution is to develop a secure k-NN computation protocol that can enable the computation k-NN queries in a distributed multi-party environment while taking domain semantics into account. The experimental results show that the proposed protocols are extremely efficient. PMID:29218333

  10. Cryptanalysis and Improvements for the Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Using EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we carry out an in-depth analysis of the quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol with the semi-honest third party (TP). The security of QPC protocol using the EPR pairs is re-examined. Unfortunately, we find that TP can use the fake EPR pairs to steal all the secret information. Furthermore, we give two simple and feasible solutions to improve the original QPC protocol. It is shown that the improved protocol is secure, which can resist various kinds of attacks from both the outside eavesdroppers and the inside participants, even the semi-honest TP.

  11. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  12. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  13. Collective attacks and unconditional security in continuous variable quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Grosshans, Frédéric

    2005-01-21

    We present here an information theoretic study of Gaussian collective attacks on the continuous variable key distribution protocols based on Gaussian modulation of coherent states. These attacks, overlooked in previous security studies, give a finite advantage to the eavesdropper in the experimentally relevant lossy channel, but are not powerful enough to reduce the range of the reverse reconciliation protocols. Secret key rates are given for the ideal case where Bob performs optimal collective measurements, as well as for the realistic cases where he performs homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We also apply the generic security proof of Christiandl et al. to obtain unconditionally secure rates for these protocols.

  14. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Treesearch

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  15. Strong Password-Based Authentication in TLS Using the Three-PartyGroup Diffie-Hellman Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Michel; Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier

    2006-08-26

    The Internet has evolved into a very hostile ecosystem where"phishing'' attacks are common practice. This paper shows that thethree-party group Diffie-Hellman key exchange can help protect againstthese attacks. We have developed a suite of password-based cipher suitesfor the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that are not onlyprovably secure but also assumed to be free from patent and licensingrestrictions based on an analysis of relevant patents in thearea.

  16. An Energy Efficient Protocol For The Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Jusas, Nerijus; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Štuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. One of the most important challenges of IoT is security: protection of data and privacy. The SSL protocol is the de-facto standard for secure Internet communications. The extra energy cost of encrypting and authenticating of the application data with SSL is around 15%. For IoT devices, where energy resources are limited, the increase in the cost of energy is a very significant factor. In this paper we present the energy efficient SSL protocol which ensures the maximum bandwidth and the required level of security with minimum energy consumption. The proper selection of the security level and CPU multiplier, can save up to 85% of the energy required for data encryption.

  17. Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua

    2018-03-01

    A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.

  18. Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua

    2018-06-01

    A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.

  19. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  20. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols.

  1. Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-01-15

    Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to underminemore » the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.« less

  2. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  3. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  4. Evaluating Library Security Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicely, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Discusses different types of security systems for libraries and explains the differences between electromagnetic, radio-frequency, and microwave technologies. A list of questions to assist in system evaluation is provided; and preventive measures used to curtail theft and protocol for handling situations that trigger security alarms are included.…

  5. Emulation Platform for Cyber Analysis of Wireless Communication Network Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Eldridge, John M.

    Wireless networking and mobile communications is increasing around the world and in all sectors of our lives. With increasing use, the density and complexity of the systems increase with more base stations and advanced protocols to enable higher data throughputs. The security of data transported over wireless networks must also evolve with the advances in technologies enabling more capable wireless networks. However, means for analysis of the effectiveness of security approaches and implementations used on wireless networks are lacking. More specifically a capability to analyze the lower-layer protocols (i.e., Link and Physical layers) is a major challenge. An analysis approachmore » that incorporates protocol implementations without the need for RF emissions is necessary. In this research paper several emulation tools and custom extensions that enable an analysis platform to perform cyber security analysis of lower layer wireless networks is presented. A use case of a published exploit in the 802.11 (i.e., WiFi) protocol family is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the described emulation platform.« less

  6. Three-party quantum secure direct communication against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Based on logical quantum states, two three-party quantum secure direct communication protocols are proposed, which can realize the exchange of the secret messages between three parties with the help of the measurement correlation property of six-particle entangled states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively; neither of them has information leakage problem. The one-way transmission mode ensures that they can congenitally resist against the Trojan horse attacks and the teleportation attack. Furthermore, these two protocols are secure against other active attacks because of the use of the decoy state technology.

  7. A Multifactor Secure Authentication System for Wireless Payment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Sugata; Tiwari, Ayu; Sanyal, Sudip

    Organizations are deploying wireless based online payment applications to expand their business globally, it increases the growing need of regulatory requirements for the protection of confidential data, and especially in internet based financial areas. Existing internet based authentication systems often use either the Web or the Mobile channel individually to confirm the claimed identity of the remote user. The vulnerability is that access is based on only single factor authentication which is not secure to protect user data, there is a need of multifactor authentication. This paper proposes a new protocol based on multifactor authentication system that is both secure and highly usable. It uses a novel approach based on Transaction Identification Code and SMS to enforce another security level with the traditional Login/password system. The system provides a highly secure environment that is simple to use and deploy with in a limited resources that does not require any change in infrastructure or underline protocol of wireless network. This Protocol for Wireless Payment is extended as a two way authentications system to satisfy the emerging market need of mutual authentication and also supports secure B2B communication which increases faith of the user and business organizations on wireless financial transaction using mobile devices.

  8. Complete Insecurity of Quantum Protocols for Classical Two-Party Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Schaffner, Christian

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental task in modern cryptography is the joint computation of a function which has two inputs, one from Alice and one from Bob, such that neither of the two can learn more about the other’s input than what is implied by the value of the function. In this Letter, we show that any quantum protocol for the computation of a classical deterministic function that outputs the result to both parties (two-sided computation) and that is secure against a cheating Bob can be completely broken by a cheating Alice. Whereas it is known that quantum protocols for this task cannot be completely secure, our result implies that security for one party implies complete insecurity for the other. Our findings stand in stark contrast to recent protocols for weak coin tossing and highlight the limits of cryptography within quantum mechanics. We remark that our conclusions remain valid, even if security is only required to be approximate and if the function that is computed for Bob is different from that of Alice.

  9. Complete insecurity of quantum protocols for classical two-party computation.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Schaffner, Christian

    2012-10-19

    A fundamental task in modern cryptography is the joint computation of a function which has two inputs, one from Alice and one from Bob, such that neither of the two can learn more about the other's input than what is implied by the value of the function. In this Letter, we show that any quantum protocol for the computation of a classical deterministic function that outputs the result to both parties (two-sided computation) and that is secure against a cheating Bob can be completely broken by a cheating Alice. Whereas it is known that quantum protocols for this task cannot be completely secure, our result implies that security for one party implies complete insecurity for the other. Our findings stand in stark contrast to recent protocols for weak coin tossing and highlight the limits of cryptography within quantum mechanics. We remark that our conclusions remain valid, even if security is only required to be approximate and if the function that is computed for Bob is different from that of Alice.

  10. Cryptanalysis of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Wei, Chun-Yan

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the security of an inter-bank E-payment protocol based on quantum proxy blind signature, and find that there is a security leak in the quantum channels of this protocol, which gives a chance for an outside opponent to launch a special denial-of-service attack. Furthermore, we show that the dishonest merchant can succeed to change the purchase information of the customer in this protocol.

  11. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  12. Climate change and food security in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Yuan; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It's imperative to promote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others.

  13. Framework for Flexible Security in Group Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patrick; Prakash, Atul

    2006-01-01

    The Antigone software system defines a framework for the flexible definition and implementation of security policies in group communication systems. Antigone does not dictate the available security policies, but provides high-level mechanisms for implementing them. A central element of the Antigone architecture is a suite of such mechanisms comprising micro-protocols that provide the basic services needed by secure groups.

  14. Deterministic secure quantum communication using a single d-level system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) can transmit secret messages between two parties without first generating a shared secret key. Compared with quantum key distribution (QKD), DSQC avoids the waste of qubits arising from basis reconciliation and thus reaches higher efficiency. In this paper, based on data block transmission and order rearrangement technologies, we propose a DSQC protocol. It utilizes a set of single d-level systems as message carriers, which are used to directly encode the secret message in one communication process. Theoretical analysis shows that these employed technologies guarantee the security, and the use of a higher dimensional quantum system makes our protocol achieve higher security and efficiency. Since only quantum memory is required for implementation, our protocol is feasible with current technologies. Furthermore, Trojan horse attack (THA) is taken into account in our protocol. We give a THA model and show that THA significantly increases the multi-photon rate and can thus be detected. PMID:28327557

  15. Deterministic secure quantum communication using a single d-level system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun

    2017-03-22

    Deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) can transmit secret messages between two parties without first generating a shared secret key. Compared with quantum key distribution (QKD), DSQC avoids the waste of qubits arising from basis reconciliation and thus reaches higher efficiency. In this paper, based on data block transmission and order rearrangement technologies, we propose a DSQC protocol. It utilizes a set of single d-level systems as message carriers, which are used to directly encode the secret message in one communication process. Theoretical analysis shows that these employed technologies guarantee the security, and the use of a higher dimensional quantum system makes our protocol achieve higher security and efficiency. Since only quantum memory is required for implementation, our protocol is feasible with current technologies. Furthermore, Trojan horse attack (THA) is taken into account in our protocol. We give a THA model and show that THA significantly increases the multi-photon rate and can thus be detected.

  16. Development of UV Testing Protocol and Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this effort is to develop and present new protocols for UV validation testing and analysis that leverage advances and may help to improve implementation and operation at PWSs. This document also provides for updated clarifications to the UVDGM based on evolving practi...

  17. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  18. Analysis of MD5 authentication in various routing protocols using simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, M.; Darshan, K. N.; Patel, Harsh

    2017-11-01

    Authentication being an important paradigm of security and Computer Networks require secure paths to make the flow of the data even more secure through some security protocols. So MD-5(Message Digest 5) helps in providing data integrity to the data being sent through it and authentication to the network devices. This paper gives a brief introduction to the MD-5, simulation of the networks by including MD-5 authentication using various routing protocols like OSPF, EIGRP and RIPv2. GNS3 is being used to simulate the scenarios. Analysis of the MD-5 authentication is done in the later sections of the paper.

  19. Security and Privacy Preservation in Human-Involved Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Craig; Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Phan, Raphael C.-W.

    This paper discusses security within human-involved networks, with a focus on social networking services (SNS). We argue that more secure networks could be designed using semi-formal security models inspired from cryptography, as well as notions like that of ceremony, which exploits human-specific abilities and psychology to assist creating more secure protocols. We illustrate some of our ideas with the example of the SNS Facebook.

  20. Secure password-based authenticated key exchange for web services

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Fang; Meder, Samuel; Chevassut, Olivier

    This paper discusses an implementation of an authenticated key-exchange method rendered on message primitives defined in the WS-Trust and WS-SecureConversation specifications. This IEEE-specified cryptographic method (AuthA) is proven-secure for password-based authentication and key exchange, while the WS-Trust and WS-Secure Conversation are emerging Web Services Security specifications that extend the WS-Security specification. A prototype of the presented protocol is integrated in the WSRF-compliant Globus Toolkit V4. Further hardening of the implementation is expected to result in a version that will be shipped with future Globus Toolkit releases. This could help to address the current unavailability of decent shared-secret-based authentication options inmore » the Web Services and Grid world. Future work will be to integrate One-Time-Password (OTP) features in the authentication protocol.« less

  1. IoT security with one-time pad secure algorithm based on the double memory technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona; Bazydło, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Secure encryption of data in Internet of Things is especially important as many information is exchanged every day and the number of attack vectors on IoT elements still increases. In the paper a novel symmetric encryption method is proposed. The idea bases on the one-time pad technique. The proposed solution applies double memory concept to secure transmitted data. The presented algorithm is considered as a part of communication protocol and it has been initially validated against known security issues.

  2. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  3. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction.

    PubMed

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-19

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U(n) (instead of the symmetric group S_{n} as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized SU(2,2) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  4. On the vulnerability of basic quantum key distribution protocols and three protocols stable to attack with 'blinding' of avalanche photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com

    2012-05-15

    The fundamental quantum mechanics prohibitions on the measurability of quantum states allow secure key distribution between spatially remote users to be performed. Experimental and commercial implementations of quantum cryptography systems, however, use components that exist at the current technology level, in particular, one-photon avalanche photodetectors. These detectors are subject to the blinding effect. It was shown that all the known basic quantum key distribution protocols and systems based on them are vulnerable to attacks with blinding of photodetectors. In such attacks, an eavesdropper knows all the key transferred, does not produce errors at the reception side, and remains undetected. Threemore » protocols of quantum key distribution stable toward such attacks are suggested. The security of keys and detection of eavesdropping attempts are guaranteed by the internal structure of protocols themselves rather than additional technical improvements.« less

  5. Total Human Eye Allotransplantation: Developing Surgical Protocols for Donor and Recipient Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Edward H.; Wang, Eric W.; Yu, Jenny Y.; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Wang, Dawn J.; Richards, Nikisha; Miller, Maxine; Schuman, Joel S.; Washington, Kia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Vascularized composite allotransplantation of the eye is an appealing, novel method for reconstruction of the nonfunctioning eye. The authors’ group has established the first orthotopic model for eye transplantation in the rat. With advancements in immunomodulation strategies together with new therapies in neuroregeneration, parallel development of human surgical protocols is vital for ensuring momentum toward eye transplantation in actual patients. Methods Cadaveric donor tissue harvest (n = 8) was performed with orbital exenteration, combined open craniotomy, and endonasal approach to ligate the ophthalmic artery with a cuff of paraclival internal carotid artery, for transection of the optic nerve at the optic chiasm and transection of cranial nerves III to VI and the superior ophthalmic vein at the cavernous sinus. Candidate recipient vessels (superficial temporal/internal maxillary/facial artery and superficial temporal/facial vein) were exposed. Vein grafts were required for all anastomoses. Donor tissue was secured in recipient orbits followed by sequential venous and arterial anastomoses and nerve coaptation. Pedicle lengths and calibers were measured. All steps were timed, photographed, video recorded, and critically analyzed after each operative session. Results The technical feasibility of cadaveric donor procurement and transplantation to cadaveric recipient was established. Mean measurements included optic nerve length (39 mm) and caliber (5 mm), donor artery length (33 mm) and caliber (3 mm), and superior ophthalmic vein length (15 mm) and caliber (0.5 mm). Recipient superficial temporal, internal maxillary artery, and facial artery calibers were 0.8, 2, and 2 mm, respectively; and superior temporal and facial vein calibers were 0.8 and 2.5 mm, respectively. Conclusion This surgical protocol serves as a benchmark for optimization of technique, large-animal model development, and ultimately potentiating the possibility of vision restoration

  6. Private quantum computation: an introduction to blind quantum computing and related protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum technologies hold the promise of not only faster algorithmic processing of data, via quantum computation, but also of more secure communications, in the form of quantum cryptography. In recent years, a number of protocols have emerged which seek to marry these concepts for the purpose of securing computation rather than communication. These protocols address the task of securely delegating quantum computation to an untrusted device while maintaining the privacy, and in some instances the integrity, of the computation. We present a review of the progress to date in this emerging area.

  7. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  8. Development of a Secure Mobile GPS Tracking and Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Anyi

    2012-01-01

    With increasing demand of mobile devices and cloud computing, it becomes increasingly important to develop efficient mobile application and its secured backend, such as web applications and virtualization environment. This dissertation reports a systematic study of mobile application development and the security issues of its related backend. …

  9. Game-theoretic perspective of Ping-Pong protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Hargeet; Kumar, Atul

    2018-01-01

    We analyse Ping-Pong protocol from the point of view of a game. The analysis helps us in understanding the different strategies of a sender and an eavesdropper to gain the maximum payoff in the game. The study presented here characterizes strategies that lead to different Nash equilibriums. We further demonstrate the condition for Pareto optimality depending on the parameters used in the game. Moreover, we also analysed LM05 protocol and compared it with PP protocol from the point of view of a generic two-way QKD game with or without entanglement. Our results provide a deeper understanding of general two-way QKD protocols in terms of the security and payoffs of different stakeholders in the protocol.

  10. SCODE: A Secure Coordination-Based Data Dissemination to Mobile Sinks in Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Lexuan; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    For many sensor network applications such as military, homeland security, it is necessary for users (sinks) to access sensor networks while they are moving. However, sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Mobile sinks have to constantly propagate their current location to all nodes, and these nodes need to exchange messages with each other so that the sensor network can establish and maintain a secure multi-hop path between a source node and a mobile sink. This causes significant computation and communication overhead for sensor nodes. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. In this paper, we propose a secure and energy-efficient data dissemination protocolSecure COodination-based Data dissEmination (SCODE) — for mobile sinks in sensor networks. We take advantages of coordination networks (grid structure) based on Geographical Adaptive Fidelity (GAF) protocol to construct a secure and efficient routing path between sources and sinks. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol can defend against common attacks in sensor network routing such as replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Our performance evaluation both in mathematical analysis and simulation shows that the SCODE significantly reduces communication overhead and energy consumption while the latency is similar compared with the existing routing protocols, and it always delivers more than 90 percentage of packets successfully.

  11. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD aremore » extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.« less

  12. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  13. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  14. Development of protocols for confined extension/creep testing of geosynthetics for highway applications

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the development and verification of a testing protocol and protocol equipment for confined extension testing and confined creep testing for geosynthetic reinforcement materials. The developed data indicate that confined response ...

  15. Quantum secret information equal exchange protocol based on dense coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Dai, Jin-Qiao; Shi, Zhi-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we design a novel quantum secret information equal exchange protocol, which implements the equal exchange of secret information between the two parties with the help of semi-trusted third party (TP). In the protocol, EPR pairs prepared by the TP are, respectively, distributed to both the communication parties. Then, the two parties perform Pauli operation on each particle and return the new particles to TP, respectively. TP measures each new pair with Bell basis and announces the measurement results. Both parties deduce the secret information of each other according to the result of announcement by TP. Finally, the security analysis shows that this protocol solves the problem about equal exchange of secret information between two parties and verifies the security of semi-trusted TPs. It proves that the protocol can effectively resist glitch attacks, intercept retransmission attacks and entanglement attack.

  16. Malware Mimics for Network Security Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Master’s Thesis 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Malware Mimics for Network Security Assessment 6. AUTHOR(S) Taff, William R and Salevski, Paul M. 5...Communication Protocol .......................41 viii 4 . Graphical User Interface for MM-Server .......43 C. BUILDING THE TEST PLATFORM...Extension ...............71 2. More Advanced Modules ........................72 3. Increase Scale of Test Bed ...................73 4 . Security

  17. EPA RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX TO HELP EVALUATION OF CONTAMINATION THREATS & RESPONDING TO THREATS: MODULE 1-WATER UTILITY PLANNING GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water/Water Security Division have jointly developed a Response Protocol Toolbox (RPTB) to address the complex, multi-faceted challenges of a water utility's planning and response to intentional contamination of drinking wate...

  18. Security of Distributed-Phase-Reference Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Thinh, Le Phuc; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Distributed-phase-reference quantum key distribution stands out for its easy implementation with present day technology. For many years, a full security proof of these schemes in a realistic setting has been elusive. We solve this long-standing problem and present a generic method to prove the security of such protocols against general attacks. To illustrate our result, we provide lower bounds on the key generation rate of a variant of the coherent-one-way quantum key distribution protocol. In contrast to standard predictions, it appears to scale quadratically with the system transmittance.

  19. Food security politics and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications.

  20. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys: Security against an emulation attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed entity authentication protocol in which a physical unclonable key is interrogated by random coherent states of light, and the quadratures of the scattered light are analyzed by means of a coarse-grained homodyne detection. We derive a sufficient condition for the protocol to be secure against an emulation attack in which an adversary knows the challenge-response properties of the key and moreover, he can access the challenges during the verification. The security analysis relies on Holevo's bound and Fano's inequality, and suggests that the protocol is secure against the emulation attack for a broad range of physical parameters that are within reach of today's technology.

  1. Security Analysis of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in Collective-Rotation Noisy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.

  2. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design. PMID:26950129

  3. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-03-03

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  4. Securing your Site in Development and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Akopov, Mikhail S.

    Why wait until production deployment, or even staging and testing deployment to identify security vulnerabilities? Using tools like Burp Suite, you can find security vulnerabilities before they creep up on you. Prevent cross-site scripting attacks, and establish a firmer trust between your website and your client. Verify that Apache/Nginx have the correct SSL Ciphers set. We explore using these tools and more to validate proper Apache/Nginx configurations, and to be compliant with modern configuration standards as part of the development cycle. Your clients can use tools like https://securityheaders.io and https://ssllabs.com to get a graded report on your level of compliancemore » with OWASP Secure Headers Project and SSLLabs recommendations. Likewise, you should always use the same sites to validate your configurations. Burp Suite will find common misconfigurations and will also perform more thorough security testing of your applications. In this session you will see examples of vulnerabilities that were detected early on, as well has how to integrate these practices into your daily workflow.« less

  5. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-10

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  6. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  7. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  8. Secure and Efficient Network Fault Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) Carnegie Mellon University,School of Computer Science,Computer Science Department,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...efficiency than previously known protocols for fault localization. Our proposed fault localization protocols also address the security threats that

  9. Quantum cryptography: Security criteria reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Liang, Y.C.; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2004-09-01

    We find that the generally accepted security criteria are flawed for a whole class of protocols for quantum cryptography. This is so because a standard assumption of the security analysis, namely that the so-called square-root measurement is optimal for eavesdropping purposes, is not true in general. There are rather large parameter regimes in which the optimal measurement extracts substantially more information than the square-root measurement.

  10. Development of a telediagnosis endoscopy system over secure internet.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K; Sakamoto, N; Watanabe, M; Mizushima, H; Tanaka, H

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new telediagnosis system to securely transmit high-quality endoscopic moving images over the Internet in real time. This system would enable collaboration between physicians seeking advice from endoscopists separated by long distances, to facilitate diagnosis. We adapted a new type of digital video streaming system (DVTS) to our teleendoscopic diagnosis system. To investigate its feasibility, we conducted a two-step experiment. A basic experiment was first conducted to transmit endoscopic video images between hospitals using a plain DVTS. After investigating the practical usability, we incorporated a secure and reliable communication function into the system, by equipping DVTS with "TCP2", a new security technology that establishes secure communication in the transport layer. The second experiment involved international transmission of teleendoscopic image between Hawaii and Japan using the improved system. In both the experiments, no serious transmission delay was observed to disturb physicians' communications and, after subjective evaluation by endoscopists, the diagnostic qualities of the images were found to be adequate. Moreover, the second experiment showed that "TCP2-equipped DVTS" successfully executed high-quality secure image transmission over a long distance network. We conclude that DVTS technology would be promising for teleendoscopic diagnosis. It was also shown that a high quality, secure teleendoscopic diagnosis system can be developed by equipping DVTS with TCP2.

  11. The OAuth 2.0 Web Authorization Protocol for the Internet Addiction Bioinformatics (IABio) Database.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongseok; Kim, Jaekwon; Lee, Dong Kyun; Jang, Kwang Soo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a widespread and problematic phenomenon as smart devices pervade society. Moreover, internet gaming disorder leads to increases in social expenditures for both individuals and nations alike. Although the prevention and treatment of IA are getting more important, the diagnosis of IA remains problematic. Understanding the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral addictions is essential for the development of specific and effective treatments. Although there are many databases related to other addictions, a database for IA has not been developed yet. In addition, bioinformatics databases, especially genetic databases, require a high level of security and should be designed based on medical information standards. In this respect, our study proposes the OAuth standard protocol for database access authorization. The proposed IA Bioinformatics (IABio) database system is based on internet user authentication, which is a guideline for medical information standards, and uses OAuth 2.0 for access control technology. This study designed and developed the system requirements and configuration. The OAuth 2.0 protocol is expected to establish the security of personal medical information and be applied to genomic research on IA.

  12. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-12-15

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographicmore » context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.« less

  13. Toward protocols for quantum-ensured privacy and secure voting

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanome, Marianna; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario

    2011-08-15

    We present a number of schemes that use quantum mechanics to preserve privacy, in particular, we show that entangled quantum states can be useful in maintaining privacy. We further develop our original proposal [see M. Hillery, M. Ziman, V. Buzek, and M. Bielikova, Phys. Lett. A 349, 75 (2006)] for protecting privacy in voting, and examine its security under certain types of attacks, in particular dishonest voters and external eavesdroppers. A variation of these quantum-based schemes can be used for multiparty function evaluation. We consider functions corresponding to group multiplication of N group elements, with each element chosen by amore » different party. We show how quantum mechanics can be useful in maintaining the privacy of the choices group elements.« less

  14. Wireless Network Security Vulnerabilities and Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad

    The dilemma of cyber communications insecurity has existed all the times since the beginning of the network communications. The problems and concerns of unauthorized access and hacking has existed form the time of introduction of world wide web communication and Internet's expansion for popular use in 1990s, and has remained till present time as one of the most important issues. The wireless network security is no exception. Serious and continuous efforts of investigation, research and development has been going on for the last several decades to achieve the goal of provision of 100 percent or full proof security for all the protocols of networking architectures including the wireless networking. Some very reliable and robust strategies have been developed and deployed which has made network communications more and more secure. However, the most desired goal of complete security has yet to see the light of the day. The latest Cyber War scenario, reported in the media of intrusion and hacking of each other's defense and secret agencies between the two super powers USA and China has further aggravated the situation. This sort of intrusion by hackers between other countries such as India and Pakistan, Israel and Middle East countries has also been going on and reported in the media frequently. The paper reviews and critically examines the strategies already in place, for wired network. Wireless Network Security and also suggests some directions and strategies for more robust aspects to be researched and deployed.

  15. [Research and implementation of the TLS network transport security technology based on DICOM standard].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    With the development of medical information, Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS), Hospital Information System/Radiology Information System(HIS/RIS) and other medical information management system become popular and developed, and interoperability between these systems becomes more frequent. So, these enclosed systems will be open and regionalized by means of network, and this is inevitable. If the trend becomes true, the security of information transmission may be the first problem to be solved. Based on the need for network security, we investigated the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol, and implemented the TLS transmission of the DICOM medical information with OpenSSL toolkit and DCMTK toolkit.

  16. Watermarking protocols for authentication and ownership protection based on timestamps and holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2002-04-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. One problem here is the security of these schemes. Without a suitable framework, watermarks can be replaced and manipulated. We discuss different protocols providing security against rightful ownership attacks and other fraud attempts. We compare the characteristics of existing protocols for different media like direct embedding or seed based and required attributes of the watermarking technology like robustness or payload. We introduce two new media independent protocol schemes for rightful ownership authentication. With the first scheme we ensure security of digital watermarks used for ownership protection with a combination of two watermarks: first watermark of the copyright holder and a second watermark from a Trusted Third Party (TTP). It is based on hologram embedding and the watermark consists of e.g. a company logo. As an example we use digital images and specify the properties of the embedded additional security information. We identify components necessary for the security protocol like timestamp, PKI and cryptographic algorithms. The second scheme is used for authentication. It is designed for invertible watermarking applications which require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. The original data can only be reproduced with a secret key. Both approaches provide solutions for copyright and authentication watermarking and are introduced for image data but can be easily adopted for video and audio data as well.

  17. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yo-Hsuan; Lo, Nai-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Tang, Ssu-Wei

    2018-04-05

    Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people's modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT) environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments.

  18. A Lightweight Continuous Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yo-Hsuan; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Tang, Ssu-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are moving toward an information-oriented environment. To gather and utilize information around people’s modern life, tiny devices with all kinds of sensing devices and various sizes of gateways need to be deployed and connected with each other through the Internet or proxy-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Within this kind of Internet of Things (IoT) environment, how to authenticate each other between two communicating devices is a fundamental security issue. As a lot of IoT devices are powered by batteries and they need to transmit sensed data periodically, it is necessary for IoT devices to adopt a lightweight authentication protocol to reduce their energy consumption when a device wants to authenticate and transmit data to its targeted peer. In this paper, a lightweight continuous authentication protocol for sensing devices and gateway devices in general IoT environments is introduced. The concept of valid authentication time period is proposed to enhance robustness of authentication between IoT devices. To construct the proposed lightweight continuous authentication protocol, token technique and dynamic features of IoT devices are adopted in order to reach the design goals: the reduction of time consumption for consecutive authentications and energy saving for authenticating devices through by reducing the computation complexity during session establishment of continuous authentication. Security analysis is conducted to evaluate security strength of the proposed protocol. In addition, performance analysis has shown the proposed protocol is a strong competitor among existing protocols for device-to-device authentication in IoT environments. PMID:29621168

  19. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  20. The general theory of three-party quantum secret sharing protocols over phase-damping channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The general theory of three-party QSS protocols with the noisy quantum channels is discussed. When the particles are transmitted through the noisy quantum channels, the initial pure three-qubit tripartite entangled states would be changed into mixed states. We analyze the security of QSS protocols with the different kinds of three-qubit tripartite entangled states under phase-damping channels and figure out, for different kinds of initial states, the successful probabilities that Alice's secret can be recovered by legal agents are different. Comparing with one recent QSS protocol based on GHZ states, our scheme is secure, and has a little smaller key rate than that of the recent protocol.

  1. A no-key-exchange secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass cryptography protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jun

    2012-01-30

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT), which can safely exchange information with no advance distribution of either secret keys or public keys between users. The image is encrypted directly by the MPFRFT spectrum without the use of phase keys, and information can be shared by transmitting the encrypted image (or message) three times between users. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of the Semi-quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Shibin; Chang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Xie et al. Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, (2015) proposed a Semi-quantum secret sharing protocol (SQSS). Yin et al. Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55: 4027-4035, (2016) pointed out that this protocol suffers from the intercept-resend attack. Yin et al. also proposed an improved protocol. However, we find out that Yin et al.'s paper has some problems, we analyze Yin et al.'s paper, then proposed the improved semi-quantum secret sharing protocol. Our protocol is more secure and efficient, most importantly, our protocol satisfies the condition of semi-quantum.

  3. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  4. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-21

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics.

  5. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics. PMID:26792197

  6. Developing a Security Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Examines the questions schools should address when re-evaluating how to protect people, property, and assets. Questions addressed include where and how to begin to improve security in a school, getting the most protection economically, establishing where electronic security should be used, using surveillance cameras and systems, and what the role…

  7. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an improved two factor authentication protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Naqvi, Husnain; Shon, Taeshik; Sher, Muhammad; Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad

    2015-06-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS) provides rapid and convenient health care services remotely. Efficient authentication is a prerequisite to guarantee the security and privacy of patients in TMIS. Authentication is used to verify the legality of the patients and TMIS server during remote access. Very recently Islam et al. (J. Med. Syst. 38(10):135, 2014) proposed a two factor authentication protocol for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to improve Xu et al.'s (J. Med. Syst. 38(1):9994, 2014) protocol. They claimed their improved protocol to be efficient and provides all security requirements. However our analysis reveals that Islam et al.'s protocol suffers from user impersonation and server impersonation attacks. Furthermore we proposed an enhanced protocol. The proposed protocol while delivering all the virtues of Islam et al.'s protocol resists all known attacks.

  8. Enhanced Security and Pairing-free Handover Authentication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Shu, Guangqiang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    With the widely deployment of mobile wireless networks, we aim to propose a secure and seamless handover authentication scheme that allows users to roam freely in wireless networks without worrying about security and privacy issues. Given the open characteristic of wireless networks, safety and efficiency should be considered seriously. Several previous protocols are designed based on a bilinear pairing mapping, which is time-consuming and inefficient work, as well as unsuitable for practical situations. To address these issues, we designed a new pairing-free handover authentication scheme for mobile wireless networks. This scheme is an effective improvement of the protocol by Xu et al., which is suffer from the mobile node impersonation attack. Security analysis and simulation experiment indicate that the proposed protocol has many excellent security properties when compared with other recent similar handover schemes, such as mutual authentication and resistance to known network threats, as well as requiring lower computation and communication cost.

  9. Development of CPR security using impact analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Kish, J.; Tate, D.; Hall, P. D.; Homa, K.

    2000-01-01

    The HIPAA regulations will require that institutions ensure the prevention of unauthorized access to electronically stored or transmitted patient records. This paper discusses a process for analyzing the impact of security mechanisms on users of computerized patient records through "behind the scenes" electronic access audits. In this way, those impacts can be assessed and refined to an acceptable standard prior to implementation. Through an iterative process of design and evaluation, we develop security algorithms that will protect electronic health information from improper access, alteration or loss, while minimally affecting the flow of work of the user population as a whole. PMID:11079984

  10. For Your Phone Only: Custom Protocols for Efficient Secure Function Evaluation on Mobile Devices (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    that mobile application developers should reconsider implementing garbled circuits due to their extreme resource usage, and instead rely upon our equivalently secure and significantly more efficient alternative.

  11. Survey on Security Issues in File Management in Cloud Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-06-01

    Cloud computing has pervaded through every aspect of Information technology in past decade. It has become easier to process plethora of data, generated by various devices in real time, with the advent of cloud networks. The privacy of users data is maintained by data centers around the world and hence it has become feasible to operate on that data from lightweight portable devices. But with ease of processing comes the security aspect of the data. One such security aspect is secure file transfer either internally within cloud or externally from one cloud network to another. File management is central to cloud computing and it is paramount to address the security concerns which arise out of it. This survey paper aims to elucidate the various protocols which can be used for secure file transfer and analyze the ramifications of using each protocol.

  12. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  13. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  14. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system. PMID:29202028

  15. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nurul T; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.

  16. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-01

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  17. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-02

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  18. Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Protocol Development and Initial Outcome Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellard, Kristen K.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment developed to be applicable across the emotional disorders. The UP consists of 4 core modules: increasing emotional awareness, facilitating flexibility in appraisals, identifying and preventing behavioral and emotional avoidance, and situational and…

  19. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: A Structured Multidisciplinary Protocol Development and Educational Program to Advance Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Rhonda G.; Dowd, Kathleen A.; Hurley, Arlene M.; Rainer, Tyler‐Lauren; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty‐four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality. PMID:24405608

  20. Optimal and secure measurement protocols for quantum sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gross, Jonathan A.; Rolston, S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.

  1. Auditing Albaha University Network Security using in-house Developed Penetration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzahrani, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    Network security becomes very important aspect in any enterprise/organization computer network. If important information of the organization can be accessed by anyone it may be used against the organization for further own interest. Thus, network security comes into it roles. One of important aspect of security management is security audit. Security performance of Albaha university network is relatively low (in term of the total controls outlined in the ISO 27002 security control framework). This paper proposes network security audit tool to address issues in Albaha University network. The proposed penetration tool uses Nessus and Metasploit tool to find out the vulnerability of a site. A regular self-audit using inhouse developed tool will increase the overall security and performance of Albaha university network. Important results of the penetration test are discussed.

  2. Performing private database queries in a real-world environment using a quantum protocol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip; Lucio-Martinez, Itzel; Mo, Xiaofan; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-06-10

    In the well-studied cryptographic primitive 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer, a user retrieves a single element from a database of size N without the database learning which element was retrieved. While it has previously been shown that a secure implementation of 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer is impossible against arbitrarily powerful adversaries, recent research has revealed an interesting class of private query protocols based on quantum mechanics in a cheat sensitive model. Specifically, a practical protocol does not need to guarantee that the database provider cannot learn what element was retrieved if doing so carries the risk of detection. The latter is sufficient motivation to keep a database provider honest. However, none of the previously proposed protocols could cope with noisy channels. Here we present a fault-tolerant private query protocol, in which the novel error correction procedure is integral to the security of the protocol. Furthermore, we present a proof-of-concept demonstration of the protocol over a deployed fibre.

  3. Performing private database queries in a real-world environment using a quantum protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip; Lucio-Martinez, Itzel; Mo, Xiaofan; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In the well-studied cryptographic primitive 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer, a user retrieves a single element from a database of size N without the database learning which element was retrieved. While it has previously been shown that a secure implementation of 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer is impossible against arbitrarily powerful adversaries, recent research has revealed an interesting class of private query protocols based on quantum mechanics in a cheat sensitive model. Specifically, a practical protocol does not need to guarantee that the database provider cannot learn what element was retrieved if doing so carries the risk of detection. The latter is sufficient motivation to keep a database provider honest. However, none of the previously proposed protocols could cope with noisy channels. Here we present a fault-tolerant private query protocol, in which the novel error correction procedure is integral to the security of the protocol. Furthermore, we present a proof-of-concept demonstration of the protocol over a deployed fibre. PMID:24913129

  4. Security Research on VoIP with Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong; Lee, Ping

    2008-11-01

    With the wide application of VoIP, many problems have occurred. One of the problems is security. The problems with securing VoIP systems, insufficient standardization and lack of security mechanisms emerged the need for new approaches and solutions. In this paper, we propose a new security architecture for VoIP which is based on digital watermarking which is a new, flexible and powerful technology that is increasingly gaining more and more attentions. Besides known applications e.g. to solve copyright protection problems, we propose to use digital watermarking to secure not only transmitted audio but also signaling protocol that VoIP is based on.

  5. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    SciTech Connect

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offersmore » substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.« less

  6. Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2015-08-01

    The security of source has become an increasingly important issue in quantum cryptography. Based on the framework of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), the source becomes the only region exploitable by a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Phase randomization is a cornerstone assumption in most discrete-variable (DV) quantum communication protocols (e.g., QKD, quantum coin tossing, weak-coherent-state blind quantum computing, and so on), and the violation of such an assumption is thus fatal to the security of those protocols. In this paper, we show a simple quantum hacking strategy, with commercial and homemade pulsed lasers, by Eve that allows her to actively tamper with the source and violate such an assumption, without leaving a trace afterwards. Furthermore, our attack may also be valid for continuous-variable (CV) QKD, which is another main class of QKD protocol, since, excepting the phase random assumption, other parameters (e.g., intensity) could also be changed, which directly determine the security of CV-QKD.

  7. Development of a calibration protocol for quantitative imaging for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wevrett, J.; Fenwick, A.; Scuffham, J.; Nisbet, A.

    2017-11-01

    Within the field of molecular radiotherapy, there is a significant need for standardisation in dosimetry, in both quantitative imaging and dosimetry calculations. Currently, there are a wide range of techniques used by different clinical centres and as a result there is no means to compare patient doses between centres. To help address this need, a 3 year project was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme, and a number of clinical centres were involved in the project. One of the required outcomes of the project was to develop a calibration protocol for three dimensional quantitative imaging of volumes of interest. Two radionuclides were selected as being of particular interest: iodine-131 (131I, used to treat thyroid disorders) and lutetium-177 (177Lu, used to treat neuroendocrine tumours). A small volume of activity within a scatter medium (water), representing a lesion within a patient body, was chosen as the calibration method. To ensure ease of use in clinical centres, an "off-the-shelf" solution was proposed - to avoid the need for in-house manufacturing. The BIODEX elliptical Jaszczak phantom and 16 ml fillable sphere were selected. The protocol was developed for use on SPECT/CT gamma cameras only, where the CT dataset would be used to correct the imaging data for attenuation of the emitted photons within the phantom. The protocol corrects for scatter of emitted photons using the triple energy window correction technique utilised by most clinical systems. A number of clinical systems were tested in the development of this protocol, covering the major manufacturers of gamma camera generally used in Europe. Initial imaging was performed with 131I and 177Lu at a number of clinical centres, but due to time constraints in the project, some acquisitions were performed with 177Lu only. The protocol is relatively simplistic, and does not account for the effects of dead-time in high activity patients, the presence of background activity surrounding

  8. Two-party quantum key agreement protocols under collective noise channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hao; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Qian, Song-Rong

    2018-06-01

    Recently, quantum communication has become a very popular research field. The quantum key agreement (QKA) plays an important role in the field of quantum communication, based on its unconditional security in terms of theory. Among all kinds of QKA protocols, QKA protocols resisting collective noise are widely being studied. In this paper, we propose improved two-party QKA protocols resisting collective noise and present a feasible plan for information reconciliation. Our protocols' qubit efficiency has achieved 26.67%, which is the best among all the two-party QKA protocols against collective noise, thus showing that our protocol can improve the transmission efficiency of quantum key agreement.

  9. Security in the Cache and Forward Architecture for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristofi, G. C.; Hadjicostis, C. N.; Raychaudhuri, D.

    The future Internet architecture will be comprised predominately of wireless devices. It is evident at this stage that the TCP/IP protocol that was developed decades ago will not properly support the required network functionalities since contemporary communication profiles tend to be data-driven rather than host-based. To address this paradigm shift in data propagation, a next generation architecture has been proposed, the Cache and Forward (CNF) architecture. This research investigates security aspects of this new Internet architecture. More specifically, we discuss content privacy, secure routing, key management and trust management. We identify security weaknesses of this architecture that need to be addressed and we derive security requirements that should guide future research directions. Aspects of the research can be adopted as a step-stone as we build the future Internet.

  10. Lightweight and scalable secure communication in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Qiu, Shuwei

    2015-05-01

    To avoid a message to be tempered and forged in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the digital signature method is adopted by IEEE1609.2. However, the costs of the method are excessively high for large-scale networks. The paper efficiently copes with the issue with a secure communication framework by introducing some lightweight cryptography primitives. In our framework, point-to-point and broadcast communications for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) are studied, mainly based on symmetric cryptography. A new issue incurred is symmetric key management. Thus, we develop key distribution and agreement protocols for two-party key and group key under different environments, whether a road side unit (RSU) is deployed or not. The analysis shows that our protocols provide confidentiality, authentication, perfect forward secrecy, forward secrecy and backward secrecy. The proposed group key agreement protocol especially solves the key leak problem caused by members joining or leaving in existing key agreement protocols. Due to aggregated signature and substitution of XOR for point addition, the average computation and communication costs do not significantly increase with the increase in the number of vehicles; hence, our framework provides good scalability.

  11. Review: Security in Wireless Technologies in Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattarova, F. Y.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Wireless technology seems to be everywhere now - but it is still relatively in its infancy. New standards and protocols continue to emerge and problems and bugs are discovered. Nevertheless, wireless networks make many things much more convenient and it appears that wireless networks are here to stay. The differences and similarities of wireless and wired security, the new threats brought by mobility, the security of networks and devices and effects of security, or lack of it are shortly discussed in this review paper.

  12. Measuring Global Water Security Towards Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience 'low water security' over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated-physical and socio-economic-approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term 'security' is conceptualized as a function of 'availability', 'accessibility to services', 'safety and quality', and 'management'. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  13. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  14. Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality observed by Alice and Bob and uncertainty generated by Alice against Bob who is forced to measure his system before finding out Alice’s setting (guessing with postmeasurement information). In particular, we show that security is possible for arbitrarily small violation.

  15. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  16. A transmission security framework for email-based telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2010-01-01

    Encryption is used to convert an email message to an unreadable format thereby securing patient privacy during the transmission of the message across the Internet. Two available means of encryption are: public key infrastructure (PKI) used in conjunction with ordinary email and secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) used by secure web-mail applications. Both of these approaches have advantages and disadvantages in terms of viability, cost, usability and compliance. The aim of this study was develop an instrument to identify the most appropriate means of encrypting email communication for telemedicine. A multi-method approach was used to construct the instrument. Technical assessment and existing bodies of knowledge regarding the utility of PKI were analyzed, along with survey results from users of Queensland Health's Child and Youth Mental Health Service secure web-mail service. The resultant decision support model identified that the following conditions affect the choice of encryption technology: correspondent's risk perception, correspondent's identification to the security afforded by encryption, email-client used by correspondents, the tolerance to human error and the availability of technical resources. A decision support model is presented as a flow chart to identify the most appropriate encryption for a specific email-based telemedicine service.

  17. Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants

    Treesearch

    David Vesely; Brenda C. McComb; Christina D. Vojta; Lowell H. Suring; Jurai Halaj; Richard S. Holthausen; Benjamin Zuckerberg; Patricia M. Manley

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this technical guide (hereafter referred to as the Species Protocol Technical Guide) is to provide guidelines for developing inventory and monitoring (I&M) protocols for wildlife, fish, and rare plants (WFRP) using the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service technical guide format.

  18. Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-12-01

    A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.

  19. Secure Continuous Variable Teleportation and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiongyi; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Adesso, Gerardo; Reid, Margaret D.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the resources needed for secure teleportation of coherent states. We extend continuous variable teleportation to include quantum teleamplification protocols that allow nonunity classical gains and a preamplification or postattenuation of the coherent state. We show that, for arbitrary Gaussian protocols and a significant class of Gaussian resources, two-way steering is required to achieve a teleportation fidelity beyond the no-cloning threshold. This provides an operational connection between Gaussian steerability and secure teleportation. We present practical recipes suggesting that heralded noiseless preamplification may enable high-fidelity heralded teleportation, using minimally entangled yet steerable resources.

  20. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    PubMed

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  1. The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.

  2. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  3. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function.

  4. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function. PMID:26491714

  5. Developing measures of food and nutrition security within an Australian context.

    PubMed

    Archer, Claire; Gallegos, Danielle; McKechnie, Rebecca

    2017-10-01

    To develop a measure of food and nutrition security for use among an Australian population that measures all pillars of food security and to establish its content validity. The study consisted of two phases. Phase 1 involved focus groups with experts working in the area of food security. Data were assessed using content analysis and results informed the development of a draft tool. Phase 2 consisted of a series of three online surveys using the Delphi technique. Findings from each survey were used to establish content validity and progressively modify the tool until consensus was reached for all items. Australia. Phase 1 focus groups involved twenty-five experts working in the field of food security, who were attending the Dietitians Association of Australia National Conference, 2013. Phase 2 included twenty-five experts working in food security, who were recruited via email. Findings from Phase 1 supported the need for an Australian-specific tool and highlighted the failure of current tools to measure across all pillars of food security. Participants encouraged the inclusion of items to measure barriers to food acquisition and the previous single item to enable comparisons with previous data. Phase 2 findings informed the selection and modification of items for inclusion in the final tool. The results led to the development of a draft tool to measure food and nutrition security, and supported its content validity. Further research is needed to validate the tool among the Australian population and to establish inter- and intra-rater reliability.

  6. A Novel Secure IoT-Based Smart Home Automation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; E Alahi, Md Eshrat; Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Wanqing

    2016-12-30

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide noteworthy benefits over traditional approaches for several applications, including smart homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. WSNs are integrated with the Internet Protocol (IP) to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) for connecting everyday life objects to the internet. Hence, major challenges of WSNs include: (i) how to efficiently utilize small size and low-power nodes to implement security during data transmission among several sensor nodes; (ii) how to resolve security issues associated with the harsh and complex environmental conditions during data transmission over a long coverage range. In this study, a secure IoT-based smart home automation system was developed. To facilitate energy-efficient data encryption, a method namely Triangle Based Security Algorithm (TBSA) based on efficient key generation mechanism was proposed. The proposed TBSA in integration of the low power Wi-Fi were included in WSNs with the Internet to develop a novel IoT-based smart home which could provide secure data transmission among several associated sensor nodes in the network over a long converge range. The developed IoT based system has outstanding performance by fulfilling all the necessary security requirements. The experimental results showed that the proposed TBSA algorithm consumed less energy in comparison with some existing methods.

  7. A Novel Secure IoT-Based Smart Home Automation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; E Alahi, Md Eshrat; Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide noteworthy benefits over traditional approaches for several applications, including smart homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. WSNs are integrated with the Internet Protocol (IP) to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) for connecting everyday life objects to the internet. Hence, major challenges of WSNs include: (i) how to efficiently utilize small size and low-power nodes to implement security during data transmission among several sensor nodes; (ii) how to resolve security issues associated with the harsh and complex environmental conditions during data transmission over a long coverage range. In this study, a secure IoT-based smart home automation system was developed. To facilitate energy-efficient data encryption, a method namely Triangle Based Security Algorithm (TBSA) based on efficient key generation mechanism was proposed. The proposed TBSA in integration of the low power Wi-Fi were included in WSNs with the Internet to develop a novel IoT-based smart home which could provide secure data transmission among several associated sensor nodes in the network over a long converge range. The developed IoT based system has outstanding performance by fulfilling all the necessary security requirements. The experimental results showed that the proposed TBSA algorithm consumed less energy in comparison with some existing methods. PMID:28042831

  8. 42 CFR 401.713 - Ensuring the privacy and security of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ensuring the privacy and security of data. 401.713... Performance Measurement § 401.713 Ensuring the privacy and security of data. (a) A qualified entity must... require the qualified entity to maintain privacy and security protocols throughout the duration of the...

  9. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  10. Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hua; Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred

    2011-10-15

    In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against generalmore » attacks.« less

  11. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-08-01

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  12. IVOA Credential Delegation Protocol Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Raymond; Graham, Matthew; Rixon, Guy; Taffoni, Giuliano; Plante, Raymond; Graham, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The credential delegation protocol allows a client program to delegate a user's credentials to a service such that that service may make requests of other services in the name of that user. The protocol defines a REST service that works alongside other IVO services to enable such a delegation in a secure manner. In addition to defining the specifics of the service protocol, this document describes how a delegation service is registered in an IVOA registry along with the services it supports. The specification also explains how one can determine from a service registration that it requires the use of a supporting delegation service.

  13. [Security aspects on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Seibel, R M; Kocher, K; Landsberg, P

    2000-04-01

    Is it possible to use the Internet as a secure media for transport of telemedicine? Which risks exist for routine use? In this article state of the art methods of security were analysed. Telemedicine in the Internet has severe risks, because patient data and hospital data of a secure Intranet can be manipulated by connecting it to the Web. Establishing of a firewall and the introduction of HPC (Health Professional Card) are minimizing the risk of un-authorized access to the hospital server. HPC allows good safety with digital signature and authentication of host and client of medical data. For secure e-mail PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is easy to use as a standard protocol. Planning all activities exactly as well as following legal regulations are important requisites for reduction of safety risks in Internet.

  14. 75 FR 73117 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline Corporate Security Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline Corporate Security Review AGENCY: Transportation Security.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Pipeline Corporate Security Review (PCSR). Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number: Not yet assigned. Form(s): Pipeline Corporate Security Review (PCSR) Protocol...

  15. Development of a protocol for the ecological assessment of a special species

    Treesearch

    David Burton

    2004-01-01

    Developing consistent inventory and assessment protocols is important to people working on aspen issues in California and Nevada. Efforts have focused on identifying key indicators of ecological condition within aspen stands. The protocols have incorporated a range of factors that create or affect those indicators. Resulting ecological assessments conducted through the...

  16. Development of a Protocol to Evaluate the Use of Representations in Secondary Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipp, Stephanie B.; Johnson, Destinee K.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although observational protocols have been developed that assess different aspects of science teaching, none of the protocols existing in the literature address the principles of effective chemistry instruction guided by Johnstone's triangle of macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate representations of matter (Johnstone, 1991). We developed our own…

  17. Security Protocol Verification and Optimization by Epistemic Model Checking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-05

    Three cryptographers are sitting down to dinner at their favourite restau- rant. Their waiter informs them that arrangements have been made with the...Unfortunately, the protocol cannot be expected to satisfy this: suppose that all agents manage to broadcast their mes- sage and all messages have the

  18. Bayesian Authentication: Quantifying Security of the Hancke-Kuhn Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Conference on Advances in Cryptology, pages 169–177, London, UK, 1991. Springer-Verlag. [6] Stefan Brands and David Chaum . Distance-bounding protocols. In...Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 371–388. Springer, 2004. [30] Patrick Schaller, Benedikt Schmidt, David Basin, and Srdjan Capkun. Modeling and

  19. Design and implementation of a high performance network security processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haixin; Bai, Guoqiang; Chen, Hongyi

    2010-03-01

    The last few years have seen many significant progresses in the field of application-specific processors. One example is network security processors (NSPs) that perform various cryptographic operations specified by network security protocols and help to offload the computation intensive burdens from network processors (NPs). This article presents a high performance NSP system architecture implementation intended for both internet protocol security (IPSec) and secure socket layer (SSL) protocol acceleration, which are widely employed in virtual private network (VPN) and e-commerce applications. The efficient dual one-way pipelined data transfer skeleton and optimised integration scheme of the heterogenous parallel crypto engine arrays lead to a Gbps rate NSP, which is programmable with domain specific descriptor-based instructions. The descriptor-based control flow fragments large data packets and distributes them to the crypto engine arrays, which fully utilises the parallel computation resources and improves the overall system data throughput. A prototyping platform for this NSP design is implemented with a Xilinx XC3S5000 based FPGA chip set. Results show that the design gives a peak throughput for the IPSec ESP tunnel mode of 2.85 Gbps with over 2100 full SSL handshakes per second at a clock rate of 95 MHz.

  20. Secure and Robust Transmission and Verification of Unknown Quantum States in Minkowski Space

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors. PMID:24469425

  1. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    DOE PAGES

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; ...

    2017-11-24

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. Wemore » use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. In conclusion, the security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.« less

  2. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. Wemore » use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. In conclusion, the security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.« less

  3. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  4. A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, M. C.; Fung, Chun-Kan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses network denial-of-service attacks which have become a security threat to the Internet community and suggests the need for reliable authentication protocols in client-server applications. Presents a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol coupled with a client puzzle protocol and validates it through formal logic…

  5. Provably Secure Password-based Authentication in TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Michel; Emmanuel, Bresson; Chevassut, Olivier

    2005-12-20

    In this paper, we show how to design an efficient, provably secure password-based authenticated key exchange mechanism specifically for the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol. The goal is to provide a technique that allows users to employ (short) passwords to securely identify themselves to servers. As our main contribution, we describe a new password-based technique for user authentication in TLS, called Simple Open Key Exchange (SOKE). Loosely speaking, the SOKE ciphersuites are unauthenticated Diffie-Hellman ciphersuites in which the client's Diffie-Hellman ephemeral public value is encrypted using a simple mask generation function. The mask is simply a constant value raised tomore » the power of (a hash of) the password.The SOKE ciphersuites, in advantage over previous pass-word-based authentication ciphersuites for TLS, combine the following features. First, SOKE has formal security arguments; the proof of security based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption is in the random oracle model, and holds for concurrent executions and for arbitrarily large password dictionaries. Second, SOKE is computationally efficient; in particular, it only needs operations in a sufficiently large prime-order subgroup for its Diffie-Hellman computations (no safe primes). Third, SOKE provides good protocol flexibility because the user identity and password are only required once a SOKE ciphersuite has actually been negotiated, and after the server has sent a server identity.« less

  6. Cyber Security: Assessing Our Vulnerabilities and Developing an Effective Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spafford, Eugene H.

    The number and sophistication of cyberattacks continues to increase, but no national policy is in place to confront them. Critical systems need to be built on secure foundations, rather than the cheapest general-purpose platform. A program that combines education in cyber security, increasing resources for law enforcement, development of reliable systems for critical applications, and expanding research support in multiple areas of security and reliability is essential to combat risks that are far beyond the nuisances of spam email and viruses, and involve widespread espionage, theft, and attacks on essential services.

  7. Cognitive Communications Protocols for SATCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-20

    both inadvertent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and deliberate jammers. Cognitive satellite and space communications strategies based on the... communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer...proposed WACR as the basis for future space communication systems that will offer significant benefits to national war‐fighting and peacekeeping

  8. Securing electronic health records with novel mobile encryption schemes.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Dasun; Elmufti, Kalid; Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan; Rakocevic, Veselin

    2007-01-01

    Mobile devices have penetrated the healthcare sector due to their increased functionality, low cost, high reliability and easy-to-use nature. However, in healthcare applications the privacy and security of the transmitted information must be preserved. Therefore applications require a concrete security framework based on long-term security keys, such as the security key that can be found in a mobile Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The wireless nature of communication links in mobile networks presents a major challenge in this respect. This paper presents a novel protocol that will send the information securely while including the access privileges to the authorized recipient.

  9. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Secure multi-party quantum summation based on quantum Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui-Yi; Ye, Tian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure multi-party quantum summation protocol based on quantum Fourier transform, where the traveling particles are transmitted in a tree-type mode. The party who prepares the initial quantum states is assumed to be semi-honest, which means that she may misbehave on her own but will not conspire with anyone. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attacks and the participant attacks. Especially, one party cannot obtain other parties' private integer strings; and it is secure for the colluding attack performed by at most n - 2 parties, where n is the number of parties. In addition, the proposed protocol calculates the addition of modulo d and implements the calculation of addition in a secret-by-secret way rather than a bit-by-bit way.

  11. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-03-24

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes.

  12. Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Horoshko, D B

    2007-12-31

    The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  13. Securing TCP/IP and Dial-up Access to Administrative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, L. Dean

    1992-01-01

    This article describes Arizona State University's solution to security risk inherent in general access systems such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/INTERNET Protocol). Advantages and disadvantages of various options are compared, and the process of selecting a log-on authentication approach involving generation of a different password at…

  14. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from

  15. Model based verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol for NASA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John D.; Gilliam, David

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has tens of thousands of networked computer systems and applications. Software Security vulnerabilities present risks such as lost or corrupted data, information theft, and unavailability of critical systems. These risks represent potentially enormous costs to NASA. The NASA Code Q research initiative 'Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach' offers formal verification of information technology (IT), through the creation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI), to address software security risks.

  16. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs). We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain. PMID:25746093

  17. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  18. Assumptions, Trust, and Names in Computer Security Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    sharing her banking credentials with a criminal, which is clearly bad . But PKI proto- cols like this one can be used in other, less risky ways. Suppose...Figure 4.5. This is similar to a failure of PKI-based protocols in which the authority signs a bad certificate. But the interesting thing is how the... Zoo Figure 4.6: Using AdultVerify. The run is as follows: 1. As the first step in Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange, Alice picks and sends the

  19. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  20. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  1. Security Recommendations for mHealth Apps: Elaboration of a Developer's Guide.

    PubMed

    Morera, Enrique Pérez; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; López-Coronado, Miguel; Arambarri, Jon

    2016-06-01

    Being the third fastest-growing app category behind games and utilities, mHealth apps are changing the healthcare model, as medicine today involves the data they compile and analyse, information known as Big Data. However, the majority of apps are lacking in security when gathering and dealing with the information, which becomes a serious problem. This article presents a guide regarding security solution, intended to be of great use for developers of mHealth apps. In August 2015 current mobile health apps were sought out in virtual stores such as Android Google Play, Apple iTunes App Store etc., in order to classify them in terms of usefulness. After this search, the most widespread weaknesses in the field of security in the development of these mobile apps were examined, based on sources such as the "OWASP Mobile Security Project, the initiative recently launched by the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), and other articles of scientific interest. An informative, elemental guide has been created for the development of mHealth apps. It includes information about elements of security and its implementation on different levels for all types of mobile health apps based on the data that each app manipulates, the associated calculated risk as a result of the likelihood of occurrence and the threat level resulting from its vulnerabilities - high level (apps for monitoring, diagnosis, treatment and care) from 6 ≤ 9, medium level (calculator, localizer and alarm) from 3 ≤ 6 and low level (informative and educational apps) from 0 ≤ 3. The guide aims to guarantee and facilitate security measures in the development of mobile health applications by programmers unconnected to the ITC and professional health areas.

  2. Improvement of "Novel Multiparty Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with GHZ States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2017-10-01

    Quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol is a method for negotiating a fair and secure key among mutually untrusted participants. Recently, Xu et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:2587-2594, 2014) proposed a multi-party QKA protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. However, this study points out that Xu et al.'s protocol cannot provide the fairness property. That is, the last involved participant in the protocol can manipulate the final shared secret key without being detected by the other participants. Moreover, according to Yu et al.'s research (2015), Xu et al.'s protocol cannot avoid the public discussion attack too. To avoid these weaknesses, an improved QKA protocol is proposed.

  3. Development of a 3D remote dosimetry protocol compatible with MRgIMRT.

    PubMed

    Mein, Stewart; Rankine, Leith; Adamovics, John; Li, Harold; Oldham, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel remote 3D dosimetry protocol to verify Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) treatments. The protocol was applied to investigate the accuracy of TG-119 IMRT irradiations delivered by the MRIdian ® system (ViewRay ® , Oakwood Village, OH, USA) allowing for a 48-hour delay between irradiation at a field institution and subsequent readout at a base institution. The 3D dosimetry protocol utilizes a novel formulation of PRESAGE ® radiochromic dosimeters developed for high postirradiation stability and compatibility with optical-CT readout. Optical-CT readout was performed with an in-house system utilizing telecentric lenses affording high-resolution scanning. The protocol was developed from preparatory experiments to characterize PRESAGE ® response in relevant conditions. First, linearity and sensitivity of PRESAGE ® dose-response in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated in a small volume study (4 ml cuvettes) conducted under MRgRT conditions and irradiated with doses 0-15 Gy. Temporal and spatial stability of the dose-response were investigated in large volume studies utilizing large field-of-view (FOV) 2 kg cylindrical PRESAGE ® dosimeters. Dosimeters were imaged at t = 1 hr and t = 48 hrs enabling the development of correction terms to model any observed spatial and temporal changes postirradiation. Polynomial correction factors for temporal and spatial changes in PRESAGE ® dosimeters (C T and C R respectively) were obtained by numerical fitting to time-point data acquired in six irradiated dosimeters. A remote dosimetry protocol was developed where PRESAGE ® change in optical-density (ΔOD) readings at time t = X (the irradiation to return shipment time interval) were corrected back to a convenient standard time t = 1 hr using the C T and C R corrections. This refined protocol was then applied to TG-119 (American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 119) plan deliveries on the MRIdian

  4. An improved authenticated key agreement protocol for telecare medicine information system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhao; Xie, Qi; Wang, Shengbao; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In telecare medicine information systems (TMIS), identity authentication of patients plays an important role and has been widely studied in the research field. Generally, it is realized by an authenticated key agreement protocol, and many such protocols were proposed in the literature. Recently, Zhang et al. pointed out that Islam et al.'s protocol suffers from the following security weaknesses: (1) Any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity; (2) An attacker can launch off-line password guessing attack and the impersonation attack if the patient's identity is compromised. Zhang et al. also proposed an improved authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for TMIS. However, in this paper, we point out that Zhang et al.'s scheme cannot resist off-line password guessing attack, and it fails to provide the revocation of lost/stolen smartcard. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we propose an improved protocol, the security and authentication of which can be proven using applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif.

  5. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  6. Development of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for sprint training.

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Clark, Brian C; Krause, Jodi; Hagerman, Fredrick C

    2012-09-01

    Sprint training is associated with several beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle, including an enhancement of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release. Unfortunately, several patient populations (e.g., the elderly, those with cardiac dysfunction) that might derive great benefit from sprint exercise are unlikely to tolerate it. The purpose of this report was to describe the development of a tolerable neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocol that induces skeletal muscle adaptations similar to those observed with sprint training. Our NMES protocol was modeled after a published sprint exercise protocol and used a novel electrode configuration and stimulation sequence to provide adequate training stimulus while maintaining subject tolerance. Nine young, healthy subjects (four men) began and completed the training protocol of the knee extensor muscles. All subjects completed the protocol, with ratings of discomfort far less than those reported in studies of traditional NMES. Training induced significant increases in SR Ca(2+) release and citrate synthase activity (~16% and 32%, respectively), but SR Ca(2+) uptake did not change. The percentage of myosin heavy chain IIx isoform was decreased significantly after training. At the whole muscle level, neither central activation nor maximum voluntary isometric contraction force were significantly altered, although isometric force did exhibit a trend toward an increase (~3%, P = 0.055). Surprisingly, the NMES training produced a significant increase in muscle cross-sectional area (~3%, P = 0.04). It seems that an appropriately designed NMES protocol can mimic many of the benefits of sprint exercise training, with a low overall time commitment and training volume. These findings suggest that NMES has the potential to bring the benefits of sprint exercise to individuals who are unable to tolerate traditional sprint training.

  7. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  8. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water security’ over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated—physical and socio-economic—approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term ‘security’ is conceptualized as a function of ‘availability’, ‘accessibility to services’, ‘safety and quality’, and ‘management’. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  9. Experimentally feasible security check for n-qubit quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Stefan; Huber, Marcus; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    In this article we present a general security strategy for quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols based on the scheme presented by Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume (HBB) [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)]. We focus on a generalization of the HBB protocol to n communication parties thus including n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. We show that the multipartite version of the HBB scheme is insecure in certain settings and impractical when going to large n. To provide security for such QSS schemes in general we use the framework presented by some of the authors [M. Huber, F. Mintert, A. Gabriel, B. C. Hiesmayr,more » Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 210501 (2010)] to detect certain genuine n-partite entanglement between the communication parties. In particular, we present a simple inequality which tests the security.« less

  10. Guidelines for development of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) computer security training programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents guidance for the NASA Computer Security Program Manager and the NASA Center Computer Security Officials as they develop training requirements and implement computer security training programs. NASA audiences are categorized based on the computer security knowledge required to accomplish identified job functions. Training requirements, in terms of training subject areas, are presented for both computer security program management personnel and computer resource providers and users. Sources of computer security training are identified.

  11. Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Koashi, Masato

    2014-05-22

    Quantum cryptography exploits the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics to provide a secure way to exchange private information. Such an exchange requires a common random bit sequence, called a key, to be shared secretly between the sender and the receiver. The basic idea behind quantum key distribution (QKD) has widely been understood as the property that any attempt to distinguish encoded quantum states causes a disturbance in the signal. As a result, implementation of a QKD protocol involves an estimation of the experimental parameters influenced by the eavesdropper's intervention, which is achieved by randomly sampling the signal. If the estimation of many parameters with high precision is required, the portion of the signal that is sacrificed increases, thus decreasing the efficiency of the protocol. Here we propose a QKD protocol based on an entirely different principle. The sender encodes a bit sequence onto non-orthogonal quantum states and the receiver randomly dictates how a single bit should be calculated from the sequence. The eavesdropper, who is unable to learn the whole of the sequence, cannot guess the bit value correctly. An achievable rate of secure key distribution is calculated by considering complementary choices between quantum measurements of two conjugate observables. We found that a practical implementation using a laser pulse train achieves a key rate comparable to a decoy-state QKD protocol, an often-used technique for lasers. It also has a better tolerance of bit errors and of finite-sized-key effects. We anticipate that this finding will give new insight into how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics can be related to secure communication, and will facilitate the simple and efficient use of conventional lasers for QKD.

  12. Secure Authentication for Remote Patient Monitoring with Wireless Medical Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Hayajneh, Thaier; Mohd, Bassam J; Imran, Muhammad; Almashaqbeh, Ghada; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2016-01-01

    There is broad consensus that remote health monitoring will benefit all stakeholders in the healthcare system and that it has the potential to save billions of dollars. Among the major concerns that are preventing the patients from widely adopting this technology are data privacy and security. Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the building blocks for remote health monitoring systems. This paper helps to identify the most challenging security issues in the existing authentication protocols for remote patient monitoring and presents a lightweight public-key-based authentication protocol for MSNs. In MSNs, the nodes are classified into sensors that report measurements about the human body and actuators that receive commands from the medical staff and perform actions. Authenticating these commands is a critical security issue, as any alteration may lead to serious consequences. The proposed protocol is based on the Rabin authentication algorithm, which is modified in this paper to improve its signature signing process, making it suitable for delay-sensitive MSN applications. To prove the efficiency of the Rabin algorithm, we implemented the algorithm with different hardware settings using Tmote Sky motes and also programmed the algorithm on an FPGA to evaluate its design and performance. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is implemented and tested using the MIRACL (Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++) library. The results show that secure, direct, instant and authenticated commands can be delivered from the medical staff to the MSN nodes. PMID:27023540

  13. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent.

    PubMed

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients' informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient's consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be a

  14. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent

    PubMed Central

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be

  15. High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.

  16. Developing the security culture at the SEISMED Reference Centres.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper gives a brief summary of the SEISMED project and the particular role played by the Reference Centres. Details are given of the hardware and application systems in use in the Royal Hospitals (NHS) Trust (RHT), one of the SEISMED Reference Centres. It proposes, without verification, a definition of a Security Culture based on three criteria. These are suggested to be the "Awareness" the "Acceptance" and the "Actions" of the management and staff to improve Information Systems Security throughout the RHT. The way that "Awareness" was increased is shown by the specific initiatives commenced as a result of a CRAMM Risk Analysis and the management and staff training programmes. The specific initiatives mentioned include, an Information Systems Security Policy, a contingency and disaster recovery plan, improvements in the physical protection of equipment and changes to the method of access control. The "Acceptance" by the staff of these measures is considered and the success or failure of "Developing A Security Culture" examined. The role of SEISMED in this process is assessed.

  17. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  18. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this studymore » is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.« less

  19. Secure distributed genome analysis for GWAS and sequence comparison computation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihua; Blanton, Marina; Almashaqbeh, Ghada

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the availability and volume of genomic data makes significant advances in biomedical research possible, but sharing of genomic data poses challenges due to the highly sensitive nature of such data. To address the challenges, a competition for secure distributed processing of genomic data was organized by the iDASH research center. In this work we propose techniques for securing computation with real-life genomic data for minor allele frequency and chi-squared statistics computation, as well as distance computation between two genomic sequences, as specified by the iDASH competition tasks. We put forward novel optimizations, including a generalization of a version of mergesort, which might be of independent interest. We provide implementation results of our techniques based on secret sharing that demonstrate practicality of the suggested protocols and also report on performance improvements due to our optimization techniques. This work describes our techniques, findings, and experimental results developed and obtained as part of iDASH 2015 research competition to secure real-life genomic computations and shows feasibility of securely computing with genomic data in practice.

  20. Selection of the Best Security Controls for Rapid Development of Enterprise-Level Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    time, money , and people, which in most cases are very restricted. To rapidly build up “the first line of defense,” enterprises should select the most...any other development effort, cyber capability development requires resources of time, money , and people, which in most cases are very restricted...that provide the most security per unit of time, money , or human capital investment. A. CYBER: THE FIFTH DOMAIN OF WARFARE Leon E. Panetta, the U.S

  1. Securing Cyberspace: Approaches to Developing an Effective Cyber-Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-15

    attackers, cyber - criminals or even teenage hackers. Protecting cyberspace is a national security priority. President Obama’s National Security...prefers to engage international law enforcement to investigate and catch cyber criminals .40 International cooperation could resolve jurisdictional...sheltered them. Similarly, a state that fails to prosecute cyber - criminals , or who gives safe haven to individuals or groups that conduct cyber-attacks

  2. [Development of operation patient security detection system].

    PubMed

    Geng, Shu-Qin; Tao, Ren-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Wei, Qun

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a patient security detection system developed with two dimensional bar codes, wireless communication and removal storage technique. Based on the system, nurses and correlative personnel check code wait operation patient to prevent the defaults. The tests show the system is effective. Its objectivity and currency are more scientific and sophisticated than current traditional method in domestic hospital.

  3. Efficient Security Mechanisms for the Border Gateway Routing Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-22

    Finding Algorithm for Loop- Free Routing. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 5(1):148{160, Feb. 1997. [7] International Standards Organization. ISO/IEC...Jersey 07974, Feb. 1985. ftp://netlib.att.com/netlib/att/cs/ cstr /117.ps.Z. [16] S. L. Murphy. Presentation in Panel on \\Security Architecture for the

  4. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  5. A note on the security of IS-RFID, an inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Safkhani, Masoumeh; Bagheri, Nasour; Naderi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the security level of a comprehensive RFID solution to enhance inpatient medication safety, named IS-RFID, which has been recently proposed by Peris-Lopez et al. We analyses the security of the protocol against the known attacks in the context. The main target of this paper is to determine whether the new protocol provides the confidentiality property, which is expected to be provided by such a protocol. It was found that IS-RFID has critical weaknesses. The presented security investigations show that a passive adversary can retrieve secret parameters of patient's tag in cost of O(2(16)) off-line PRNG evaluations. Given the tag's secret parameters, any security claims are ruined. In this paper we presented an efficient passive secret disclosure attack which retrieves the main secret parameters related to the patient which shows that IS-RFID may put the patient safety on risk. The proposed attacking technique is in light of two vulnerabilities of the protocol: (1) the short length of the used PRNG, which is urged by the target technology, EPC C1 Gen2 ; (2) the message-generating mechanism utilizing PRNG was not carefully scrutinized. While the later point can be fixed by careful designing of the transferred messages between the protocol's party, the earlier point, i.e., the short length of the available PRNG for EPC C1 Gen2 tags, is a limitation which is forced by the technology. In addition, over the last years, schemes based solely on using simple operations or short PRNG (such as IS-RFID) have been shown to offer very low or no security at all. Recent advances in lightweight ciphers, such as PRESENT or Grain , seem a much more appropriate solution rather than relying on short PRNGs. However, such solutions breaks the EPC C1 Gen2 compatibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A covert authentication and security solution for GMOs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Siguna; Jafari, Farhad; Roth, Don

    2016-09-21

    Proliferation and expansion of security risks necessitates new measures to ensure authenticity and validation of GMOs. Watermarking and other cryptographic methods are available which conceal and recover the original signature, but in the process reveal the authentication information. In many scenarios watermarking and standard cryptographic methods are necessary but not sufficient and new, more advanced, cryptographic protocols are necessary. Herein, we present a new crypto protocol, that is applicable in broader settings, and embeds the authentication string indistinguishably from a random element in the signature space and the string is verified or denied without disclosing the actual signature. Results show that in a nucleotide string of 1000, the algorithm gives a correlation of 0.98 or higher between the distribution of the codon and that of E. coli, making the signature virtually invisible. This algorithm may be used to securely authenticate and validate GMOs without disclosing the actual signature. While this protocol uses watermarking, its novelty is in use of more complex cryptographic techniques based on zero knowledge proofs to encode information.

  7. Proceedings Second Annual Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Research Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2006-01-01

    The workshop theme is Cyber Security: Beyond the Maginot Line Recently the FBI reported that computer crime has skyrocketed costing over $67 billion in 2005 alone and affecting 2.8M+ businesses and organizations. Attack sophistication is unprecedented along with availability of open source concomitant tools. Private, academic, and public sectors invest significant resources in cyber security. Industry primarily performs cyber security research as an investment in future products and services. While the public sector also funds cyber security R&D, the majority of this activity focuses on the specific mission(s) of the funding agency. Thus, broad areas of cyber security remain neglectedmore » or underdeveloped. Consequently, this workshop endeavors to explore issues involving cyber security and related technologies toward strengthening such areas and enabling the development of new tools and methods for securing our information infrastructure critical assets. We aim to assemble new ideas and proposals about robust models on which we can build the architecture of a secure cyberspace including but not limited to: * Knowledge discovery and management * Critical infrastructure protection * De-obfuscating tools for the validation and verification of tamper-proofed software * Computer network defense technologies * Scalable information assurance strategies * Assessment-driven design for trust * Security metrics and testing methodologies * Validation of security and survivability properties * Threat assessment and risk analysis * Early accurate detection of the insider threat * Security hardened sensor networks and ubiquitous computing environments * Mobile software authentication protocols * A new "model" of the threat to replace the "Maginot Line" model and more . . .« less

  8. An Evaluation of Protocols for UAV Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David E.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Finch, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies data transport needs for current and future science payloads deployed on the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicle (UAV). The NASA Global Hawk communication system and operational constrains are presented. The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission is used to provide the baseline communication requirements as a variety of payloads were utilized in this mission. User needs and desires are addressed. Protocols are matched to the payload needs and an evaluation of various techniques and tradeoffs are presented. Such techniques include utilization rate-base selective negative acknowledgement protocols and possible use of protocol enhancing proxies. Tradeoffs of communication architectures that address ease-of-use and security considerations are also presented.

  9. Self-adaptive trust based ABR protocol for MANETs using Q-learning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anitha Vijaya; Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation.

  10. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. PMID:25254243

  11. Developing and validating trace fear conditioning protocols in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Burman, Michael A; Simmons, Cassandra A; Hughes, Miles; Lei, Lei

    2014-01-30

    Classical fear conditioning is commonly used to study the biology of fear, anxiety and memory. Previous research demonstrated that delay conditioning requires a neural circuit involving the amygdala, but not usually the hippocampus. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require the amygdala and hippocampus. While these paradigms were developed primarily using rat models, they are increasingly being used in mice. The current studies develop trace fear conditioning and control paradigms to allow for the assessment of trace and delay fear conditioning in C57BL/6N mice. Our initial protocol yielded clear delay and contextual conditioning. However, trace conditioning failed to differentiate from an unpaired group and was not hippocampus-dependent. These results suggested that the protocol needed to be modified to specifically accommodate trace conditioning the mice. In order to reduce unconditioned freezing and increase learning, the final protocol was developed by decreasing the intensity of the tone and by increasing the inter-trial interval. Our final protocol produced trace conditioned freezing that was significantly greater than that followed unpaired stimulus exposure and was disrupted by hippocampus lesions. A review of the literature produced 90 articles using trace conditioning in mice. Few of those articles used any kind of behavioral control group, which is required to rule out non-associative factors causing fearful behavior. Fewer used unpaired groups involving tones and shocks within a session, which is the optimal control group. Our final trace conditioning protocol can be used in future studies examining genetically modified C57BL/6N mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing and Validating Trace Fear Conditioning Protocols in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Michael A; Simmons, Cassandra A; Hughes, Miles; Lei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical fear conditioning is commonly used to study the biology of fear, anxiety and memory. Previous research demonstrated that delay conditioning requires a neural circuit involving the amygdala, but not usually the hippocampus. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require the amygdala and hippocampus. While these paradigms were developed primarily using rat models, they are increasingly being used in mice. New Method The current studies develop trace fear conditioning and control paradigms to allow for the assessment of trace and delay fear conditioning in C57BL/6N mice. Our initial protocol yielded clear delay and contextual conditioning. However, trace conditioning failed to differentiate from an unpaired group and was not hippocampus-dependent. These results suggested that the protocol needed to be modified to specifically accommodate trace conditioning the mice. In order to reduce unconditioned freezing and increase learning, the final protocol was developed by decreasing the intensity of the tone and by increasing the inter-trial interval. Results Our final protocol produced trace conditioned freezing that was significantly greater than that followed unpaired stimulus exposure and was disrupted by hippocampus lesions. Comparison with Existing Methods A review of the literature produced 90 articles using trace conditioning in mice. Few of those articles used any kind of behavioral control group, which is required to rule out non-associative factors causing fearful behavior. Fewer used unpaired groups involving tones and shocks within a session, which is the optimal control group. Conclusions Our final trace conditioning protocol can be used in future studies examining genetically modified C57BL/6N mice. PMID:24269252

  13. Unconditional security of time-energy entanglement quantum key distribution using dual-basis interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheshen; Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2014-03-28

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and show that it is secure against collective attacks. Its security rests upon visibility data-obtained from Franson and conjugate-Franson interferometers-that probe photon-pair frequency correlations and arrival-time correlations. From these measurements, an upper bound can be established on the eavesdropper's Holevo information by translating the Gaussian-state security analysis for continuous-variable quantum key distribution so that it applies to our protocol. We show that visibility data from just the Franson interferometer provides a weaker, but nonetheless useful, secure-key rate lower bound. To handle multiple-pair emissions, we incorporate the decoy-state approach into our protocol. Our results show that over a 200-km transmission distance in optical fiber, time-energy entanglement HDQKD could permit a 700-bit/sec secure-key rate and a photon information efficiency of 2 secure-key bits per photon coincidence in the key-generation phase using receivers with a 15% system efficiency.

  14. A compressive sensing based secure watermark detection and privacy preserving storage framework.

    PubMed

    Qia Wang; Wenjun Zeng; Jun Tian

    2014-03-01

    Privacy is a critical issue when the data owners outsource data storage or processing to a third party computing service, such as the cloud. In this paper, we identify a cloud computing application scenario that requires simultaneously performing secure watermark detection and privacy preserving multimedia data storage. We then propose a compressive sensing (CS)-based framework using secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols to address such a requirement. In our framework, the multimedia data and secret watermark pattern are presented to the cloud for secure watermark detection in a CS domain to protect the privacy. During CS transformation, the privacy of the CS matrix and the watermark pattern is protected by the MPC protocols under the semi-honest security model. We derive the expected watermark detection performance in the CS domain, given the target image, watermark pattern, and the size of the CS matrix (but without the CS matrix itself). The correctness of the derived performance has been validated by our experiments. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results show that secure watermark detection in the CS domain is feasible. Our framework can also be extended to other collaborative secure signal processing and data-mining applications in the cloud.

  15. Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs—Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, D. H.

    2013-07-01

    This document is a summarization of the report, Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs, the final report for phase 2 of the SPSP (DOE workforce study) project.

  16. Deterministic entanglement distillation for secure double-server blind quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-15

    Blind quantum computation (BQC) provides an efficient method for the client who does not have enough sophisticated technology and knowledge to perform universal quantum computation. The single-server BQC protocol requires the client to have some minimum quantum ability, while the double-server BQC protocol makes the client's device completely classical, resorting to the pure and clean Bell state shared by two servers. Here, we provide a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol in a practical noisy environment for the double-server BQC protocol. This protocol can get the pure maximally entangled Bell state. The success probability can reach 100% in principle. The distilled maximally entangled states can be remaind to perform the BQC protocol subsequently. The parties who perform the distillation protocol do not need to exchange the classical information and they learn nothing from the client. It makes this protocol unconditionally secure and suitable for the future BQC protocol.

  17. Deterministic entanglement distillation for secure double-server blind quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Blind quantum computation (BQC) provides an efficient method for the client who does not have enough sophisticated technology and knowledge to perform universal quantum computation. The single-server BQC protocol requires the client to have some minimum quantum ability, while the double-server BQC protocol makes the client's device completely classical, resorting to the pure and clean Bell state shared by two servers. Here, we provide a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol in a practical noisy environment for the double-server BQC protocol. This protocol can get the pure maximally entangled Bell state. The success probability can reach 100% in principle. The distilled maximally entangled states can be remaind to perform the BQC protocol subsequently. The parties who perform the distillation protocol do not need to exchange the classical information and they learn nothing from the client. It makes this protocol unconditionally secure and suitable for the future BQC protocol. PMID:25588565

  18. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  19. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  20. iLAP: a workflow-driven software for experimental protocol development, data acquisition and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, the genome biology community has expended considerable effort to confront the challenges of managing heterogeneous data in a structured and organized way and developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS) for both raw and processed data. On the other hand, electronic notebooks were developed to record and manage scientific data, and facilitate data-sharing. Software which enables both, management of large datasets and digital recording of laboratory procedures would serve a real need in laboratories using medium and high-throughput techniques. Results We have developed iLAP (Laboratory data management, Analysis, and Protocol development), a workflow-driven information management system specifically designed to create and manage experimental protocols, and to analyze and share laboratory data. The system combines experimental protocol development, wizard-based data acquisition, and high-throughput data analysis into a single, integrated system. We demonstrate the power and the flexibility of the platform using a microscopy case study based on a combinatorial multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (m-FISH) protocol and 3D-image reconstruction. iLAP is freely available under the open source license AGPL from http://genome.tugraz.at/iLAP/. Conclusion iLAP is a flexible and versatile information management system, which has the potential to close the gap between electronic notebooks and LIMS and can therefore be of great value for a broad scientific community. PMID:19941647