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Sample records for seed iron loading

  1. Iron in seedsloading pathways and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Mari, Stéphane; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is one of the most abundant elements on earth, but its limited bioavailability poses a major constraint for agriculture and constitutes a serious problem in human health. Due to an improved understanding of the mechanisms that control Fe homeostasis in plants, major advances toward engineering biofortified crops have been made during the past decade. Examples of successful biofortification strategies are, however, still scarce and the process of Fe loading into seeds is far from being well understood in most crop species. In particular in grains where the embryo represents the main storage compartment such as legumes, increasing the seed Fe content remains a challenging task. This review aims at placing the recently identified actors in Fe transport into the unsolved puzzle of grain filling, taking the differences of Fe distribution between various species into consideration. We summarize the current knowledge on Fe transport between symplasmic and apoplasmic compartments, and provide models for Fe trafficking and localization in different seed types that may help to develop high seed Fe germplasms. PMID:24427161

  2. A loss-of-function mutation in AtYSL1 reveals its role in iron and nicotianamine seed loading.

    PubMed

    Le Jean, Marie; Schikora, Adam; Mari, Stéphane; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    The Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) proteins have been identified by homology with the maize (Zea mays) Yellow Stripe 1 (YS1) transporter which is responsible for iron-phytosiderophore (PS) uptake by roots in response to iron shortage. Although dicotyledonous plants do not synthesize PS, they do synthesize the PS precursor nicotianamine, a strong metal chelator essential for maintenance of iron homeostasis and copper translocation. Furthermore, ZmYS1 and the rice (Oryza sativa) protein OsYSL2 have metal-nicotianamine transport activities in heterologous expression systems. In this work, we have characterized the function of AtYSL1 in planta. Two insertional loss-of-function ysl1 mutants of Arabidopsis were found to exhibit increased nicotianamine accumulation in shoots. More importantly, seeds of both ysl1 knockouts contained less iron and nicotianamine than wild-type seeds, even when produced by plants grown in the presence of an excess of iron. This phenotype could be reverted by expressing the wild-type AtYSL1 gene in ysl1 plants. ysl1 seeds germinated slowly, but this defect was rescued by an iron supply. AtYSL1 was expressed in the xylem parenchyma of leaves, where it was upregulated in response to iron excess, as well as in pollen and in young silique parts. This pattern is consistent with long-distance circulation of iron and nicotianamine and their delivery to the seed. Taken together, our work provides strong physiological evidence that iron and nicotianamine levels in seeds rely in part on AtYSL1 function.

  3. Iron Transport to Developing Ovules of Pisum sativum (I. Seed Import Characteristics and Phloem Iron-Loading Capacity of Source Regions).

    PubMed Central

    Grusak, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    To understand the processes that control Fe transport to developing seeds, we have characterized seed growth and Fe accretion and have developed a radiotracer technique for quantifying phloem Fe loading in vegetative source regions of Pisum sativum. In hydroponically grown plants of cv Sparkle, developing ovules exhibited a seed-growth period of 22 d, with Fe import occurring throughout the 22-d period. Average Fe content of mature seeds was 19 [mu]g. Source tissues of intact plants were abraded and pulse labeled for 4 h with 100 [mu]M 59Fe(III)-citrate. Fe was successfully phloem loaded and transported to seeds from leaflets, stipules, and pod walls. Total export of 59Fe from labeled source regions was used to calculate tissue-loading rates of 36, 40, and 51 pmol of Fe cm-2 h-1 for the leaflet, stipule, and pod wall surfaces, respectively. By comparison, surface area measurements, along with seed-growth results, allowed us to calculate average theoretical influx values of 42 or 68 pmol of Fe cm-2 h-1 for vegetative tissues at nodes with one or two pods, respectively. Additional studies with the regulatory pea mutant, E107 (a single-gene mutant of cv Sparkle that can overaccumulate Fe), enabled us to increase Fe delivery endogenously to the vegetative tissues. A 36-fold increase in Fe content of E107 leaves, relative to Sparkle, resulted in no increase in Fe content of E107 seeds. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that Fe is phloem loaded in a chelated form, and the expression/synthesis of the endogenous chelator is an important factor in the control of Fe transport to the seeds. PMID:12232115

  4. The hazards of iron loading.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Eugene D

    2010-11-01

    Excessive or misplaced tissue iron now is recognized to pose a substantial health risk for an extensive array of endocrinological, gastrointestinal, infectious, neoplasmic, neurodegenerative, obstetric, ophthalmic, orthopedic, pulmonary and vascular diseases. Ingested, injected, inhaled and decompartmentalized iron contributes not only to disease, but also to aging and mortality. Iron is dangerous by catalyzing free radical formation and by serving as an essential nutrient for microbial and neoplasmic cell invaders. Our body cells exhibit wide variation in sensitivity to iron toxicity. Efficacy of our iron withholding defense system is modulated by numerous environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. A notable variety of methods for prevention and therapy of iron toxicity are now becoming available.

  5. Ineffective erythropoiesis and regulation of iron status in iron loading anaemias.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara; Nai, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    The definition 'iron loading anaemias' encompasses a group of inherited and acquired anaemias characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, low hepcidin levels, excessive iron absorption and secondary iron overload. Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia is the paradigmatic example of these conditions that include dyserythropoietic and sideroblastic anaemias and some forms of myelodysplasia. Interrupting the vicious cycle between ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload may be of therapeutic benefit in all these diseases. Induction of iron restriction by means of transferrin infusions, minihepcidins or manipulation of the hepcidin pathway prevents iron overload, redistributes iron from parenchymal cells to macrophage stores and partially controls anaemia in β-thalassaemic mice. Inhibition of ineffective erythropoiesis by activin ligand traps improves anaemia and iron overload in the same models. Targeting iron loading or ineffective erythropoiesis shows promise in preclinical studies; activin ligand traps are in clinical trials with promising results and may be useful in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis.

  6. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. )

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  7. Iron loading into ferritin by an intracellular ferroxidase.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C A; Aust, S D

    1998-11-01

    An intracellular, membrane-bound enzyme exhibiting both p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity and ferrous iron oxidase activity was isolated with the plasma membrane fraction of horse heart and studied for its ability to load iron into ferritin. The ferroxidase activity of the tissue oxidase was stimulated approximately twofold by horse spleen apoferritin, and the iron was loaded into ferritin. The loading of iron into ferritin by the tissue oxidase was inhibited by anti-horse serum ceruloplasmin antibody. The stoichiometry of iron oxidation and oxygen consumption during iron loading into ferritin by the tissue-derived oxidase and serum ceruloplasmin were 3.6 +/- 0.2 and 3.9 +/- 0.2, respectively. These data provide evidence that an enzyme analogous to ceruloplasmin is present on the plasma membrane of horse heart and that this ferroxidase is capable of catalyzing the loading of iron into ferritin. The implications of these data on the present models for the uptake and storage of iron by cells are discussed.

  8. Localization of Iron in Arabidopsis Seed Requires the Vacuolar Membrane Transporter VIT1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Punshon, T.; Lanzirotti, A.; Li, L.; Alonso, J.; Ecker, J.; Kaplan, J.; Guerinot, M.

    2006-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major human nutritional problem wherever plant-based diets are common. Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microtomography to directly visualize iron in Arabidopsis seeds, we show that iron is localized primarily to the provascular strands of the embryo. This localization is completely abolished when the vacuolar iron uptake transporter VIT1 is disrupted. Vacuolar iron storage is also critical for seedling development because vit1-1 seedlings grow poorly when iron is limiting. We have uncovered a fundamental aspect of seed biology that will ultimately aid the development of nutrient-rich seed, benefiting both human health and agricultural productivity.

  9. Physical properties and compression loading behaviour of corn seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić, Lj.; Radojèin, M.; Pavkov, I.; Babić, M.; Turan, J.; Zoranović, M.; Stanišić, S.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire data on the physical properties and compression loading behaviour of seed of six corn hybrid varieties. The mean values of length, width, thickness, geometric diameter, surface area, porosity, single kernel mass, sphericity, bulk and true density, 1 000 kernelmass and coefficient of friction were studied at single level of corn seed moisture content. The calculated secant modulus of elasticity during compressive loading for dent corn was 0.995 times that of the semi-flint type; there were no significant differences in the value of this mechanical property between semi-flint and dent corn varieties. The linear model showed a decreasing tendency of secant modulus of elasticity for all hybrids as the moisture content of seeds increased.

  10. Compression loading behaviour of sunflower seeds and kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Thasaiya A.; Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Chand, Tarsem; Sharma, Rajiv; Seerangurayar, Thirupathi

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the compression loading behaviour of five Indian sunflower varieties (NIRMAL-196, NIRMAL-303, CO-2, KBSH-41, and PSH- 996) under four different moisture levels (6-18% d.b). The initial cracking force, mean rupture force, and rupture energy were measured as a function of moisture content. The observed results showed that the initial cracking force decreased linearly with an increase in moisture content for all varieties. The mean rupture force also decreased linearly with an increase in moisture content. However, the rupture energy was found to be increasing linearly for seed and kernel with moisture content. NIRMAL-196 and PSH-996 had maximum and minimum values of all the attributes studied for both seed and kernel, respectively. The values of all the studied attributes were higher for seed than kernel of all the varieties at all moisture levels. There was a significant effect of moisture and variety on compression loading behaviour.

  11. Proanthocyanidins inhibit iron absorption from soybean (Glycine max) seed ferritin in rats with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yun, Shaojun; Zhang, Tuo; Li, Meiliang; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proanthocyanidins (PAs) on iron uptake from soybean seed ferritin (SSF) crude by rats with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) for the first time. Six groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 10) were used, which contain (1) SSF crude group; (2) SSF crude + PAs group; (3) PAs group; (4) FeSO(4) group; (5) iron deficiency control group; and (6) control group. The bioavailability of iron was examined by measuring hemoglobin (Hb) concentration value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and serum iron stores. After 8 weeks, Hb concentration was almost recovered to the normal level upon feeding SSF crude or FeSO(4) to rats. In contrast, Hb concentration was recovered to less extent when SSF crude plus PAs was used instead of SSF crude alone (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed with these three sample groups when serum iron and RBC were used as parameters. All rats in PAs group died at the 8th week. Taken together, all these results demonstrated that PAs inhibited iron uptake of rats from SSF, and are toxic for rats with IDA.

  12. Tissue Iron Distribution Assessed by MRI in Patients with Iron Loading Anemias

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lucía; House, Michael J.; Vasavda, Nisha; Drašar, Emma; Gonzalez-Gascon y Marin, Isabel; Kulasekararaj, Austin G.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Thein, Swee L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow, spleen, liver and kidney proton transverse relaxation rates (R2), together with cardiac R2* from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT) have been compared with a control group. Increased liver and bone marrow R2 values for the three groups of patients in comparison with the controls have been found. SCD and PNH patients also present an increased spleen R2 in comparison with the controls. The simultaneous measurement of R2 values for several tissue types by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the identification of iron distribution patterns in diseases associated with iron imbalance. Preferential liver iron loading is found in the highly transfused SCD patients, while the low transfused ones present a preferential iron loading of the spleen. Similar to the highly transfused SCD group, PNH patients preferentially accumulate iron in the liver. A reduced spleen iron accumulation in comparison with the liver and bone marrow loading has been found in NTDT patients, presumably related to the differential increased intestinal iron absorption. The correlation between serum ferritin and tissue R2 is moderate to good for the liver, spleen and bone marrow in SCD and PNH patients. However, serum ferritin does not correlate with NTDT liver R2, spleen R2 or heart R2*. As opposed to serum ferritin measurements, tissue R2 values are a more direct measurement of each tissue’s iron loading. This kind of determination will allow a better understanding of the different patterns of tissue iron biodistribution in diseases predisposed to tissue iron accumulation. PMID:26406992

  13. Iron overload diseases: the chemical speciation of non-heme iron deposits in iron loaded mammalian tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pierre, T. G.; Chua-Anusorn, W.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.

    2000-07-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectra of iron overloaded human spleen, rat spleen and rat liver tissue samples at 78 K were found to consist of a quadrupole doublet (major component) with magnetic sextet (minor component with fractional spectral area F s). The distributions of F s for spleen tissue from two different clinically identifiable groups (n = 7 and n = 12) of thalassemic patients were found to be significantly different. The value of F s for dietary-iron loaded rat liver was found to rise significantly with age/duration (up to 24 months) of iron loading.

  14. Hepcidin response to acute iron intake and chronic iron loading in dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trombini, Paola; Paolini, Valentina; Pelucchi, Sara; Mariani, Raffaella; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas; Piperno, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) is still unclear. Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis controlling iron absorption and macrophage release. Aim To investigate hepcidin regulation by iron in DIOS. Methods We analysed urinary hepcidin at baseline and 24 h after a 65 mg oral iron dose in 24 patients at diagnosis and after iron depletion (n=13) and compared data with those previously observed in 23 healthy controls. Serum iron indices, liver histology and metabolic data were available for all patients. Results At diagnosis, hepcidin values were significantly higher than in controls (P<0.001). After iron depletion, hepcidin levels decreased to normal values in all patients. At baseline, a significant response of hepcidin to iron challenge was observed only in the subgroup with lower basal hepcidin concentration (P=0.007). In iron-depleted patients, urinary hepcidin significantly increased after oral iron test (P=0.006). Conclusions Ours findings suggest that in DIOS, the progression of iron accumulation is counteracted by the increase in hepcidin production and progressive reduction of iron absorption, explaining why these patients develop a mild–moderate iron overload that tends to a plateau. PMID:21733088

  15. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading.

    PubMed

    Illian, Travis G; Casey, Jason C; Bishop, Phillip A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Omega 3 Chia seed loading is a viable option for enhancing sports performance in events lasting >90 minutes and allow athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. It has been well documented that a high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition is known to increase muscle glycogen stores resulting in performance improvements in events lasting >90 minutes. This study compared performance testing results between 2 different CHO-loading treatments. The traditional CHO-loading treatment served as the control (100% cals from Gatorade). The Omega 3 Chia drink (50% of calories from Greens Plus Omega 3 Chia seeds, 50% Gatorade) served as the Omega 3 Chia loading drink. Both CHO-loading treatments were based on the subject's body weight and were thus isocaloric. Six highly trained male subjects V(O2)max 47.8-84.2 ml · kg(-1); mean (SD) of V(O2)max 70.3 ml · kg(-1) (13.3) performed a 1-hour run at ∼65% of their V(O2)max on a treadmill, followed by a 10k time trial on a track. There were 2 trials in a crossover counterbalanced repeated-measures design with a 2-week washout between testing sessions to allow the participants to recover from the intense exercise and any effects of the treatment. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.83) between Omega 3 Chia loading (mean 10k time = 37 minutes 49 seconds) and CHO loading (mean = 37 minutes 43 seconds). Under our conditions, Omega 3 Chia loading appears a viable option for enhancing performance for endurance events lasting >90 minutes and allows athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids but offered no performance advantages.

  16. QTL for seed iron and zinc concentration and content in a Mesoamerican common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) population.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Medina, Juliana I; Astudillo, Carolina; Rengifo, Judith; Beebe, Steve E; Machado, Gloria; Graham, Robin

    2010-10-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies are human health problems found throughout the world and biofortification is a plant breeding-based strategy to improve the staple crops that could address these dietary constraints. Common bean is an important legume crop with two major genepools that has been the focus of genetic improvement for seed micronutrient levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations and contents in an intra-genepool Mesoamerican × Mesoamerican recombinant inbred line population grown over three sites in Colombia and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each mineral. The population had 110 lines and was derived from a high-seed iron and zinc climbing bean genotype (G14519) crossed with a low-mineral Carioca-type, prostrate bush bean genotype (G4825). The genetic map for QTL analysis was created from SSR and RAPD markers covering all 11 chromosomes of the common bean genome. A set of across-site, overlapping iron and zinc QTL was discovered on linkage group b06 suggesting a possibly pleiotropic locus and common physiology for mineral uptake or loading. Other QTL for mineral concentration or content were found on linkage groups b02, b03, b04, b07, b08 and b11 and together with the b06 cluster were mostly novel compared to loci found in previous studies of the Andean genepool or inter-genepool crosses. The discovery of an important new locus for seed iron and zinc concentrations may facilitate crop improvement and biofortification using the high-mineral genotype especially within the Mesoamerican genepool.

  17. Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Mark L.; Trick, Charles G.; Cochlan, William P.; Beall, Ben

    2009-12-01

    The cumulative evidence from more than a dozen mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters demonstrates that iron limitation is widespread and very likely affects atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus global climate. However, the responses of microphytoplankton (>20 μm), predominantly diatoms, vary greatly among these mesoscale experiments even though similar amounts of iron were added, making it difficult to quantitatively incorporate iron effects into global climate models. Nowhere is this difference more dramatic than between the massive bloom observed during Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) I and the order of magnitude smaller ecosystem response in SEEDS II; two mesocale experiments performed in the same HNLC region of the western subarctic Pacific in different years. Deckboard incubation experiments initiated during the early, middle, and late stages of the 32-day SEEDS II experiment show that while the two iron infusions increased phytoplankton growth, diatoms remained significantly limited by iron availability, despite total dissolved Fe concentrations in the patch being well above the diffusion-limited threshold for rapid diatom growth. This iron limitation was apparent <6 days after the initial iron infusion and was not alleviated by the second, smaller iron infusion. In contrast, smaller phytoplankton (<20 μm) showed a more restricted response to further iron amendments, indicating that their iron nutrition was near optimal. Iron complexed to desferrioximine B, a commonly available siderophore produced by at least one marine bacterium, was poorly available to diatoms throughout the patch evolution, indicating that these diatoms lacked the ability to induce high-affinity iron uptake systems. These results suggest that the strong organic complexation of Fe(III) observed in the SEEDS II-fertilized patch was not compatible with rapid diatom growth. In contrast, iron associated with

  18. Effect of green tea on iron status and oxidative stress in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Ounjaijean, S; Thephinlap, C; Khansuwan, U; Phisalapong, C; Fucharoen, S; Porter, J B; Srichairatanakool, S

    2008-07-01

    Plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) is potentially toxic and contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), consequently leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Iron chelators and antioxidants are used for treatment of thalassemia patients. Green tea (GT) contains catechins derivatives that have many biological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging capacities of green tea extract in vivo. Rats were injected ip with ferric citrate together with orally administered GT extract (GTE) for 4 months. Blood was collected monthly for measurement of iron overload and oxidative stress indicators. Plasma iron (PI) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were quantified using bathophenanthroline method. Plasma NTBI was assayed with NTA chelation/HPLC. Plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) was determined by using the TBARS method. Erythrocyte oxidative stress was assessed using flow cytometry. Levels of PI, TIBC, NTBI and MDA, and erythrocyte ROS increased in the iron-loaded rats. Intervention with GT extract markedly decreased the PI and TIBC concentrations. It also lowered the transferrin saturation and effectively inhibited formation of NTBI. It also decreased the levels of erythrocyte ROS in week 4, 12 and 16. Therefore, green tea extract can decrease iron in plasma as well as eliminate lipid peroxidation in plasma, and destroy formation of erythrocyte ROS in the rats challenged with iron. The bifunctional effects could be beneficial in alleviating the iron and oxidative stress toxicity. In prospective, these GTE activities should be further examined in thalassemic animals or humans.

  19. Behavior of particulate materials during iron fertilization experiments in the Western Subarctic Pacific (SEEDS and SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Imai, Keiri

    2009-12-01

    During two mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in the northwestern subarctic Pacific (SEEDS in 2001 summer and SEEDS II in 2004 summer), particulate materials from the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the upper water column were monitored to analyze the export processes beneath the upper mixed layer, mainly with drifting sediment traps. We could not observe the total downward export process of the high accumulation of particulate organic carbon from the mixed layer induced by the large diatom bloom of SEEDS [e.g., Tsuda, A., Takeda, S., Saito, H., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., Kudo, I., Kiyosawa, H., Shiomoto, A., Imai, K., Ono, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsumune, D., Yoshimura, T., Aono, T., Hinuma, A., Kinugasa, M., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, Y., Noiri, Y., Tani, H., Deguchi, Y., Tsurushima, N., Ogawa, H., Fukami, K., Kuma, K., Saino, T., 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961] because the 2-week observation period was too short to examine the decline phase of the bloom. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen were accumulated 123 and 23 mmol m -2, respectively, in the mixed layer until day-15 (days from iron-enrichment), and then ca. 90% were removed from the mixed layer by day-25. The sediment traps at 40 m depth between day-15 and day-25 accounted for at least more than 35% of these particles. There was no large variation in chemical composition in settling particles above 100 m depth throughout the experimental periods both in SEEDS and SEEDS II. The content of biogenic opal remained more than 50% of all settling particles during SEEDS, while the content of biogenic calcium carbonate was relatively high, with a low biogenic opal content of consistently less than 30% during SEEDS II. These results suggest that high standing stock of seed population of diatoms before the iron fertilization, indicated by low C/Si ratio of particulate matter, is an

  20. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin P; McCann, Maureen C; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  1. Microstructural fingerprints of phase transitions in shock-loaded iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Sui, M. L.; Chen, Y. T.; Lu, Q. H.; Ma, E.; Pei, X. Y.; Li, Q. Z.; Hu, H. B.

    2013-01-01

    The complex structural transformation in crystals under static pressure or shock loading has been a subject of long-standing interest to materials scientists and physicists. The polymorphic transformation is of particular importance for iron (Fe), due to its technological and sociological significance in the development of human civilization, as well as its prominent presence in the earth's core. The martensitic transformation α-->ɛ (bcc-->hcp) in iron under shock-loading, due to its reversible and transient nature, requires non-trivial detective work to uncover its occurrence. Here we reveal refined microstructural fingerprints, needle-like colonies and three sets of {112}<111> twins with a threefold symmetry, with tell-tale features that are indicative of two sequential martensitic transformations in the reversible α-->ɛ phase transition, even though no ɛ is retained in the post-shock samples. The signature orientation relationships are consistent with previously-proposed transformation mechanisms, and the unique microstructural fingerprints enable a quantitative assessment of the volume fraction transformed.

  2. Physical behaviors of the iron-fertilized patch in SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Takeda, Shigenobu; Tsuda, Atsushi; Tsubono, Takaki

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) tracer release experiments were carried out to trace the iron-fertilized water mass during the iron-fertilization experiments in the western North Pacific of Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II (SEEDS II) in 2004. A solution of Fe and SF 6 tracer was released into the surface mixed layer over an 8×8 km area, and the fertilized patch was traced by onboard SF 6 analysis for 12 days during each experiment. A Lagrangian frame of reference was maintained by the use of a drogued GPS buoy released at the center of the patch to reduce the advection effect on observations. The patch moved along the contour of sea-surface height (SSH) of a clockwise mesoscale eddy for 4 days after release. Then strong easterly winds dragged the patch across the contour of SSH. The patch behavior was affected by both the mesoscale eddy and surface winds. Apparent horizontal diffusivities were determined by the change of the distribution of SF 6 concentrations. The averaged apparent horizontal diffusivity was about 49 m 2 s -1 during SEEDS II. It was larger than the one in SEEDS. Mixed-layer depth (MLD) was 8.5-18 m during SEEDS, and 12-33 m during SEEDS II. The larger horizontal diffusivity and deeper MLD in SEEDS II were disadvantages to maintain a high iron concentration in the surface layer compared to SEEDS. Temporal change of the MLD corresponded to the temporal change of chlorophyll- a concentration. Temporal change in the surface MLD was also important for the response of phytoplankton by iron fertilization.

  3. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles via chemical reduction with palladium ion seeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Ehrman, Sheryl H

    2007-01-30

    We report on the synthesis of highly monodisperse iron nanoparticles, using a chemical reduction method. Iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 6 nm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.3 were synthesized at a pH of 9.50 from ferric chloride precursor with sodium borohydride as the reducing agent, polyacrylic acid as the dispersing agent, and palladium ions as seeds for iron nanoparticle nucleation. The resulting nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at 5 K and superparamagnetic at 350 K. The dispersing agent polyacrylic acid (PAA) was shown to prevent iron nanoparticles and possibly palladium clusters from aggregating; in the absence of PAA, only aggregated iron nanoparticles were obtained. The addition of palladium ions decreased the diameter of iron nanoparticles presumably by providing sites for heterogeneous nucleation onto palladium clusters. In the absence of palladium ions, the mean diameter of iron nanoparticles was approximately 110 nm and the standard deviation increased to 2.0. The pH of the solution also was found to have a significant effect on the particle diameter, likely by affecting PAA ionization and altering the conformation of the polymer chains. At lower pH (8.75), the PAA is less ionized and its ability to disperse palladium clusters is reduced, so the number of palladium seeds decreases. Therefore, the resulting iron nanoparticles were larger, 59 nm in diameter, versus 6 nm for nanoparticles formed at a pH of 9.50.

  4. Significant glial alterations in response to iron loading in a novel organotypic hippocampal slice culture model

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Sinead; McMahon, Jill; Owens, Peter; FitzGerald, Una

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant iron deposition in the brain is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. To study the collective response to iron loading, we have used hippocampal organotypic slices as a platform to develop a novel ex vivo model of iron accumulation. We demonstrated differential uptake and toxicity of iron after 12 h exposure to 10 μM ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferric citrate or ferrocene. Having established the supremacy of ferrocene in this model, the cultures were then loaded with 0.1–100 μM ferrocene for 12 h. One μM ferrocene exposure produced the maximal 1.6-fold increase in iron compared with vehicle. This was accompanied by a 1.4-fold increase in ferritin transcripts and mild toxicity. Using dual-immunohistochemistry, we detected ferritin in oligodendrocytes, microglia, but rarely in astrocytes and never in neurons in iron-loaded slice cultures. Moreover, iron loading led to a 15% loss of olig2-positive cells and a 16% increase in number and greater activation of microglia compared with vehicle. However, there was no appreciable effect of iron loading on astrocytes. In what we believe is a significant advance on traditional mono- or dual-cultures, our novel ex vivo slice-culture model allows characterization of the collective response of brain cells to iron-loading. PMID:27808258

  5. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species.

  6. The effect of shock loading on the survival of plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighs, J. A.; Hazell, P. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    Meteorite and asteroid impacts into planet Earth seem rare but over the lifetime of our planet have been relatively frequent. Such collisions (involving very large impactors) have been blamed for mass extinctions during Earth’s history. It has also been postulated that impactors could carry life with them throughout the universe and seed our planet. This is the basis of the theory of panspermia (‘life everywhere’) and suggests that life could be spread throughout the universe by ‘piggy-backing’ on inter-planetary bodies, e.g. asteroids, which then collide with other planets, thus seeding them with life. The shock behaviour of organic matter has an important role to play in helping to inform the feasibility of such theories. An example of a model carrier for life in seeding mechanisms is the plant seed. Here we present the development of an experimental technique in which plant seed samples are shock-loaded and their viability subsequently assessed post-shock. This technique was tested on Lepidium sativum (cress) seed samples. Experimentally, shocked seeds showed positive viability in all tests performed until shocked with a maximum peak shock pressure of ca. 0.8 GPa. These results suggest it is unlikely that the plant seeds tested would be able to survive the extreme conditions on an asteroid during impact, but may be able to survive shock waves that would be generated from such collisions when existing on a planetary body.

  7. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels (Cucurbita pepo) on serum iron in adult women.

    PubMed

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, p<0.001) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in TIBC was found, as well. Fortified foods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the

  8. Curcumin reduces the toxic effects of iron loading in rat liver epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donald J.; Sivam, Gowsala; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2008-01-01

    Background/aims Iron overload can cause liver toxicity and increase the risk of liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the food spice turmeric, has antioxidant, iron binding, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to quantify its effects on iron overload and resulting downstream toxic effects in cultured T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Methods T51B cells were loaded with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) with or without the iron delivery agent 8-hydroxyquinoline. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Iron uptake and iron bioavailability were documented by chemical assay, quench of calcein fluorescence, and ferritin induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by fluorescence assay using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress signaling to jnk, c-jun, and p38 was measured by western blot with phospho-specific antibodies. Results Curcumin bound iron, but did not block iron uptake or bioavailability in T51B cells given FAC. However, it reduced cytotoxicity, blocked generation of ROS, and eliminated signaling to cellular stress pathways caused by iron. Inhibition was observed over a wide range of FAC concentrations (50 – 500 μM), with an apparent IC50 in all cases between 5 and 10 μM curcumin. In contrast, desferoxamine blocked both iron uptake and toxic effects of iron at concentrations that depended on the FAC concentration. Effects of curcumin also differed from those of α-tocopherol, which did not bind iron and was less effective at blocking iron-stimulated ROS generation. Conclusions Curcumin reduced iron-dependent oxidative stress and iron toxicity in T51B cells without blocking iron uptake. PMID:18492020

  9. The behavior of iron under ultrafast shock loading driven by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashitkov, S. I.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Komarov, P. S.; Agranat, M. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of shock-wave propagation in bcc iron under ultra-short loads driven by femtosecond laser pulses are presented. Chirped pulse interferometry was used for continuous diagnostics of movement in a picosecond range of the rear-side surface of thin iron films. The evolution of ultra-short elastic-plastic shock waves in samples with different thicknesses and purity has been studied. The obtained HEL and spall strength are close to ultimate values of shear and tensile stresses. Response of single-crystal iron to ultra-short shock loading/unloading was also explored in micron-sized films by molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental and simulation results on shock-induced elastic-plastic transformation and phase transition from bcc to hcp iron in a picosecond range of loading are discussed.

  10. The behavior of iron under ultrafast shock loading driven by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashitkov, Sergey; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Komarov, Pavel; Inogamov, Nail; Agranat, Mikhail; Kanel, Gennady

    2015-06-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of shock-wave propagation in bcc iron under ultra-short loads driven by femtosecond laser pulses are presented. Chirped pulse interferometry was used for continuous diagnostics of movement in a picosecond range of the rear-side surface of thin iron films. The evolution of ultra-short elastic-plastic shock waves in samples with different thicknesses and purity has been studied. The obtained HEL and spall strength are close to ultimate values of shear and tensile stresses. Response of single-crystal iron to ultra-short shock loading/unloading was also explored in micron-sized films by molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental and simulation results on shock-induced elastic-plastic transformation and phase transition from bcc to hcp iron in a picosecond range of loading are discussed.

  11. CHOP-mediated hepcidin suppression modulates hepatic iron load.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Katrin; Sunami, Yoshiaki; Stuetzle, Michael; Guldiken, Nurdan; Kucukoglu, Ozlem; Mueller, Sebastian; Kulaksiz, Hasan; Schwarz, Peggy; Strnad, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    The liver is the central regulator of iron metabolism and accordingly, chronic liver diseases often lead to systemic iron overload due to diminished expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To study the largely unknown regulation of iron metabolism in the context of hepatic disease, we used two established models of chronic liver injury, ie repeated carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) or thioacetamide (TAA) injections. To determine the impact of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein (CHOP) on hepcidin production, the effect of a single TAA injection was determined in wild-type and CHOP knockout mice. Furthermore, CHOP and hepcidin expression was assessed in control subjects and patients with alcoholic liver disease. Both chronic injury models developed a distinct iron overload in macrophages. TAA-, but not CCl(4) - injected mice displayed additional iron accumulation in hepatocytes, resulting in a significant hepatic and systemic iron overload which was due to suppressed hepcidin levels. C/EBPα signalling, a known hepcidin inducer, was markedly inhibited in TAA mice, due to lower C/EBPα levels and overexpression of CHOP, a C/EBPα inhibitor. A single TAA injection resulted in a long-lasting (> 6 days) suppression of hepcidin levels and CHOP knockouts (compared to wild-types) displayed significantly attenuated hepcidin down-regulation in response to acute TAA administration. CHOP mRNA levels increased 5-fold in alcoholic liver disease patients versus controls (p < 0.005) and negatively correlated with hepcidin expression. Our results establish CHOP as an important regulator of hepatic hepcidin expression in chronic liver disease. The differences in iron metabolism between the two widely used fibrosis models likely reflect the differential regulation of hepcidin expression in human liver disease.

  12. Iron, lactoferrin and iron regulatory protein activity in the synovium; relative importance of iron loading and the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, C; McInnes, I; Kruger, H; Brock, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the ability of lactoferrin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid to bind "free" iron, and to study the regulatory mechanisms therein that control iron homeostasis.
METHODS—"Free" iron was determined by the bleomycin assay and lactoferrin concentrations by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The activities of iron regulatory protein (IRP) and NF-κB in synovial fluid cells were assayed by mobility shift assay.
RESULTS—30% of synovial fluids contained "free" iron and in these, lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower than in those with no "free" iron (p<0.01). Addition of exogenous lactoferrin consistently reduced the amount of "free" iron in positive synovial fluids. IRP activity in synovial cells did not correlate with synovial fluid iron concentrations but did correlate with NF-κB activation and with serum C reactive protein.
CONCLUSION—Lactoferrin may prevent iron mediated tissue damage in RA by reducing "free" synovial iron concentration when inflammatory stimuli have disregulated IRP mediated iron homeostasis.

 Keywords: lactoferrin; rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation PMID:9741316

  13. Glucose metabolism in the Belgrade rat, a model of iron-loading anemia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuming; Kim, Jonghan; Veuthey, Tania; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-06-15

    The iron-diabetes hypothesis proposes an association between iron overload and glucose metabolism that is supported by a number of epidemiological studies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading thalassemia supports this hypothesis. The Belgrade rat carries a mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) resulting in iron-loading anemia. In this study, we characterized the glycometabolic status of the Belgrade rat. Belgrade rats displayed normal glycemic control. Insulin signaling and secretion were not impaired, and pancreatic tissue did not incur damage despite high levels of nonheme iron. These findings suggest that loss of DMT1 protects against oxidative damage to the pancreas and helps to maintain insulin sensitivity despite iron overload. Belgrade rats had lower body weight but increased food consumption compared with heterozygous littermates. The unexpected energy balance was associated with increased urinary glucose output. Increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, including iron, was also observed. Histopathological evidence suggests that altered renal function is secondary to changes in kidney morphology, including glomerulosclerosis. Thus, loss of DMT1 appears to protect the pancreas from injury but damages the integrity of kidney structure and function.

  14. Stimulation of the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin during iron loading into ferritin.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C A; Aust, S D

    1997-11-15

    Ceruloplasmin purified from horse serum was rapidly reduced upon addition of increasing equivalents of ferrous iron, generating an electronically and conformationally distinct form. This form of ceruloplasmin was characterized by significant (80%) loss of EPR detectable type I and type II copper(II), complete loss of visible absorbance at 610 nm, as well as decreased hydrophobic surface area. The reduced form of ceruloplasmin slowly reduced molecular oxygen to complete its catalytic cycle. The presence of varied concentrations of apoferritin, but not apotransferrin, significantly enhanced the rate of ceruloplasmin oxidation. The magnitude of this stimulatory effect increased as the molar ratio of ceruloplasmin to apoferritin approached 1.0, shown previously to be the optimum ratio for loading iron into ferritin. The rate of ferrous iron oxidation by ceruloplasmin was significantly stimulated by the presence of apoferritin; however, apotransferrin had no effect. The length of time required for ceruloplasmin to oxidize all the iron and return to the native form of the enzyme was also affected by the concentration of iron. In addition, the rate of iron loading into ferritin was dependent upon ferrous iron concentration. These results provide evidence for the formation of a specific complex between the reduced form of ceruloplasmin and apoferritin and that reduction of ceruloplasmin by ferrous iron may be the signal for complex formation.

  15. Glucose metabolism in the Belgrade rat, a model of iron-loading anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xuming; Kim, Jonghan; Veuthey, Tania; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The iron-diabetes hypothesis proposes an association between iron overload and glucose metabolism that is supported by a number of epidemiological studies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading thalassemia supports this hypothesis. The Belgrade rat carries a mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) resulting in iron-loading anemia. In this study, we characterized the glycometabolic status of the Belgrade rat. Belgrade rats displayed normal glycemic control. Insulin signaling and secretion were not impaired, and pancreatic tissue did not incur damage despite high levels of nonheme iron. These findings suggest that loss of DMT1 protects against oxidative damage to the pancreas and helps to maintain insulin sensitivity despite iron overload. Belgrade rats had lower body weight but increased food consumption compared with heterozygous littermates. The unexpected energy balance was associated with increased urinary glucose output. Increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, including iron, was also observed. Histopathological evidence suggests that altered renal function is secondary to changes in kidney morphology, including glomerulosclerosis. Thus, loss of DMT1 appears to protect the pancreas from injury but damages the integrity of kidney structure and function. PMID:23599042

  16. [Evaluation of the iron bioavailability from meals prepared with lentil (Lens esculenta) or with white kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris) in anemic rats].

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Chabchoub Ellouze, Soufia; Doghri, Taïeb

    2005-04-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability from lentil seeds and white kidney bean seeds. The iron bioavailability from diets was measured in rat by the depletion-repletion hemoglobin method and the reserve of iron stored in the liver. Our results showed that the iron bioavailability from meal based on cooked lentil seeds was significantly low (3.9 +/- 0.9%) as compared to the reference group fed with ferrous sulfate (20.4 +/- 4.9%) (p < 0.01) or to the group fed with cooked white kidney bean seeds (14.3 +/- 2.4%) (p < 0.01). Moreover, the reserve of iron stored in the liver was significantly low in rats fed with cooked lentil seeds (80.4 microg) compared to the reference group or to the group fed with cooked white kidney bean seeds (99 microg in the two groups, p < 0.01).

  17. Loading of iron into recombinant rat liver ferritin heteropolymers by ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Juan, S H; Guo, J H; Aust, S D

    1997-05-15

    We have reported previously that the heavy chain of ferritin is required for iron incorporation by ceruloplasmin (J.-H. Guo, M. Abedi, and S. D. Aust (1996) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 335(1)). The purpose of this study was to determine how many heavy chains were required for ceruloplasmin to interact with ferritin such that iron loading occurred. The cDNA sequences encoding the heavy and light chains of rat liver ferritin were cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pA-cUW51 under the control of polyhedrin and p10 promoters, respectively, which was then incorporated by homologous recombination into the infections Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome. Both ferritin chains were expressed and assembled into two heteropolymers following the infection of insect cells by recombinant virus, which were separated by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The percentage of heavy (H) and light (L) chains making up the two heteropolymers, determined by gel scanning following the resolution of chains on SDS-PAGE, were equivalent to 1 H and 23 L chains and 2 H and 22 L chains. The maximal extent of iron loading was observed using 1 mol of rat ceruloplasmin per mole of H chain in the two heteropolymers. The extent of iron incorporation decreased with additional ceruloplasmin. Iron incorporation into rat liver ferritin, found to contain 10 H chains, increased as the molar ratio of ceruloplasmin to ferritin increased to 4:1 and remained the same up to 8:1. Iron loading into horse spleen ferritin, found to have one H chain, appeared similar to that for recombinant ferritin, having only one H chain. Therefore, we propose that the optimal molar ratio of ceruloplasmin to ferritin depends upon the numbers of H chain making up the ferritin molecule for the maximal incorporation of iron into ferritin. These results also suggest that the iron loading channel is contained within a single H chain subunit.

  18. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadfarnia, S.; Haji Shabani, A. M.; Moradi, S. E.; Emami, S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity.

  19. Genetic dissection of seed-iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The SNP-based high-resolution QTL mapping mapped eight major genomic regions harbouring robust QTLs governing seed-Fe and Zn concentrations (39.4% combined phenotypic variation explained/PVE) on six chromosomes of an intra-specific high-density genetic linkage map (1.56 cM map-density). 24620 SNPs discovered from genome-wide GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) and 13 known cloned Fe and Zn contents-related chickpea gene-orthologs were genotyped in a structured population of 92 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions. The large-scale 16591 SNP genotyping- and phenotyping-based GWAS (genome-wide association study) identified 16 genomic loci/genes associated (29% combined PVE) with seed-Fe and Zn concentrations. Of these, 11 trait-associated SNPs in the genes linked tightly with eight QTLs were validated by QTL mapping. The seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential-regulation of 16 trait-associated genes particularly in accessions/mapping individuals with contrasting level of seed-Fe and Zn contents was apparent. Collectively, the aforementioned rapid integrated genomic strategy led to delineate novel functional non-synonymous and regulatory SNP allelic-variants from 16 known/candidate genes, including three strong trait-associated genes (encoding late embryogenesis abundant and yellow stripe-like 1 protein, and vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein) and eight major QTLs regulating seed-Fe and Zn concentrations in chickpea. These essential inputs thus have potential to be deployed in marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing nutritionally-rich iron/zinc-biofortified chickpea cultivars. PMID:27063651

  20. A novel approach to oral iron delivery using ferrous sulphate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Elsaid, Naba; Jackson, Timothy L; Corral López, Francisco; Farnaud, Sebastien; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-11-18

    Iron (Fe) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN's) were formulated using stearic acid and iron absorption was evaluated in vitro using the cell line Caco-2 with intracellular ferritin formation as a marker of iron absorption. Iron loading was optimised at 1% Fe (w/w) lipid since an inverse relation was observed between initial iron concentration and SLN iron incorporation efficiency. Chitosan (Chi) was included to prepare chitosan coated SLN's. Particle size analysis revealed a sub-micron size range (300.3±31.75 nm to 495.1±80.42 nm), with chitosan containing particles having the largest dimensions. As expected, chitosan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% w/v) conferred a net positive charge on the particle surface in a concentration dependent manner. For iron absorption experiments equal doses of Fe (20 μM) from selected formulations (SLN-FeA and SLN-Fe-ChiB) were added to Caco-2 cells and intracellular ferritin protein concentrations determined. Caco-2 iron absorption from SLN-FeA (583.98±40.83 ng/mg cell protein) and chitosan containing SLN-Fe-ChiB (642.77±29.37 ng/mg cell protein) were 13.42% and 24.9% greater than that from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) reference (514.66±20.43 ng/mg cell protein) (p≤0.05). We demonstrate for the first time preparation, characterisation and superior iron absorption in vitro from SLN's, suggesting the potential of these formulations as a novel system for oral iron delivery.

  1. Frataxin and the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial iron-loading in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shannon; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Merlot, Angelica M; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Huang, Michael L-H; Richardson, Des R

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondrion is a major site for the metabolism of the transition metal, iron, which is necessary for metabolic processes critical for cell vitality. The enigmatic mitochondrial protein, frataxin, is known to play a significant role in both cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism due to its iron-binding properties and its involvement in iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and heme synthesis. The inherited neuro- and cardio-degenerative disease, Friedreich's ataxia (FA), is caused by the deficient expression of frataxin that leads to deleterious alterations in iron metabolism. These changes lead to the accumulation of inorganic iron aggregates in the mitochondrial matrix that are presumed to play a key role in the oxidative damage and subsequent degenerative features of this disease. Furthermore, the concurrent dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense, which coincides with frataxin deficiency, exacerbates oxidative stress. Hence, the pathogenesis of FA underscores the importance of the integrated homeostasis of cellular iron metabolism and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox environments. This review focuses on describing the pathogenesis of the disease, the molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial iron-loading and the dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense due to frataxin deficiency. In turn, current and emerging therapeutic strategies are also discussed.

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world's children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability.

  3. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world’s children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability. PMID:25609917

  4. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  5. Efficacy and safety of iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox for the treatment of iron-loaded patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rate of thalassemia, which is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean, exceeds 100,000 live births per year. There are many genetic variants in thalassemia with different pathological severity, ranging from a mild and asymptomatic anemia to life-threatening clinical effects, requiring lifelong treatment, such as regular transfusions in thalassemia major (TM). Some of the thalassemias are non-transfusion-dependent, including many thalassemia intermedia (TI) variants, where iron overload is caused by chronic increase in iron absorption due to ineffective erythropoiesis. Many TI patients receive occasional transfusions. The rate of iron overloading in TI is much slower in comparison to TM patients. Iron toxicity in TI is usually manifested by the age of 30–40 years, and in TM by the age of 10 years. Subcutaneous deferoxamine (DFO), oral deferiprone (L1), and DFO–L1 combinations have been effectively used for more than 20 years for the treatment of iron overload in TM and TI patients, causing a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Selected protocols using DFO, L1, and their combination can be designed for personalized chelation therapy in TI, which can effectively and safely remove all the excess toxic iron and prevent cardiac, liver, and other organ damage. Both L1 and DF could also prevent iron absorption. The new oral chelator deferasirox (DFX) increases iron excretion and decreases liver iron in TM and TI. There are drawbacks in the use of DFX in TI, such as limitations related to dose, toxicity, and cost, iron load of the patients, and ineffective removal of excess iron from the heart. Furthermore, DFX appears to increase iron and other toxic metal absorption. Future treatments of TI and related iron-loading conditions could involve the use of the iron-chelating drugs and other drug combinations not only for increasing iron excretion but also for preventing iron absorption. PMID:26893541

  6. Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Doxorubicine Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Masood, Misbah; Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery. PMID:27348436

  7. Effect of iron oxide loading on the phase transformation and physicochemical properties of nanosized mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Basahel, S.N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Narasimharao, K.; Bagabas, A.A.; Mokhtar, M.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Modified preparation method for nanosized iron oxide supported ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. ► Systematic study of effect of high iron oxide loading over ZrO{sub 2}. ► Influence of iron oxide on the stabilization of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase. ► A mesoporous nature of zirconia changed upon changing iron oxide loading. ► Surface to bulk migration of iron oxide evidenced by XPS technique. -- Abstract: Mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}-supported iron oxide materials were prepared with nominal loadings of iron oxide of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% using a modified co-precipitation method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy methods. A delay in the ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation as a result of the incorporation of iron was determined using TG/DSC measurements. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM results revealed that an increase of iron oxide loading from 5 to 15 wt.% enhanced the transformation of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase. Unexpectedly, 20 wt.% iron oxide loading was required for complete tetragonal structure stabilization due to the mesoporosity of the ZrO{sub 2} support. Iron oxide loadings from 5 to 15 wt.% showed an increase in the BET-surface area due to the presence of amorphous iron oxide on the surface. XPS and FTIR results indicated that increasing the iron oxide content to 20 wt.% resulted in stabilization of the tetragonal zirconia phase as a result of surface-to-bulk migration and incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the ZrO{sub 2} lattice.

  8. Evidence for a protein-protein complex during iron loading into ferritin by ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C A; Sorlie, M; Aust, S D

    1998-06-01

    The formation of a protein-protein complex for the loading of iron into ferritin by ceruloplasmin was investigated. Ferritin stimulated the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin unless the ferritin was fully loaded, in which case it inhibited the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin. The apparent association constant for the interaction of ferritin and ceruloplasmin was 24 nM. Isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that the interaction of ceruloplasmin and ferritin was endothermic, driven by positive changes in entropy. The association constants for complex formation between ferritin and ceruloplasmin were 4.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(5) and 9.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M-1 for the reduced and oxidized forms of ceruloplasmin, respectively. The oxidized form of ceruloplasmin was retained on an affinity column with ferritin immobilized as the ligand and remained bound to the column with mobile phases of increased hydrophobicity, but was eluted with increased ionic strength. The ability of ceruloplasmin to remain bound to the affinity resin was affected by the species from which ceruloplasmin was isolated. Gradient ultracentrifugation also provided evidence that the two proteins were associated, since ferritin promoted migration of ceruloplasmin through the gradient. Including ferrous iron in the gradient resulted in reduction of ceruloplasmin and increased the mobility of ceruloplasmin with ferritin. These data provide evidence that ferritin and ceruloplasmin form a protein-protein complex during iron loading into ferritin, which may limit redox cycling of iron in vivo.

  9. Single Particle Analysis of Oceanic Suspended Matters During the SEEDS II Iron Fertilization Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Narita, Y.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic suspended particles play an important role regulating the chemical composition of seawater through the removal of trace elements from surface water to deep water and their lateral transport. Therefore, physical and chemical properties of these particles reflect the characteristics of water mass and marine ecosystem under the perturbation of marine environment such as iron fertilization. To consider the physical and/or chemical variation of these particles in the water column, it is necessary to analyze size, number and chemical composition of individual particles. Suspended particles in the surface seawater were collected during the SEEDS II (Subarctic Iron Experiment for Ecosystem and Dynamics Study II) iron fertilization experiment in the summer of 2004. The particulate samples were analyzed by Electron probe X-ray micro analyzer (EPMA) and characterized by size and major and minor elements ranged from 0.4 to 10 μ m in diameter. These particles were classified into five groups based on their chemical compositions: Al-Si, Si-rich, Ca-rich, Organic and Others. Most of particles were Si-rich, Ca-rich and Organic. Si-rich and Ca-rich particles were mainly consist of detritus of phytoplankton.In the iron-fertilized patch area, Chl-a concentration covaried with dry weight, number and volume concentrations of the suspended particles. At 20 m depth, the number concentration of Organic particles having two peaks at 1.1 and 0.65 μ m in diameter increased within 2 days after the iron fertilization, and then gradually increased. It is suggested that the increase in suspended particles, mostly detritus of planktonic shells, corresponded to that in primary production. The contents by weight of Si in Si-rich particle and the content by weight of Ca in Ca-rich particle tended to decrease in size. In fine mode particle, Si-rich and Ca-rich particles contained more P and S as biolimiting elements and less Al, Ti, Mn, and Fe as crustal elements. The smaller Organic

  10. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels.

  11. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in differently loaded regions of collagen gels seeded with valvular interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Werdenberg, Jennifer A; Blevins, Tracy L; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2007-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in mechanical strains by varying their production of extracellular matrix macromolecules. Because differences in strain patterns between mitral valve leaflets and chordae tendineae have been linked to different quantities and types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), we investigated the effects of various strain conditions on GAG synthesis by valvular interstitial cells (VICs) using an in vitro 3-dimensional tissue-engineering model. VICs from leaflets or chordae were seeded within collagen gels and subjected to uniaxial or biaxial static tension for 1 week. GAGs synthesized within the collagen gels and secreted into the surrounding medium were analyzed using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. In constrained conditions, more 4-sulfated GAGs were retained within the collagen gel, whereas more hyaluronan was secreted into the surrounding medium. Selected GAG classes were found in significantly different proportions in collagen gels seeded with leaflet cells versus chordal cells. The only significant difference between uniaxial and biaxial regions was found for 6-sulfated GAGs in the gels seeded with chordal cells (p<0.05). This study suggests how mechanical loading may influence GAG production and localization in the remodeling of the mitral valve and has design implications for engineered tissues.

  12. The expression of heterologous Fe (III) phytosiderophore transporter HvYS1 in rice increases Fe uptake, translocation and seed loading and excludes heavy metals by selective Fe transport.

    PubMed

    Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernández, Ána; Abadía, Javier; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Many metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals. Plants expressing HvYS1 showed modest increases in Fe uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, seed accumulation and endosperm loading, but without any change in the uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, Mn or Cu, confirming the selective transport of Fe. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in the endosperm did not differ significantly between the wild-type and HvYS1 lines, but the transgenic endosperm contained significantly lower concentrations of Cu. Furthermore, the transgenic lines showed a significantly reduced Cd uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and accumulation in the seeds. The underlying mechanism of metal uptake and translocation reflects the down-regulation of promiscuous endogenous metal transporters revealing an internal feedback mechanism that limits seed loading with Fe. This promotes the preferential mobilization and loading of Fe, therefore displacing Cu and Cd in the seed.

  13. The Rehbinder effect in iron during giga-cycle fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect

    Bannikov, M. V. Naimark, O. B.

    2015-10-27

    The influence of the adsorptive strength reduction effect (the Rehbinder effect) on the fatigue life of pure iron under the giga-cycle loading regime was investigated. Specimens were loaded by an ultrasonic testing machine with a frequency of 20 kHz in air and in contact with eutectic alloy of gallium with tin and indium. A significant (by several orders of magnitude) worsening of the life-time of iron in contact with a molten metal as compared with tests in air was established. The liquid metal penetrates into the material to a depth of 200 μm to the center of a fatigue crack. The mechanism of the fatigue crack initiation in the giga-cycle regime of loading in contact with a surfactant is differing: the crack is formed on the surface of the specimen rather than within it as is the case for air. Based on the electron and optical microscopy data for the fracture surface, it can be concluded that exactly the change in the crack initiation mechanism reduces the fatigue life of iron in contact with a liquid metal because the initiated crack propagates regardless of the surfactant.

  14. Positive Contrast MRI Techniques for Visualization of Iron-Loaded Hernia Mesh Implants in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ciritsis, Alexander; Truhn, Daniel; Hansen, Nienke L.; Otto, Jens; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Kraemer, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Object In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI) and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM) for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients. Material and Methods Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A gradient echo sequence (GRE; parameters: TR: 8.3ms; TE: 4.3ms; NSA:2; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) and a PCSI sequence (parameters: TR: 25ms; TE: 4.6ms; NSA:4; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) with on-resonant proton suppression were performed. SGM maps were calculated using two algorithms. Image quality and mesh delineation were independently evaluated by three radiologists. Results On GRE, the iron-loaded meshes generated distinct susceptibility-induced signal voids. PCSI exhibited susceptibility differences including the meshes as hyperintense signals. SGM exhibited susceptibility differences with positive contrast. Visually, the different algorithms presented no significant differences. Overall, the diagnostic value was rated best in GRE whereas PCSI and SGM were barely “sufficient”. Conclusion Both “positive contrast” techniques depicted implanted meshes with hyperintense signal. SGM comes without additional acquisition time and can therefore be utilized in every patient. PMID:27192201

  15. OPT3 is a component of the iron-signaling network between leaves and roots and misregulation of OPT3 leads to an over-accumulation of cadmium in seeds.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Jobe, Timothy O; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-09-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling.

  16. OPT3 Is a Component of the Iron-Signaling Network between Leaves and Roots and Misregulation of OPT3 Leads to an Over-Accumulation of Cadmium in Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G.; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

  17. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  18. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Loaded Porous Sepiolite for Decolorizing Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingmiao; Ren, Gaofeng; Jia, Feifei; Song, Shaoxian

    2017-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of nanoscale zero-valent iron-loaded porous sepiolite, as well as its application in the decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous solution, have been studied in this work through the measurements of field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area. The results showed that nanoscale zero-valent iron particles were successfully loaded on the surface and interior pores of sepiolite through physical adsorption. It was revealed that the decoloration capacity of methylene blue on nanoscale zero-valent iron-loaded porous sepiolite in water was comparable to that of nanoscale zero-valent iron, and nine times higher than that of natural sepiolite. This indicates that porous sepiolite was a good supporter for the loading of nanoscale zero-valent iron and nanoscale zero-valent iron-loaded sepiolite was a good decolorant because of its high decoloration efficiency and easy separation.

  20. Physical behavior of the SEEDS iron-fertilized patch by sulphur hexafluoride tracer release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    The first iron (Fe) - fertilization experiment in the western North Pacific was carried out using SF 6 to trace the Fe-fertilized water mass. A solution in 10,800 liters of seawater of 350 kg of Fe and 0.48 M of SF 6 tracer was released into the mixed layer over a 8 × 10 km area. On the first underway transects through the patch after the Fe release, we observed a significant increase of dissolved Fe (ave. 2.89 nM). The fertilized patch was traced for 14 days by on-board SF 6 analysis. A Lagrangian frame of reference was maintained by the use of a drogued GPS buoy released at the center of the patch. The patch moved westward at a rate of 6.8 km d -1. Mixed layer depth increased from 8.5 to 15 m during the experiment. Horizontal diffusivity was determined by the change of SF 6 concentration in the patch. The horizontal diffusivity increased during the experiment. We evaluate here the fate of Fe in a Fe-fertilized patch using the dilution rate determined from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6) concentration. Dissolved Fe concentrations subsequently decreased rapidly to ∼0.15 nM on Day 13. However, the dissolved Fe half-life of ∼43 h was relatively longer than in previous Fe-enrichment studies, and we observed a larger increase of the centric diatom standing stock and corresponding drawdown of macro-nutrients and carbon dioxide than in the previous studies. The most important reason for the larger response was the phytoplankton species in the western North Pacific. In addition, the smaller diffusivity and shallower mixed layer were effective to sustain the higher dissolved Fe concentration compared to previous experiments. This might be one reason for the larger response of diatoms in SEEDS.

  1. Effects of pollen load, parasitoids and the environment on pre-dispersal seed predation in the cleistogamous Ruellia nudiflora.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have simultaneously addressed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pre-dispersal seed predation (PSP). Plant-seed predator interactions may be influenced by natural enemies and pollinators (the latter through changes in fruit or seed traits), and the activity of pre-dispersal seed predators and their natural enemies may both be affected by the abiotic environment. Additionally, in the case of cleistogamous plants with fruit dimorphism, PSP may be biased towards larger and more seeded chasmogamous (CH) fruits [relative to the smaller cleistogamous (CL) fruits], and the effects of biotic and abiotic factors may be contingent upon this fruit dimorphism. We studied PSP in the cleistogamous Ruellia nudiflora using a split-plot experimental design and asked the following: (1) is PSP biased towards CH fruits and is there an effect of pollen load on PSP? (2) Do parasitoids influence PSP and is their effect influenced by pollen load or fruit type? And (3) do light and water availability modify PSP and parasitoid effects? PSP was higher for CH relative to CL fruits, and under low water availability it was lower for pollen-supplemented CH fruits relative to open-pollinated CH fruits. Parasitoids were not influenced by abiotic conditions, but their negative effect on PSP was stronger for pollen-supplemented CH fruits. Overall, we show that fruit dimorphism, abiotic factors and natural enemies affect PSP, and that these effects can be non-additive.

  2. Iron-Loaded Magnetic Nanocapsules for pH-Triggered Drug Release and MRI Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanocapsules were synthesized for controlled drug release, magnetically assisted delivery, and MRI imaging. These magnetic nanocapsules, consisting of a stable iron nanocore and a mesoporous silica shell, were synthesized by controlled encapsulation of ellipsoidal hematite in silica, partial etching of the hematite core in acid, and reduction of the core by hydrogen. The iron core provided a high saturation magnetization and was stable against oxidation for at least 6 months in air and 1 month in aqueous solution. The hollow space between the iron core and mesoporous silica shell was used to load anticancer drug and a T1-weighted MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA). These multifunctional monodispersed magnetic “nanoeyes” were coated by multiple polyelectrolyte layers of biocompatible poly-l-lysine and sodium alginate to control the drug release as a function of pH. We studied pH-controlled release, magnetic hysteresis curves, and T1/T2 MRI contrast of the magnetic nanoeyes. They also served as MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 8.6 mM–1 s–1 (r1) and 285 mM–1 s–1 (r2). PMID:24748722

  3. Myocardial Iron Loading Assessment by Automatic Left Ventricle Segmentation with Morphological Operations and Geodesic Active Contour on T2* images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun-Gang; Ko, Jacky Kl; Shi, Lin; Guan, Yuefeng; Li, Linong; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Chu, Winnie Cw; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial iron loading thalassemia patients could be identified using T2* magnetic resonance images (MRI). To quantitatively assess cardiac iron loading, we proposed an effective algorithm to segment aligned free induction decay sequential myocardium images based on morphological operations and geodesic active contour (GAC). Nine patients with thalassemia major were recruited (10 male and 16 female) to undergo a thoracic MRI scan in the short axis view. Free induction decay images were registered for T2* mapping. The GAC were utilized to segment aligned MR images with a robust initialization. Segmented myocardium regions were divided into sectors for a region-based quantification of cardiac iron loading. Our proposed automatic segmentation approach achieve a true positive rate at 84.6% and false positive rate at 53.8%. The area difference between manual and automatic segmentation was 25.5% after 1000 iterations. Results from T2* analysis indicated that regions with intensity lower than 20 ms were suffered from heavy iron loading in thalassemia major patients. The proposed method benefited from abundant edge information of the free induction decay sequential MRI. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible in myocardium segmentation and was clinically applicable to measure myocardium iron loading.

  4. Inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are essential elements needed in small amounts for adequate human nutrition and include the elements iron and zinc. Both of these minerals are essential to human well-being, and an adequate supply of iron and zinc helps to prevent iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency, two preva...

  5. [An experimental study on the protective effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for the primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from iron-loaded rats].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, J

    1995-01-01

    Pathological iron deposition in liver is often found in various liver diseases. The deposited iron is thought to be one of the most important factor of liver cell injury, not only in hemochromotosis but also in cirrhosis following hepatitis virus B or C infection. To investigate the influence of the deposited iron on damage and regeneration of hepatocyte, primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from carbonyl iron-loaded rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the presence or absence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Although the section of liver from carbonyl iron-loaded rats showed no necrosis and fibrosis, iron-loaded hepatocytes contained about twofold more iron than control. The damage of iron-loaded hepatocytes induced by CCl4 was more serious than that of control, and HGF decreased this injury only in iron-loaded hepatocytes but not in control. There is no difference in DNA synthesis stimulated by HGF between iron-loaded hepatocytes and control. These findings suggest that the pathological iron deposition induces the fragility of hepatocyte and that cytoprotective effect of HGF is induced by this pathological iron.

  6. Effect of ferrous sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed iron concentration and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Ying, Feng; Yang, Xiaoe; Wu, Chunyong; Wang, Yuyan

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of germination and iron fortification on iron concentration and bioavailability of brown rice. Iron fortification during germination process with 0.05-2 g/L ferrous sulfate increased the iron concentration in germinated brown rice from 1.1 to 15.6 times than those in raw brown rice. Based on the recommended dietary allowance of iron, maximum germination rate and γ-aminobutyric acid, we recommend the brown rice fortified with 0.25 g/L FeSO(4) as a suitable fortification level to use in germination process. Iron fortification during the germination process has a positive effect on iron concentration and bioavailability. A significant difference was observed among the cultivars in respect to the capacity for iron accumulation and bioavailability. Germination alone could improve in vitro iron solubility, but had no effect on iron bioavailability in Caco-2 cell, the additional fortification process should be combined to get high amount of bioavailable iron from the brown rice.

  7. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction.

  8. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  9. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary disease is associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bility, Moses T; Sripa, Banchob

    2014-12-01

    Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection.

  10. An enhanced drought-tolerant method using SA-loaded PAMPS polymer materials applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110 °C; even at 25 °C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  11. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds. PMID:25250387

  12. Moving toward a precise nutrition: preferential loading of seeds with essential nutrients over non-essential toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mather A.; Castro-Guerrero, Norma; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main source of essential nutrients for humans and livestock. Many advances have recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants take up and accumulate micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Some of these mechanisms, however, also facilitate the accumulation of non-essential toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). In humans, Cd and As intake has been associated with multiple disorders including kidney failure, diabetes, cancer and mental health issues. Recent studies have shown that some transporters can discriminate between essential metals and non-essential elements. Furthermore, sequestration of non-essential elements in roots has been described in several plant species as a key process limiting the translocation of non-essential elements to aboveground edible tissues, including seeds. Increasing the concentration of bioavailable micronutrients (biofortification) in grains while lowering the accumulation of non-essential elements will likely require the concerted action of several transporters. This review discusses the most recent advances on mineral nutrition that could be used to preferentially enrich seeds with micronutrients and also illustrates how precision breeding and transport engineering could be used to enhance the nutritional value of crops by re-routing essential and non-essential elements to separate sink tissues (roots and seeds). PMID:24600463

  13. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, R.A.; Euliss, N.H.; Hubbard, D.E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive agricultural activities near prairie wetlands may result in excessive sediment loads, which may bury seed and invertebrate egg banks that are important for maintenance and cycling of biotic communities during wet/dry cycles. Sediment-load experiments indicated that burial depths of 0.5 cm caused a 91.7% reduction in total seedling emergence and a 99.7% reduction in total invertebrate emergence. These results suggest sediment entering wetlands from agricultural erosion may hamper successional changes throughout interannual climate cycles.

  14. Lasing and magnetic microbeads loaded with colloidal quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Minxu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Andrew Y; Hu, Wenjia; Wang, Jingkang; Sun, Fengqing; Zhu, Yiming; Henderson, Ron; Xu, Jian

    2013-10-21

    This study investigates the feasibility of loading nanostructured lasing medium and magnetic nanocrystals in the same microbead for potential applications in bio- and chemical sensing. A sequential infiltration process is proposed and tested for the preparation of magnetic and lasing microbeads by incorporating, respectively, iron oxide nanocrystals in the inner cores and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in the periphery regions of mesoporous silica microbeads. The co-doped bead structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The lasing action of the CQD gain medium in the mesoporous beads was characterized with micro-photoluminescence, revealing sharp whispering gallery mode lasing signatures, whereas the distinguishing superparamagnetic property was measured from the co-doped microbeads with vibrating sample magnetometry.

  15. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  16. NADH induces iron release from pea seed ferritin: a model for interaction between coenzyme and protein components in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chenyan; Bai, Yufei; Yang, Senpei; Zhao, Guanghua; Chen, Bin

    2013-12-15

    Plant ferritin from legume seeds co-exists with coenzyme NADH (a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide) in many foodstuffs. In the present study, the interaction of NADH with apo pea seed ferritin (PSF) was investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence titration, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We found that NADH molecules bound on the outer surface of PSF close to the 4-fold channels, which was 1.58 nm from tryptophan residue (Trp). Consequently, such binding facilitates iron release from holo PSF, which might have a negative effect on PSF as an iron supplement, while NADH was oxidised into NAD(+). However, the binding of NADH to the protein does not affect the entry of toxic ferrous ions into the apo protein shell, where these ferrous ions were oxidised into less toxic ferric ions. Moreover, NADH binding markedly affects the tertiary structure around Trp residues of PSF. These findings advanced our understanding of the interactions between different naturally occurring components in a complex food system.

  17. Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C: Correlation between Immunohistochemically-Assessed Virus Load with Steatosis and Cellular Iron Content

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Maha; Hindawi, Ali EL; Mosaad, Maha; Montasser, Ahmed; Ray, Ahmed El; Khalil, Heba; Anas, Amgad; Atta, Raffat; Paradis, Valerie; Hadi, Ahmed Abdel; Hammam, Olfat

    2016-01-01

    AIM: We aimed study impact of hepatocytic viral load, steatosis, and iron load on fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C and role of VEGF and VEGFR overexpression in cirrhotic cases in evolving HCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total of 120 cases were included from TBRI and Beaujon Hospital as chronic hepatitis C (CHC), post-hepatitis C cirrhosis, and HCC. Cases of CHC were stained for Sirius red, Prussian blue and immunohistochemically (IHC) for HCV-NS3/NS4. HCC were stained IHC for VEGF and by FISH. RESULTS: Stage of fibrosis was significantly correlated with inflammation in CHC (P < 0.01). Noticed iron load did not correlate with fibrosis. Steatosis was associated with higher inflammation and fibrosis. The cellular viral load did not correlate with inflammation, steatosis or fibrosis. VEGF by IHC was significantly higher in cases of HCC when compared to cirrhotic group (P < 0.001). Amplification of VEGFR2 was confirmed in 40% of cases of HCC. Scoring of VEGF by IHC was the good indicator of VEGFR2 amplification by FISH (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Grade of inflammation is the factor affecting fibrosis in CHC. The degree of liver damage is not related to cellular viral load or iron load. Steatosis is associated with higher inflammation and fibrosis. VEGF by IHC is correlated with overexpression of VEGFR2 by FISH. PMID:28028394

  18. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values.

    PubMed

    Koster van Groos, Paul G; Kaplan, Daniel I; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C; Li, Dien; Peacock, Aaron D; Scheckel, Kirk G; Jaffé, Peter R

    2016-11-01

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (∼0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed sediments were an order of magnitude greater than concentrations in root excluded sediments. Micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy indicated that U was associated with the plant roots primarily as U(VI) or U(V), with limited evidence of U(IV). Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) of plant roots suggested that for high iron loading at circumneutral pH, U was co-located with Fe, perhaps co-precipitated with root Fe plaques, while for low iron loading at a pH of ∼4 the correlation between U and Fe was not significant, consistent with previous observations of U associated with organic matter. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated that the root exposed sediments also contained elevated numbers of Geobacter spp., which are likely associated with enhanced iron cycling, but may also reduce mobile U(VI) to less mobile U(IV) species.

  19. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanxing; Cui, Chenchen; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang; Pan, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10 mg L(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2 mg L(-1)) removal in 60 min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100 mg L(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

  20. Dual drug loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Singh, Abhalaxmi; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-05-01

    The primary inadequacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is their relative non-specificity and potential side effects to the healthy tissues. To overcome this, drug loaded multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are conceptualized. We report here an aqueous based formulation of glycerol monooleate coated magnetic nanoparticles (GMO-MNPs) devoid of any surfactant capable of carrying high payload hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The biocompatibility was confirmed by tumor necrosis factor alpha assay, confocal microscopy. High entrapment efficiency approximately 95% and sustained release of encapsulated drugs for more than two weeks under in vitro conditions was achieved for different anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, rapamycin, alone or combination). Drug loaded GMO-MNPs did not affect the magnetization properties of the iron oxide core as confirmed by magnetization study. Additionally the MNPs were functionalized with carboxylic groups by coating with DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) for the supplementary conjugation of amines. For targeted therapy, HER2 antibody was conjugated to GMO-MNPs and showed enhanced uptake in human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) doses revealed potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7. Therefore, antibody conjugated GMO-MNPs could be used as potential drug carrier for the active therapeutic aspects in cancer therapy.

  1. Folic acid-conjugated iron oxide porous nanorods loaded with doxorubicin for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Xia, Xi-Ming; Wu, Ming; Cui, Can; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Lei; Wu, Bo; Wang, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Liu-Jie; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Huang, Shi-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Iron oxide porous nanorods (IOPNR) with lengths ranging from 40nm to 60nm and pore diameters ranging from 5nm to 10nm were prepared, and further modified with NH2-PEG-FA (FA-PEG-IOPNR) for ligand targeting and modified with NH2-PEG-OCH3 (PEG-IOPNR) as a control. Instead of chemical bonding, doxorubicin (DOX), a low water solubility anticancer drug, was loaded in the pores of the modified IOPNR because of their porous structure and high porosity. The release of DOX in acidic PBS solution (pH 5.3) was faster than that in neutral (pH 7.4) solution. The analysis results from TEM, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry analyses indicated that the presence of FA on the surface of the nanorods increase the cellular uptake of nanorods in the case of HeLa cells, a folate receptor (FR)-positive cell line. In contrast, for COS 7 cells, a FR-negative cell line, FA ligand on the surface of the nanorods showed no effect on the cellular uptake. MTT assay indicated that the cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in FA-PEG-IOPNR to HeLa cells was higher than that of DOX in PEG-IOPNR. In the case of COS 7 cells, no significant difference between the cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in FA-PEG-IOPNR and PEG-IOPNR was found. These results suggested that FA-PEG-IOPNR had the potential for target delivery of chemotherapeutic into cancer cells.

  2. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  3. QTL analyses for seed iron and zinc concentrations in an intra-genepool population of Andean common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Astudillo, Carohna; Rengifo, Judith; Beebe, Steve E; Graham, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Legumes provide essential micronutrients that are found only in low amounts in the cereals or root crops. An ongoing project at CIAT has shown that the legume common bean is variable in the amount of seed minerals (iron, zinc, and other elements), vitamins, and sulfur amino acids that they contain and that these traits are likely to be inherited quantitatively. In this study we analyzed iron and zinc concentrations in an Andean recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 100 lines derived from a cross between G21242, a Colombian cream-mottled climbing bean with high seed iron/zinc and G21078, an Argentinean cream seeded climbing bean with low seed iron/zinc. The population was planted across three environments; seed from each genotype was analyzed with two analytical methods, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping and single-point analyses. A complete genetic map was created for the cross using a total of 74 microsatellite markers to anchor the map to previously published reference maps and 42 RAPD markers. In total, nine seed mineral QTL were identified on five linkage groups (LGs) with the most important being new loci on b02 and other QTL on b06, b08, and b07 near phaseolin. Seed weight QTL were associated with these on b02 and b08. These Andean-derived QTL are candidates for marker-assisted selection either in combination with QTL from the Mesoamerican genepool or with other QTL found in inter and intra-genepool crosses, and the genetic map can be used to anchor other intra-genepool studies.

  4. Normalisation of total body iron load with very intensive combined chelation reverses cardiac and endocrine complications of thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Farmaki, Kallistheni; Tzoumari, Ioanna; Pappa, Christina; Chouliaras, Giorgos; Berdoukas, Vasilios

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac and endocrine disorders are common sequelae of iron overload in transfused thalassaemia patients. Combined chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) is well tolerated and produces an additive/synergistic effect superior to either drug alone. 52 thalassaemia major patients were transitioned from DFO to combined chelation with DFO and DFP. Serum ferritin, cardiac and hepatic iron levels were monitored regularly for up to 7 years, as were cardiac and endocrine function. Patients' iron load normalized, as judged by ferritin and cardiac and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging findings. In all 12 patients receiving treatment for cardiac dysfunction, symptoms reversed following combined chelation, enabling nine patients to discontinue heart medications. In the 39 patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, 44% normalized. In 18 requiring thyroxine supplementation for hypothyroidism, 10 were able to discontinue, and four reduced their thyroxine dose. In 14 hypogonadal males on testosterone therapy, seven stopped treatment. Of the 19 females, who were hypogonadal on DFO monotherapy, six were able to conceive. Moreover, no patients developed de novo cardiac or endocrine complications. These results suggest that intensive combined chelation normalized patients' iron load and thereby prevented and reversed cardiac and multiple endocrine complications associated with transfusion iron overload.

  5. Environmental effects on sex differences in the genetic load for adult lifespan in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, C W; Stillwell, R C

    2009-07-01

    We have little understanding of how environmental conditions affect the expression of the genetic load for lifespan and adult mortality rates, or how this environmental dependence affect tests of models for the evolution of senescence. We use the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model to explore how the inbreeding load (L) affecting adult lifespan varies with rearing conditions (diet and temperature), and how rearing conditions affect tests of the mutation accumulation model of senescence. When reared under benign conditions, there was a large sex difference in inbreeding depression (delta) and the inbreeding load (L=0.51-0.86 lethal equivalents per gamete for females L= approximately 0 for males). This sex difference in L was dependent on temperature, but not on rearing host or heat shock. At both high and low temperatures (relative to intermediate temperature) L increased for males, and L converged for the sexes at low temperature (L=0.26-0.53 for both sexes). Correlations were small for L between pairs of temperatures, indicating that the genes responsible for the inbreeding load differed between temperatures. In contrast to predictions of the mutation accumulation model of senescence, the age-specific inbreeding load for the adult mortality rate (L(u(t))) did not increase with age in any rearing environment. The genetic load underlying lifespan and adult mortality rates, and large sex differences in the genetic load, is highly dependent on environmental conditions. Estimating the genetic load in benign laboratory environments may be insufficient to predict the genetics underlying lifespan variation in nature where environmental variation is the norm.

  6. The effect of mechanical properties of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded functional nano-carrier on tumor targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Il; Kim, Ja-Young; Heo, Seon U; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kim, Young Ha; Tae, Giyoong

    2012-09-10

    To achieve a sufficient targeting efficiency and prolonged half-life in-vivo, the physicochemical parameters including size and surface chemistry of therapeutic and imaging agents should be controlled. In this study, we prepared an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-loaded, functional nano-carrier with different loading contents to modulate the mechanical properties of the system, and compared the characteristics of tumor targeting and imaging in terms of loading contents of IONP. As a functional nano-carrier, chitosan-conjugated, Pluronic-based nano-carrier with useful properties such as long blood circulation, good tumor targeting, and easy loading of macromolecules was used. IONPs were efficiently encapsulated into the nano-carrier (high loading efficiency over 95%) and the mechanical properties of the IONP-loaded nano-carrier were controlled by varying the loading amount of IONP. The IONP-loaded nano-carrier with the higher loading content of IONP (40 wt.%) was significantly more rigid (over 2×) than those with lower loading contents of IONP (5 and 15 wt.%). Although the nano-carrier with the higher loading content of IONP showed more enhanced MR contrast effect with higher T(2) relaxivity and higher intracellular uptake in vitro, characteristics of in-vivo tumor targeting and MR cancer imaging were not good compared to that of the nano-carrrier with the lower loading contents of IONP. Since different loading contents did not affect other characteristics of the system (size, surface chemistry, and surface charge), the present result suggests that the mechanical properties (strength/flexibility) of nano-systems are also important factors to be controlled for targeted delivery and imaging.

  7. Iron Loading-Induced Aggregation and Reduction of Iron Incorporation in Heteropolymeric Ferritin Containing a Mutant Light Chain that Causes Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Muhoberac, Barry B.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Vidal, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary Ferritinopathy (HF) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs) and iron accumulation throughout the central nervous system. Ferritin IBs are composed of mutant ferritin light chain as well as wild type light (Wt-FTL) and heavy chain (FTH1) polypeptides. In vitro studies have shown that the mutant light chain polypeptide p.Phe167SerfsX26 (Mt-FTL) forms soluble ferritin 24-mer homopolymers having a specific structural disruption that explains its functional problems of reduced ability to incorporate iron and aggregation during iron loading. However, because ferritins are usually 24-mer heteropolymers and all three polypeptides are found in IBs, we investigated the properties of Mt-FTL/FTH1 and Mt-FTL/Wt-FTL heteropolymeric ferritins. We show here the facile assembly of Mt-FTL and FTH1 subunits into soluble ferritin heteropolymers, but their ability to incorporate iron was significantly reduced relative to Wt-FTL/FTH1 heteropolymers. In addition, Mt-FTL/FTH1 heteropolymers formed aggregates during iron loading, contrasting Wt-FTL/FTH1 heteropolymers and similar to what was seen for Mt-FTL homopolymers. The resulting precipitate contained both Mt-FTL and FTH1 polypeptides as do ferritin IBs in patients with HF. The presence of Mt-FTL subunits in Mt-FTL/Wt-FTL heteropolymers also caused iron loading-induced aggregation relative to Wt-FTL homopolymers, with the precipitate containing Mt- and Wt-FTL polypeptides again paralleling HF. Our data demonstrate that co-assembly with wild type subunits does not circumvent the functional problems caused by mutant subunits. Furthermore, the functional problems characterized here in heteropolymers that contain mutant subunits parallel those problems previously reported in homopolymers composed exclusively of mutant subunits, which strongly suggests that the structural disruption characterized previously in Mt-FTL homopolymers occurs in a similar manner and to a

  8. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciTech Connect

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O. )

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermun Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Iron-loaded mangosteen as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Laiju, A R; Sivasankar, T; Nidheesh, P V

    2014-09-01

    Iron-loaded mangosteen shell powder (Fe-MSP) was found as an effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate. Sonolytically produced catalyst has higher efficiency than other catalysts. At the optimal conditions (pH 3, catalyst concentration of 1,750 mg/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.26 M), 81 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed effectively from the landfill leachate. But, the efficiency of Fe-MSP was reduced in the first recycling due to the poisoning of active sites. A metal leaching study indicated that the degradation of the pollutant is mainly due to solid Fe ions present in Fe-MSP rather than the leached ferrous and ferric ions. Hydroxyl radical production in the system was confirmed by the Fenton oxidation of benzoic acid. Compared to the homogeneous Fenton process, the heterogeneous Fenton process using Fe-MSP had higher COD removal efficiency, indicating the practical applicability of the prepared catalyst.

  10. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T₂ Contrast Agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-07-27

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T₂ relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r₂, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA.

  11. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T2 Contrast Agents for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T2 relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r2, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  12. Joint mimicking mechanical load activates TGFβ1 in fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Oliver F W; Fahy, Niamh; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2016-07-22

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is widely used in an active recombinant form to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, it has been shown that the application of multiaxial load, that mimics the loading within diarthrodial joints, to MSCs seeded in to fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds leads to the endogenous production and secretion of TGF-β1 by the mechanically stimulated cells, which in turn drives the chondrogenic differentiation of the cells within the scaffold. The work presented in this short communication provides further evidence that the application of joint mimicking multiaxial load induces the secretion of TGF-β1 by mechanically stimulated MSCs. The results of this work also show that joint-like multiaxial mechanical load activates latent TGF-β1 in response to loading in the presence or absence of cells; this activation was not seen in non-loaded control scaffolds. Despite the application of mechanical load to scaffolds with different distributions/numbers of cells no significant differences were seen in the percentage of active TGF-β1 quantified in the culture medium of scaffolds from different groups. The similar level of activation in scaffolds containing different numbers of cells, cells at different stages of differentiation or with different distributions of cells suggests that this activation results from the mechanical forces applied to the culture system rather than differences in cellular behaviour. These results are relevant when considering rehabilitation protocols after cell therapy or microfracture, for articular cartilage repair, where increased TGF-β1 activation in response to joint mobilization may improve the quality of developing cartilaginous repair material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Biodegradable Magnetic Silica@Iron Oxide Nanovectors with Ultra-Large Mesopores for High Protein Loading, Magnetothermal Release, and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Omar, Haneen; Croissant, Jonas G; Alamoudi, Kholod; Alsaiari, Shahad; Alradwan, Ibrahim; Majrashi, Majed A; Anjum, Dalaver H; Martins, Patricia; Moosa, Basem; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-11-29

    The delivery of large cargos of diameter above 15nm for biomedical applications has proved challenging since it requires biocompatible, stably-loaded, and biodegradable nanomaterials. In this study, we describe the design of biodegradable silica-iron oxide hybrid nanovectors with large mesopores for large protein delivery in cancer cells. The mesopores of the nanomaterials spanned from 20 to 60nm in diameter and post-functionalization allowed the electrostatic immobilization of large proteins (e.g. mTFP-Ferritin, ~534kDa). Half of the content of the nanovectors was based with iron oxide nanophases which allowed the rapid biodegradation of the carrier in fetal bovine serum and a magnetic responsiveness. The nanovectors released large protein cargos in aqueous solution under acidic pH or magnetic stimuli. The delivery of large proteins was then autonomously achieved in cancer cells via the silica-iron oxide nanovectors, which is thus a promising for biomedical applications.

  14. Effect of pollen load size and source (self, outcross) on seed and fruit production in highbush blueberry cv. 'Bluecrop' (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM; Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Dogterom, M H; Winston, M L; Mukai, A

    2000-11-01

    Reproductive fitness of a plant is ultimately determined by both number and quality of seed offspring. This is determined by sexual selection of pollen microspores and ovules during pollination and fertilization. These processes may include pollen competition and seed abortion, which reduce the number of microspores and ovules available for final seed production. Thus, even an excess of pollen microspores to ovules does not result in fertile seeds equal to ovule number. We investigated pollen requirements of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar 'Bluecrop') for maximal seed production and how fertile seed number translates into fruit quality, since fruit quality would ultimately determine the dispersal of its offspring. We demonstrate that individual blueberry flowers with a mean of 106 ovules reach their maximum fruit set and mass and minimum time to ripen when 125 outcross pollen tetrads pollinate a flower, compared to 10 or 25. Three hundred tetrads resulted in the increase of fertile seeds, but did not result in a further increase of fruit mass or fruit set, or decrease in time to ripen. We also examined the effect of pure and mixed loads of self and outcross pollen (25 and 125 tetrads), and found no differences in fertile seed number, fruit mass, or percentage fruit set when pollen loads were either 25 self or outcross pollen tetrads, although number of days to ripen was significantly shorter by 8 d with 25 outcross tetrads. When the pollen load of 125 tetrads consisted of self or a 50:50 mixture of self and outcross pollen, fruit mass, days to ripen, and percentage fruit set were not different from loads of 125 outcross pollen. In addition, a pollen load of 25 outcross tetrads resulted in fertile seed number and fruit quality in between that of 25 self, and 125 self, 125 mixed, or 125 outcross tetrads. Large, small, and flat seed types were identified, and only large seeds (length = 1.7 mm) were fertile. These results improve our understanding of

  15. On the accessibility of surface-bound drugs on magnetic nanoparticles. Encapsulation of drugs loaded on modified dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide by β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Natesan; Yousuf, Sameena; Israel, Enoch V M V; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar; Dhanaraj, Premnath

    2016-05-01

    We report the loading of drugs on aminoethylaminodextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, their superparamagnetic behavior, loading of drugs on them, and the β-cyclodextrin-complex formation of the drugs on the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic behavior is studied using vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to analyze the elemental composition of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy shows ordered structures of drug-loaded nanoparticles. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to study the binding of the surface-loaded drugs to β-cyclodextrin. All of the drugs form 1:1 host-guest complexes. The iodide ion quenching of fluorescence of free- and iron oxide-attached drugs are compared. The binding strengths of the iron oxide surface-loaded drugs-β-cyclodextrin binding are smaller than those of the free drugs.

  16. The Effect of the Hemochromatosis (HFE) Genotype on Lead Load and Iron Metabolism among Lead Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangqin; Du, Guihua; Li, Huijun; Lin, Fen; Sun, Ziyong; Yang, Wei; Feng, Chang; Zhu, Gaochun; Li, Yanshu; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Huan; Zhou, Fankun

    2014-01-01

    Background Both an excess of toxic lead (Pb) and an essential iron disorder have been implicated in many diseases and public health problems. Iron metabolism genes, such as the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, have been reported to be modifiers for lead absorption and storage. However, the HFE gene studies among the Asian population with occupationally high lead exposure are lacking. Objectives To explore the modifying effects of the HFE genotype (wild-type, H63D variant and C282Y variant) on the Pb load and iron metabolism among Asian Pb-workers with high occupational exposure. Methods Seven hundred and seventy-one employees from a lead smelter manufacturing company were tested to determine their Pb intoxication parameters, iron metabolic indexes and identify the HFE genotype. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Forty-five H63D variant carriers and no C282Y variant carrier were found among the 771 subjects. Compared with subjects with the wild-type genotype, H63D variant carriers had higher blood lead levels, even after controlling for factors such as age, sex, marriage, education, smoking and lead exposure levels. Multivariate analyses also showed that the H63D genotype modifies the associations between the blood lead levels and the body iron burden/transferrin. Conclusions No C282Y variant was found in this Asian population. The H63D genotype modified the association between the lead and iron metabolism such that increased blood lead is associated with a higher body iron content or a lower transferrin in the H63D variant. It is indicated that H63D variant carriers may be a potentially highly vulnerable sub-population if they are exposed to high lead levels occupationally. PMID:24988074

  17. Mitigation of the divertor heat load in DEMO reactor by impurity seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes integrated numerical modeling applied to DEMO discharges with tungsten wall in slab geometry, rather than the full X-point geometry of the DEMO design, using the COREDIV code. Calculations are performed for inductive DEMO scenario with Ne, Ar and Ni seeding for different radial diffusion coefficients in the SOL region, and different pinch velocities for impurities in the core. Simulations show only for Ar and Ni, with high enough radial diffusion in the SOL, it is possible to achieve H-mode plasma operation (power to the SOL > L-H transition threshold power) with acceptable level of the power to the target plates. For neon seeding such regime of operation seems not to be possible.

  18. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common vean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem, which often affects women and children of developing countries and is based on diets that are low in iron. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their root...

  19. Effects of climate change and seed dispersal on airborne ragweed pollen loads in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Essl, Franz; Chuine, Isabelle; Colette, Augustin; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Schaffhauser, Alice; Storkey, Jonathan; Thibaudon, Michel; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2015-08-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive alien species in Europe producing pollen that causes severe allergic disease in susceptible individuals. Ragweed plants could further invade European land with climate and land-use changes. However, airborne pollen evolution depends not only on plant invasion, but also on pollen production, release and atmospheric dispersion changes. To predict the effect of climate and land-use changes on airborne pollen concentrations, we used two comprehensive modelling frameworks accounting for all these factors under high-end and moderate climate and land-use change scenarios. We estimate that by 2050 airborne ragweed pollen concentrations will be about 4 times higher than they are now, with a range of uncertainty from 2 to 12 largely depending on the seed dispersal rate assumptions. About a third of the airborne pollen increase is due to on-going seed dispersal, irrespective of climate change. The remaining two-thirds are related to climate and land-use changes that will extend ragweed habitat suitability in northern and eastern Europe and increase pollen production in established ragweed areas owing to increasing CO2. Therefore, climate change and ragweed seed dispersal in current and future suitable areas will increase airborne pollen concentrations, which may consequently heighten the incidence and prevalence of ragweed allergy.

  20. Effects of Particle Size and Particle Loading on the Tensile Properties of Iron-Ore-Tailing-Filled Epoxy and Polypropylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onitiri, M. A.; Akinlabi, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of particle size and particle loading on the stiffness and tensile strength of iron-ore-tailing-filled epoxy and polypropylene composites was investigated experimentally, and the results obtained are compared with calculations by various theoretical models. It was found that the stiffness of the materials increased with content of iron ore tailings.

  1. Production and air-sea flux of halomethanes in the western subarctic Pacific in relation to phytoplankton pigment concentrations during the iron fertilization experiment (SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Toda, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Kato, Shungo; Narita, Yasusi; Kurihara, Michiko K.; Akatsuka, Yoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takahiro; Nagao, Ippei; Kudo, Isao; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Iron could play a key role in controlling phytoplankton biomass and productivity in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions. As a part of the iron fertilization experiment carried out in the western subarctic Pacific from July to August 2004 (Subarctic Pacific iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II—SEEDS II), we analysed the concentrations of trace gases in the seawater for 12 d following iron fertilization. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the mixed layer (5-30 m depth) increased from 0.94 to 2.81 μg L -1 for 8 d in the iron patch. The mean concentrations of methyl bromide (CH 3Br; 5-30 m depth) increased from 6.4 to 13.4 pmol L -1 for 11 d; the in-patch concentration increased relative to the out-patch concentration. A linear correlation was observed between the concentrations of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, which is a biomarker of several prymnesiophytes, and CH 3Br in the seawater. After fertilization, the air-sea flux of CH 3Br inside the patch changed from influx to efflux from the ocean. There was no clear evidence for the increase in saturation anomaly of methyl chloride (CH 3Cl) due to iron fertilization. Furthermore, CH 3Cl fluxes did not show a tendency to increase after fertilization of the patch. In contrast to CH 3Br, no change was observed in the concentrations of bromoform (in-patch day 11 and out-patch day 11: 1.7 and 1.7 pmol L -1), dibromomethane (2.1 and 2.2 pmol L -1), and dibromochloromethane (1.0 and 1.2 pmol L -1, respectively). The concentration of isoprene, which is known to have a relationship with chlorophyll a, did not change in this study. The responses of trace gases during SEEDS II differed from the previous findings ( in situ iron enrichment experiment—EisenEx, Southern Ocean iron experiment—SOFeX, and Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study—SERIES). Thus, in order to estimate the concomitant effect of iron fertilization on the climate, it is important to assess the induction of biological

  2. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of carbonyl iron/BaTiO3 composite absorber for matched load of isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Cheng, Yankui

    2015-11-01

    Composite absorbers made from carbonyl iron powder and BaTiO3 were prepared by blending technique with the matrix of epoxy resin. The structure and microtopography of the carbonyl iron and BaTiO3 particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared composites were investigated by SEM and vector network analyzer (VNA). The effect of the mass ratio of BaTiO3/carbonyl iron on the electromagnetic properties of the composites is investigated. The bandwidth with an absorption loss exceeding 30 dB is obtained in the whole measured frequency range for all composites, and an optimal reflection loss drop below 1.5 dB with 24 wt% BaTiO3. It is found that the carbonyl iron/BaTiO3 composite absorber can be a promising candidate as a matched load for the isolator.

  3. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is associated with lower cardiac iron loading in chronically transfused thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, Paolo; Meloni, Antonella; Spasiano, Anna; Neri, Maria Giovanna; Gamberini, Maria Rita; Cuccia, Liana; Caruso, Vincenzo; Gerardi, Calogera; D'Ascola, Domenico Giuseppe; Rosso, Rosamaria; Campisi, Saveria; Rizzo, Michele; Terrazzino, Fabrizia; Vangosa, Alessandra Briatico; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Missere, Massimiliano; Mangione, Maurizio; Positano, Vincenzo; Pepe, Alessia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a large cohort of chronically transfused patients, whether the presence of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) accounts for the typical patterns of cardiac iron distribution and/or cardiac function parameters. We retrospectively selected 1,266 thalassemia major patients who had undergone regular transfusions (611 men and 655 women; mean age: 31.3 ± 8.9 years, range: 4.2-66.6 years) and were consecutively enrolled within the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia network. The presence of EMH was evaluated based on steady-state free precession sequences; cardiac and liver iron overloads were quantified using a multiecho T2* approach; cardiac function parameters and pulmonary diameter were quantified using the steady-state free precession sequences; and myocardial fibrosis was evaluated using the late gadolinium enhancement technique. EMH was detected in 167 (13.2%) patients. The EMH+ patients had significantly lower cardiac iron overload than that of the EMH- patients (P = 0.003). The patterns of cardiac iron distribution were significantly different in the EMH+ and EMH- patients (P < 0.0001), with a higher prevalence of patients with no myocardial iron overload and heterogeneous myocardial iron overload and no significant global heart iron in the EMH+ group EMH+ patients had a significantly higher left ventricle mass index (P = 0.001) and a significantly higher pulmonary artery diameter (P = 0.002). In conclusion, in regularly transfused thalassemia patients, EMH was common and was associated with a thalassemia intermedia-like pattern of cardiac iron deposition despite regular transfusion therapy.

  4. Functional Reconstruction of Tracheal Defects by Protein-Loaded, Cell-Seeded, Fibrous Constructs in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Lindsey M.; Vu, Cindy H.; Farris, Ashley L.; Fox, Katrina D.; Galbraith, Richard A.; Weiss, Mark L.; Weatherly, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a life-threatening disease and current treatments include surgical reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage and the highly complex slide tracheoplasty surgical technique. We propose using a sustainable implant, composed of a tunable, fibrous scaffold with encapsulated chondrogenic growth factor (transforming growth factor-beta3 [TGF-β3]) or seeded allogeneic rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). In vivo functionality of these constructs was determined by implanting them in induced tracheal defects in rabbits for 6 or 12 weeks. The scaffolds maintained functional airways in a majority of the cases, with the BMSC-seeded group having an improved survival rate and the Scaffold-only group having a higher occurrence of more patent airways as determined by microcomputed tomography. The BMSC group had a greater accumulation of inflammatory cells over the graft, while also exhibiting normal epithelium, subepithelium, and cartilage formation. Overall, it was concluded that a simple, acellular scaffold is a viable option for tracheal tissue engineering, with the intraoperative addition of cells being an optional variation to the scaffolds. PMID:26094554

  5. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  6. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  7. Black soyabean seed coat extract regulates iron metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Mu, Mingdao; Wu, Aimin; An, Peng; Du, Xiaoli; Wu, Qian; Shen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Fudi

    2014-04-14

    Hepcidin, a key regulator of Fe homeostasis, is an ideal drug target for treating patients with Fe disorders such as haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic inflammation and Fe-deficiency anaemia. However, whether (and how) traditional Chinese black foods (e.g., black soyabeans) target hepcidin and improve Fe-deficiency anaemia remains unclear. Herein, we report that black soyabean seed coat extract (BSSCE) can potently inhibit the in vitro and in vivo expression of hepcidin. In the present study, in cells treated with 200 μg/ml BSSCE, hepcidin expression was found to be reduced to only 6% of the control levels (P<0.01). An AIN-76A diet containing 2% BSSCE was fed to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 0, 1, 7, 15 or 30 d; importantly, compared with the day 0 group, the day 7 group exhibited nearly a 50% decrease in hepatic hepcidin expression (P<0.01), a 35% decrease in splenic Fe concentrations (P<0.05) and a 135% increase in serum Fe concentrations (P<0.05). Mechanistically, the effect of BSSCE on hepcidin expression was mediated via a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog proteins (Smad)1/5/8. Consequently, the mice in the day 30 group exhibited large increases in erythrocyte counts (111% v. day 0, P<0.01), Hb concentrations (109%, P<0.01) and haematocrit values (108%, P<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that black soyabean extract regulates Fe metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin. This finding can be used to optimise the intervention of patients with hepcidin-related diseases, including Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  8. Development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of pioglitazone- loaded jackfruit seed starch-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hasnain, Saquib Md

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes development and optimization of pioglitazone-loaded jackfruit seed starch (JFSS)-alginate beads by ionotropic-gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10h, %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of these beads were 64.80 ± 1.92 to 94.07 ± 3.82 % with sustained in vitro drug release of 64.± 1.83 to 92.66 ± 4.54 % over 10 hours. The in vitro drug release from these beads followed controlled-release pattern with super case-II transport. Particle size range of these beads was 0.77 ± 0.04 to 1.24 ± 0.09 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling of these beads was influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized pioglitazone-loaded JFSS-alginate beads showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  9. The response of the virus community to the SEEDS II mesoscale iron fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Julie L.; Kudo, Isao; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2009-12-01

    Although the important role of viruses in marine biogeochemical cycles has been established in recent years, virus activity (including changes in this activity) has been largely ignored during mesoscale iron (Fe)-fertilization experiments relative to other processes. This is of particular interest as viruses have been shown to be critical to the transformation of Fe from the particulate (i.e., biological) to the dissolved pools. The goal of the present study was to evaluate changes in the virus-mediated lysis of heterotrophic bacterial cells following a shift in ecosystem trophic status brought about by a mesoscale Fe addition in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Virus production rates, estimated by a reduction and reoccurrence assay, were coupled with transmission electron microscopy estimates of burst size and direct counts of virus and bacterial abundance. Fe fertilization of the upper mixed layer resulted in significant yet weak increases in virus production rates during the 12 days of observation immediately after fertilization, although the burst size (viruses produced per lytic event) and the percentage of visibly infected cells remained constant. The results imply that increases in virus production rates were most likely tied to a decreased lytic cycle length or the stimulation of lysogenized cells following the stimulation of primary and secondary productivity by the addition of Fe. The results also indicate that virus-induced cell-lysis regenerated an estimated nearly 200 pmol L -1 Fe daily, providing a significant return of Fe back to the water column, which may be critical in the maintenance of this added Fe as resident.

  10. [Bioavailability of Ce-Ferro forte. Comparative iron load test (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, E; Schmitt, B; Zilly, W

    1978-08-25

    The intraindividual relative bioavailability of three oral iron preparations was investigated in 9 male and 3 female healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast each of the volunteers took 110 mg Fe++ in a weak gelatine capsule soluble within the duodenum (Ce-Ferro forte) or 105 mg and 100 mg Fe++ respectively in commercial preparations. Care was taken that a 3 days interval took place between the investigations. Before taking and 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hrs. after taking the iron capsule, blood was withdrawn into heparinized test tubes and plasma iron concentrations were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After taking Fe++ sulfate in a weak gelatine capsule (A), the mean plasma iron increased significantly higher in comparison to preparation B in the 2nd and in the 4th hour and in comparison to preparation C in the 1st hour. The area under curve of iron increase was 531 +/- 329 (SD) after A, 415 +/- 327 And 414 +/- 390 after B and C respectively without significant changes. From these data was concluded that Fe++ sulfate in a duodenal soluble weak gelatine capsule has a beter bioavailability than the 2 other preparations investigated.

  11. Using iron-loaded sepiolite obtained by adsorption as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of Reactive Black 5.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the possibility of using iron-loaded sepiolite, obtained by recovering iron from polluted water, as a catalyst in the electro-Fenton oxidation of organic pollutants in textile effluents. The removal of iron ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on sepiolite was studied in batch tests at iron concentrations between 100 and 1,000 ppm. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.15 L, an air flow of 1 L/min, and 3 g of iron-loaded sepiolite. An electric field was applied using a boron-doped diamond anode and a graphite sheet cathode connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. Reactive Black 5 (100 mg/L) was selected as the model dye. The adsorption isotherms proved the ability of the used adsorbent. The removal of the iron ion by adsorption on sepiolite was in the range of 80-100 % for the studied concentration range. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were found to be applicable in terms of the relatively high regression values. Iron-loaded sepiolite could be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process. Successive batch processes were performed at optimal working conditions (5 V and pH 2). The results indicate the suitability of the proposed combined process, adsorption to iron remediation followed by the application of the obtained iron-loaded sepiolite to the electro-Fenton technique, to oxidize polluted effluents.

  12. Ketoprofen-loaded pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion stabilized by pullulan: Selective antiglioma formulation for intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana M; Cervi, Verônica F; Gehrcke, Mailine; da Silveira, Elita F; Azambuja, Juliana H; Braganhol, Elizandra; Sari, Marcel H M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Nogueira, Cristina W; Cruz, Letícia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to prepare pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen using pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer, and to evaluate antitumor activity against in vitro glioma cells. Formulations were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and different concentrations of pullulan were tested. Nanoemulsions presented adequate droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH, ketoprofen content and encapsulation efficiency. Nanoemulsions were able to delay the photodegradation profile of ketoprofen under UVC radiation, regardless of the concentration of pullulan. In vitro release study indicates that nanoemulsions were able to release approximately 95.0% of ketoprofen in 5h. Free ketoprofen and formulations were considered hemocompatible at 1 μg/mL, in a hemolysis study, for intravenous administration. In addition, a formulation containing the highest concentration of pullulan was tested against C6 cell line and demonstrated significant activity, and did not reduce fibroblasts viability. Thus, pullulan can be considered an interesting excipient to prepare nanostructured systems and nanoemulsion formulations can be considered promising alternatives for the treatment of glioma.

  13. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and 1H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Maria R.; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15-20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications.

  14. Hydrogen induced cracking tests of high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the bolt-loaded specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Vigilante, G.N.; Underwood, J.H.; Crayon, D.; Tauscher, S.; Sage, T.; Troiano, E.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen induced cracking tests were conducted on high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimen. The bolt-loaded specimen was subjected to both acid and electrochemical cell environments in order to produce hydrogen. The materials tested were A723, Maraging 200, PH 13-8 Mo, Alloy 718, Alloy 706, and A286, and ranged in yield strength from 760--1400 MPa. The effects of chemical composition, refinement, heat treatment, and strength on hydrogen induced crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and threshold levels. In comparison, the nickel-iron base alloys tested exhibited up to three orders of magnitude lower crack growth rates than the high strength steels tested. It is widely known that high strength steels and nickel base alloys exhibit different crack growth rates, in part, because of their different crystal cell structure. In the high strength steels tested, refinement and heat treatment had some effect on hydrogen induced cracking, though strength was the predominant factor influencing susceptibility to cracking. When the yield strength of one of the high strength steels tested was increased moderately, from 1130 MPa to 1275 MPa, the incubation times decreased by over two orders of magnitude, the crack growth rates increased by an order of magnitude, and the threshold stress intensity was slightly lower.

  15. Responses of DMS in the seawater and atmosphere to iron enrichment in the subarctic western North Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Hashimoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Koji; Toda, Shuji; Narita, Yasushi; Tsuda, Atsushi; Saito, Hiroaki; Kudo, Isao; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the seawater and atmosphere were conducted during SEEDS-II to investigate the responses of DMS to iron (Fe) fertilization in the subarctic North Pacific. No significant increases in the seawater DMS (DMSw) concentration were observed inside the fertilized patch compared to those outside the patch, while particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp) concentration inside the patch increased 2-fold compared to those outside the patch in the phytoplankton bloom of major DMSP producers such as prasinophytes, cryptophytes, diatoms and prymnesiophytes. In the decline phase of the bloom, maximum DMSw was observed both inside the patch (ca. 6.2 nM) and outside the patch (ca. 9.3 nM). In this period, increases in mesozooplankton and decreases in the DMSP producers (prymnesiophytes and diatoms) were observed both sides of the patch, but larger inside the patch than outside the patch. Large decreases in the DMSPp inside the patch, which was probably related to the large increases in mesozooplankton inside the patch, did not result in increases in the DMSw concentration. Considering biological and nonbiological parameters, we discussed these results, although they could not be completely explained. Unfortunately, the impact of Fe fertilization on the atmospheric DMS (DMSa) concentration was not detected due to no significant changes in DMSw. However, it is noted that DMSa concentrations were dependent on the sea-air DMS flux in the air from higher latitudes and/or the Eurasian continent, though the DMS flux was a minor role to the budget of DMSw. Therefore if DMSw were significantly changed by Fe fertilization, DMSa might be affected through changes in the sea-air flux in this condition.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-Hui; Gao, Wei-Juan; Kong, Wei-Na; Xie, Hong-Lin; Peng, Yan; Shao, Tie-Mei; Yu, Wen-Guo; Chai, Xi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:25780429

  18. Strontium folate loaded biohybrid scaffolds seeded with dental pulp stem cells induce in vivo bone regeneration in critical sized defects.

    PubMed

    Martin-Del-Campo, Marcela; Rosales-Ibañez, Raul; Alvarado, Keila; Sampedro, Jose G; Garcia-Sepulveda, Christian A; Deb, Sanjukta; San Román, Julio; Rojo, Luis

    2016-10-18

    Strontium folate (SrFO) is a recently developed bone promoting agent with interest in medical and pharmaceutical fields due to its improved features in comparison to current strontium based therapies for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. In this work SrFO derivative was synthesized and loaded into biohybrid scaffolds obtained through lyophilisation of semi-interpenetrating networks of chitosan polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and beta tri-calcium phosphate (βTCP) fabricated using free radical polymerization. The scaffolds were seeded with pluripotent stem cells obtained from human dental pulp and their potential to regenerate bone tissues were assessed using a critical sized defect model of calvaria in rats and compared with those obtained without SrFO. The results obtained both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated excellent cyto-compatibility with resorption of scaffolds in 4-6 weeks and a total regeneration of the defect, with a more rapid and dense bone formation in the group with SrFO. Thus, the use of stem cells sourced from human dental pulp in combination with SrFO are very promising systems for their application in compromised osseous tissue regeneration.

  19. Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran; Tuda, Midori

    2010-01-01

    Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks. PMID:20031994

  20. Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran; Tuda, Midori

    2010-05-07

    Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

  1. Cold catalytic recovery of loaded activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bach, Altai; Zelmanov, Grigory; Semiat, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for the recovery of spent activated carbon by an advanced oxidation process using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts was proposed and investigated. Model organic contaminants, such as ethylene glycol and phenol, were chosen for this study as water pollutants. It was shown that there are several advantages in using catalytic oxidation recovery of activated carbon with iron oxide-based nanocatalysts: low temperature reactivity of catalytic recovery without heating; and a relatively large number of adsorption-recovery cycles, without a reduction in the adsorptive properties of the virgin activated carbon or without a performance decrease from the first adsorption-recovery cycle of the new modified adsorptive properties of the activated carbon. The catalytic recovery takes place without ultraviolet light or any visible radiation sources. Results show a high efficiency of catalytic recovery of spent activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts. A 97-99% efficiency of spent activated carbon catalytic regeneration was achieved under chosen conditions after 15-20 min of reaction. The process may be also considered as cold in situ recovery of active carbon.

  2. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer.

  3. The proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Chelation: application of effective chelation therapies in iron loading and non iron loading conditions, and the gap in the prevention and treatment policies on thalassemia between developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial progress in the use of chelating drugs for the treatment of iron overload and of non iron loading conditions has been presented during the 17th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) held in November 2007 at Shenzhen, China. Major challenges lie ahead for the prevention and treatment of thalassemia in China, India, Thailand, Indonesia and many other developing countries where millions of heterozygote thalassemia carriers live and thousands of homozygote thalassemia patients are born annually. The progressive improvement of the economic climate in developing countries will increase the demand and resources for more prenatal and antenatal diagnoses, transfusions and chelation therapy in forthcoming years. Despite the major advances in diagnosis and treatment in developed countries, the vast majority of thalassemia patients in developing countries die untreated because they cannot afford the cost of transfusions and chelation therapy. New approaches and infrastructures and more efforts are needed to overcome the difficulties of supplying new techniques and treatments to patients in developing countries. International and local organizations need to be persuaded to act collectively and effectively to improve chelation and related treatments for thalassemia and other conditions, especially at this time that universally effective and inexpensive chelation therapies can be applied.

  4. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  5. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  6. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  7. Influences of nanoscale zero valent iron loadings and bicarbonate and calcium concentrations on hydrogen evolution in anaerobic column experiments.

    PubMed

    Paar, Hendrik; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) reactivity after its injection into the subsurface is essential for its application in groundwater remediation. In the present study H₂ generation of commercially available nZVI and novel milled nZVI flakes were investigated in column experiments with varying nZVI loads (ranging from 8 to 43 g nZVI per kg sand). H₂ evolution rates were determined for column experiments without and with hydrogen carbonate and/or calcium. On average 0.29 mmol H₂/L per g Fe⁰ evolved within the first 30 days in column experiments with spherical, commercial nZVI particles. The H₂ evolution developed almost independently of the water matrices applied. The application of nZVI flakes resulted in lower H₂ generation rates. In general corrosion rates accelerated linearly with increasing initial amounts of iron. This was evident in experiments with both particle types. Concentration profiles of carbonate and calcium in influent and effluent were used to estimate corrosion products and precipitates. Despite the presence of high concentrations of inorganic carbon, Fe²⁺ reacted preferably with hydroxide ions to form ferrous hydroxide which is the precursor of magnetite. As a result only minor passivation of the reactive nZVI was observed.

  8. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy and inhibits the growth of iron-loaded human myeloid leukemia K562 cells via ROS toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Jia-Li; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Zhou, Hui-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an active metabolite of artemisinin derivatives, is the most remarkable anti-malarial drug and has little toxicity to humans. Recent studies have shown that DHA effectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we intended to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of growth of iron-loaded human myeloid leukemia K562 cells by DHA. Mitochondria are important regulators of both autophagy and apoptosis, and one of the triggers for mitochondrial dysfunction is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that the DHA-induced autophagy of leukemia K562 cells, whose intracellular organelles are primarily mitochondria, was ROS dependent. The autophagy of these cells was followed by LC3-II protein expression and caspase-3 activation. In addition, we demonstrated that inhibition of the proliferation of leukemia K562 cells by DHA is also dependent upon iron. This inhibition includes the down-regulation of TfR expression and the induction of K562 cell growth arrest in the G2/M phase. PMID:23650588

  9. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-03-16

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. Furthermore, the study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with seed iron in the legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading micronuntrient deficiencies in humans, and increasing the amount of bioavailable iron in commonly consumed plant foods has been proposed as a means to ameliorate this deficiency. This approach seems especially beneficial in developing countries where plant food...

  11. Enhanced Fenton-like Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Hydrogen Peroxide Activated with Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Loaded on Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingchun; Qian, Linbo; Gao, Weiguo; Chen, Yun; Ouyang, Da; Chen, Mengfang

    2017-02-01

    Composite of nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) loaded on Biochar (BC) was prepared and characterized as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activator for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE). nZVI is homogeneously loaded on lamellarly structured BC surfaces to form nZVI/BC with specific surface area (SBET) of 184.91 m2 g‑1, which can efficiently activate H2O2 to achieve TCE degradation efficiency of 98.9% with TOC removal of 78.2% within 30 min under the conditions of 0.10 mmol L‑1 TCE, 1.13 g L‑1 nZVI/BC and 1.50 mmol L‑1 H2O2. Test results from the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurement and coumarin based fluorescent probe technology indicated that •OH radicals were the dominant species responsible for the degradation of TCE within the nZVI/BC-H2O2 system. Activation mechanism of the redox action of Fe2+/Fe3+ generated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions from nZVI and single electron transfer process from BC surface bound C–OH to H2O2 promoted decomposition of H2O2 into •OH radicals was proposed.

  12. Evaluation Of Glass Density To Support The Estimation Of Fissile Mass Loadings From Iron Concentrations In SB8 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-04-30

    The Department of Energy – Savannah River (DOE-SR) has provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of that guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) glass based on the iron (Fe) concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that the necessary density information be provided to allow SRR to update the Excel® spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes an upper bound for the density of SB8-based glasses. Thus, these bounding density values are to be used to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel-based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB8. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB8 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample.

  13. Enhanced Fenton-like Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Hydrogen Peroxide Activated with Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Loaded on Biochar

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jingchun; Qian, Linbo; Gao, Weiguo; Chen, Yun; Ouyang, Da; Chen, Mengfang

    2017-01-01

    Composite of nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) loaded on Biochar (BC) was prepared and characterized as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activator for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE). nZVI is homogeneously loaded on lamellarly structured BC surfaces to form nZVI/BC with specific surface area (SBET) of 184.91 m2 g−1, which can efficiently activate H2O2 to achieve TCE degradation efficiency of 98.9% with TOC removal of 78.2% within 30 min under the conditions of 0.10 mmol L−1 TCE, 1.13 g L−1 nZVI/BC and 1.50 mmol L−1 H2O2. Test results from the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurement and coumarin based fluorescent probe technology indicated that ∙OH radicals were the dominant species responsible for the degradation of TCE within the nZVI/BC-H2O2 system. Activation mechanism of the redox action of Fe2+/Fe3+ generated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions from nZVI and single electron transfer process from BC surface bound C–OH to H2O2 promoted decomposition of H2O2 into ∙OH radicals was proposed. PMID:28230207

  14. Age-related changes of brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xian-hui, Dong; Wei-juan, Gao; Tie-mei, Shao; Hong-lin, Xie; Jiang-tao, Bai; Jing-yi, Zhao; Xi-qing, Chai

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, associated with major social and economic costs to society. Iron can catalyze damaging free radical reactions. With age, iron accumulates in brain frontal cortex regions and may contribute to the risk of AD. In this communication, we investigated the age-related brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex of 6- and 12-month-old C57BL/6J (C57) and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mouse by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and Perls' reaction. In the present study, we also evaluated the age-related changes of DMT1 and FPN1 by using Western blot and qPCR. We found that compared with 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and the 12-month-old C57 mice, the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice had increased iron load in the frontal cortex. The levels of DMT1 were significantly increased and the FPN1 were significantly reduced in the frontal cortex of the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice than that in the 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and 12-month-old C57 mice. We conclude that in AD damage occurs in conjunction with iron accumulation, and the brain iron load associated with loss control of the brain iron metabolism related protein DMT1 and FPN1 expressions.

  15. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2) expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L)

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marta W.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene’s expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg, and Mo), pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu, and Ni), leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni, and Mg) and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves, and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  16. Genetic reduction of phytate in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds increases iron absorption in young women.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Campion, Bruno; Nielsen, Erik; Hurrell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Iron bioavailability from common beans is negatively influenced by phytic acid (PA) and polyphenols (PPs). Newly developed low-PA (lpa) beans with 90% less PA and variable PPs might improve iron bioavailability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lpa beans on iron bioavailability in women (n = 20). We compared iron absorption from 4 different beans using a paired, double meal, crossover design. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes (Fe(57), Fe(58)) from 2 lpa bean lines, one high in PPs (means ± SDs; PA = 124 ± 10 mg/100 g; PPs = 462 ± 25 mg/100 g) and one low in PPs (PA = 70 ± 10 mg/100 g; PPs = 54 ± 2 mg/100 g). The other 2 beans used were their parents with a normal PA concentration, one high in PPs (PA = 1030 ± 30 mg/100 g; PPs = 676 ± 19 mg/100 g) and one low in PPs (PA = 1360 ± 10 mg/100 g; PPs = 58 ± 1 mg/100 g). Fractional iron absorption from the lpa bean high in PPs was 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6, 14.7), which was 60 and 130% higher compared with the parent high in PPs (P < 0.001) and low in PPs (P < 0.001), respectively. The total amount of iron absorbed per test meal from the lpa bean high in PPs (372 μg; 95% CI: 160, 890) was 60 and 163% higher compared with the parent high in PPs (P < 0.001) and low in PPs (P < 0.001), respectively. Fractional iron absorption from the lpa line low in PPs (4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 8.7) was 50% higher and the total amount of iron absorbed per test meal (261 μg; 95% CI: 120, 570) was 85% higher than iron from the parent low in PPs (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the lpa beans high or low in PPs or between the parents high or low in PPs. A 90% reduction in PA leads to an increase in bioavailable iron from beans, independent of the PP concentration. The lpa mutation could be a key tool for improving iron bioavailability from beans.

  17. The efficacy of tissue Doppler imaging in predicting myocardial iron load in patients with beta-thalassemia major: correlation with T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Aypar, Ebru; Alehan, Dursun; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Gümrük, Fatma

    2010-04-01

    Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) can detect myocardial dysfunction related to iron load in patients with beta-thalassemia major (TM). We aimed to assess the efficacy of pulsed-wave TDI (PW-TDI) in predicting myocardial iron load in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. 33 asymptomatic TM patients, mean aged 18 +/- 6 years (6-31) with normal left ventricular (LV) global systolic function were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and PW-TDI. Results were compared with 20 age and sex-matched controls. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. Myocardial iron deposition were measured in 29/33 patients by T2* MR. TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* 20 ms). Mean T2* was 12.3 +/- 7.8 ms (4-31.3). Abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* < 20 ms) was found in 25/29 (86%) patients. The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Em (P < 0.001) and Am (P < 0.05), mid-septal Am (P < 0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (P < 0.05) and Am (P < 0.05). Regional myocardial dysfunction were more prominent in patients with T2* iron load were determined. PW-TDI technique was found both sensitive and specific in predicting presence of myocardial iron load in TM patients with normal LV global systolic function. Therefore, it can be used for screening of TM patients.

  18. Magnetic resonance and ultrasound contrast imaging of polymer-shelled microbubbles loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sciallero, Claudia; Balbi, Luca; Paradossi, Gaio; Trucco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dual-mode contrast agents (CAs) have great potential for improving diagnostics. However, the effectiveness of CAs is strictly related to both the solution adopted to merge the two agents into a single probe unit, and the ratio between the two agents. In this study, two dual-mode CAs for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging (UI) were assessed. For this purpose, different densities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were anchored to the external surface of polymer-shelled microbubbles (MBs) or were physically entrapped into the shell. In vitro static and dynamic experiments were carried out with a limited concentration of modified MBs (106 bubbles ml−1) by avoiding destruction during UI (performed at a peak pressure lower than 320 kPa) and by using a low-field MRI system (with a magnetic flux density equal to 0.25 T). Under these conditions, different imaging techniques, set-up parameters and SPION densities were used to achieve satisfactory detection of the CAs by using both UI and MRI. However, when the SPION density was increased, the MRI contrast improved, whereas the UI contrast worsened due to the reduced elasticity of the MB shell. For both UI and MRI, MBs with externally anchored SPIONs provided better performance than MBs with SPIONs entrapped into the shell. In particular, a SPION density of 29% with respect to the mass of the MBs was successfully tested. PMID:27853587

  19. Evaluation of material heterogeneity dosimetric effects using radiochromic film for COMS eye plaques loaded with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16)

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Hilal; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Oezbay, Ismail; Kemikler, Goenuel; Tuncer, Samuray

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: (1) To measure absolute dose distributions in eye phantom for COMS eye plaques with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) using radiochromic EBT film dosimetry. (2) To determine the dose correction function for calculations involving the TG-43 formalism to account for the presence of the COMS eye plaque using Monte Carlo (MC) method specific to this seed model. (3) To test the heterogeneous dose calculation accuracy of the new version of Plaque Simulator (v5.3.9) against the EBT film data for this seed model. Methods: Using EBT film, absolute doses were measured for {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) in COMS eye plaques (1) along the plaque's central axis for (a) uniformly loaded plaques (14-20 mm in diameter) and (b) a 20 mm plaque with single seed, and (2) in off-axis direction at depths of 5 and 12 mm for all four plaque sizes. The EBT film calibration was performed at {sup 125}I photon energy. MC calculations using MCNP5 code for a single seed at the center of a 20 mm plaque in homogeneous water and polystyrene medium were performed. The heterogeneity dose correction function was determined from the MC calculations. These function values at various depths were entered into PS software (v5.3.9) to calculate the heterogeneous dose distributions for the uniformly loaded plaques (of all four sizes). The dose distributions with homogeneous water assumptions were also calculated using PS for comparison. The EBT film measured absolute dose rate values (film) were compared with those calculated using PS with homogeneous assumption (PS Homo) and heterogeneity correction (PS Hetero). The values of dose ratio (film/PS Homo) and (film/PS Hetero) were obtained. Results: The central axis depth dose rate values for a single seed in 20 mm plaque measured using EBT film and calculated with MCNP5 code (both in ploystyrene phantom) were compared, and agreement within 9% was found. The dose ratio (film/PS Homo) values were substantially lower than unity (mostly between 0.8 and 0

  20. A Young Adult with Unintended Acute Intravenous Iron Intoxication Treated with Oral Chelation: The Use of Liver Ferriscan for Diagnosing and Monitoring Tissue Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Mohamed; Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Moustafa, Abbas; Samaan, Sandra Abou; Nashwan, Abdulqadir

    2017-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication (FeI) in humans has not been adequately studied. The manifestation of FeI, defined as a serum iron concentration >300 μg/dL (55 μmol/L) within 12 hours of ingestion, include various symptoms appearing in progressive stages. Systemic toxicity is expected with an intake of 60 mg/kg. A 27-year-old female nurse presented with unintended acute intravenous iron intoxication (FeI) a week after self-injecting herself with 20 ampoules of IV iron (4,000 mg elemental iron, 60 mg/kg). She had stable vital signs and mild hepatic tenderness. Hepatic MRI (Ferriscan®) showed a moderate/severe liver iron content (LIC: 9 mg/g dry tissue). Her hemogram, electrolytes, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Based on the high dose of iron received and her elevated LIC, chelation therapy was advised. She accepted only oral therapy and was started on deferasirox at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily. This oral chelation proved to be effective in clearing her hepatic iron overload after six months (LIC: 2 mg/g dry tissue), without side effects. This case also proved the value of Ferriscan® in diagnosing the degree of hepatic FeI and monitoring therapy to achieve a safe level of LIC. PMID:28101313

  1. Study on the physicochemical properties of Fe/CeO2 catalysts as an effect from different iron loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Mas Fatiha; Ramli, Anita; Yusup, Suzana

    2012-11-01

    The use of catalyst in the biomass gasification is effective to elevate hydrogen content and to reduce tar formation. This study presents the development of 2.5-10 wt% Fe/CeO2 catalysts for biomass gasification to hydrogen. The catalysts were prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method. Different characterization methods such as Powder XRay Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. BET analysis clearly indicates that Fe/CeO2 catalysts are mainly nonporous and the surface area of the catalysts increases with increasing of Fe loading. Characterization by XRD exhibited the formation of a solid solution of iron-cerium oxide, with the presence of cubic CeO2 structure which is in agreement with FESEM images. The TPR results show the emergence of two reduction peaks, corresponding to the surface and bulk reduction of CeO2 to Ce2O3. No distinct peak related to the reduction of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4, instead a shoulder evolved, related to the reduction of Fe3O4 to Fe.

  2. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  3. The genetic architecture of life span and mortality rates: gender and species differences in inbreeding load of two seed-feeding beetles.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Scheibly, Kristy L; Wallin, William G; Hitchcock, Lisa J; Stillwell, R Craig; Smith, Benjamin P

    2006-10-01

    We examine the inbreeding load for adult life span and mortality rates of two seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. Inbreeding load differs substantially between males and females in both study populations of C. maculatus--life span of inbred females was 9-13% shorter than the life span of outbred females, whereas the life span of inbred males did not differ from the life span of outbred males. The effect of inbreeding on female life span was largely due to an increase in the slope of the mortality curve. In contrast, inbreeding had only a small effect on the life span of S. limbatus--life spans of inbred beetles were approximately 5% shorter than those of outbred beetles, and there was no difference in inbreeding load between the sexes. The inbreeding load for mean life span was approximately 0.4-0.6 lethal equivalents per haploid gamete for female C. maculatus and approximately 0.2-0.3 for both males and females of S. limbatus, all within the range of estimates commonly obtained for Drosophila. However, contrary to the predictions of mutation-accumulation models, inbreeding load for loci affecting mortality rates did not increase with age in either species, despite an effect of inbreeding on the initial rate of increase in mortality. This was because mortality rates decelerated with age and converged to a mortality plateau for both outbred and inbred beetles.

  4. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging.

  5. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Sihan; Wang, Yao; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Lu; Du, Xiaoxia; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT)/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs). Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2) markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/CT/fluorescence trimodal imaging. PMID:24904212

  6. Serum ferritin level changes in children with sickle cell disease on chronic blood transfusion are nonlinear and are associated with iron load and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Miguel R.; Paley, Carole; Olivieri, Nancy; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Vichinsky, Elliott; Casella, James F.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Barredo, Julio C.; Lee, Margaret T.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Kutlar, Abdullah; McKie, Kathleen M.; McKie, Virgil; Odo, Nadine; Gee, Beatrice; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Woods, Gerald M.; Coates, Thomas; Wang, Winfred; Adams, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic blood transfusion is increasingly indicated in patients with sickle cell disease. Measuring resulting iron overload remains a challenge. Children without viral hepatitis enrolled in 2 trials for stroke prevention were examined for iron overload (STOP and STOP2; n = 271). Most received desferrioxamine chelation. Serum ferritin (SF) changes appeared nonlinear compared with prechelation estimated transfusion iron load (TIL) or with liver iron concentrations (LICs). Averaged correlation coefficient between SF and TIL (patients/observations, 26 of 164) was r = 0.70; between SF and LIC (patients/observations, 33 of 47) was r = 0.55. In mixed models, SF was associated with LIC (P = .006), alanine transaminase (P = .025), and weight (P = .026). Most patients with SF between 750 and 1500 ng/mL had a TIL between 25 and 100 mg/kg (72.8% ± 5.9%; patients/observations, 24 of 50) or an LIC between 2.5 and 10 mg/g dry liver weight (75% ± 0%; patients/observations, 8 of 9). Most patients with SF of 3000 ng/mL or greater had a TIL of 100 mg/kg or greater (95.3% ± 6.7%; patients/observations, 7 of 16) or an LIC of 10 mg/g dry liver weight or greater (87.7% ± 4.3%; patients/observations, 11 of 18). Although SF changes are nonlinear, levels less than 1500 ng/mL indicated mostly acceptable iron overload; levels of 3000 ng/mL or greater were specific for significant iron overload and were associated with liver injury. However, to determine accurately iron overload in patients with intermediately elevated SF levels, other methods are required. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00000592 and #NCT00006182. PMID:19721013

  7. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer.

  8. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  9. Development and Evaluation of Amphotericin B Loaded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Systemic Fungal Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabathula, Pavan

    A targeted nanotheronostic drug delivery system to diagnose and treat life threatening invasive fungal infections (IFIs) such as cryptococcal meningitis was designed, developed, characterized, and evaluated. To address the development processes, first, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) (34-40 nm) coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), loaded and targeted with amphotericin B (AMB) (AMB-IONP) was formulated by applying a layer by layer approach. Several designs (A, B, C, D, & E) of AMB-IONP were developed and their physicochemical properties such as drug loading with HPLC method, particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), and zeta-potential using dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, morphology with transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and in vitro drug release profile with dialysis method were evaluated. Second, uptake (with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry) and killing efficacy (with susceptibility testing) of AMB-IONP in fungal clinical isolates of Candida species were evaluated and compared with standard drug AMB deoxycholate (AMB-D) data. Third, the cellular uptake mechanisms with endocytosis inhibitors and intracellular trafficking using TEM for design D were evaluated in selected isolates. Fourth, a stable lyophilized AMB-IONP formulation was developed and was suitable for clinical trials. A validated isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of AMB. Design D was determined to be the lead formulation with drug loading of 13.6+/-6.9 of AMB/mg of IONP. The size, zeta-potential, and PDI for all formulation designs were found to be in an optimum range for a nanomedicine with ≤36 nm, ˜ -20 mV, and ≤0.2, respectively. The TEM images confirmed that the nanoparticles were monodispersed and spherical in shape. The drug release profile indicated a burst release up to 3 hours for designs A and B, followed by a sustained drug release profile up to 72 hours. Designs C and D (with and without glutaraldehyde

  10. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjørn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 °C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 °C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials. PMID:26979660

  11. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A; Clausen, Bjørn; Pu, Chao; Li, Lin; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-03-16

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 °C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix and elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 °C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. The study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.

  12. Load partitioning between the bcc-iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy on multiple length scales

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Sisneros, Thomas A.; ...

    2016-03-16

    An understanding of load sharing among constituent phases aids in designing mechanical properties of multiphase materials. Here we investigate load partitioning between the body-centered-cubic iron matrix and NiAl-type precipitates in a ferritic alloy during uniaxial tensile tests at 364 and 506 C on multiple length scales by in situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling. Our findings show that the macroscopic load-transfer efficiency is not as high as that predicted by the Eshelby model; moreover, it depends on the matrix strain-hardening behavior. We explain the grain-level anisotropic load-partitioning behavior by considering the plastic anisotropy of the matrix andmore » elastic anisotropy of precipitates. We further demonstrate that the partitioned load on NiAl-type precipitates relaxes at 506 C, most likely through thermally-activated dislocation rearrangement on the microscopic scale. Furthermore, the study contributes to further understanding of load-partitioning characteristics in multiphase materials.« less

  13. Magnetic resonance cell-tracking studies: spectrophotometry-based method for the quantification of cellular iron content after loading with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a user-friendly tool for quantifying the iron content of superparamagnetic labeled cells before cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Iron quantification was evaluated by using Prussian blue staining and spectrophotometry. White blood cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. Labeling was confirmed by light microscopy. Subsequently, the cells were embedded in a phantom and scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) whole-body system. Mean peak wavelengths λ(peak) was determined at A(720 nm) (range 719-722 nm). Linearity was proven for the measuring range 0.5 to 10 μg Fe/mL (r  =  .9958; p  =  2.2 × 10(-12)). The limit of detection was 0.01 μg Fe/mL (0.1785 mM), and the limit of quantification was 0.04 μg Fe/mL (0.714 mM). Accuracy was demonstrated by comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. Precision and robustness were also proven. On T(2)-weighted images, signal intensity varied according to the iron concentration of SPIO-labeled cells. Absorption spectrophotometry is both a highly sensitive and user-friendly technique that is feasible for quantifying the iron content of magnetically labeled cells. The presented data suggest that spectrophotometry is a promising tool for promoting the implementation of magnetic resonance-based cell tracking in routine clinical applications (from bench to bedside).

  14. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  15. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the

  16. Ascorbate Efflux as a New Strategy for Iron Reduction and Transport in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled 55Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  17. Folate-bovine serum albumin functionalized polymeric micelles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor targeting and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Yan, Kai; Shang, Yalei; Shrestha, Lochan; Liao, Rufang; Liu, Fang; Li, Penghui; Xu, Haibo; Xu, Zushun; Chu, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric micelles functionalized with folate conjugated bovine serum albumin (FA-BSA) and loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are investigated as a specific contrast agent for tumor targeting and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro and in vivo. The SPIONs-loaded polymeric micelles are produced by self-assembly of amphiphilic poly(HFMA-co-MOTAC)-g-PEGMA copolymers and oleic acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles and functionalized with FA-BSA by electrostatic interaction. The FA-BSA modified magnetic micelles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 196.1 nm, saturation magnetization of 5.5 emu/g, and transverse relaxivity of 167.0 mM(-1) S(-1). In vitro MR imaging, Prussian blue staining, and intracellular iron determination studies demonstrate that the folate-functionalized magnetic micelles have larger cellular uptake against the folate-receptor positive hepatoma cells Bel-7402 than the unmodified magnetic micelles. In vivo MR imaging conducted on nude mice bearing the Bel-7402 xenografts after bolus intravenous administration reveals excellent tumor targeting and MR imaging capabilities, especially at 24h post-injection. These findings suggest the potential of FA-BSA modified magnetic micelles as targeting MRI probe in tumor detection.

  18. Analysis of high iron rice lines reveals new miRNAs that target iron transporters in roots

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Soumitra; Gayen, Dipak; Datta, Swapan K.; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    The present study highlights the molecular regulation of iron transport in soyFER1-overexpressing transgenic rice. Accumulation of iron in three different seed developmental stages, milk, dough, and mature, has been examined. The transgenic seeds of the milk stage showed significant augmentation of iron and zinc levels compared with wild-type seeds, and similar results were observed throughout the dough and mature stages. To investigate the regulation of iron transport, the role of miRNAs was studied in roots of transgenic rice. Sequencing of small RNA libraries revealed 153 known and 41 novel miRNAs in roots. Among them, 59 known and 14 novel miRNAs were found to be significantly expressed. miR166, miR399, and miR408 were identified as playing a vital role in iron uptake in roots of transgenic plants . Most importantly, four putative novel miRNAs, namely miR11, miR26, miR30, and miR31, were found to be down-regulated in roots of transgenic plants. For all these four novel miRNAs, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 4 (NRAMP4), encoding a metal transporter, was predicted as a target gene. It is hypothesized that the NRAMP4 transporter is activated in roots of transgenic plants due to the lower abundance of its corresponding putative novel miRNAs. The relative transcript level of the NRAMP4 transcript was increased from 0.107 in the wild type to 65.24 and 55.39 in transgenic plants, which demonstrates the elevated amount of iron transport in transgenic plants. In addition, up-regulation of OsYSL15, OsFRO2, and OsIRT1 in roots also facilitates iron loading in transgenic seeds. PMID:27729476

  19. Applicability of iron phosphate glass medium for loading NaCl originated from seawater used for cooling the stricken power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi; Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    As the part of investigation for immobilization of the sludge as one of the radioactive wastes arising from the treatment of contaminated water at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, applicability of vitrification method has been evaluated as a candidate technique. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of NaCl as one of the main constituents of sludge, on glass formation and glass properties. Two kinds of iron phosphate glass (IPG) media in the xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(100-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, with x=30 and 35 (mol%) were chosen and the glass formation, structure and properties including density, coefficient of thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, onset crystallization temperature and chemical durability of NaCl-loaded IPG were studied. The results are summarized as follows. Sodium chloride, NaCl could be loaded into IPG medium as Na{sub 2}O and Cl contents and their loading ratio could be up to 19 and 15 mol%, respectively. Majority of Cl content of raw material NaCl was thought to be volatilized during glass melting. Loading NaCl into IPG induces to de-polymerize glass network of phosphate chains, leads to decrease both glass transition and onset crystallization temperatures, and to increase coefficient of thermal expansion. NaCl-loaded IPG indicated good chemical durability in case of using 35Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- 65P{sub 2}O{sub 5} medium. (authors)

  20. The influence of premolding load on the electrical behavior in the initial stage of electric current activated sintering of carbonyl iron powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yongquan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Ke; Lai, Yangen; Li, Yuanyuan

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the premolding load effect on the electrical behavior in the initial stage of electric current activated sintering of carbonyl iron powders. An electrical network model is put forward to estimate the uniformity of electric current in a powder compact subjected to different premolding loads in the initial stage. The improvement in current uniformity can be reflected from a simultaneous increase in the number N and the mass fraction θ of conductive particle chains in the compact. Both N and θ are found to follow a power law with the premolding load F for different exponent values. When θ is equal to 1, a critical load is reached, at which point the current flows through all particles during sintering. Using the results of the model and the electrical contact theory, it is also found that only an increased temperature of less than 20 K across the particle contacts. The distribution of temperature is uniform in particles. This is clearly different from the general acceptance that local high temperature is created at contact during electric current activated sintering. The neck formation and growth are thought to be mainly due to heat bonding and electromigration, of which effects on mass transport are pronouncedly enhanced by increasing the bulk temperature. Because of the poor current uniformity and relatively large power dissipation, a soft thermal breakdown is observed in the sample with high initial resistance. A reduction in premolding load may cause an increase in the initial electrical resistance of the compact. Owing to the unique voltage-current characteristic of electric current activated sintering, a higher initial resistance of compact means more thermal energy is involved, consequently producing a higher bulk temperature and getting a better quality of sintering. This also provides theoretical explanation for the experimental results from Inoue and Istomina.

  1. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  2. Doxorubicin loaded PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena; Bednarowicz, Magdalena; Dobosz, Bernadeta; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Zalewski, Tomasz; Wereszczyńska, Beata; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jarek, Marcin; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles with chemiotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer. The aim of this work is to characterize physical and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparicles. Characterization was carried out using EPR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID and NMR methods. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

  3. Pancreatic functions in adolescents with beta thalassemia major could predict cardiac and hepatic iron loading: relation to T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Galila M; Ibrahim, Wafaa E; Elbarbary, Nancy S; Matter, Randa M; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Sayed, Safa M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between cardiac and hepatic T2* MRI findings with the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions in known patients with β-thalassaemia major (β-TM). A total of 50 adolescent patients with β-TM and 44 healthy controls were investigated via: serum amylase, lipase, triglyceride index, oral glucose tolerance test and T2* MRI, to assess iron content in the heart and liver. Diabetes was found in 20%, and 40% of patients had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Cardiac T2* was less than 10 ms in 22% indicating heavy load with iron in cardiac tissues. There was a significant decrease in median serum amylase (63.5 vs 87.5 IU/L, p=0.003) and lipase (63 vs 90 IU/L, p=0.017) among patients in comparison with the control group. Patients with β-TM and diabetes had lower serum amylase (32 vs 68 IU/L), lipase (28 vs 79 IU/L), cardiac and hepatic T2* MRI (7 vs 25.5 ms; 3 vs 6 ms, p<0.001 for all) than those without diabetes. Similar results were found among patients with IFG when compared with others (p<0.001 for all). Cardiac and hepatic T2* were inversely correlated to triglyceride index (r=-0.376, p=0.014 and r=-0.475, p=0.001, respectively) and positively correlated to amylase (r=0.791 and r=0.790) and lipase (r=0.784 and r=0.783; p<0.001 for all). The endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions might become an equivalent predictor to cardiac and hepatic iron overload, especially in countries where MRI is not available or where it is expensive. The early occurrence of these abnormalities warrants more intensive chelation therapy.

  4. Doxorubicin loaded superparamagnetic PLGA-iron oxide multifunctional microbubbles for dual-mode US/MR imaging and therapy of metastasis in lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Zhigang; Lu, Guangming; Krupka, Tianyi M; Sun, Yang; You, Yufang; Song, Weixiang; Ran, Haitao; Li, Pan; Zheng, Yuanyi

    2013-03-01

    Current strategies for tumor-induced sentinel lymph node detection and metastasis therapy have limitations. In this work, we co-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles and chemotherapeutic drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microbubbles to form multifunctional polymer microbubbles (MPMBs) for both tumor lymph node imaging and therapy. Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) co-encapsulated PLGA microbubbles were prepared and filled with perfluorocarbon gas. Enhancement of ultrasound (US)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and US triggered drug delivery were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The MPMBs exhibited characters like narrow size distribution and smooth surface with a mean diameter of 868.0 ± 68.73 nm. In addition, varying the concentration of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles in the bubbles did not significantly influence the DOX encapsulation efficiency or drug loading efficiency. Our in vitro results demonstrated that these MPMBs could enhance both US and MR imaging which was further validated in vivo showing that these MPMBs enhanced tumor lymph nodes signals. The anti-tumor effect of MPMBs mediated chemotherapy was assessed in vivo using end markers like tumor proliferation index, micro blood vessel density and micro lymphatic vessel density, which were shown consistently the lowest after the MPMBs plus sonication treatment compared to controls. In line with these findings, the tumor cell apoptotic index was found the largest after the MPMBs plus sonication treatment. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a doxorubicin loaded superparamagnetic PLGA-Iron Oxide multifunctional theranostic agent for dual-mode US/MR Imaging of lymph node, and for low frequency US triggered therapy of metastasis in lymph nodes, which might provide a strategy for the imaging and chemotherapy of primary tumor and their metastases.

  5. An active Mitochondrial Complex II Present in Mature Seeds Contains an Embryo-Specific Iron-Sulfur Subunit Regulated by ABA and bZIP53 and Is Involved in Germination and Seedling Establishment.

    PubMed

    Restovic, Franko; Espinoza-Corral, Roberto; Gómez, Isabel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, its iron-sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them (SDH2.3) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis-elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds. This region includes between -114 and -32 three ABRE (ABA-responsive) elements and one RY-enhancer like element, and we demonstrate that these elements, although necessary, are not sufficient for seed expression, our results supporting a role for the region encoding the 5' untranslated region (+1 to +49). The SDH2.3 promoter is activated in leaf protoplasts by heterodimers between the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP53 (group S1) and bZIP10 (group C) acting through the ABRE elements, and by the B3 domain transcription factor ABA insensitive 3 (ABI3). The in vivo role of bZIP53 is further supported by decreased SDH2.3 expression in a knockdown bzip53 mutant. By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and sdh2 mutants we have been able to conclusively show that complex II is already present in mature embryos before imbibition, and contains mainly SDH2.3 as iron-sulfur subunit. This complex plays a role during seed germination sensu-stricto since we have previously shown that seeds lacking SDH2.3 show retarded germination and now we demonstrate that low concentrations of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, a complex II inhibitor, also delay germination. Furthermore, complex II inhibitors completely block hypocotyl elongation in the dark and seedling establishment in the light, highlighting an essential role of complex II in the acquisition of photosynthetic competence and the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

  6. BEHAVIOR OF MODEL ASPHALT PAVEMENT CONTAINING A HYDRAULIC, GRADED IRON AND STEEL SLAG BASE-COURSE UNDER REPEATED PLATE-LOADING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Sugisako, Yasunari

    In this paper, the dynamic response of asphalt pave ment containing a hydraulic, graded iron and steel slag (hereafter called HMS) base-course under repeated plate-loading was investigated using a model asphalt pavement and the influence of hydraulicity on th e pavement behavior was discussed. The model pavement constructed was a 4-layer system consis ting of a dense-graded asphalt mix surface layer, a dense-graded asphalt mix binder-course, a HMS base-course and a Masado (heavily-weathered granitic sand) subgrade. A repeated plate-loading test was carri ed out so as to achieve a resilient state. It is shown that surface resilient deflection decreases as curing progresses and after 90 days, the deflection becomes almost half of the initial. Large horizontal tensile strains develop at the bottoms of binder- and base-course, which decrease significantly with curing. It is indicative that HMS base-course behaves like a stiffer plate resulting in a hard-to-deflect state due to the development of hydraulicity.

  7. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  8. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  9. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  10. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  11. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  12. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  13. Epirubicin-loaded superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles for transdermal delivery: cancer therapy by circumventing the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yue-feng; Chen, Wei; Liang, Xing-guang; Huang, Yong-zhuo; Miao, Jing; Liu, Lin; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xing-guo; Wang, Ben; Tang, Rui-kang; Chen, Zhong; Lu, Xiao-yang

    2015-01-14

    The transdermal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is a persistent challenge for tumor treatments. A model anticancer agent, epirubicin (EPI), is attached to functionalized superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The covalent modification of the SPION results in EPI-SPION, a potential drug delivery vector that uses magnetism for the targeted transdermal chemotherapy of skin tumors. The spherical EPI-SPION composite exhibits excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization intensity of 77.8 emu g(-1) . They feature specific pH-sensitive drug release, targeting the acidic microenvironment typical in common tumor tissues or endosomes/lysosomes. Cellular uptake studies using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and melanoma WM266 cells demonstrate that SPION have good biocompatibility. After conjugation with EPI, the nanoparticles can inhibit WM266 cell proliferation; its inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation is determined to be dose-dependent. In vitro transdermal studies demonstrate that the EPI-SPION composites can penetrate deep inside the skin driven by an external magnetic field. The magnetic-field-assisted SPION transdermal vector can circumvent the stratum corneum via follicular pathways. The study indicates the potential of a SPION-based vector for feasible transdermal therapy of skin cancer.

  14. Inhibiting excessive acidification using zero-valent iron in anaerobic digestion of food waste at high organic load rates.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin; Wei, Yonghong; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Liu, Yili; Yu, Shuyao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive acidification occurs frequently in food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) due to the high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of FW. In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was applied to prevent the excessive acidification. All of the control groups, without ZVI addition (pH∼5.3), produced little methane (CH4) and had high volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (VFA/ALK). By contrast, at OLR of 42.32gVS/Lreactor, the pH of effluent from the reactors with 0.4g/gVSFWadded of ZVI increased to 7.8-8.2, VFA/ALK decreased to <0.1, and the final CH4 yield was ∼380mL/gVSFWadded, suggesting inhibition of excessive acidification. After adding powdered or scrap metal ZVI to the acidogenic reactors, the fractional content of butyric acid changed from 30-40% to 0%, while, that of acetic acid increased. These results indicate that adding ZVI to FW digestion at high OLRs could eliminate excessive acidification by promoting butyric acid conversion and enhancing methanogen activity.

  15. Iron(III) hydroxide-loaded coral limestone as an adsorbent for arsenic(III) and arsenic (V)

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Shigeru; Ohki, Akira; Saikoji, Shunsuke; Naka, Kensuke )

    1992-04-01

    Trace levels of As(III) and As(V) in aqueous media were effectively adsorbed onto a coral limestone loaded by Fe(OH){sub 3}. The adsorption of As(III) was almost comparable to that of As(V). The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was almost independent of the pH of the aqueous phase (pH range: 3-10) because of a self-buffering effect of the coral. The addition of such anions as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate in the aqueous phase did not significantly affect the adsorption of As(III), whereas the addition of phosphate brought about a great decrease in the adsorption. The arsenic adsorption was effectively applied to the column method. Unloaded coral itself was effective as an adsorbent for As(V) when Fe(III) coexisted in the aqueous solutions.

  16. Epirubicin loaded super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugate for combined colon cancer therapy and imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Seyed Hamid; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahidi Hamedani, Nasim; Kalat, Seyedeh Alia Moosavian; Lavaee, Parirokh; Zandkarimi, Majid; Ghows, Narjes; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Naghibi, Saeed; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil

    2013-10-09

    Every year a large number of new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in the world. Application of Epirubicin (Epi) in treatment of cancer has been limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Specific delivery of chemotherapy drugs is an important factor in reducing the side effects of drugs used in chemotherapy. Enhanced permeability, retention effect and magnetic resonance (MR) traceability of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) make them a great candidate in cancer therapy and imaging. In this study, Epirubicin-5TR1 aptamer-SPION tertiary complex was evaluated for the imaging and treatment of murine colon carcinoma cells (C26 cells, target). For cytotoxic studies (MTT assay), C26 and CHO-K1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells, nontarget) cells were treated with either Epi or Epi-Apt-SPION tertiary complex. Internalization was evaluated by flow cytometry. Finally, Apt-SPION bioconjugate was used for imaging of cancer in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the tertiary complex was internalized effectively to C26 cells, but not to CHO-K1 cells. Cytotoxicity of Epi-Apt-SPION tertiary complex also confirmed internalization data. The complex was less cytotoxic in CHO-K1 cells when compared to Epi alone. No significant change in viability between Epi- and complex-treated C26 cells was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated a high level of accumulation of the nano-magnets within the tumor site. In conclusion Epi-Apt-SPION tertiary complex is introduced as an effective system for targeted delivery of Epi to C26 cells. Moreover this complex could efficiently detect tumors when analyzed by MRI and inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

  17. Spark Plasma Sintering of Load-Bearing Iron-Carbon Nanotube-Tricalcium Phosphate CerMets for Orthopaedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar, Edgar B.; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastián; Celko, Ladislav; Klakurková, Lenka; Spotz, Zdenek; Diéguez-Trejo, Guillermo; Fohlerová, Zdenka; Dvorak, Karel; Zikmund, Tomáš; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ceramic-metallic composite materials (CerMets) have been investigated for orthopaedic applications with promising results. This first generation of bio-CerMets combine the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite with the mechanical stability of titanium to fabricate bioactive, tough and biomechanically more biocompatible osteosynthetic devices. Nonetheless, these first CerMets are not biodegradable materials and a second surgery is required to remove the implant after bone healing. The present work aims to develop the next generation bio-CerMets, which are potential biodegradable materials. The process to produce the new biodegradable CerMet consisted of mixing powder of soluble and osteoconductive alpha tricalcium phosphate with biocompatible and biodegradable iron with consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, composition and mechanical strength of the new CerMet were studied by metallography, x-ray diffraction and diametral tensile strength tests, respectively. The results show that SPS produces CerMet with higher mechanical performance (120 MPa) than the ceramic component alone (29 MPa) and similar mechanical strength to the pure metallic component (129 MPa). Nonetheless, although a short sintering time (10 min) was used, partial transformation of the alpha tricalcium phosphate into its allotropic and slightly less soluble beta phase was observed. Cell adhesion tests show that osteoblasts are able to attach to the CerMet surface, presenting spread morphology regardless of the component of the material with which they are in contact. However, the degradation process restricted to the small volume of the cell culture well quickly reduces the osteoblast viability.

  18. The chloroplast permease PIC1 regulates plant growth and development by directing homeostasis and transport of iron.

    PubMed

    Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development.

  19. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  20. Iron, lanthanum and manganese oxides loaded on gamma-AI2O3 for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Caiting; Lu, Pei; Wen, Qingbo; Zhao, Yapei; Zhang, Xing; Fan, Chunzhen; Tao, Shasha

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mn/Al2O3, La-Mn/Al2O3 and Fe-La-Mn/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method and investigated for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature. The experimental results revealed that NO conversion over La-Mn/Al2O3 was obviously improved after La doping. Addition of Fe increased both NO conversion and the resistance to H2O and SO2. The catalyst Fe0.04La0.03Mn0.06/Al2O3 with a load mass of MnO2 = 6%, La2O3 = 3% and Fe2O3 = 4% exhibited relatively high catalytic activity and yielded 98% NO conversion at 260 degrees with a space velocity of 15,000 h(-1). Meanwhile, the catalytic activity was slightly decreased in the presence of H2O and SO2. Moreover, the catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption measurement, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the doping of La enhanced the dispersion and oxidation states of Mn on the surface of Al2O3. On the surface of the Fe0.04La0.03Mn0.06/Al2O3 catalyst, La was highly dispersed and a mixed oxidation state of Mn existed, while iron ions were only in the Fe3+ state. The mechanism of selective catalytic reduction over these catalysts is also discussed. In this experiment, metal oxides loaded on the support were catalytic centres which served as electron transfer during NO reduction. The electron transfer between Mn3+ and Fe3+ might also exist and the mixture oxidation states of Mn on the surface of the Fe0.04La0.03Mn0.06/Al2O3 catalyst contributed to the SCR activity.

  1. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  2. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (<-2.0???) and isotopically heavy suspended Fe precipitates to the watershed, while Zn from the fen was isotopically heavy (>+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Role of Gap Junctions and Mechanical Loading on Mineral Formation in a Collagen-I Scaffold Seeded with Osteoprogenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damaraju, Swathi; Matyas, John R.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Fracture nonunions represent one of many large bone defects where current treatment strategies fall short in restoring both form and function of the injured tissue. In this case, the use of a tissue-engineered scaffold for promoting bone healing offers an accessible and easy-to-manipulate environment for studying bone formation processes in vitro. We have previously shown that mechanical prestimulation using confined compression of differentiating osteoblasts results in an increase in mineralization formed in a 3D collagen-I scaffold. This study builds on this knowledge by evaluating the short and long-term effects of blocking gap junction-mediated intercellular communication among osteogenic cells on their effectiveness to mineralize collagen-I scaffolds in vitro, and in the presence and absence of mechanical stimulation. In this study, confined compression was applied in conjunction with octanol (a general communication blocker) or 18-α-glycerrhetinic acid (AGA, a specific gap junction blocker) using a modified FlexCell plate to collagen-I scaffolds seeded with murine embryonic stem cells stimulated toward osteoblast differentiation using beta-glycerol phosphate. The activity, presence, and expression of osteoblast cadherin, connexin-43, as well as various pluripotent and osteogenic markers were examined at 5–30 days of differentiation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, immunofluorescence, viability, histology assessments, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assessments revealed that inhibiting communication in this scaffold altered the lineage and function of differentiating osteoblasts. In particular, treatment with communication inhibitors caused reduced mineralization in the matrix, and dissociation between connexin-43 and integrin α5β1. This dissociation was not restored even after long-term recovery. Thus, in order for this scaffold to be considered as an alternative strategy for the repair of large bone defects, cell

  4. Biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Usta, Canan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-01-09

    The biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin for preconcentration-separation of them have been investigated. The sorbed analytes on biosorbent were eluted by using 1 mol L(-1) HCl and analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of analytical parameters including amounts of pH, B. sphaericus, sample volume etc. on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of alkaline, earth alkaline ions and some metal ions on the retentions of the analytes on the biosorbent were also examined. Separation and preconcentration of Cu, Pb, Fe and Co ions from real samples was achieved quantitatively. The detection limits by 3 sigma for analyte ions were in the range of 0.20-0.75 microg L(-1) for aqueous samples and in the range of 2.5-9.4 ng g(-1) for solid samples. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials (NRCC-SLRS 4 Riverine Water, SRM 2711 Montana soil and GBW 07605 Tea). The presented method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in green tea, black tea, cultivated mushroom, boiled wheat, rice and soil samples with successfully results.

  5. Seed coat removal improves iron bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Diane M; Vandenberg, Albert; Glahn, Raymond P

    2013-08-28

    In this study we examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on Fe nutritional as well as antinutrient properties. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While the Fe concentration of the whole lentil was moderately high (72.8 ± 10.8 μg/g, n = 24), the relative Fe bioavailability was moderate (2.4 ± 1.0 ng of ferritin/mg of protein). Although removing the seed coat reduced the Fe concentration by an average of 16.4 ± 9.4 μg/g, the bioavailability was significantly improved (+5.3 ± 2.2 ng of ferritin/mg of protein; p < 0.001), and the phytic acid concentration was reduced by 7% (p = 0.04). Like most legume seeds, the lentil seed coat contains a range of polyphenols known to inhibit Fe bioavailability. Thus, along with breeding for high Fe concentration and bioavailability (i.e., biofortification), seed coat removal appears to be a practical way to improve Fe bioavailability of the lentil.

  6. Grape seed extract inhibits lipid oxidation in muscle from different species during refrigerated and frozen storage and oxidation catalyzed by peroxynitrite and iron/ascorbate in a pyrogallol red model system.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Robert G; Mah, Eunice

    2007-12-01

    The antioxidant effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was determined by assessing the bleaching of pyrogallol red (PGR) by peroxynitrite or iron/ascorbate, and the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) in raw or cooked ground muscle during refrigerated or frozen storage. In PGR models, GSE was more effective than gallic acid in inhibiting oxidation. The formation of LOOH and TBARS was inhibited by GSE (0.1% and 1.0%) compared to untreated controls and samples treated with sodium tripolyphosphate. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), alone or in combination with GSE, had no effect on LOOH or TBARS, which provides clues about the possible mechanism of action of GSE. These results show that GSE at concentrations as low as 0.1% is a very effective inhibitor of primary and secondary oxidation products in various muscle systems and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw and cooked meat systems.

  7. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  8. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  9. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  10. A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride nanocomposite as novel and high-capacity cathode material for lithium/sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yongqiang; Wang, Xianyou; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Miaoling; Yang, Xiukang; Shu, Hongbo

    2015-06-01

    A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride (abbreviated as FeF3·xH2O/G) nanocomposite is successfully designed and synthesized for the first time by a sol-gel method. It found that the FeF3·xH2O nanoparticles distribute randomly on the surface of the graphene, stacking together to form a nanocomposite with high specific surface and abundant mesporous structure. The FeF3·xH2O was consisted of FeF3·3H2O and FeF2.5·0.5H2O with pyrochlore phase structure and FeF3·0.33H2O with hexagonal-tungsten-bronze-type structure (HTB). The FeF3·xH2O/G was used as cathode materials of rechargeable lithium/sodium batteries, respectively. It has been found that it can deliver a large reversible capacity exceeding 200 mAh g-1 and excellent cyclic performance with a residual capacity of 183 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C and 149 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 1C, especially, an outstanding rate performance exceeding 130 mAh g-1 at 5C in the voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V for Li-ion batteries. Moreover, when FeF3·xH2O/G is used as cathode material of Na-ion batteries, it exhibits also a high reversible capacity of 101 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles in the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V at 0.1C. Therefore, FeF3·xH2O/G will a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium/sodium ion batteries.

  11. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  12. Evaluation of Cepstrum Algorithm with Impact Seeded Fault Data of Helicopter Oil Cooler Fan Bearings and Machine Fault Simulator Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    seeded fault without gearbox and magnet load...Figure B-1. Ball seeded fault bearings with and without gearbox and magnet load for level 1. ..18 Figure B-2. Ball seeded fault bearings with and...without gearbox and magnet load for level 3. ..19 Figure B-3. Ball seeded fault bearings with and without gearbox and magnet load for level 5. ..20

  13. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    phosphorus was 0.023 mg/L, indicating the lake is borderline mesotrophic-eutrophic, or has moderate to high concentrations of phosphorus, whereas the average summer chlorophyll a concentration was 3.3 mg/L and water clarity, as measured with a Secchi depth, was 10.4 ft, both indicating mesotrophic conditions or that the lake has a moderate amount of algae and water clarity. Although actions have been taken to eliminate the wastewater discharges, the bottom sediment still has slightly elevated concentrations of several pollutants from wastewater discharges, lumber operations, and roadway drainage, and a few naturally occurring metals (such as iron). None of the concentrations, however, were high enough above the defined thresholds to be of concern. Based on nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, the productivity (algal growth) in Mercer Lake should typically be limited by phosphorus; therefore, understanding the phosphorus input to the lake is important when management efforts to improve or prevent degradation of the lake water quality are considered. Total inputs of phosphorus to Mercer Lake were directly estimated for MY 2008-09 at about 340 lb/yr and for a recent year with more typical hydrology at about 475 lb/yr. During these years, the largest sources of phosphorus were from Little Turtle Inlet, which contributed about 45 percent, and the drainage area near the lake containing the adjacent urban and residential developments, which contributed about 24 percent. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant and septic systems and other untreated systems contributed nutrients to the watershed, phosphorus loadings were estimated to be about 71 percent higher than during around 2009. In 1965, a sewage treatment plant was built, but its effluent was released in the downstream end of the lake. Depending on various assumptions on how much effluent was retained in the lake, phosphorus inputs from wastewater may have ranged from 0 to 342 lb. Future highway and stormwater

  14. Increased Iron Loading Induces Bmp6 Expression in the Non-Parenchymal Cells of the Liver Independent of the BMP-Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enns, Caroline A.; Ahmed, Riffat; Wang, Jiaohong; Ueno, Akiko; Worthen, Christal; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Zhang, An-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is an essential cytokine for the expression of hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone secreted predominantly by hepatocytes. Bmp6 expression is upregulated by increased iron-levels in the liver. Both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells have detectable Bmp6 mRNA. Here we showed that induction of hepcidin expression in hepatocytes by dietary iron is associated with an elevation of Bmp6 mRNA in the non-parenchymal cells of the liver. Consistently, incubation with iron-saturated transferrin induces Bmp6 mRNA expression in isolated hepatic stellate cells, but not in hepatocytes. These observations suggest an important role of the non-parenchymal liver cells in regulating iron-homeostasis by acting as a source of Bmp6. PMID:23565256

  15. How iron controls iron.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2009-12-01

    Cells regulate iron homeostasis by posttranscriptional regulation of proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage. This requires RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2. Two studies recently published in Science by Vashisht et al. (2009) and Salahudeen et al. (2009) reveal how cells adjust IRP2 activity.

  16. Synergistic antimicrobial efficacy of mesoporous ZnO loaded with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate isolated from the Moringa oleifera seed.

    PubMed

    Rim Jeon, Se; Ha Lee, Keun; Ha Shin, Dong; Sang Kwon, Sun; Sung Hwang, Jae

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of isolated compounds from seed extracts of Moringa oleifera and synergistic antimicrobial efficacy through hybridized complex of organic-inorganic composite materials were studied. The two main components of the Moringa oleifera seed were isolated and determined to be niazimicin and 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (RBI). The antimicrobial activity of the separated compounds of the Moringa oleifera seed were tested in vitro against 3 bacterial species and 2 fungal species by the paper disc diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. Both compounds showed antimicrobial activity against tested species and RBI was more effective than niazimicin. The MIC of RBI on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and A. niger was 0.005%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0.5%, respectively, while the MIC of niazimicin on S. aureus was 0.1%. Next, we investigated the combined antimicrobial action of mesoporous ZnO and RBI by incorporating the compound within the pore of mesoporous ZnO. The MIC of mesoporous ZnO with RBI on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and A. niger was 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. A synergistic effect of RBI with mesoporous ZnO was shown. From these results, the mesoporous ZnO could act as a reservoir for RBI and mesoporous ZnO with RBI could be used for cosmetic preservatives.

  17. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Toyoda, K.; Beneragama, N.; Umetsu, K.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  18. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  19. In vitro loading of apoferritin.

    PubMed

    de Silva, D; Miller, D M; Reif, D W; Aust, S D

    1992-03-01

    This study compared the effect of loading apoferritin either with ferrous ammonium sulfate in various buffers or with ceruloplasmin and chelated ferrous iron. It was shown that loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate was dependent on buffer and pH, and was directly related to the rate of iron autoxidation. The ceruloplasmin-dependent loading of apoferritin, however, was unaffected by these factors. Isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis of the differently loaded ferritins showed that ferrous ammonium sulfate loading of apoferritin resulted in the depletion of the basic amino acids, lysine and histidine, probably as a result of protein oxidation. No significant differences in amino acid composition was noted for ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin. Furthermore, ferritin loaded with ferrous ammonium sulfate released more iron than either native or ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin when either paraquat or EDTA was used as an iron mobilizing agent. We suggest that the loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate occurred as a result of iron autoxidation and may result in oxidation of amino acids and loss of integrity of the protein, and that ceruloplasmin may act as a catalyst for the incorporation of iron into apoferritin in a manner more closely related to that occurring in vivo.

  20. Well-defined iron complexes as efficient catalysts for "green" atom-transfer radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, and butyl acrylate with low catalyst loadings and catalyst recycling.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, So-Ichiro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kai, Hidetomo; Jin, Ren-Hua; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo

    2014-05-05

    Environmentally friendly iron(II) catalysts for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were synthesized by careful selection of the nitrogen substituents of N,N,N-trialkylated-1,4,9-triazacyclononane (R3 TACN) ligands. Two types of structures were confirmed by crystallography: "[(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]" complexes with relatively small R groups have ionic and dinuclear structures including a [(R3 TACN)Fe(μ-X)3 Fe(R3 TACN)](+) moiety, whereas those with more bulky R groups are neutral and mononuclear. The twelve [(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]n complexes that were synthesized were subjected to bulk ATRP of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl acrylate (BA). Among the iron complexes examined, [{(cyclopentyl)3 TACN}FeBr2 ] (4 b) was the best catalyst for the well-controlled ATRP of all three monomers. This species allowed easy catalyst separation and recycling, a lowering of the catalyst concentration needed for the reaction, and the absence of additional reducing reagents. The lowest catalyst loading was accomplished in the ATRP of MMA with 4 b (59 ppm of Fe based on the charged monomer). Catalyst recycling in ATRP with low catalyst loadings was also successful. The ATRP of styrene with 4 b (117 ppm Fe atom) was followed by precipitation from methanol to give polystyrene that contained residual iron below the calculated detection limit (0.28 ppm). Mechanisms that involve equilibria between the multinuclear and mononuclear species were also examined.

  1. Procyanidines from Vitis vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury: antioxidant intervention and/or iron and copper sequestering ability.

    PubMed

    Maffei Facinó, R; Carini, M; Aldini, G; Berti, F; Rossoni, G; Bombardelli, E; Morazzoni, P

    1996-12-01

    An isolated rabbit heart Langendorff preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidines isolated from Vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 minutes of low flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. Infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 micrograms/ml procyanidines dose-dependently reduced ventricular contracture during ischemia (LVEDP values decreased by 28% and 51%), decreased coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), improved cardiac mechanical performance upon reperfusion, increased the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the perfusate in both the pre-ischemic and the reperfusion periods (by 68% at 200 micrograms/ml), and suppressed rhythm irregularity. This antiarrhythmogenic action was confirmed in a more severe model of ischemia (flow rate 0.2 ml/ min). The cardioprotective agent allopurinol infused at 20 micrograms/ml had effects on the contractility and on the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha comparable to those of 200 micrograms/ml procyanidines. The results of the second part of this study show that procyanidines are potent scavengers of several reactive oxygen species involved in the ischemia/reperfusion damage: the superoxide anion (IC50 = 5.64 microM: rate constant K = 7.55 x 10(5) M-1 s-1, determined by the phenazine methosulfate/NADH method); the hydroxyl radical (IC50 = 28 microM; rate constant K = 1.2 x 10(12) M-1 s-1, determined by the electron spin resonance spectroscopy); peroxyl radicals (IC50 = 0.025 microM and 0.35 microM, determined using two different lipid substrates, phosphatidylcholine liposomes and methyl linoleate micelles by UV spectroscopy at 233 nm). Finally, procyanidines interact with Fe2+ and Cu2+ ions (the catalysts of HO. radicals production) giving rise to strong complexes, with stability constants (log K) ranging from 9.35 to approximately 9.

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  3. Granulation by roller compaction and enteric coated tablet formulation of the extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides loaded on Aeroperl 300 Pharma.

    PubMed

    Endale, Abebe; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Schmidt, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the hygroscopicity and poor flow properties of the crude dry extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides and improve the disintegration time of the core-tablets for enteric coated formulation thereof. The liquid crude extract of the plant was adsorbed on granulated colloidal silicon dioxide (Aeroperl 300 Pharma) at 30% w/w and the dry extract preparation (DEP) was dry-granulated with roller-compaction using Micro-Pactor. Hygroscopicity, flow property and disintegration time were improved significantly due to the adsorption and granulation processes. Moreover, the DEP does not become mucilaginous even at higher relative humidity levels (above 65%). Oblong tablets (20 x 8.25 mm) containing 947 mg of the granulated DEP (equivalent to the traditional dose), 363 mg of Avicel PH101 and 90 mg of Ac-di-Sol as disintegrant were formulated using an instrumented eccentric tablet machine at 20 kN. The tablets showed a crushing strength of 195 N, a friability of 0.4% and disintegrated within 9 min. The tablets were then enteric coated using polymethacrylate co-polymers (Eudragit L 100-55 and Kollicoat MAE 100P). The coated tablets resisted disintegration or softening in simulated gastric fluid for a minimum of 2 h and disintegrated within 15 min in intestine simulated fluid at pH 6.8. In addition to controlling the release of the active agents, the enteric coating improved the strength and decreased friability of the core-tablets.

  4. Soybean Ferritin Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Modulates Iron Accumulation and Resistance to Elevated Iron Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    de Llanos, Rosa; Martínez-Garay, Carlos Andrés; Fita-Torró, Josep; Romero, Antonia María; Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lack ferritin and use vacuoles as iron storage organelles. This work explored how plant ferritin expression influenced baker's yeast iron metabolism. Soybean seed ferritin H1 (SFerH1) and SFerH2 genes were cloned and expressed in yeast cells. Both soybean ferritins assembled as multimeric complexes, which bound yeast intracellular iron in vivo and, consequently, induced the activation of the genes expressed during iron scarcity. Soybean ferritin protected yeast cells that lacked the Ccc1 vacuolar iron detoxification transporter from toxic iron levels by reducing cellular oxidation, thus allowing growth at high iron concentrations. Interestingly, when simultaneously expressed in ccc1Δ cells, SFerH1 and SFerH2 assembled as heteropolymers, which further increased iron resistance and reduced the oxidative stress produced by excess iron compared to ferritin homopolymer complexes. Finally, soybean ferritin expression led to increased iron accumulation in both wild-type and ccc1Δ yeast cells at certain environmental iron concentrations. IMPORTANCE Iron deficiency is a worldwide nutritional disorder to which women and children are especially vulnerable. A common strategy to combat iron deficiency consists of dietary supplementation with inorganic iron salts, whose bioavailability is very low. Iron-enriched yeasts and cereals are alternative strategies to diminish iron deficiency. Animals and plants possess large ferritin complexes that accumulate, detoxify, or buffer excess cellular iron. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks ferritin and uses vacuoles as iron storage organelles. Here, we explored how soybean ferritin expression influenced yeast iron metabolism, confirming that yeasts that express soybean seed ferritin could be explored as a novel strategy to increase dietary iron absorption. PMID:26969708

  5. Iron regulatory proteins and their role in controlling iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2015-02-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by post-transcriptional feedback mechanisms, which control the expression of proteins involved in iron uptake, release and storage. Two cytoplasmic proteins with mRNA-binding properties, iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) play a central role in this regulation. Foremost, IRPs regulate ferritin H and ferritin L translation and thus iron storage, as well as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA stability, thereby adjusting receptor expression and iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin. In addition splice variants of iron transporters for import and export at the plasma-membrane, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin are regulated by IRPs. These mechanisms have probably evolved to maintain the cytoplasmic labile iron pool (LIP) at an appropriate level. In certain tissues, the regulation exerted by IRPs influences iron homeostasis and utilization of the entire organism. In intestine, the control of ferritin expression limits intestinal iron absorption and, thus, whole body iron levels. In bone marrow, erythroid heme biosynthesis is coordinated with iron availability through IRP-mediated translational control of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase mRNA. Moreover, the translational control of HIF2α mRNA in kidney by IRP1 coordinates erythropoietin synthesis with iron and oxygen supply. Besides IRPs, body iron absorption is negatively regulated by hepcidin. This peptide hormone, synthesized and secreted by the liver in response to high serum iron, downregulates ferroportin at the protein level and thereby limits iron absorption from the diet. Hepcidin will not be discussed in further detail here.

  6. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  7. Dimensional specific physical properties of fan palm fruits, seeds and seed coats (Washingtonia robusta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkuner, Yalçın; Gökbudak, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    In this study some physical properties of fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) fruits, seeds and seed coats were determined using dimensional, bulk and single kernel physical analysis. The moisture content of whole fruits, seeds and seed coats was 12.0, 9.86 and 13.87% (d.b.), respectively. The sphericity values showed that seed shape (0.86) is close to a sphere, similar as the fruit shape (0.83), both of which were close to a scalene ellipsoid shape. The surface area values of fruits and seeds were obtained as 163.27 and 80.25 mm2, and volume values were obtained as 190.96 and 66.32 mm3, respectively. Bulk densities of fruits, seeds and seed coats were 559, 783 and 272 kg m-3, and the corresponding true densities were 1143, 1147 and 864 kg m-3, whereas the corresponding porosities were 48.87, 54.12, and 31.52%, respectively. The values of the static coefficient of friction and the angle of repose of fruits, seeds and seed coats of palm fruits were studied on aluminium, canvas, galvanised iron, plywood, PP knitted bag, PVC and stainless steel surfaces. As expected, seed coat has higher values of coefficient of static friction on the all surfaces than fruit and seed.

  8. Iron does not cause arrhythmias in the guinea pig model of transfusional iron overload.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lana; Davis, John; Patterson, Jon; Boyd, Ryan F; Olivier, N Bari; Bohart, George; Schwartz, Kenneth A

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac events, including heart failure and arrhythmias, are the leading cause of death in patients with beta thalassemia. Although cardiac arrhythmias in humans are believed to result from iron overload, excluding confounding factors in the human population is difficult. The goal of the current study was to determine whether cardiac arrhythmias occurred in the guinea pig model of secondary iron overload. Electrocardiograms were recorded by using surgically implanted telemetry devices in guinea pigs loaded intraperitoneally with iron dextran (test animals) or dextran alone (controls). Loading occurred over approximately 6 wk. Electrocardiograms were recorded for 1 wk prior to loading, throughout loading, and for approximately 4 wk after loading was complete. Cardiac and liver iron concentrations were significantly increased in the iron-loaded animals compared with controls and were in the range of those reported for humans with thalassemia. Arrhythmias were rare in both iron-loaded and control guinea pigs. No life-threatening arrhythmias were detected in either group. These data suggest that iron alone may be insufficient to cause cardiac arrhythmias in the iron-loaded guinea pig model and that arrhythmias detected in human patients with iron overload may be the result of a complex interplay of factors.

  9. The Role of Hepcidin in Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin production results in a variety of iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency is the cause of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis, iron-loading anemias, and hepatitis C. Hepcidin excess is associated with anemia of inflammation, chronic kidney disease and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of this new knowledge are beginning to emerge. Dr. Ernest Beutler played a significant role in advancing our understanding of the function of hepcidin. This review is dedicated to his memory. PMID:19907144

  10. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  11. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  12. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant.

    PubMed

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-09-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids.

  13. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L.; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A.; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids. PMID:26232490

  14. Iron loading effects in Fe/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR catalysts: nature of the Fe-ions and structure-function relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Yilin; Walter, Eric D.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2016-05-06

    Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, a series of Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts with various Fe loadings were synthesized. UV-Vis, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies, coupled with temperature programmed reduction and desorption techniques, were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. The major monomeric and dimeric Fe species are extra-framework [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+. Larger oligomers with unknown nuclearity, poorly crystallized Fe2O3 particles, together with isolated Fe2+ ions, are minor Fe-containing moieties. Reaction rate and Fe loading correlations suggest that isolated Fe3+ ions are the active sites for standard SCR while the dimeric sites are the active centers for NO oxidation. NH3 oxidation, on the other hand, is catalyzed by sites with higher nuclearity. A low-temperature standard SCR reaction network is proposed that includes redox cycling of both monomeric and dimeric Fe species, for SCR and NO2 generation, respectively. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  15. Characterizing rapid capacity fade and impedance evolution in high rate pulsed discharged lithium iron phosphate cells for complex, high power loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Derek N.; Wetz, David A.; Heinzel, John M.; Mansour, Azzam N.

    2016-10-01

    Three 26650 LiFePO4 (LFP) cells are cycled using a 40 A pulsed charge/discharge profile to study their performance in high rate pulsed applications. This profile is used to simulate naval pulsed power loads planned for deployment aboard future vessels. The LFP cells studied experienced an exponential drop in their usable high-rate recharge capacity within sixty cycles due to a rapid rise in their internal resistance. Differential capacitance shows that the voltage window for charge storage is pushed outside of the recommended voltage cutoff limits. Investigation into the state of health of the electrodes shows minimal loss of active material from the cathode to side reactions. Post-mortem examination of the anodic surface films reveals a large increase in the concentration of reduced salt compounds indicating that the pulsed profile creates highly favorable conditions for LiPF6 salt to break down into LiF. This film slows the ionic movement at the interface, affecting transfer kinetics, resulting in charge buildup in the bulk anode without successful energy storage. The results indicate that the use of these cells as a power supply for high pulsed power loads is hindered because of ionically resistant film development and not by an increasing rate of active material loss.

  16. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  17. Effect of different iron loads on serum and tissue biochemical parameters and liver hepcidin mRNA abundance of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Lia, Mengyun; Yin, Qingqiang; Dang, Xiaowei; Chang, Juan; Zuo, Ruiyu; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2011-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential and important trace element for animals. In order to study its metabolism and relationship with hepcidin, piglet models of Fe-deficiency and Fe-overload were established by intramuscular injection with different doses of Fe-dextran (150 mg Fe/ml) within 1 week of age. Twelve piglets were divided into three groups of four animals: deficiency, regular and overload group, receiving 0 ml, 1 ml and 6 ml Fe-dextran, respectively. The piglets were euthanised at the age of 7 days for analysis. The results showed that the Fe-concentrations in liver, spleen and serum of piglets in the overload group were higher than in the regular and deficiency groups (p < 0.05). In the overload group, several serum biochemical parameters, e.g. globulin, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase and xanthine oxidase were higher, while alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and triglycerides were lower, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of AKP, total bilirubin and peroxidase in the deficiency group were lower, while HDL and GPx were higher, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). Hepcidin mRNA abundance was 131 times lower in the liver of piglets with Fe-deficiency, and 7 times higher in the overloaded group than that in the regular group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Fe-overload and deficiency would influence Fe-metabolism, serum biochemical indexes, oxidation state and hepcidin mRNA abundance in piglet liver.

  18. Laboratory and pilot-scale field experiments for application of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded chitosan composites to phosphate removal from natural water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to apply iron oxide nanoparticle-chitosan (ION-chitosan) composites to phosphate removal from natural water collected from the Seoho Stream in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Laboratory batch experiments showed that phosphate removal by the ION-chitosan composites was not sensitive to pH changes between pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. During six cycles of adsorption-desorption, the composites could be successfully regenerated with 5 mM NaOH solution and reused for phosphate removal. Laboratory fixed-bed column experiments (column height = 10 and 20 cm, inner diameter = 2.5 cm, flow rate = 8.18 and 16.36 mL/min) demonstrated that the composites could be successfully applied for phosphate removal under dynamic flow conditions. A pilot-scale field experiment was performed in a pilot plant, which was mainly composed of chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation and an adsorption tower, built nearby the Seoho Stream. The natural water was pumped from the Seoho Stream into the pilot plant, passed through the chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation process, and then introduced into the adsorption tower (height = 100 cm, inner diameter = 45 cm, flow rate = 7.05±0.18 L/min) for phosphate removal via the composites (composite volume = 80 L, composite weight = 85.74 kg). During monitoring of the adsorption tower (33 days), the influent total phosphorus (T-P) concentration was in the range of 0.020-0.046 mgP/L, whereas the effluent T-P concentration was in the range of 0.010-0.028 mgP/L. The percent removal of T-P in the adsorption tower was 52.3% with a phosphate removal capacity of 0.059 mgP/g.

  19. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed.

  20. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  1. Evaluation of an automated seed loader for seed calibration in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shuying; Joshi, Chandra P; Carnes, Greg; Schreiner, L John

    2006-01-01

    Automated seed loaders for permanent prostate implants are now commercially available. Besides improved radiation safety, these systems offer seed assay capability and ease of needle loading, making preplanned as well as intra-operative implant procedures more time-efficient. The Isoloader (Mentor Corp., CA) uses individual I125 seeds (SL-125 ProstaSeed) loaded in up to 199 chambers inside a shielded cartridge. The unit performs seed counting and calibration using a builtin solid-state detector. In order to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of the calibration process, two test cartridges were measured with the Isoloader itself and compared with a well-type ionization chamber (HDR-1000Plus, Standard Imaging). The air kerma strength measurements for all seeds using the Isoloader had a standard deviation of about 2.7%. For the eight seeds assayed more intensively using both the Isoloader and well chamber, the standard deviations of the measurements for each seed were in the range of 0.8% to 2.8% and 0.6% to 1.3%, respectively. The variation in the Isoloader calibration is attributed to small detector solid angle and bead geometry within seed capsules (verified by radiographs). The reproducibility of the air kerma strength measured by the Isoloader was comparable to that from the well chamber and was clinically acceptable. Seed strength measured with the Isoloader was on average 1% 2% larger than that measured with the well chamber, indicating that the accuracy of the Isoloader was clinically acceptable.

  2. Iron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Galy, Bruno; Ferring-Appel, Dunja; Becker, Christiane; Gretz, Norbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schümann, Klaus; Hentze, Matthias W

    2013-03-28

    Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated "mucosal block." We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin "mucosal block" and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  3. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  4. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  5. Hepcidin and iron disorders: new biology and clinical approaches.

    PubMed

    Arezes, J; Nemeth, E

    2015-05-01

    Hepatic hormone hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis and a pathogenic factor in common iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading anemias, whereas hepcidin excess causes or contributes to the development of iron-restricted anemia in inflammatory diseases, infections, some cancers, and chronic kidney disease. Because of this, hepcidin may become a useful tool for diagnosis and management of iron disorders. Furthermore, a number of strategies that target hepcidin, its receptor, and its regulators are under development as novel therapeutic approaches for diseases associated with iron dysregulation.

  6. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (P<0.05). The results of mechanical tests demonstrated that the effect of loading rate on the mechanical properties of hemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (P<0.01). The lowest value of rupture force was obtained at the highest loading rate (3mm min-1)and in the moisture content of 27.12% d.b. Moreover, the interaction effects of loading rate and moisture content on the rupture force and energy of hemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  8. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  9. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  10. Quercetin as a shuttle for labile iron.

    PubMed

    Baccan, Mayara Marinovic; Chiarelli-Neto, Orlando; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids may involve their ability to complex body iron in non-redox-active forms. In this study, it was found that the catechol flavonoids rutin and quercetin are able to suppress redox-active labile plasma iron (LPI) in both buffered solution and in iron-overloaded sera. Both flavonoids are effective in loading the metal into the iron-transport protein transferrin. Iron derivatives of quercetin and rutin are able to permeate cell membranes, however, only free quercetin is able to gain access to the cytosol and decrease intracellular labile iron pools. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of quercetin may be dependent on its ability to shuttle labile iron from cell compartments followed by its transfer to transferrin.

  11. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  12. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  13. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  14. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  15. Studies of cream seeded carioca beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan efficacy trial: in vitro and in vivo screening tools reflect human studies and predict beneficial results from iron biofortified beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether...

  16. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  17. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the <200 kDa fraction. Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  18. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Iron in Hemoglobin-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload and iron toxicity, whether because of increased absorption or iron loading from repeated transfusions, can be major causes of morbidity and mortality in a number of chronic anemias. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of iron homeostasis over the past decade. At the same time, advances in magnetic resonance imaging have allowed clinicians to monitor and quantify iron concentrations non-invasively in specific organs. Furthermore, effective iron chelators are now available, including preparations that can be taken orally. This has resulted in substantial improvement in mortality and morbidity for patients with severe chronic iron overload. This paper reviews the key points of iron homeostasis and attempts to place clinical observations in patients with transfusional iron overload in context with the current understanding of iron homeostasis in humans. PMID:24726864

  19. Dynamic control of hepatic Plasmodium numbers by hepcidin despite elevated liver iron during iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Patricia; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Roy, Cindy N; Sullivan, David J

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in malaria endemic areas is complicated as iron supplementation increases malaria risk while malaria decreases iron absorption. Here we measured the influence of hepcidin expression and non-heme iron during iron supplementation on hepatic Plasmodium berghei numbers in anemic and non-anemic mice. Despite elevated hepatic non-heme iron on the high iron diet, elevated hepcidin expression is associated with less parasite bioavailable iron and lower hepatic parasite loads in anemic, iron deficient mice after both two and six weeks of supplementation. A marginal trend to lower parasite hepatic numbers was seen in non-anemic, iron replete mice. In a transgenic model of severe anemia, mice with a deletion in Sec15l1, which reportedly have normal liver iron and normal hepcidin expression, there were no changes in liver parasite numbers or blood stage numbers or outcome in the lethal Plasmodium yoelii model. In summary during iron supplementation the lower hepatic malaria numbers are regulated more by hepcidin than the absolute level of non-heme hepatic iron.

  20. Dynamic control of hepatic Plasmodium numbers by hepcidin despite elevated liver iron during iron supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Patricia; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Roy, Cindy N.; Sullivan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in malaria endemic areas is complicated as iron supplementation increases malaria risk while malaria decreases iron absorption. Here we measured the influence of hepcidin expression and nonheme iron during iron supplementation on hepatic Plasmodium berghei numbers in anemic and nonanemic mice. Despite elevated hepatic nonheme iron on the high iron diet, elevated hepcidin expression is associated with less parasite bioavailable iron and lower hepatic parasite loads in anemic, iron deficient mice after both two and six weeks of supplementation. A marginal trend to lower parasite hepatic numbers was seen in nonanemic, iron replete mice. In a transgenic model of severe anemia, mice with a deletion in Sec15l1, which reportedly have normal liver iron and normal hepcidin expression, there were no changes in liver parasite numbers or bloodstage numbers or outcome in the lethal P. yoelii model. In summary during iron supplementation the lower hepatic malaria numbers are regulated more by hepcidin than the absolute level of nonheme hepatic iron. PMID:26384816

  1. [The role of iron as a deficient element].

    PubMed

    Schümann, K

    1989-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element. In its heme-form as well as in its non heme-form it is a part of enzymes and hemoproteins. For a safe and adequate dietary intake 10-18 mg of iron are recommended daily. Frequently, this quantity is not available: approximately 20% of the world population is iron-deficient. In this state the enteral transfer capacity for toxic metals, e.g., Cd and Pb, is increased and the adaptation to physical strain as well as the immunological responses are depressed. Alterations of body iron-stores are almost exclusively balanced by adequate adaptation of the enteral iron-transfer capacity. The mechanism of this adaptation process can neither be satisfactorily explained by the "mucosal block hypothesis", nor by the "mucosal transferrin hypothesis". When the time-course of iron storage and its relation to intestinal iron transfer was investigated after i.v. iron administration to iron-deficient rats, the results indicated that the process of adaptation is located in the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal iron loading is decreased in iron deficiency, whereas the iron transfer into the organism is increased. Further investigation is necessary to find out by which mechanism the iron manages to bypass existing mucosal storage capacity in this situation. The geographical distribution of iron deficiency is influenced by a variety of local factors. Still, the paramount causes of iron-deficiency are unbalanced iron losses and the lack of bioavailable iron in the diet. The bioavailability of non heme iron is influenced by the composition of the diet. The effect of promotors of iron absorption, such as meat, amino acids, polycarbonic acids and ascorbate is opposed by the influence of inhibitors, such as bran, soya products, vegetables and egg-dishes. Iron losses are mainly due to blood losses. Thus, the wide distribution of hookworm diseases in tropical areas contributes significantly to the endemic iron-deficiency in these regions. A more physiological loss

  2. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  3. Iron-biofortification in rice by the introduction of three barley genes participated in mugineic acid biosynthesis with soybean ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May S; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a serious problem around the world, especially in developing countries. The production of iron-biofortified rice will help ameliorate this problem. Previously, expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, in rice using an endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a two-fold increase in iron concentration in the resultant transgenic seeds. However, further over expression of ferritin did not produce an additional increase in the seed iron concentration, and symptoms of iron deficiency were noted in the leaves of the transgenic plants. In the present study, we aimed to further increase the iron concentration in rice seeds without increasing the sensitivity to iron deficiency by enhancing the uptake and transport of iron via a ferric iron chelator, mugineic acid. To this end, we introduced the soybean ferritin gene (SoyferH2) driven by two endosperm-specific promoters, along with the barley nicotianamine synthase gene (HvNAS1), two nicotianamine aminotransferase genes (HvNAAT-A and -B), and a mugineic acid synthase gene (IDS3) to enhance mugineic acid production in rice plants. A marker-free vector was utilized as a means of increasing public acceptance. Representative lines were selected from 102 transformants based on the iron concentration in polished seeds and ferritin accumulation in the seeds. These lines were grown in both commercially supplied soil (iron-sufficient conditions) and calcareous soil (iron-deficient conditions). Lines expressing both ferritin and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes showed signs of iron-deficiency tolerance in calcareous soil. The iron concentration in polished T3 seeds was increased by 4 and 2.5 times, as compared to that in non-transgenic lines grown in normal and calcareous soil, respectively. These results indicate that the concomitant introduction of the ferritin gene and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes effectively increased the seed iron level without causing iron sensitivity under iron-limited conditions.

  4. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  5. Hepatic macrophage iron aggravates experimental alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shigang; She, Hongyun; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wang, Jiaohong; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Dynnyk, Alla; Gordeuk, Victor R.; French, Samuel W.; Enns, Caroline A.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    One prime feature of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is iron accumulation in hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells (KC) associated with enhanced NF-κB activation. Our recent work demonstrates a peroxynitrite-mediated transient rise in intracellular labile iron (ILI) as novel signaling for endotoxin-induced IKK and NF-κB activation in rodent KC. The present study investigated the mechanism of KC iron accumulation and its effects on ILI response in experimental ALD. We also tested ILI response in human blood monocytes. Chronic alcohol feeding in rats results in increased expression of transferrin (Tf) receptor-1 and hemochromatosis gene (HFE), enhanced iron uptake, an increase in nonheme iron content, and accentuated ILI response for NF-κB activation in KC. Ex vivo treatment of these KC with an iron chelator abrogates the increment of iron content, ILI response, and NF-κB activation. The ILI response is evident in macrophages derived from human blood monocytes by PMA treatment but not in vehicle-treated monocytes, and this differentiation-associated phenomenon is essential for maximal TNF-α release. PMA-induced macrophages load iron dextran and enhance ILI response and TNF-α release. These effects are reproduced in KC selectively loaded in vivo with iron dextran in mice and more importantly aggravate experimental ALD. Our results suggest enhanced iron uptake as a mechanism of KC iron loading in ALD and demonstrate the ILI response as a function acquired by differentiated macrophages in humans and as a priming mechanism for ALD. PMID:18599584

  6. Morphologic investigations of the guinea pig model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, K A; Fisher, J; Adams, E T

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a guinea pig model of iron overload toxicity. Animals were administered intraperitoneal iron dextran 3 times a week to achieve total body iron load of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g Fe/kg body weight in less than 30 days. Quantitation of tissue iron levels with atomic absorption indicated increased iron deposition in liver and heart of the iron-loaded guinea pigs (p < 0.001). Additionally, the iron-loaded pigs demonstrated decreased nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy T1 relaxation times in both liver and heart (p < 0.001). Serum iron, total body iron capacity, and transferrin saturation values were also determined in guinea pigs treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g Fe/kg body weight. Serum iron and total iron-binding capacity were significantly increased at 0.5 and 1.0 g Fe/kg; transferrin saturation was elevated at 0.25 and 1.0 g Fe/kg. kg. Histologic examination of liver, heart, and bone marrow as well as ultrastructural studies on liver and heart confirmed increased iron deposition in treated animals. At the low iron dose level of 0.5 g Fe/kg, liver iron particles were primarily confined to Kupffer cells with minimal hepatocellular localization. Increased hepatocellular iron deposition was observed with larger doses of loaded iron. Myocardial iron was most prominent in interstitial cells of the epicardium, endocardium, myocardium, and coronary adipose tissue. Ultrastructurally, the presence of iron particles in perinuclear, membrane-bound structures (consistent with lysosomes) was confirmed using x-ray microanalysis. These morphological studies suggest that in this animal model siderosis of hepatic mononuclear phagocyte and myocardial interstitial cells may be the initial lesions leading to further biochemical and functional abnormalities. Correlation between tissue iron measurements and both light and electron microscopic changes, presented in this report, serve to introduce the iron-loaded guinea pig as a model for the study of iron

  7. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  8. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-05-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells.

  9. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  11. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  12. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  14. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  15. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  16. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  17. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  18. Modulation of iron metabolism by iron chelation regulates intracellular calcium and increases sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Leman; Halis, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Increased intracellular iron levels can both promote cell proliferation and death, as such; iron has a “two-sided effect” in the delicate balance of human health. Though the role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear, investigations of iron chelators as anti-tumor agents have revealed promising results. Here, we investigated the influence of iron and desferrioxamine (DFO), the iron chelating agent on intracellular calcium in a human leukemia cell line, K562. Iron uptake is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Therefore, we showed that iron also caused dose-dependent ROS generation in K562 cells. The measurement of intracellular calcium was determined using Furo-2 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The iron delivery process to the cytoplasmic iron pool was examined by monitoring the fluorescence of cells loaded with calcein-acetoxymethyl. Our data showed that iron increased intracellular calcium, and this response was 8 times higher when cells were incubated with DFO. K562 cells with DFO caused a 3.5 times increase of intracellular calcium in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). In conclusion, DFO induces intracellular calcium and increases their sensitivity to DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26773173

  19. Genetic diversity and association mapping of iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Diapari, Marwan; Sindhu, Anoop; Bett, Kirstin; Deokar, Amit; Warkentin, Thomas D; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2014-08-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the world's second most important pulse crop after common bean. Chickpea has historically been an important daily staple in the diet of millions of people, especially in the developing countries. Current chickpea breeding programs have mainly been directed toward high yield, biotic and abiotic stress resilience that has increased global production, but less attention has been directed toward improving micronutrient concentrations in seeds. In an effort to develop micronutrient-dense chickpea lines, a study to examine the variability and to identify SNP alleles associated with seed iron and zinc concentrations was conducted using 94 diverse accessions of chickpea. The results indicated that there is substantial variability present in chickpea germplasm for seed iron and zinc concentrations. In the current set of germplasm, zinc is negatively correlated with grain yield across all locations and years; whereas the negative correlation between iron and grain yield was only significant at the Elrose locality. Eight SNP loci associated with iron and (or) zinc concentrations in chickpea seeds were identified. One SNP located on chromosome 1 (chr1) is associated with both iron and zinc concentrations. On chr4, three SNPs associated with zinc concentration and two SNPs for iron concentration were identified. Two additional SNP loci, one on chr6 and the other on chr7, were also found to be associated with iron and zinc concentrations, respectively. The results show potential opportunity for molecular breeding for improvement of seed iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea.

  20. Iron Treatment Strategies in Dialysis-Dependent CKD.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Richa; Daloul, Reem; Coyne, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency is common in patients on chronic dialysis, and most require iron-replacement therapy. In addition to absolute iron deficiency, many patients have functional iron deficiency as shown by a suboptimal response to the use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents. Both absolute and functional iron-deficiency anemia have been shown to respond to intravenous (IV) iron replacement. Although parenteral iron is an efficacious method and superior to standard doses of oral iron in patients on hemodialysis, there are ongoing safety concerns about repeated exposure potentially enhancing infection risk and cardiovascular disease. Each IV iron product is composed of an iron core with a carbohydrate shell. The avidity of iron binding and the type of carbohydrate shell play roles in the safe maximal dose and the frequency and severity of acute infusion reactions. All IV iron products are taken up into the reticuloendothelial system where the shell is metabolized and the iron is stored within tissue ferritin or exported to circulating transferrin. IV iron can be given as large intermittent doses (loading therapy) or in smaller doses at frequent intervals (maintenance dosing regimen). Limited trial data and observational data suggest that a maintenance dosing regimen is more efficacious and possibly safer than loading therapy. There is no consensus regarding the preferred method of iron repletion in patients on peritoneal dialysis, although small studies comparing oral and parenteral iron regimens in these patients have shown the latter to be more efficacious. Use of IV iron in virtually all hemodialysis and many peritoneal dialysis patients remains the standard of care.

  1. H₂S abatement in a biotrickling filter using iron(III) foam media.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juan J; Govind, Rakesh

    2008-11-01

    Airstreams polluted with H(2)S at inlet loads ranging from 2.4 to 40.9 g H(2)Sm(-3)h(-1) were treated in a biotrickling reactor packed with hematite bearing, open pore foam units, at Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT) ranging from 20 to 60s over a period of 80 d, with almost complete removal of the pollutant from the startup of the system. The media had been seeded with sludge from a local water works facility, and removal efficiencies in excess of 80% were consistently observed along the operation of the reactor, with an average of 98%. Based on section performance, being a section one third of the bed length, observed elimination capacities (EC) reached up to 88.7 g H(2)Sm(-3)h(-)(1) and 72.0 g H(2)Sm(-3)h(-1) at section EBRT of 10 and 7s, respectively. The observed EC values compared much better than data reported on other packed bed reactors using biological iron oxidization to treat H(2)S airstreams indirectly, and so did it when comparing the EC per unit of specific area in a similar study using polyurethane (PU) foams. Further, and unlike PU packed biofilters, no compaction occurred due to the iron foam rigidity, which translated in much better observed gas phase pressure drop as opposed to other conventional biofilters. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis was performed on the biomass collected in the packing after the biofilter service, and it was found that though a multi bacterial colony was seeded in the system via the sludge, the only surviving genus was the iron oxidizing Alicyclobacillus spp.

  2. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  4. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA).

    PubMed

    Heeney, Matthew M; Finberg, Karin E

    2014-08-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a common global problem whose etiology is typically attributed to acquired inadequate dietary intake and/or chronic blood loss. However, in several kindreds multiple family members are affected with iron deficiency anemia that is unresponsive to oral iron supplementation and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy. The discovery that many of these cases harbor mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene led to the recognition that they represent a single clinical entity: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). This article reviews clinical features of IRIDA, recent genetic studies, and insights this disorder provides into the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis.

  5. The seed nuclear proteome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy, Iron, and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    culture models with different status of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as an iron loaded transgenic mouse model. Our results have shown that...Hormone replacement therapy, iron, estrogen, cell proliferation, progesterone , breast cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...release an egg every month. Estrogen and progesterone together help regulate this event. As a woman matures, the ovaries have fewer eggs to stimulate

  7. Modulation of hepcidin to treat iron deregulation: potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Nicole L; Manz, David H; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-01-01

    The secreted peptide hormone hepcidin regulates systemic and local iron homeostasis through degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Dysregulation of hepcidin leads to altered iron homeostasis and development of pathological disorders including hemochromatosis, and iron loading and iron restrictive anemias. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin is a promising method to ameliorate these conditions. Several approaches have been taken to enhance or reduce the effects of hepcidin in vitro and in vivo. Based on these approaches, hepcidin modulating drugs have been developed and are undergoing clinical evaluation. In this article we review the rationale for development of these drugs, the data concerning their safety and efficacy, their therapeutic uses, and potential future prospects.

  8. Modulation of hepcidin to treat iron deregulation: potential clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Nicole L.; Manz, David H.; Torti, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted peptide hormone hepcidin regulates systemic and local iron homeostasis through degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Dysregulation of hepcidin leads to altered iron homeostasis and development of pathological disorders including hemochromatosis, and iron loading and iron restrictive anemias. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin is a promising method to ameliorate these conditions. Several approaches have been taken to enhance or reduce the effects of hepcidin in vitro and in vivo. Based on these approaches, hepcidin modulating drugs have been developed and are undergoing clinical evaluation. In this article we review the rationale for development of these drugs, the data concerning their safety and efficacy, their therapeutic uses, and potential future prospects. PMID:26669208

  9. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes.

  10. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  11. Atomic simulation of cracks under mixed mode loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M.

    1984-01-01

    A discrete atomic model of a crack tip in iron under mixed mode loads is examined. The results indicate that the behavior of the crack at the atomic scale as a function of the ratio of mode I to mode II component of load is quite complex. In general, crack tip plasticity appears to increase as the mode II component of load increases.

  12. Duodenal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Dietary Heme and Nonheme Iron Differ in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chang; Thomas, Carrie E.; Insogna, Karl L.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined. Objectives: In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen). Methods: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of 57Fe-ferrous sulfate and 58Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing. Results: High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = −0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = −0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more 57Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more 58Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron. PMID:25332470

  13. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  14. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  15. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  16. Pharmacology of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors.

  17. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  18. Gastrins, iron and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Graham S

    2009-09-01

    This minireview explores the connections between circulating gastrins, iron status and colorectal cancer. The peptide hormone gastrin is a major regulator of acid secretion and a potent mitogen for normal and malignant gastrointestinal cells. Gastrins bind two ferric ions with μM affinity and, in the case of non-amidated forms of the hormone, iron binding is essential for biological activity. The ferric ion ligands have been identified as glutamates 7, 8 and 9 in the 18 amino acid peptide glycine-extended gastrin. An interaction between gastrin and transferrin was first demonstrated by covalent crosslinking techniques, and has been recently confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. We have therefore proposed that gastrins act as catalysts in the loading of transferrin with iron. Several recent lines of evidence, including the facts that the concentrations of circulating gastrins are increased in mice and humans with the iron overload disease haemochromatosis, and that transferrin saturation positively correlates with circulating gastrin concentrations, suggest that gastrins may be involved in iron homeostasis. In addition the recognition that ferric ions may play an unexpected role in the biological activity of non-amidated gastrins may assist in the development of new therapies for colorectal carcinoma.

  19. Morphology of the ferritin iron core by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jian, Nan; Dowle, Miriam; Horniblow, Richard D; Tselepis, Chris; Palmer, Richard E

    2016-11-18

    As the major iron storage protein, ferritin stores and releases iron for maintaining the balance of iron in fauna, flora, and bacteria. We present an investigation of the morphology and iron loading of ferritin (from equine spleen) using aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Atom counting method, with size selected Au clusters as mass standards, was employed to determine the number of iron atoms in the nanoparticle core of each ferritin protein. Quantitative analysis shows that the nuclearity of iron atoms in the mineral core varies from a few hundred iron atoms to around 5000 atoms. Moreover, a relationship between the iron loading and iron core morphology is established, in which mineral core nucleates from a single nanoparticle, then grows along the protein shell before finally forming either a solid or hollow core structure.

  20. Morphology of the ferritin iron core by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Nan; Dowle, Miriam; Horniblow, Richard D.; Tselepis, Chris; Palmer, Richard E.

    2016-11-01

    As the major iron storage protein, ferritin stores and releases iron for maintaining the balance of iron in fauna, flora, and bacteria. We present an investigation of the morphology and iron loading of ferritin (from equine spleen) using aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Atom counting method, with size selected Au clusters as mass standards, was employed to determine the number of iron atoms in the nanoparticle core of each ferritin protein. Quantitative analysis shows that the nuclearity of iron atoms in the mineral core varies from a few hundred iron atoms to around 5000 atoms. Moreover, a relationship between the iron loading and iron core morphology is established, in which mineral core nucleates from a single nanoparticle, then grows along the protein shell before finally forming either a solid or hollow core structure.

  1. Cardiac ferroportin regulates cellular iron homeostasis and is important for cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Wolna, Magda; Carr, Carolyn A.; Miller, Jack J. J.; Christian, Helen C.; Ball, Vicky; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Stillion, Richard; Holdship, Philip; Clarke, Kieran; Davies, Benjamin; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential to the cell. Both iron deficiency and overload impinge negatively on cardiac health. Thus, effective iron homeostasis is important for cardiac function. Ferroportin (FPN), the only known mammalian iron-exporting protein, plays an essential role in iron homeostasis at the systemic level. It increases systemic iron availability by releasing iron from the cells of the duodenum, spleen, and liver, the sites of iron absorption, recycling, and storage respectively. However, FPN is also found in tissues with no known role in systemic iron handling, such as the heart, where its function remains unknown. To explore this function, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Fpn. We show that these animals have severely impaired cardiac function, with a median survival of 22 wk, despite otherwise unaltered systemic iron status. We then compared their phenotype with that of ubiquitous hepcidin knockouts, a recognized model of the iron-loading disease hemochromatosis. The phenotype of the hepcidin knockouts was far milder, with normal survival up to 12 mo, despite far greater iron loading in the hearts. Histological examination demonstrated that, although cardiac iron accumulates within the cardiomyocytes of Fpn knockouts, it accumulates predominantly in other cell types in the hepcidin knockouts. We conclude, first, that cardiomyocyte FPN is essential for intracellular iron homeostasis and, second, that the site of deposition of iron within the heart determines the severity with which it affects cardiac function. Both findings have significant implications for the assessment and treatment of cardiac complications of iron dysregulation. PMID:25713362

  2. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  3. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe.

  4. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... get iron by eating foods like meat and dark green leafy vegetables. Iron is also added to ... tofu dried beans and peas dried fruits leafy dark green vegetables iron-fortified breakfast cereals, breads, and ...

  5. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K. . E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

    2005-01-15

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

  6. Minihepcidins prevent iron overload in a hepcidin-deficient mouse model of severe hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Emilio; Ruchala, Piotr; Goodnough, Julia B; Kautz, Léon; Preza, Gloria C; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2012-11-01

    The deficiency of hepcidin, the hormone that controls iron absorption and its tissue distribution, is the cause of iron overload in nearly all forms of hereditary hemochromatosis and in untransfused iron-loading anemias. In a recent study, we reported the development of minihepcidins, small drug-like hepcidin agonists. Here we explore the feasibility of using minihepcidins for the prevention and treatment of iron overload in hepcidin-deficient mice. An optimized minihepcidin (PR65) was developed that had superior potency and duration of action compared with natural hepcidin or other minihepcidins, and favorable cost of synthesis. PR65 was administered by subcutaneous injection daily for 2 weeks to iron-depleted or iron-loaded hepcidin knockout mice. PR65 administration to iron-depleted mice prevented liver iron loading, decreased heart iron levels, and caused the expected iron retention in the spleen and duodenum. At high doses, PR65 treatment also caused anemia because of profound iron restriction. PR65 administration to hepcidin knockout mice with pre-existing iron overload had a more moderate effect and caused partial redistribution of iron from the liver to the spleen. Our study demonstrates that minihepcidins could be beneficial in iron overload disorders either used alone for prevention or possibly as adjunctive therapy with phlebotomy or chelation.

  7. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation.

  8. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  9. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  11. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  12. The case for iron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.H.; Gordon, R.M.; Fitzwater, S.E. )

    1991-12-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that atmospheric dust loads in these regions are among the lowest in the world. The authors summarize experiments performed in three nutrient-rich areas: The Gulf of Alaska, the Ross Sea, and the equatorial Pacific. In general, populations without added Fe doubled at rates 11-40% of the expected maxima at various temperatures. The additions of nanomole quantities of Fe increased these doubling rates by factors of 2-3. In spite of the lack of Fe, tightly coupled phytoplankton/zooplankton communities seem to inhabit these major nutrient-rich areas. Since Fe is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and nitrate reductase, little chlorophyll is found and NH{sub 3} is the favored N source. Normal rate values of specific productivity indicate that these populations are healthy, but limited by the insufficient Fe supply. When Fe becomes available either artificially in bottle experiments or in the environment as Fe-rich land masses are approached, diatoms quickly bloom, chlorophyll levels increase, and nutrient stocks are rapidly depleted. These combined results indicate that Fe availability is the primary factor controlling phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea.

  13. Parenteral iron therapy options.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2004-05-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is occasionally necessary for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron therapy, for receiving recombinant erythropoietin therapy, or for use in treating functional iron deficiency. There are now three parenteral iron products available: iron dextran, ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each product, including risk of anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity, dosage regimens, and costs. The increased availability of multiple parenteral iron preparations should decrease the need to use red cell transfusions in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

  14. Effects of green tea on iron accumulation and oxidative stress in livers of iron-challenged thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Saewong, T; Ounjaijean, S; Mundee, Y; Pattanapanyasat, K; Fucharoen, S; Porter, J B; Srichairatanakool, S

    2010-03-01

    Liver is affected by secondary iron overload in transfusions dependent b-thalassemia patients. The redox iron can generate reactive oxidants that damage biomolecules, leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Iron chelators are used to treat thalassemias to achieve negative iron balance and relieve oxidant-induced organ dysfunctions. Green tea (GT) (Camellia sinensis) catechins exhibit anti-oxidation, the inhibition of carcinogenesis, the detoxification of CYP2E1-catalyzed HepG2 cells and iron chelation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of GT in iron-challenged thalassemic mice. Heterozygous BKO type-thalassemia (BKO) mice (C57BL/6) experienced induced iron overload by being fed a ferrocene-supplemented diet (Fe diet) for 8 weeks, and by orally being given GT extract (300 mg/kg) and deferiprone (DFP) (50 mg/kg) for a further 8 weeks. Liver iron content (LIC) was analyzed by TPTZ colorimetric and Perl's staining techniques. Concentrations of liver reduced glutathione (GSH), collagen and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. Dosages of the GT extract and DFP lowered LIC in the Fe diet-fed BKO mice effectively. The extract did not change any concentrations of liver glutathione, collagen and MDA in the BKO mice. Histochemical examination showed leukocyte infiltration in the near by hepatic portal vein and high iron accumulation in the livers of the iron-loaded BKO mice, however GT treatment lowered the elevated iron deposition. In conclusion, green tea inhibits or delays the deposition of hepatic iron in regularly iron-loaded thalassemic mice effectively. This will prevent the iron-induced generation of free radicals via Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions, and consequently liver damage and fibrosis. Combined chelation with green tea would be investigated in beta-thalassemia patients with iron overload.

  15. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in α-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C.

  16. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  17. Photoacoustic molecular imaging for in vivo liver iron quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Carmona, Fernando; Regoni, Maria; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    A recent study showed that ferritin is a suitable endogenous contrast agent for photoacoustic molecular imaging in cultured mammalian cells. We have therefore tested whether this imaging technique can be used for in vivo quantification of iron in mouse livers. To verify this hypothesis, we used multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to image albino CD1 mice before and after experimental iron loading. Postmortem assays showed that the iron treatment caused a 15-fold increase in liver iron and a 40-fold increase in liver ferritin levels, while in vivo longitudinal analysis using MSOT revealed just a 1.6-fold increase in the ferritin/iron photoacoustic signal in the same animals. We conclude that MSOT can monitor changes in ferritin/iron levels in vivo, but its sensitivity is much lower than that of ex vivo iron assays.

  18. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  19. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-05

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field.

  20. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the “atypical” microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  1. Expression and purification of intact and functional soybean (Glycine max) seed ferritin complex in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangbai; Tang, Bo; Li, Jie; Xu, Qian; Fang, Shentong; Hua, Zichun

    2008-02-01

    Soybean seed ferritin is essential for human iron supplementation and iron deficiency anemia prevention because it contains abundant bioavailable iron and is frequently consumed in the human diet. However, it is poorly understood in regards its several properties, such as iron mineralization, subunit assembly, and protein folding. To address these issues, we decided to prepare the soybean seed ferritin complex via a recombinant DNA approach. In this paper, we report a rapid and simple Escherichia coli expression system to produce the soybean seed ferritin complex. In this system, two subunits of soybean seed ferritin, H-2 and H-1, were encoded in a single plasmid, and optimal expression was achieved by additionally coexpressing a team of molecular chaperones, trigger factor and GroEL-GroES. The His-tagged ferritin complex was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, and an intact ferritin complex was obtained following His-tagged enterokinase (His-EK) digestion. The purified ferritin complex synthesized in E. coli demonstrated some reported features of its native counterpart from soybean seed, including an apparent molecular weight, multimeric assembly, and iron uptake activity. We believe that the strategy described in this paper may be of general utility in producing other recombinant plant ferritins built up from two types of subunits.

  2. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  3. Iron distribution and histopathological study of the effects of deferoxamine and deferiprone in the kidneys of iron overloaded β-thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Yatmark, Paranee; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Chaisri, Urai; Wichaiyo, Surasak; Hemstapat, Warinkarn; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2016-09-01

    Renal glomerular and tubular dysfunctions have been reported with high prevalence in β-thalassemia. Iron toxicity is implicated in the kidney damage, which may be reversed by iron chelation therapy. To mimic heavy iron overload and evaluate the efficacy of iron chelators in the patients, iron dextran (180mg iron/mouse) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected in heterozygous β-globin knockout mice ((muβth-3/+), BKO) and wild type mice (C57BL/6J, WT) over a period of 2 weeks, followed by daily i.p. injection of deferoxamine (DFO) or deferiprone (L1) for 1 week. In BKO mice, iron preferentially accumulated in the proximal tubule with a grading score of 0-1 and increased to grade 3 after iron loading. In contrast, iron mainly deposited in the glomerulus and interstitial space in iron overloaded WT mice. Increased levels of kidney lipid peroxidation, glomerular and medullar damage and fibrosis in iron overloaded mice were reversed by treatment with iron chelators. L1 showed higher efficacy than DFO in reduction of glomerular iron, which was supported by a significantly decreased the amount of glomerular damage. Notably, DFO and L1 demonstrated a distinct pattern of iron distribution in the proximal tubule of BKO mice. In conclusion, chelation therapy has beneficial effects in iron-overloaded kidneys. However, the defect of kidney iron metabolism in thalassemia may be a determining factor of the treatment outcome in individual patients.

  4. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  5. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  6. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  7. Seed germination and vigor.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  8. The earliest seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  10. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  11. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure to teach kids that iron is an important part of a healthy diet. Foods rich in iron include: beef, pork, poultry, and seafood tofu dried beans and peas dried fruits leafy dark green vegetables iron-fortified breakfast cereals, breads, and pastas (Note: Iron from animal ...

  12. Iron stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  13. Parenteral iron dextran therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J; Holland, E G

    1990-02-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is indicated in patients with iron-deficiency anemia associated with conditions that interfere with the ingestion or absorption of oral iron. Replacement doses of iron required to replenish iron stores are based on body weight and the observed hemoglobin value. Methods of administering iron dextran are reviewed, including intramuscular and intravenous injections of the undiluted drug, intravenous infusion of a diluted preparation, and as an addition to parenteral nutrition solutions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions associated with the parenteral administration of iron is low, but the potential for an anaphylactic reaction requires that an initial test dose be given followed by careful patient observation.

  14. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  15. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  16. Iron active electrode and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Seidel, Joseph; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-10-26

    An iron active electrode and method of preparing same in which iron sulfate is calcined in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce an iron oxide with a trace amount of sulfate. The calcined material is loaded into an electrically conductive support and then heated in a reducing atmosphere at an elevated temperature to produce activated iron having a trace amount of sulfide which is formed into an electrode plate.

  17. Gastrins, iron homeostasis and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Suzana; Anderson, Gregory J; Baldwin, Graham S

    2011-05-01

    The peptide hormone gastrin has been identified as a major regulator of acid secretion and a potent mitogen for normal and malignant gastrointestinal cells. The importance of gastric acid in the absorption of dietary iron first became evident 50 years ago when iron deficiency anemia was recognized as a long-term consequence of partial gastrectomy. This review summarizes the connections between circulating gastrins, iron status and colorectal cancer. Gastrins bind two ferric ions with micromolar affinity and, in the case of non-amidated forms of the hormone, iron binding is essential for biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The demonstration of an interaction between gastrin and transferrin by biochemical techniques led to the proposal that gastrins catalyze the loading of transferrin with iron. Several lines of evidence, including the facts that the concentrations of circulating gastrins are increased in mice and humans with the iron overload disease hemochromatosis and that transferrin saturation positively correlates with circulating gastrin concentration, suggest the potential involvement of gastrins in iron homeostasis. Conversely, recognition that ferric ions play an unexpected role in the biological activity of gastrins may assist in the development of useful therapies for colorectal carcinoma and other disorders of mucosal proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium.

  18. Gastrins, Iron Homeostasis and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Suzana; Anderson, Gregory J.; Baldwin, Graham S.

    2011-01-01

    The peptide hormone gastrin has been identified as a major regulator of acid secretion and a potent mitogen for normal and malignant gastrointestinal cells. The importance of gastric acid in the absorption of dietary iron first became evident 50 years ago when iron-deficiency anemia was recognised as a long-term consequence of partial gastrectomy. This review summarises the connections between circulating gastrins, iron status and colorectal cancer. Gastrins bind two ferric ions with micromolar affinity and, in the case of non-amidated forms of the hormone, iron-binding is essential for biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The demonstration of an interaction between gastrin and transferrin by biochemical techniques led to the proposal that gastrins catalyse the loading of transferrin with iron. Several lines of evidence, including the facts that the concentrations of circulating gastrins are increased in mice and humans with the iron-overload disease hemochromatosis and that transferrin saturation positively correlates with circulating gastrin concentration, suggest the potential involvement of gastrins in iron homeostasis. Conversely, recognition that ferric ions play an unexpected role in the biological activity of gastrins may assist in the development of useful therapies for colorectal carcinoma and other disorders of mucosal proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21320535

  19. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  20. Ferritin trends do not predict changes in total body iron in patients with transfusional iron overload.

    PubMed

    Puliyel, Mammen; Sposto, Richard; Berdoukas, Vasilios A; Hofstra, Thomas C; Nord, Anne; Carson, Susan; Wood, John; Coates, Thomas D

    2014-04-01

    Ferritin levels and trends are widely used to manage iron overload and assess the efficacy of prescribed iron chelation in patients with transfusional iron loading. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 134 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia, over a period of up to 9 years. To determine whether the trends in ferritin adequately reflect the changes in total body iron, changes in ferritin between consecutive liver iron measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared to changes in liver iron concentrations (LIC), a measure of total body iron. The time period between two consecutive LIC measurements was defined as a segment. Trends in ferritin were considered to predict the change in LIC within a segment if the change in one parameter was less than twofold that of the other, and was in the same direction. Using the exclusion criteria detailed in methods, the trends in ferritin were compared to changes in LIC in 358 segments. An agreement between ferritin trends and LIC changes was found in only 38% of the 358 segments examined. Furthermore, the change in ferritin was in opposite direction to that of LIC in 26% of the segments. Trends in ferritin were a worse predictor of changes in LIC in sickle cell disease than in thalassemia (P < 0.01). While ferritin is a convenient measure of iron status; ferritin trends were unable to predict changes in LIC in individual patients. Ferritin trends need to be interpreted with caution and confirmed by direct measurement of LIC.

  1. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  2. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  3. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  4. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  5. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content

    PubMed Central

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

  7. Ferritin-iron is released during boiling and in vitro gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Hoppler, Matthias; Schönbächler, Andrea; Meile, Leo; Hurrell, Richard F; Walczyk, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Biofortification of staple foods with iron in the form of ferritin-iron is a promising approach to fighting iron-deficiency anemia in developing countries. However, contradictory results regarding iron bioavailability to humans from ferritin are not yet fully clarified. Furthermore, the question has been raised whether ferritin can potentially survive gastric passage intact and be absorbed via a ferritin-specific uptake mechanism. We studied changes of ferritin-iron and protein during cooking and in vitro gastric digestion. Water soluble, native ferritin-iron, measured in different legumes, represented 18% (soybeans) up to maximally 42% (peas) of total seed iron. Ferritin-iron was no longer detectable after boiling the legumes for 50 min in excess water. When the same cooking treatment was applied to recombinant bean ferritin propagated in Escherichia coli, some ferritin-iron remained measurable. During in vitro gastric digestion of recombinant bean ferritin and red kidney bean extract, ferritin-iron was fully released from the protein and dissolved at pH 2. Stability tests at varying pH at 37 degrees C showed that the release of ferritin-iron starts at pH 5 and is complete at pH 2. We concluded that ferritin-iron is efficiently released from the ferritin molecule during cooking and at gastric pH and that it should be absorbed as efficiently as all other nonheme iron in food.

  8. Iron release and uptake by plant ferritin: effects of pH, reduction and chelation.

    PubMed Central

    Laulhere, J P; Briat, J F

    1993-01-01

    Ferritins are iron-storage proteins that accumulate in plastids during seed formation, and also in leaves during senescence or iron overload. Iron release from ferritins occurs during growth of seedlings and greening of plastids. Depending on the concentration of the reducing agent ascorbate, either an overall iron release or uptake by ferritins from iron(III) citrate may occur. We have designed methods to measure these simultaneous and independent uptake and release fluxes. Each individual step of the exchange was studied using different iron chelates and an excess of ligand. It is shown that: (i) the chelated form of iron, and not ionic Fe3+, is the substrate for iron reduction, which controls the subsequent uptake by ferritin; (ii) iron uptake by ferritins is faster at pH 8.4 than at pH 7 or 6 and is inhibited by an excess of strongly binding free ligands; and (iii) strongly binding free ligands are inhibitory during iron release by ascorbate. When reactions are allowed to proceed simultaneously, the iron chelating power is shown to be a key factor in the overall exchange. The interactions of iron chelating power, reducing capacity and pH are discussed with regard to their influence on the biochemical mobilization of iron. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8457196

  9. Ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system of iron traffic in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Giovanni; Polticelli, Fabio; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Safe trafficking of iron across the cell membrane is a delicate process that requires specific protein carriers. While many proteins involved in iron uptake by cells are known, only one cellular iron export protein has been identified in mammals: ferroportin (SLC40A1). Ceruloplasmin is a multicopper enzyme endowed with ferroxidase activity that is found as a soluble isoform in plasma or as a membrane-associated isoform in specific cell types. According to the currently accepted view, ferrous iron transported out of the cell by ferroportin would be safely oxidized by ceruloplasmin to facilitate loading on transferrin. Therefore, the ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system represents the main pathway for cellular iron egress and it is responsible for physiological regulation of cellular iron levels. The most recent findings regarding the structural and functional features of ceruloplasmin and ferroportin and their relationship will be described in this review. PMID:24921009

  10. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  11. Intestinal ferritin H is required for an accurate control of iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Vanoaica, Liviu; Darshan, Deepak; Richman, Larry; Schümann, Klaus; Kühn, Lukas C

    2010-09-08

    To maintain appropriate body iron levels, iron absorption by the proximal duodenum is thought to be controlled by hepcidin, a polypeptide secreted by hepatocytes in response to high serum iron. Hepcidin limits basolateral iron efflux from the duodenal epithelium by binding and downregulating the intestinal iron exporter ferroportin. Here, we found that mice with an intestinal ferritin H gene deletion show increased body iron stores and transferrin saturation. As expected for iron-loaded animals, the ferritin H-deleted mice showed induced liver hepcidin mRNA levels and reduced duodenal expression of DMT1 and DcytB mRNA. In spite of these feedback controls, intestinal ferroportin protein and (59)Fe absorption were increased more than 2-fold in the deleted mice. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin-mediated regulation alone is insufficient to restrict iron absorption and that intestinal ferritin H is also required to limit iron efflux from intestinal cells.

  12. Iron overload in thalassemia and related conditions: therapeutic goals and assessment of response to chelation therapies.

    PubMed

    Porter, John B; Shah, Farrukh T

    2010-12-01

    Transfusional iron loading inevitably results in hepatic iron accumulation, with variable extrahepatic distribution that is typically less pronounced in sickle cell disease than in thalassemia disorders. Iron chelation therapy has the goal of preventing iron-mediated tissue damage through controlling tissue iron levels, without incurring chelator-mediated toxicity. Historically, target levels for tissue iron control have been limited by the increased frequency of deferoxamine-mediated toxicity and low levels of iron loading. With newer chelation regimes, these limitations are less evident. The reporting of responses to chelation therapies has typically focused on average changes in serum ferritin in patient populations. This approach has three limitations. First, changes in serum ferritin may not reflect trends in iron balance equally in all patients or for all chelation regimens. Second, this provides no information about the proportion of patients likely respond. Third, this gives insufficient information about iron trends in tissues such as the heart. Monitoring of iron overload has advanced with the increasing use of MRI techniques to estimate iron balance (changes in liver iron concentration) and extrahepatic iron distribution (myocardial T2*). The term nonresponder has been increasingly used to describe individuals who fail to show a downward trend in one or more of these variables. Lack of a response of an individual may result from inadequate dosing, high transfusion requirement, poor treatment adherence, or unfavorable pharmacology of the chelation regime. This article scrutinizes evidence for response rates to deferoxamine, deferiprone (and combinations), and deferasirox.

  13. Iron biofortification of myanmar rice.

    PubMed

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  14. Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

  15. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  16. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  17. Anaerobic Biodegradation Of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Under Iron-Reducing Conditions In Batch And Continuous-Flow Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under iron-reducing conditions was explored in batch and continuous-flow systems. A porous pot completely-mixed reactor was seeded with diverse cultures and operated under iron-reducing...

  18. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6 months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; β-catenin, CHOP, C/EBPα and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and β-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBPα and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver.

  19. Iron losses in sweat

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.; Hallberg, L.

    1986-03-01

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findings indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.

  20. Iron in diet

    MedlinePlus

    The best sources of iron include: Dried beans Dried fruits Eggs (especially egg yolks) Iron-fortified cereals Liver Lean red meat (especially beef) Oysters Poultry, dark red meat Salmon Tuna Whole ...

  1. Serum iron test

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  3. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  4. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  5. Alleviation of iron induced oxidative stress by the grape fruit flavanone naringin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Reddy, Tiyagura Koti

    2011-04-25

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. The protective effect of naringin, a grape fruit flavanone, was studied in iron overloaded isolated mouse liver mitochondria, where the isolated mitochondrial fraction was incubated with various concentrations of naringin before ferric ion loading. Iron overloading of mitochondrial fraction resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, whereas iron overload reduced the glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Pretreatment of mitochondrial fraction with naringin inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage. Conversely, naringin supplementation arrested iron-induced depletion in the GSH contents, GSHPx, GST, SOD and catalase activities significantly. Ferric iron reduction assay revealed that naringin could not reduce ferric iron into ferrous iron indicating that it did not exhibit prooxidant activity. Iron free coordination site assay indicated that naringin was unable to occupy all the active sites of iron indicating that naringin did not completely chelate iron. Our study demonstrates that naringin was able to share the burden of endogenous oxidants by inhibiting the iron-induced depletion of all important antioxidant enzymes as well as GSH and may act as a good antioxidant.

  6. Mitochondrial iron metabolism and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sheftel, Alex D; Richardson, Des R; Prchal, Josef; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by mitochondrial iron overload in developing red blood cells. The unifying characteristic of all sideroblastic anemias is the ring sideroblast, which is a pathological erythroid precursor containing excessive deposits of non-heme iron in mitochondria with perinuclear distribution creating a ring appearance. Sideroblastic anemias may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary sideroblastic anemias are caused by defects in genes present on the X chromosome (mutations in the ALAS2, ABCB7, or GRLX5 gene), genes on autosomal chromosomes, or mitochondrial genes. Acquired sideroblastic anemias are either primary (refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, RARS, representing one subtype of the myelodysplastic syndrome) or secondary due to some drugs, toxins, copper deficiency, or chronic neoplastic disease. The pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron loading in developing erythroblasts is diverse. Ring sideroblasts can develop as a result of a heme synthesis defect in erythroblasts (ALAS2 mutations), a defect in iron-sulfur cluster assembly, iron-sulfur protein precursor release from mitochondria (ABCB7 mutations), or by a defect in intracellular iron metabolism in erythroid cells (e.g. RARS).

  7. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    iron deprivation in cyanobacteria include loss of pigmentation (chlorosis), changes in the fluorescence/ absorbance wavelengths of chlorophyll a...77 Figure 3: MED4 photosynthetic efficiency and isiB expression during iron stress. ……………………….79 Figure 4: Global expression response of...cyanobacteria, iron is best known for its role as a cofactor in photosynthetic electron transfer. In fact, 22 atoms of iron are considered necessary for the

  8. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition.

    PubMed

    Huber, Steven C; Li, Kunzhi; Nelson, Randall; Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    in developing countries because food products produced from seeds at the bottom of the canopy contained higher Fe concentrations than products from the top of the canopy. Therefore, using seeds produced in the lower canopy for production of iron-rich soy foods for human consumption could be important when plants are the major source of protein and human diets can be chronically deficient in Fe and other minerals.

  10. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    PubMed Central

    Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    in developing countries because food products produced from seeds at the bottom of the canopy contained higher Fe concentrations than products from the top of the canopy. Therefore, using seeds produced in the lower canopy for production of iron-rich soy foods for human consumption could be important when plants are the major source of protein and human diets can be chronically deficient in Fe and other minerals. PMID:27672507

  11. Evaluation of an automatic needle-loading system.

    PubMed

    Morrier, Janelle; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Chrétien, Mario; Beaulieu, Luc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dosimetric capabilities and the radiation protection (RP) performance of a new automatic needle-loading system for permanent prostate implants, the Isoloader (Mentor Corp.). The unit has been used in more than 100 clinical cases at our institution. The Isoloader is a computerized workstation that allows automated seed testing by a solid-state CdZnTe radiation detector and loading in surgical needles. The seeds are received in a shielded and ready-to-use cartridge. Radiation protection measurements were done on a cartridge filled with 67 (125)I seeds and during dosimetric seed verification and needle loading. The reproducibility of the detector was tested and its accuracy was determined by comparison to specified activities of six calibration seeds and to their measurements in a calibrated well-chamber (WC). Finally, the times required to complete dosimetric verification and needle loading were evaluated. The cartridge was found to be adequately shielded, since no significant amount of radiation was detected around it. Radiation during seed assay was found to be worst at the cartridge's bottom, where it has a value of 15.2 microSv/h (1.4 microSv/h at 10 cm). For the needle-loading task, measurements were performed with a typical needle (three seeds) at the shielded needle holder surface yielding 307.2 microSv/h (8.3 microSv/h at 20 cm). Seed dosimetric verification takes an average of 15 s/seed, while it takes a mean time of 50 s/needle to complete the loading task. Measurements of the six seed activities were within 0.65% of the ordered activities and 1.9% higher on average than those from the WC (min = 0.7%; max = 3.5%). The reproducibility of the measurements of the CdZnTe detector was excellent, with an average of 0.01% of deviation from a reference measurement (N = 120; = 1.9%). We therefore conclude that the Isoloader is a safe, fast, and effective needle-loading system.

  12. Inositol hexa phosphoric acid (phytic acid), a nutraceuticals, attenuates iron-induced oxidative stress and alleviates liver injury in iron overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Anwesha; Ojha, Durbadal; Goswami, Debayan; Das, Rashmi; Chandra, Nidhi S; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2017-03-01

    Inositol hexa phosphoric acid (IP6) or Phytic acid, a natural antioxidant of some leguminous plants, known to act as a protective agent for seed storage in plants by suppressing iron catalyzed oxidative process. Following the same mechanism, we have tested the effect of IP6 on iron overloaded in vitro oxidative stress, and studied it's in vivo hepatoprotective ability in iron-dextran (injection)-induced iron overloaded liver injury in mice (intraperitoneal). Our results showed that IP6 had in vitro iron chelation (IC50 38.4μg/ml) activity, with the inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 552μg/ml), and deoxyribose sugar degrading hydroxyl radicals (IC50 448.6μg/ml). Oral administration of IP6 (0-200mg/kg) revealed significant decrease in biochemical markers such as serum iron, total iron binding, serum ferritin and serum enzymes. Histopathology of liver stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Prussian blue showed reduced hepatocellular necrosis, ballooning and inflammation, indicating the restoration of normal cellular integrity. Interestingly, the IP6 was found to down-regulate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in iron overloaded liver tissues. Thus, we provide an insight that IP6, a natural food component, can serve as an iron chelator against iron overload diseases like Thalassemia, and also as a dietary hepatoprotective supplement.

  13. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  14. Effect of iron status in rats on the absorption of metal ions from plant ferritin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Hertig, Iwona; Staniek, Halina; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2014-06-01

    An isolate of lead-ferritin obtained from soybean seeds sprouted in 25 mM of PbNO3 was introduced into the diet of both iron-deficient and iron non-deficient male rats. After a 21-day administration period, statistical differences in the lead accumulation in the femurs of the rats were noted. Iron-deficient rats accumulated more than four times the amount of lead in their bones than rats without iron-deficiency. No further decrease was observed in haemoglobin concentrations in the groups of animals fed with lead isolates, either iron-deficient or iron non-deficient. Also, no differences in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were observed at the end of the experiment in the group of iron non-deficient rats fed with lead-ferritin isolate compared to the control group of iron non-deficient rats. In the iron-deficient group fed with lead-ferritin isolate, a small increase in haemoglobin concentrations, MCH, MCV and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) was recorded. The results presented in this paper confirm that lead from the tested preparation-lead ferritin isolate-was better absorbed by those rats with induced iron deficiency anaemia. Additionally, we may also suspect based on the obtained results that absorption of ferritin-iron depends on iron status in the body.

  15. An Iron Reservoir to the Catalytic Metal

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fange; Geng, Jiafeng; Gumpper, Ryan H.; Barman, Arghya; Davis, Ian; Ozarowski, Andrew; Hamelberg, Donald; Liu, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The rubredoxin motif is present in over 74,000 protein sequences and 2,000 structures, but few have known functions. A secondary, non-catalytic, rubredoxin-like iron site is conserved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO), from single cellular sources but not multicellular sources. Through the population of the two metal binding sites with various metals in bacterial HAO, the structural and functional relationship of the rubredoxin-like site was investigated using kinetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational approaches. It is shown that the first metal presented preferentially binds to the catalytic site rather than the rubredoxin-like site, which selectively binds iron when the catalytic site is occupied. Furthermore, an iron ion bound to the rubredoxin-like site is readily delivered to an empty catalytic site of metal-free HAO via an intermolecular transfer mechanism. Through the use of metal analysis and catalytic activity measurements, we show that a downstream metabolic intermediate can selectively remove the catalytic iron. As the prokaryotic HAO is often crucial for cell survival, there is a need for ensuring its activity. These results suggest that the rubredoxin-like site is a possible auxiliary iron source to the catalytic center when it is lost during catalysis in a pathway with metabolic intermediates of metal-chelating properties. A spare tire concept is proposed based on this biochemical study, and this concept opens up a potentially new functional paradigm for iron-sulfur centers in iron-dependent enzymes as transient iron binding and shuttling sites to ensure full metal loading of the catalytic site. PMID:25918158

  16. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    PubMed

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  17. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  18. Intracellular degradation of functionalized carbon nanotube/iron oxide hybrids is modulated by iron via Nrf2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Elgrabli, Dan; Dachraoui, Walid; Marmier, Hélène de; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bégin, Dominique; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo fate and biodegradability of carbon nanotubes is still a matter of debate despite tremendous applications. In this paper we describe a molecular pathway by which macrophages degrade functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) designed for biomedical applications and containing, or not, iron oxide nanoparticles in their inner cavity. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that intracellularly-induced structural damages appear more rapidly for iron-free CNTs in comparison to iron-loaded ones, suggesting a role of iron in the degradation mechanism. By comparing the molecular responses of macrophages derived from THP1 monocytes to both types of CNTs, we highlight a molecular mechanism regulated by Nrf2/Bach1 signaling pathways to induce CNT degradation via NOX2 complex activation and O2•−, H2O2 and OH• production. CNT exposure activates an oxidative stress-dependent production of iron via Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Ferritin H and Heme oxygenase 1 translation. Conversely, Bach1 was translocated to the nucleus of cells exposed to iron-loaded CNTs to recycle embedded iron. Our results provide new information on the role of oxidative stress, iron metabolism and Nrf2-mediated host defence for regulating CNT fate in macrophages. PMID:28120861

  19. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  20. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  1. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  2. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  3. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage.

  4. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin in a Caco-2 cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Anastasia L; Proulx, Amy K; Scott, M Paul; Beavers, Alyssa; Reddy, Manju B

    2013-07-31

    Maize ( Zea mays ) is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable, and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. It was hypothesized that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioavailable iron source and that biofortification of maize with iron can be accomplished by overexpression of maize globin in the endosperm. Maize was transformed with a gene construct encoding a translational fusion of maize globin and green fluorescent protein under transcriptional control of the maize 27 kDa γ-zein promoter. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin produced in Escherichia coli and of stably transformed seeds expressing the maize globin-GFP fusion was determined using an in vitro Caco-2 cell culture model. Maize flour fortified with maize hemoglobin was found to have iron bioavailability that is not significantly different from that of flour fortified with ferrous sulfate or bovine hemoglobin but is significantly higher than unfortified flour. Transformed maize grain expressing maize globin was found to have iron bioavailability similar to that of untransformed seeds. These results suggest that maize globin produced in E. coli may be an effective iron fortificant, but overexpressing maize globin in maize endosperm may require a different strategy to increase bioavailable iron content in maize.

  5. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Pathogenic implications of distinct patterns of iron and zinc in chronic MS lesions.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan F; Frischer, Josa M; Webb, Samuel M; Tham, Mylyne; Adiele, Reginald C; Robinson, Christopher A; Fitz-Gibbon, Patrick D; Weigand, Stephen D; Metz, Imke; Nehzati, Susan; George, Graham N; Pickering, Ingrid J; Brück, Wolfgang; Hametner, Simon; Lassmann, Hans; Parisi, Joseph E; Yong, Guo; Lucchinetti, Claudia F

    2017-03-22

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis. We found that the distribution of iron and zinc is heterogeneous in MS plaques, and with few remarkable exceptions they do not accumulate in chronic MS lesions. We show that brain iron tends to decrease with increasing age and disease duration of MS patients; reactive astrocytes organized in large astrogliotic areas in a subset of smoldering and inactive plaques accumulate iron and safely store it in ferritin; a subset of smoldering lesions do not contain a rim of iron-loaded macrophages/microglia; and the iron content of shadow plaques varies with the stage of remyelination. Zinc in MS lesions was generally decreased, paralleling myelin loss. Iron accumulates concentrically in a subset of chronic inactive lesions suggesting that not all iron rims around MS lesions equate with smoldering plaques. Upon degeneration of iron-loaded microglia/macrophages, astrocytes may form an additional protective barrier that may prevent iron-induced oxidative damage.

  7. Establishment of secondary iron overloaded mouse model: evaluation of cardiac function and analysis according to iron concentration.

    PubMed

    Moon, Se Na; Han, Ji Whan; Hwang, Hui Seung; Kim, Mee Jeong; Lee, Soon Ju; Lee, Jae Young; Oh, Chang Kyu; Jeong, Dae Chul

    2011-10-01

    Periodic blood transfusion can lead to secondary iron overload in patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases. Iron overload can result in iron deposition in heart tissue, which decreases cardiac function and can ultimately lead to death due to dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure. In this study, we established murine model of secondary iron overload, studied the changes in cardiac function with echocardiography, and examined the histopathologic changes. Three experimental groups of the six week-old C57/BL mice (H-2(b)) were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg of iron dextran daily 5 days a week for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Cumulative doses of iron for the three experimental groups were 100, 200, and 300 mg, while the control groups were injected with the same amounts of phosphate-buffered saline. We studied the cardiac function under anesthesia with echocardiography using a GE Vivid7 Dimension system. Plasma iron levels and liver iron contents were measured. The hearts and livers were harvested and stained with H&E and Perls Prussian blue for iron, and the levels of iron deposit were examined. We assessed the cardiac measurements after adjustment for weight. On echocardiography, thicknesses of the interventricular septum and posterior ventricular wall (PS) during diastole showed correlation with the amount of iron deposit (P < 0.01). End-diastolic volume showed dilatation of the left ventricle in the 300 mg group (P < 0.01). Changes in the fractional shortening were not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Plasma iron levels and liver iron contents were increased proportionally according to the amount of iron loaded. The histopathologic findings of PS and liver showed higher grade of iron deposit proportional to the cumulated iron dose. In this study, we present an animal model which helps understand the cardiac function changes in patients with secondary iron overload due to repeated blood transfusions. Our results may help characterize the

  8. On the damping capacity of cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of experimental data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) in terms of various theoretical models has revealed a staged character and the main mechanisms of the processes of energy dissipation in graphite with increasing amplitude of vibrations upon cyclic loading. It is shown that the level of the damping capacity of lamellar cast iron depends on the relationship between the elastic and strength characteristics of graphite and the matrix phase. In cast irons with a rigid matrix structure (pearlite, martensite), the energy dissipation is determined by the volume fraction and morphology of the initial graphite phase. In cast irons with a softer metallic phase (ferrite), the contact interaction of graphite inclusions with the matrix and the properties of the matrix introduce additional sources of high damping.

  9. Inheritance of seed condensed tannins and their relationship with seed-coat color and pattern genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Caldas, Gina Viviana; Blair, Matthew W

    2009-06-01

    Condensed tannins are major flavonoid end products that affect the nutritional quality of many legume seeds. They chelate minerals and interact with proteins, thus reducing their bioavailability. Tannins also contribute to seed coat color and pigment distribution or intensity. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed tannin concentration in common bean and Mendelian genes for seed coat color and pattern. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines, derived from crosses between the Andean and Mesoamerican genepools were used for QTL identification and for mapping STS markers associated with seed color loci. Seed coat condensed tannins were determined with a butanol-HCl method and a total of 12 QTL were identified on separate linkage groups (LGs) in each of the populations with individual QTL explaining from 10 to 64% of the phenotypic variation for this trait. Loci on linkage groups B3 and B10 were associated with the Mendelian genes Z and Bip for partly colored seed coat pattern, while a QTL on linkage group B7 was associated with the P gene which is the primary locus for the control of color expression in beans. In conclusion, this study found that the inheritance of tannin concentration fits an oligogenic model and identifies novel putative alleles at seed coat color and pattern genes that control tannin accumulation. The results will be important for the genetic improvement of nutritionally enhanced or biofortified beans that have health promoting effects from higher polyphenolics or better iron bioavailability.

  10. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  11. Quantitative trait locus mapping for seed mineral concentrations in two Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Grusak, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Biofortification of foods, achieved by increasing the concentrations of minerals such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), is a goal of plant scientists. Understanding genes that influence seed mineral concentration in a model plant such as Arabidopsis could help in the development of nutritionally enhanced crop cultivars. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for seed concentrations of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), Fe, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and Zn was performed using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, Columbia (Col) x Landsberg erecta (Ler) and Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) x Ler, grown on multiple occasions. QTL mapping was also performed using data from silique hulls and the ratio of seed:hull mineral concentration of the Cvi x Ler population. Over 100 QTLs that affected seed mineral concentration were identified. Twenty-nine seed QTLs were found in more than one experiment, and several QTLs were found for both seed and hull mineral traits. A number of candidate genes affecting seed mineral concentration are discussed. These results indicate that A. thaliana is a suitable and convenient model for discovery of genes that affect seed mineral concentration. Some strong QTLs had no obvious candidate genes, offering the possibility of identifying unknown genes that affect mineral uptake and translocation to seeds.

  12. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  13. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  14. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  15. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the…

  16. Seed cotton unloading systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this article was to review the literature and describe the current technology used by U.S. cotton gins for seed cotton unloading. Unloading systems supply the gin with raw material. Their essential functions are 1) to remove non-cotton materials such as protective covers used duri...

  17. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    PubMed

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients.

  18. Long-term efficacy of deferasirox in preventing cardiovascular complications in the iron-overloaded gerbil.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Rabaa M; Manzoor, Kamran; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravi Kumar; Laurino, Joseph P; Darnon, Lucy; Walker, Ernest M; Blough, Eric R

    2012-03-01

    Iron-induced cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in iron-overloaded patients. Deferasirox is a novel tridentate oral chelator that exhibits a half-life suitable for once-daily dosing; however, little is known regarding the effectiveness of this agent in preventing iron-induced cardiovascular disease. Adult male Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, iron overload, and iron overload followed by deferasirox treatment. Iron-overloaded animals received iron dextran 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip)/5 days for 10 weeks, while deferasirox was given 100 mg/kg per d orally (po) for 9 months post iron loading. Cardiac and aortic iron levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Gerbil electro- and echocardiograms were obtained in anesthetized animals at regular intervals. Compared to control animals, iron concentration was 3.3- and 2.4-fold higher in iron-overloaded heart and aorta, respectively (P < .05). Deferasirox treatment reduced cardiac and aortic iron levels by 32% and 35%, respectively (P < .05). These results were consistent with the decrease in cellular iron deposition observed with Prussian Blue iron staining. Iron-overloaded gerbils were found to exhibit frequent arrhythmias including premature ventricular contractions, supraventricular tachycardia, and recurrent ventricular tachycardia. In addition, echocardiographic assessment demonstrated iron overload-associated increase in left ventricular dimensions including left ventricular posterior wall dimension (LVPWd: 49%), left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDd: 26%), and left ventricular septum thickness (LVSd: 42%). These parameters were significantly reduced with deferasirox treatment (LVPWd: 23%, LVIDd: 24%, and LVSd: 27%). Iron overload was also associated with reduced ejection fraction (EF: by 30%) and fractional shortening (FS: by 23%) in comparison with controls (P < .05). With deferasirox treatment, these values were higher

  19. Structure and properties of wear-resistant white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gol'dshtein, Ya. E.; Khismatullina, N. S.; Gol'dshtein, V. A.; Mosina, V. I.

    1986-08-01

    The favorable combined effect of vanadium and chromium on the wear resistance of white cast iron is manifested when their contents are 2...6 and 0...12%, respectively. In this case, the optimal vanadium content in cast iron operating under complex conditions of shock and bending loads can be determined from the equation % V=3+1/3 (% Cr) for a chromium content of not more than 12%.

  20. Bog iron formation in the Nassawango Creek watershed, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.L.; Simon, N.S.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Nassawango bog ores in the modern environment for surficial geochemical processes were studied. The formation of Nassawango bog ores was suggested to be due to inorganic oxidation when groundwater rich in ferrous iron emerges into the oxic, surficial environment. It was suggested that the process, providing a phosphorus sink, may be an unrecognized benefit for mitigating nutrient loading from agricultural lands. It is found that without the effect of iron fixing bacteria, bog deposites could not form at significant rates.

  1. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  2. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  3. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  5. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  6. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  7. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  8. Effect of an intravenous iron dextran regimen on iron stores, hemoglobin, and erythropoietin requirements in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Park, L; Uhthoff, T; Tierney, M; Nadler, S

    1998-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of delayed or diminished response to erythropoietin (EPO) in hemodialysis patients. Although oral iron is often prescribed to replete iron stores, this approach to iron supplementation may not be adequate with chronic EPO therapy. Intravenous (IV) iron dextran may be an effective alternative approach to replete iron stores and may facilitate more cost-effective use of EPO. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an IV iron dextran regimen that consisted of a loading dose phase followed by monthly maintenance doses of iron dextran. The effect of this regimen on iron stores, hemoglobin, and EPO doses was evaluated. This was an open prospective study in adult hemodialysis patients who were iron deficient as defined by a serum ferritin less than 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation (TSAT) of less than 20%. Patients were loaded with 1 g iron dextran in five divided doses and then received monthly maintenance doses of 100 mg for the 4-month study period. Values of serum ferritin, TSAT, hemoglobin, and EPO dose were followed for the 4-month study period. Thirty hemodialysis patients receiving EPO were identified as being iron deficient and were enrolled in the study. The mean serum ferritin increased significantly from 49 ng/mL at baseline to 225 ng/mL at the end of the study period (P < 0.0001). Mean TSAT also increased significantly from 27% to 33% (P = 0.002). Values for hemoglobin did not change significantly during the study period; however, there was a significant reduction in EPO dose from a mean baseline dose of 112 U/kg/wk to 88 U/kg/wk at the end of the study period (P = 0.009). Seventeen patients experienced an increase in hemoglobin or a decrease in EPO dose. Economic analysis showed that approximately $580 (Cdn) per patient per year could be saved by use of IV iron dextran. The administration of the IV iron dextran regimen in the iron-deficient hemodialysis population was effective at repleting and maintaining iron stores

  9. [Iron therapy: is it different with peritoneal dialysis compared to haemodialysis?].

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre-Yves

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews literature data on iron replacement (loading) for peritoneal dialysis patients. The 3 main sources of clinical guidelines (American NKF-K/DOQI, European EBPG and French AFSSAPS) agree about the definition of iron deficience, but are not similar about the haemoglobin/hematocrit targets for EPO treatment, and for the route of iron administration (oral versus intravenous). Iron requirements are less in PD HD patients. That could be explained by several factors: less blood losses, preservation of a residual renal function, better digestive iron absorption due to a greater hepcidin excretion. Intravenous route for iron sucrose is more efficient than oral route. Taking into account the iron requirements for PD patients, monthly 200 mg iron sucrose infusions over 5 mn seem to be safe and sufficient for most patients.

  10. Mechanical stability of iron under hydrostatic stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. L.; Thakur, O. P.; Thakur, K. P.

    1991-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the mechanics of iron subjected to arbitrary fluid pressure has been carried out. Apart from the classical elastic moduli ( k, μ, and μ') and conventional elastic moduli (Green and stretch moduli) computations are carried out for a family of generalised moduli of which the conventional moduli are just specific members. With the generalised moduli the mechanical stability of iron is investigated through Born criteria. It is found that classical stability, Green stability and stretch stability are all represented uniquely by the present generalised scheme. The definition of effective classical moduli under stresses enabled the amalgamation of the Born criteria of lattice stability into the single classical criteria of lattice stability of cubic crystal under hydrostatic loading environment. Computations are also carried out to investigate the coordinate and stress dependence of Young's modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, mean velocity of elastic wave, and Debye temperature. Surprisingly, it is found that all these properties of solids play an important role in representing the mechanical stability of the solid. The path of uniaxial loading of iron is also investigated along with its internal energy variation on this path. This indicated the existance of stress-free fcc phase of iron on the path of uniaxial deformation at cell length a=3.6444 Å giving enthalpy of transformation (bcc→fcc) of 1.1 kJ/mol in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  12. The microbiota shifts the iron sensing of intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Remot, Aude; Willemetz, Alexandra; Afif, Clément; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Langella, Philippe; Karim, Zoubida; Vaulont, Sophie; Thomas, Muriel; Nicolas, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    The amount of iron in the diet directly influences the composition of the microbiota. Inversely, the effects of the microbiota on iron homeostasis have been little studied. So, we investigate whether the microbiota itself may alter host iron sensing. Duodenal cytochrome b and divalent metal transporter 1, involved in apical iron uptake, are 8- and 10-fold, respectively, more abundant in the duodenum of germ-free (GF) mice than in mice colonized with a microbiota. In contrast, the luminal exporter ferroportin is 2-fold less abundant in GF. The overall signature of microbiota on iron-related proteins is similar in the colon. The colonization does not modify systemic parameters as plasma transferrin saturation (20%), plasma ferritin (150 ng/L), and liver (85 µg/g) iron load. Commensal organisms (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165) and a probiotic strain (Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9) led to up to 12-fold induction of ferritin in colon. Our data suggest that the intestinal cells of GF mice are depleted of iron and that following colonization, the epithelial cells favor iron storage. This study is the first to demonstrate that gut microbes induce a specific iron-related protein signature, highlighting new aspects of the crosstalk between the microbiota and the intestinal epithelium.

  13. Modeling RDX Reduction within Iron Bed Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    completely flushed. The third test case for the hypothetical batch reactor was conducted with a constant RDX loading as prescribed for a water...of RDX. Likewise, constant concentrations of RDX degradation products are produced. The results for all three of the hypothetical batch reactor ...a model to predict the degradation of RDX and its degradation products within an iron bed reactor . A batch reactor model and a one- dimensional (1D

  14. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  15. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  16. Cellular iron status influences the functional relationship between microglia and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Surguladze, N; Slagle-Webb, B; Cozzi, A; Connor, J R

    2006-12-01

    Previously, we have reported that there is a spatiotemporal relationship between iron accumulation in microglia and oligodendrocytes during normal development and in remyelination following injury. This in vivo observation has prompted us to develop a cell culture model to test the relationship between iron status of microglia and survival of oligodendrocytes. We found that conditioned media from iron-loaded microglia increases the survival of oligodendrocytes; but conditioned media from iron loaded activated microglia is toxic to oligodendrocytes. In the trophic condition, one of the proteins released by iron-loaded microglia is H-ferritin, and transfecting the microglia with siRNA for H-ferritin blocks the trophic response on oligodendrocytes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation decreases the amount of H-ferritin that is released from microglia and increases the release of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1. LPS activation of iron-enriched microglia results in the activation of NF-kB and greater release of cytokines when compared with that of control microglia; whereas treating microglia with an iron chelator is associated with less NF-kB activation and less release of cytokines. These results indicate that microglia play an important role in iron homoeostasis and that their iron status can influence how microglia influence growth and survival of oligodendrocytes. The results further indicate that ferritin, released by microglia, is a significant source of iron for oligodendrocytes.

  17. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting seed mineral content in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the amount of bioavailable micronutrients such as iron and zinc in plant foods for human consumption is a challenge especially in developing countries where plant foods comprise a significant portion of the diet. Legume seeds have the potential to provide the essential nutrients required...

  19. Identification of QTL affecting seed mineral concentrations and content in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the amount of bioavailable micronutrients such as iron and zinc in plant foods for human consumption is a challenge, especially in developing countries where plant foods comprise a significant portion of the diet. Legume seeds have the potential to provide the essential nutrients require...

  20. Moving micronutrients from the soil to the seeds: genes and physiological processes from a biofortification perspective.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Sankaran, Renuka P

    2011-04-01

    The micronutrients iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, or biofortification, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. This review discusses the processes and genes needed to translocate micronutrients through the plant to the developing seeds, and potential strategies for developing biofortified crops.

  1. A legume biofortification quandary: Variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers, and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in com...

  2. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  3. Electrolytic iron or ferrous sulfate increase body iron in women with moderate to low iron stores.

    PubMed

    Swain, James H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2007-03-01

    Commercial elemental iron powders (electrolytic and reduced iron), as well as heme iron supplements, were tested for efficacy in improving the iron status of women. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 51 women with moderate to low iron stores received daily for 12 wk: 1) placebo, 2) 5 mg iron as heme iron or 50 mg iron as 3) electrolytic iron, 4) reduced iron, or 5) FeSO(4). Treatments were provided in 2 capsules (heme carrier) and 3 wheat rolls (other iron sources). Differences in iron status, food nonheme iron absorption, and fecal properties were evaluated. Body iron, assessed from the serum transferrin receptor:ferritin ratio, increased significantly more in subjects administered FeSO(4) (127 +/- 29 mg; mean +/- SEM) and electrolytic (115 +/- 37 mg), but not the reduced (74 +/- 32 mg) or heme (65 +/- 26 mg) iron forms, compared with those given placebo (2 +/- 19 mg). Based on body iron determinations, retention of the added iron was estimated as 3.0, 2.7, 1.8, and 15.5%, in the 4 iron-treated groups, respectively. Iron treatments did not affect food iron absorption. The 50 mg/d iron treatments increased fecal iron and free radical-generating capacity in vitro, but did not affect fecal water cytotoxicity. In subjects administered FeSO(4), fecal water content was increased slightly but significantly more than in the placebo group. In conclusion, electrolytic iron was approximately 86% as efficacious as FeSO(4) for improving body iron, but the power of this study was insufficient to detect any efficacy of the reduced or heme iron within 12 wk. With modification, this methodology of testing higher levels of food fortification for several weeks in healthy women with low iron stores has the potential for economically assessing the efficiency of iron compounds to improve iron status.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  7. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  8. Haemopexin affects iron distribution and ferritin expression in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Noemi; Tonoli, Elisabetta; Logrand, Federica; Fiorito, Veronica; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Vercelli, Alessandro; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    Haemopexin (Hx) is an acute phase plasma glycoprotein, mainly produced by the liver and released into plasma where it binds heme with high affinity and delivers it to the liver. This system provides protection against free heme-mediated oxidative stress, limits access by pathogens to heme and contributes to iron homeostasis by recycling heme iron. Hx protein has been found in the sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, retina, brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recently, a comparative proteomic analysis has shown an increase of Hx in CSF from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, thus suggesting its involvement in heme detoxification in brain. Here, we report that Hx is synthesised in brain by the ventricular ependymal cells. To verify whether Hx is involved in heme scavenging in brain, and consequently, in the control of iron level, iron deposits and ferritin expression were analysed in cerebral regions known for iron accumulation. We show a twofold increase in the number of iron-loaded oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia and thalamus of Hx-null mice compared to wild-type controls. Interestingly, there was no increase in H- and L-ferritin expression in these regions. This condition is common to several human neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease in which iron loading is not associated with an adequate increase in ferritin expression. However, a strong reduction in the number of ferritin-positive cells was observed in the cerebral cortex of Hx-null animals. Consistent with increased iron deposits and inadequate ferritin expression, malondialdehyde level and Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase-1 expression were higher in the brain of Hx-null mice than in that of wild-type controls. These data demonstrate that Hx plays an important role in controlling iron distribution within brain, thus suggesting its involvement in iron-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19120692

  9. Iron core formation in horse spleen ferritin: magnetic susceptibility, pH, and compositional studies.

    PubMed

    Hilty, S; Webb, B; Frankel, R B; Watt, G D

    1994-11-15

    Horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) reconstituted with small iron cores ranging in size from 8 to 500 iron atoms was studied by magnetic susceptibility and pH measurements to determine when the added Fe3+ begins to aggregate and form antiferromagnetically coupled clusters and also to determine the hydrolytic state of the iron at low iron loading. The Evans NMR magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that at iron loadings as low as 8 Fe3+/HoSF, at least half of the added iron atoms were involved in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and the other half were present as isolated iron atoms with S = 5/2. As the core size increased to about 24 iron atoms, the antiferromagnetic exchange interactions among the iron atoms increased until reaching the limiting value of 3.8 Bohr magnetons per iron atom, the value present in holo HoSF. HoSF containing eight or more Fe3+ to which eight Fe2+ were added showed that the Fe2+ ions were at sites remote from the Fe3+ and that the resulting HoSF consisted of individual, noninteracting Fe2+ and the partially aggregated Fe3+. pH measurements for core reduction showed that Fe(OH)3 was initially present at all iron loadings but that in the absence of iron chelators the reduced iron core is partially hydrolyzed. Proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy showed that Cl- is transported into the iron core during reduction, forming a stable chlorohydroxy Fe(II) mineral phase.

  10. Erythropoietin and iron.

    PubMed

    Kaltwasser, J P; Gottschalk, R

    1999-03-01

    Serum ferritin concentration is most informative in estimating the amount of storage iron available for a particular individual. The serum transferrin receptor concentration, in contrast to serum ferritin, provides direct information about any deficit in the adequacy of iron supply to the erythropoiesis. The combination of serum transferrin receptor and serum ferritin provides complete information about storage and functional iron compartments. Using this combination along with the hemoglobin concentration, it is possible to define the iron nutritional status completely. Inflammatory conditions as well as parenteral iron administration interfere, however, with the direct and quantitative ferritin to storage iron relationship and, therefore, have to be considered carefully with respect to diagnostic purposes. The diagnostic use of the serum transferrin receptor is presently limited because of limitations in methodology and definition (standardization) of reference ranges.

  11. Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-07-01

    The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron deficiency responses in both graminaceous and non-graminaceous plants. Rice OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are also potent regulators of iron accumulation. Characterizing these putative iron sensors also provides clues to understanding the nature of iron signals, which may involve ionized iron itself, other metals, oxygen, redox status, heme and iron-sulfur clusters, in addition to metabolites affected by iron deficiency. Systemic iron responses may also be regulated by phloem-mobile iron and its chelators such as nicotianamine. Iron sensors and signals will be identified by demonstration of signal transmission by IDEF1, HRZs/BTS, or unknown factors.

  12. Optimizing seeded casting of mono-like silicon crystals through numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Andrés; Medina, Juan; Piñeiro, Axa; Dieguez, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    Recently, silicon ingots produced by typical multicrystalline casting systems but having monocrystalline features are entering the photovoltaic market. In order to look into the particular properties of this novel method, the normal silicon casting process is numerically simulated, and compared to an optimized mono-like casting process, based on the use of oriented monocrystalline silicon seeds. The seeding process was optimized by reducing the time spent in the melt in order to reduce the back diffusion of harmful non-feedstock metal impurities such as iron, reducing the thermomechanical stress to avoid dislocation multiplication, and decreasing the overall interface curvature. Additionally, the growth conditions in the zone just above the seeds were fine-tuned to increase the production of vacancy point defects, in the hope of achieving "vacancy passivation" of harmful interstitial iron by moving it to substitutional position.

  13. Development of Iron Aluminides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    IRON ALUMINIDES G. Culbertson C. S. Kortovich TRW Inc. Materials & Manufacturing Center 23555 Euclid Avenue Euclid, Ohio 44117 March 1986 Final Report...NO. N I 1 Ti TILE Inciuav Securty ltassificafton, 621 02F 2420 02 1 flevelonment of Iron Aluminides 12 PERSONAL AUJTHOR(S) rl Cul bertson, C~r...rnumber) nrceqrarl w.as conducted to develop improved iron- aluminide alloys with higher qlevated ernerature strength and room temperature ductility

  14. Iron and the athlete.

    PubMed

    Suedekum, Natalie A; Dimeff, Robert J

    2005-08-01

    Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary losses due to exercise-induced ischemia or organ movement, foot strike hemolysis, thermohemolysis, and sweat losses. A higher incidence of deficiency occurs in female athletes compared with males.

  15. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  16. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  17. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Iron bioavailability studies as assessed by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although soybeans are a rich source of iron and incorporation of soy protein into diets is increasing, the presence of phytate or fiber endogenous to the seeds may inhibit total iron absorption from diets including soy protein. Four studies on iron bioavailability as assessed by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques in rats were completed. The effect of previous dietary protein on the absorption of intrinsically /sup 59/Fe labeled defatted soy flour was determined in rats. The results indicated that the type of dietary protein (animal vs. plant) in pre-test diets would have little influence on iron absorption from a single soy protein test meal. Therefore, adaptation of soy protein does not improve bioavailability of iron. Soybean hulls were investigated as a source of iron fortification in bread. The results indicated that retention of /sup 59/Fe from white bread baked with soy hulls did not differ from white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate. The effect of endogenous soybean phytate on iron absorption in rats was measured using seeds of varying phytate content and intrinsically labeled with /sup 59/Fe. Increasing concentration of phytate in whole soybean flour had no significant effect on iron absorption.

  19. Physics of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, 28 June - 2 July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, (beta), with a (gamma)-(beta)-(epsilon) triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, (omega), with an (epsilon)-(Theta)-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth's heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there were notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  20. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  1. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  2. Iron, Meat and Health

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

  3. Potential of Alginate Encapsulated Ferric Saccharate Microemulsions to Ameliorate Iron Deficiency in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mukhija, Kimmi; Singhal, Kirti; Angmo, Stanzin; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yadav, Hariom; Sandhir, Rajat; Singhal, Nitin Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prominent mineral deficiencies around the world, which especially affects large population of women and children. Development of new technologies to combat iron deficiency is on high demand. Therefore, we developed alginate microcapsule with encapsulated iron that had better oral iron bioavailability. Microcapsules containing iron with varying ratios of sodium alginate ferric(III)-saccharide were prepared using emulsification method. In vitro studies with Caco-2 cells suggested that newly synthesized microemulsions had better iron bioavailability as compared to commercially available iron dextran formulations. Ferrozine in vitro assay showed that alginate-encapsulated ferric galactose microemulsion (AFGM) had highest iron bioavailability in comparison to other four ferric saccharate microemulsions, namely AFGlM, AFMM, AFSM, and AFFM synthesized in our laboratory. Mice studies also suggested that AFGM showed higher iron absorption as indicated by increased serum iron, hemoglobin, and other hematopoietic measures with almost no toxicity at tested doses. Development of iron-loaded microemulsions leads to higher bioavailability of iron and can provide alternative strategies to treat iron deficiency.

  4. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  5. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of iron framework-substituted and exchanged zeolites: Characterization and quantification of incorporated iron species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanfel, Christine Marie

    three phases; framework, precipitate, and low long range order. Disordered aggregate precipitate occurred in all samples excluding Fe Y (low Fe load) which contained Goethite-type precipitate. Fe FAU framework iron levels were considerably lower than those of framework-substituted LTL, suggesting destabilization of the FAU lattice toward iron T-site occupation. Framework iron fraction strongly correlated with zeolite Al/Fe ratio. Complete framework iron incorporation was predicted to occur in faujasites maintaining Al/Fe ≥ 26.

  7. Multibuilding Block Janus Synthesized by Seed-Mediated Self-Assembly for Enhanced Photothermal Effects and Colored Brownian Motion in an Optical Trap.

    PubMed

    Sansanaphongpricha, Kanokwan; DeSantis, Michael C; Chen, Hongwei; Cheng, Wei; Sun, Kai; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2017-02-01

    The asymmetrical features and unique properties of multibuilding block Janus nanostructures (JNSs) provide superior functions for biomedical applications. However, their production process is very challenging. This problem has hampered the progress of JNS research and the exploration of their applications. In this study, an asymmetrical multibuilding block gold/iron oxide JNS has been generated to enhance photothermal effects and display colored Brownian motion in an optical trap. JNS is formed by seed-mediated self-assembly of nanoparticle-loaded thermocleavable micelles, where the hydrophobic backbones of the polymer are disrupted at high temperatures, resulting in secondary self-assembly and structural rearrangement. The JNS significantly enhances photothermal effects compared to their homogeneous counterpart after near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. The asymmetrical distribution of gold and iron oxide within JNS also generates uneven thermophoretic force to display active colored Brownian rotational motion in a single-beam gradient optical trap. These properties indicate that the asymmetrical JNS could be employed as a strong photothermal therapy mediator and a fuel-free nanoscale Janus motor under NIR light.

  8. Perspectives on nutritional iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) is caused by an intake of dietary iron insufficient to cover physiological iron requirements. Studies on iron absorption from whole diets have examined relationships between dietary iron bioavailability/absorption, iron losses, and amounts of stored iron. New insights have been obtained into regulation of iron absorption and expected rates of changes of iron stores or hemoglobin iron deficits when bioavailability or iron content of the diet has been modified and when losses of iron occur. Negative effects of ID are probably related to age, up to about 20 years, explaining some of earlier controversies. Difficulties in establishing the prevalence of mild ID are outlined. The degree of underestimation of the prevalence of mild ID when using multiple diagnostic criteria is discussed. It is suggested that current low-energy lifestyles are a common denominator for the current high prevalence not only of ID but also of obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

  9. Magnetic Characterization of Iron Oxide Cross Linked Hydro gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senaratne, U.; Powell, N.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G.; Naik, R.; Naik, V.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Wenger, L. E.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic hydro gels have potential applications in drug delivery, cells sorting, sensors, and actuating technologies. Iron oxide alginate nanocomposites were synthesized following the method of Kroll et al^1 by cross linking sodium alginate with Fe^2+ and Fe^3+ in methanol: water. The ion-cross linked alginate hydro gels are oxidized in an alkaline solution. The resulting hydro gel consists of iron oxide cross linked alginate. The alginate hydro gels are inert to the reaction conditions and therefore the reaction sequence can be repeated. The multiple loadings result in an increase in the amount of iron oxide and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles in the cross linked hydro gels. The third and sixth loaded iron oxide alginate hydro gels were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. The XRD patterns have characteristic features of γ- Fe_2O3 or Fe_3O4 phases. The average particle size, calculated from the XRD peaks, for third loaded iron oxide alginate was 2 nm. The zero-field-cooled and field-cooled SQUID measurements show the iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic with blocking temperature (T_B) of approximately 35 K. Above the blocking temperature, the inverse susceptibility versus temperature relationship does not follow the Curie-Weiss law, indicating strong inter-particle interactions. The M vs. H data above the blocking temperature was fitted with a modified Langevin function to obtain additional information about the iron oxide particle size. Details of the relationship between coercive field and temperature as well as the particle size distribution obtained from XRD and TEM measurements will be presented. *Research supported by NSF grant # DGE ˜980720 **Supported by NSF REU grant # EEC-0097736 ^1E. Kroll, F.M. Winnik, and R.F. Ziolo, Chem. Mater, 8, 1594 (1996).

  10. Iron Deposition Leads to Neuronal α-Synuclein Pathology by Inducing Autophagy Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenbin; Jin, Lirong; Wang, Zigao; Wang, Lingyan; Fei, Guoqiang; Ye, Fanlong; Pan, Xiaoli; Wang, Changpeng; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that iron deposition in the substantia nigra plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Using primary dopaminergic neurons and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in vitro, we observed that iron loading increased α-synuclein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in these cells but did not affect the intracellular α-synuclein mRNA levels. Furthermore, iron loading significantly downregulated Beclin-1 levels and decreased the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 isoforms (LC3 II/LC3 I). However, a significant change in the levels of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) was not observed in either neurons or SH-SY5Y cells after iron treatment. After treatment with rapamycin, the iron loading-induced increase in the α-synuclein level was significantly reversed and ROS generation was alleviated in both cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the inhibition of autophagy is critical for the pathological alterations in α-synuclein induced by iron loading. Moreover, treatment with vitamin E did not affect the increase in the α-synuclein levels but significantly eliminated the iron-induced ROS production. Together, our study shows that autophagy dysfunction contributes to iron-induced α-synuclein pathology. PMID:28138322

  11. 46 CFR 148.250 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. 148.250 Section 148.250 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... Materials § 148.250 Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. (a) Before loading DRI...

  12. 46 CFR 148.250 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. 148.250 Section 148.250 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... Materials § 148.250 Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. (a) Before loading DRI...

  13. 46 CFR 148.250 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. 148.250 Section 148.250 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... Materials § 148.250 Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. (a) Before loading DRI...

  14. 46 CFR 148.250 - Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. 148.250 Section 148.250 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... Materials § 148.250 Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded briquettes. (a) Before loading DRI...

  15. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  16. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (≤ 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

  17. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... looking as well as black If they have red streaks Cramps, sharp pains, or soreness in the stomach occur Liquid forms of iron may stain your teeth. Try mixing the iron with water or other liquids (such as fruit juice or ...

  18. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  19. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  20. Heat shock, mass-dependent germination, and seed yield as related components of fitness in Cistus ladanifer.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J A.; Serrano, J M.; López, F; Acosta, F J.

    2001-08-01

    The different weight-number strategies of seed production displayed by individuals of a Mediterranean fire-prone plant species (Cistus ladanifer) were investigated in relation to seed germination responses to pre-germination heating. A control (no heating), a high temperature during a short exposure time (100 degrees C during 5 min) and a high temperature during a long exposure time (100 degrees C during 15 min) were applied to seeds from different individual plants with different mean seed weight. These pre-germination treatments resemble natural germination scenarios for the studied species, absence of fire, typical Mediterranean shrub fire, and severe fire with high fuel load. Seed germination was related to heat treatments and seed mass. Seed heating increased the proportion of seeds germinating compared with the control treatment. Mean seed weight was positively correlated to the proportion of germinated seeds but only within heat treatments. These results suggest that in periods without fire, the relative contributions to the population dynamics are equal for all seeds, regardless of their mass, whereas heavier seeds would be the main contribution after wildfire events. Since lighter seeds can be produced in higher quantities than heavier ones within a given fruit, the number of seedlings produced per fruit depended strongly on the germination conditions. In the absence of wildfire, fruits producing lighter seeds gave rise to more seedlings; nevertheless, they were numerically exceeded by those producing heavy seeds after a wildfire. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to their consequences on the population dynamics of this species, considering also additional information on stand flammability and changes in seed mass with plant age.

  1. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L. )

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.

  2. Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Chen, Ying; Scalzo, Richard; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Davis, Jeanine M.; Hancock, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Seed germination patterns were studied in E. purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m−2·s−1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for commercially cultivated populations in light (90% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 95%) and in darkness (88% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 97%) than for wild populations in light (56% mean among seed lots, ranging from 9% to 92%) or in darkness (37% mean among seed lots, ranging from 4% to 78%). No germination difference was measured between treatments in light and darkness in the commercially cultivated populations, but significant differences were noted for treatments among wild populations. These results suggest that repeated cycles of sowing seeds during cultivation without treatments for dormancy release resulted in reduced seed dormancy in E. purpurea. PMID:16429595

  3. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation.

  4. Iron studies in hemophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

    1981-12-01

    Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

  5. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation.

  6. Identification of Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Polyphenols That Inhibit and Promote Iron Uptake by Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jonathan J; Tako, Elad; Kochian, Leon V; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-07-01

    In nutritional studies, polyphenolic compounds are considered to be inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Because they are presumed to act in a similar manner, total polyphenols are commonly measured via the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. This study measured the content of polyphenolic compounds in white and black beans and examined the effect of individual polyphenols on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Analysis of seed coat extracts by LC-MS revealed the presence of a range of polyphenols in black bean, but no detectable polyphenols in white bean. Extracts from black bean seed coats strongly inhibited iron uptake. Examination of the eight most abundant black bean seed coat, non-anthocyanin polyphenols via Caco-2 cell assays showed that four (catechin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, and kaempferol 3-glucoside) clearly promoted iron uptake and four (myricetin, myricetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin 3-glucoside) inhibited iron uptake. The four inhibitors were present in 3-fold higher total concentration than the promoters (143 ± 7.2 vs 43.6 ± 4.4 μM), consistent with the net inhibitory effect observed for black bean seed coats. The ability of some polyphenols to promote iron uptake and the identification of specific polyphenols that inhibit Fe uptake suggest a potential for breeding bean lines with improved iron nutritional qualities.

  7. The Seed Scene: An Outdoor Teaching Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    The study of seeds and their dispersal is an excellent way to help students understand basic concepts which will help them in their adult decision-making activities regarding environmental problems. This article discusses the purpose of seeds, aspects of seeds, and collecting seeds. Classroom and outdoor activities with seeds are listed. (NQ)

  8. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  9. [Seed aging and survival mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Grappin, Philippe; Bourdais, Gildas; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Job, Dominique; Ogé, Laurent; Jullien, Marc; Rajjou, Loïc

    2008-01-01

    Aging and death are universal to living systems. In temperate climate latitudes the mature seeds of higher plants are exposed to aging and have developed resistance mechanisms allowing survival and plant propagation. In addition to the physicochemical properties of the seed that confer stress resistance, the protein metabolism contributes importantly to longevity mechanisms. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the occurrence of the Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase repair enzyme in controlling age-related protein damages and seed survival. These protective mechanisms by protein repair are widespread in all kingdoms, so that the use of seeds as models to study these controlling processes offers the prospect of understanding longevity mechanisms better.

  10. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  12. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  13. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-04-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99-100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera.

  14. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds

    PubMed Central

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99–100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera. PMID:24444052

  15. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  16. Effect of the moisture content on the physical properties of bitter gourd seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, H.; Alpsoy, H. C.; Ayhan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Some physical and germination properties of bitter gourd seed were determined in a moisture content range of 9.3-32.1% d.b. For this moisture, the average length, width, and thickness of seed increased by 3.68, 4.07, and 4.56%, respectively. The geometric properties increased with increasing moisture content. The bulk density and rupture force decreased while thousand seed mass, true density, porosity, terminal velocity and static coefficient of friction increased with increasing moisture content. At all moisture contents, the maximum friction was offered by rubber, followed by plywood, aluminum, and galvanized iron surface. The seed germination duration, seedling emergence percentage, and germination index values gave the best results at the 19.9% moisture content, whereas fresh seedling mass was not affected by different moisture contents.

  17. Iron acquisition by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Vartivarian, S E; Cowart, R E; Anaissie, E J; Tashiro, T; Sprigg, H A

    1995-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the growth and metabolism of microbial cells. Most pathogenic microbes elaborate powerful iron chelating agents (siderophores) to mobilize iron from ferric ligands. The pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans has not been found to produce siderophores and its mechanism of iron acquisition is unknown. This investigation explored an alternative pathway for iron acquisition by examining the interactions of iron with the cell surface. Iron uptake experiments were conducted utilizing radiolabelled ferrous iron and ferric iron chelates, with evidence for the presence of iron(II) receptors and the generation of ferrous iron by surface reduction. Hyperbolic kinetics were found when 59FeII was presented to the organism and uptake was blocked with bathophenanthroline sulphonate, an Fe2+ chelator. The yeast also acquired iron as [59Fe3+]-citrate and [59Fe3+]-pyrophosphate while bathophenanthroline sulphonate reduced the acquisition of these ferric ligands by 48% and 52% respectively. Pre-incubation with either ferric ligand also reduced iron acquisition by 50%. KCN inhibited uptake of iron(II) by 90% and uptake of [59Fe3+]-pyrophosphate and [59Fe3+]-citrate by 46% and 56% respectively; dinitrophenol had no effect on these processes. The data suggest that C. neoformans can (i) generate ferrous iron at the cell surface via a reduction of ferric chelates, with the subsequent acquisition of the ferrous iron, and (ii) acquire iron through the interaction of ferric chelates with a surface component.

  18. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  19. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  20. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  1. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  3. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  4. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  5. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  6. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  7. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  8. Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides under cyclic loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, A.; Alven, D.A.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1995-08-01

    The tensile and fatigue crack growth behavior in air in hydrogen and in oxygen of an Fe-Al-Cr-Zr alloy is described. The results are compared to data for FA-129. A detailed analysis of frequency effects on fatigue crack growth rates of FA-129, tested in the B2 condition, shows that dislocation transport of hydrogen from the surface is the rate limiting step in fatigue crack growth.

  9. Effects of seed aerosols on the growth of secondary organic aerosols from the photooxidation of toluene.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-qing; Wang, Zhen-ya; Huang, Ming-qiang; Fang, Li; Zhang, Wei-jun

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (.OH)-initiated photooxidation reaction of toluene was carried out in a self-made smog chamber. Four individual seed aerosols such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium silicate and calcium chloride, were introduced into the chamber to assess their influence on the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). It was found that the low concentration of seed aerosols might lead to high concentration of SOA particles. Seed aerosols would promote rates of SOA formation at the start of the reaction and inhibit its formation rate with prolonging the reaction time. In the case of ca. 9000 pt/cm3 seed aerosol load, the addition of sodium silicate induced a same effect on the SOA formation as ammonium nitrate. The influence of the four individual seed aerosols on the generation of SOA decreased in the order of calcium chloride>sodium silicate and ammonium nitrate>ammonium sulfate.

  10. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  11. 12. Battery Richmond, emplacement no. 1, iron stair from terreplein ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Battery Richmond, emplacement no. 1, iron stair from terreplein up to loading platform. Beneath stair is doorway to powder room, at left is an entrance to the shot gallery; at center is entance to guard room - Forth Wadsworth Battery Richmond, Fort Wadsworth, Staten Island, New York County, NY

  12. A guide to forest seed handling

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This guide to forest seed handling focuses on seed quality, i.e., the physiological viability and vigor of the seeds. Seed and fruit development, germination, and dormancy and the fundamentals of planning seed collections are covered. The guide includes discussions on seed collection of fallen fruits or seeds from the forest floor from the crowns of felled trees, and from standing trees with access from the ground and with other means of access. Also considered are precautions to be followed during fruit and seed handling between collection and processing. The different stages in seed processing are detailed, including extraction, depulping, drying, tumbling and threshing, dewinging, cleaning, grading, and mixing. Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and the choice of storage methods are reviewed. Different forms of seed pretreatment and seed testing methods are described.

  13. Nonhematological benefits of iron.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its importance in supporting erythropoiesis is unquestioned especially in those patients treated with erythropoietin. Clinical symptomatology such as fatigability, cold intolerance, failure to concentrate and poor effort intolerance is often attributed to anemia or uremia. That iron deficiency, per se, can cause these symptoms is poorly recognized. Clinical and animal studies that support the benefits of iron supplementation, independent of increasing hemoglobin, such as those on immune function, physical performance, thermoregulation, cognition, and restless leg syndrome and aluminum absorption is the subject of this narrative review.

  14. Quercetin inhibits intestinal iron absorption and ferroportin transporter expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Hoque, Rukshana; Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S; Srai, Surjit K S; Sharp, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.

  15. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  16. Uptake of non-transferrin-bound iron by both reductive and nonreductive processes is modulated by intracellular iron.

    PubMed

    Randell, E W; Parkes, J G; Olivieri, N F; Templeton, D M

    1994-06-10

    Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) uptake occurs in a variety of cells by a saturable, specific and temperature-sensitive process. Our previous studies indicated that NTBI uptake by cardiac myocytes and Hep G2 cells was reversibly up-regulated by iron deposition. In the present work we have characterized this up-regulation and examined its mechanism by comparing the uptake of oxidized (Fe3+) and ascorbate-reduced (Fe2+) forms of iron. Iron loading markedly enhanced the uptake of iron both in the presence and absence of ascorbate, but the increment was greater when ascorbate was absent. This up-regulation is partially inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for protein synthesis. Uptake by the iron-loaded cells was less sensitive to thiol-alkylating agents and competing metal ions, but was more sensitive to proteolysis. Iron loading causes an increase in both Km and Vmax for uptake of both Fe2+ and Fe3+, although the values differ, suggesting distinct rate-limiting steps for uptake of Fe2+ and Fe3+. Consistent with this idea, uptake of the two ions showed differential sensitivity to thiol reagents, competing metal ions and monensin. The Fe(2+)-specific chelators bathophenanthroline disulfonate and ferrozine markedly inhibited iron uptake whether ascorbate was present or not, indicating that Fe3+ uptake is dependent on reduction to the ferrous state. This requirement for reduction was independent of the iron status of the cells, demonstrating that the process of up-regulation is not due to the appearance of a new mechanism for translocation of Fe3+ without reduction. Taken together, the evidence favors a model of NTBI transport where an obligate and rate-determining reduction of Fe3+ occurs prior to or during uptake, followed by translocation through an Fe2+ carrier. The distinct translocation mechanisms of uptake in the presence and absence of ascorbate suggest that exogenous Fe2+ does not access the carrier available to the nascent

  17. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne . E-mail: wessling@hsph.harvard.edu

    2006-01-15

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased {approx}2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, {sup 54}Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. {sup 54}Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected {sup 54}Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration.

  18. Differential predation of forage seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  19. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  20. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  1. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

  2. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  3. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  4. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  5. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

  6. Reactive iron in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of reactive iron oxides on sediment pore-water chemistry is considered in detail. A carefully calibrated extraction scheme is used to determine the depth distributions of reactive iron phases at two very different localities: the relatively iron-rich Mississippi Delta and the relatively iron-poor FOAM site in Long Island Sound. Closed system incubations are used to characterize the rates of reaction between sulfide and both naturally occurring and pure iron mineral phases. Rates of iron liberation to pore solution are measured in the presence and absence of sulfate reduction, and the origin of dissolved iron in organic-rich sediments is speculated upon.

  7. SLC39A14 Is Required for the Development of Hepatocellular Iron Overload in Murine Models of Hereditary Hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkitkasemwong, Supak; Wang, Chia-Yu; Coffey, Richard; Zhang, Wei; Chan, Alan; Biel, Thomas; Kim, Jae-Sung; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2015-07-07

    Nearly all forms of hereditary hemochromatosis are characterized by pathological iron accumulation in the liver, pancreas, and heart. These tissues preferentially load iron because they take up non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in the plasma during iron overload. Yet, how tissues take up NTBI is largely unknown. We report that ablation of Slc39a14, the gene coding for solute carrier SLC39A14 (also called ZIP14), in mice markedly reduced the uptake of plasma NTBI by the liver and pancreas. To test the role of SLC39A14 in tissue iron loading, we crossed Slc39a14(-/-) mice with Hfe(-/-) and Hfe2(-/-) mice, animal models of type 1 and type 2 (juvenile) hemochromatosis, respectively. Slc39a14 deficiency in hemochromatotic mice greatly diminished iron loading of the liver and prevented iron deposition in hepatocytes and pancreatic acinar cells. The data suggest that inhibition of SLC39A14 may mitigate hepatic and pancreatic iron loading and associated pathologies in iron overload disorders.

  8. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    MedlinePlus

    Ferrous sulfate provides the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used to ... Ferrous sulfate comes as regular, coated, and extended-release (long-acting) tablets; regular and extended-release capsules; and ...

  9. Iron Partitioning in Ferropericlase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, J. W. H.; Stixrude, L. P.; Pinilla, C.; Holmstrom, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle. Whether iron favours the liquid or solid phase of (Mg,Fe)O has important implications for the Earth's mantle, both chemically and dynamically. As iron is much heavier than magnesium, the partitioning of iron between liquid and solid will lead to a contrast in densities. This difference in density will lead one phase to be more buoyant than the other and would help, in part, to explain how the mantle crystallised from the magma ocean of the Hadean eon to its current state. The partitioning of iron between the two phases is characterized by partition coefficients. Using ab-initio methods, thermodynamic integration and adiabatic switching these coefficients have been determined. Results are presented for pressures encompassing the region between the upper mantle and the core-mantle boundary (10-140GPa).

  10. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  11. Visual Assay of Total Iron in Human Serum with Bathophenanthrolin Disulfonate-accommodated MCM-41.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Misato; Hizawa, Keita; Hosaka, Manabu; Sugawara, Masao

    2016-01-01

    A simple visual method for determining the total iron in human serum is proposed based on color development in the nanospace of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and a chromogenic ligand bathophenathroline disulfonate (BPS). Observing the color intensity of a complex between iron(II) and BPS devloped on the MCM-41 material by the naked eye enabled us to quntify iron(II) with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The BPS-loaded MCM-41 was successfully applied for quantifying the total iron in human serum.

  12. Mobility of edge dislocations in stressed iron crystals during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, A. V. Zolnikov, K. P.; Kryzhevich, D. S.; Chernov, V. M.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2015-10-27

    The behavior of a/2(111)(110) edge dislocations in iron in shear loading and irradiation conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Edge dislocations were exposed to shock waves formed by atomic displacement cascades of different energies. It was shown that starting from a certain threshold amplitude shock waves cause displacement of edge dislocations in the loaded samples. Calculations showed that the larger the shear load and the amplitude of the shock wave, the greater the displacement of dislocations in the crystallite.

  13. Bmp6 Expression in Murine Liver Non Parenchymal Cells: A Mechanism to Control their High Iron Exporter Activity and Protect Hepatocytes from Iron Overload?

    PubMed Central

    Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Nai, Antonella; Campanella, Alessandro; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Apostoli, Pietro; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Bmp6 is the main activator of hepcidin, the liver hormone that negatively regulates plasma iron influx by degrading the sole iron exporter ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages. Bmp6 expression is modulated by iron but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Although hepcidin is expressed almost exclusively by hepatocytes (HCs), Bmp6 is produced also by non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), mainly sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). To investigate the regulation of Bmp6 in HCs and NPCs, liver cells were isolated from adult wild type mice whose diet was modified in iron content in acute or chronic manner and in disease models of iron deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mouse) and overload (Hjv KO mouse). With manipulation of dietary iron in wild-type mice, Bmp6 and Tfr1 expression in both HCs and NPCs was inversely related, as expected. When hepcidin expression is abnormal in murine models of iron overload (Hjv KO mice) and deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mice), Bmp6 expression in NPCs was not related to Tfr1. Despite the low Bmp6 in NPCs from Tmprss6 KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA was also low. Conversely, despite body iron overload and high expression of Bmp6 in NPCs from Hjv KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA and protein were increased. However, in the same cells ferritin L was only slightly increased, but the iron content was not, suggesting that Bmp6 in these cells reflects the high intracellular iron import and export. We propose that NPCs, sensing the iron flux, not only increase hepcidin through Bmp6 with a paracrine mechanism to control systemic iron homeostasis but, controlling hepcidin, they regulate their own ferroportin, inducing iron retention or release and further modulating Bmp6 production in an autocrine manner. This mechanism, that contributes to protect HC from iron loading or deficiency, is lost in disease models of hepcidin production. PMID:25860887

  14. Bmp6 expression in murine liver non parenchymal cells: a mechanism to control their high iron exporter activity and protect hepatocytes from iron overload?

    PubMed

    Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Nai, Antonella; Campanella, Alessandro; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Apostoli, Pietro; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Bmp6 is the main activator of hepcidin, the liver hormone that negatively regulates plasma iron influx by degrading the sole iron exporter ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages. Bmp6 expression is modulated by iron but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Although hepcidin is expressed almost exclusively by hepatocytes (HCs), Bmp6 is produced also by non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), mainly sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). To investigate the regulation of Bmp6 in HCs and NPCs, liver cells were isolated from adult wild type mice whose diet was modified in iron content in acute or chronic manner and in disease models of iron deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mouse) and overload (Hjv KO mouse). With manipulation of dietary iron in wild-type mice, Bmp6 and Tfr1 expression in both HCs and NPCs was inversely related, as expected. When hepcidin expression is abnormal in murine models of iron overload (Hjv KO mice) and deficiency (Tmprss6 KO mice), Bmp6 expression in NPCs was not related to Tfr1. Despite the low Bmp6 in NPCs from Tmprss6 KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA was also low. Conversely, despite body iron overload and high expression of Bmp6 in NPCs from Hjv KO mice, Tfr1 mRNA and protein were increased. However, in the same cells ferritin L was only slightly increased, but the iron content was not, suggesting that Bmp6 in these cells reflects the high intracellular iron import and export. We propose that NPCs, sensing the iron flux, not only increase hepcidin through Bmp6 with a paracrine mechanism to control systemic iron homeostasis but, controlling hepcidin, they regulate their own ferroportin, inducing iron retention or release and further modulating Bmp6 production in an autocrine manner. This mechanism, that contributes to protect HC from iron loading or deficiency, is lost in disease models of hepcidin production.

  15. Reduction of soot emissions by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.B.; Masiello, K.A.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-07-15

    Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds reduction in overall soot emissions. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species. (author)

  16. A Survey of Plant Iron Content-A Semi-Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovaneţ, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negreş, Simona

    2015-12-10

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word "iron" in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed.

  17. Seed coat thickness data clarifies seed size-seed persistence tradeoffs in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretical models predict that seed size and seedbank persistence evolve interdependently such that strong selection for one trait corresponds with weak selection for the other. This framework is supported by empirical data but conclusive evidence is lacking. In this study, we expand the seed size-...

  18. PLA2-responsive and SPIO-loaded phospholipid micelles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Yan, Lesan; Chiorazzo, Michael; Delikatny, E. James; Tsourkas, Andrew; Cheng, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    A PLA2-responsive and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle-loaded phospholipid micelle was developed. The release of phospholipid-conjugated dye from these micelles was triggered due to phospholipid degradation by phospholipase A2. High relaxivity of the encapsulated SPIO could enable non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26139589

  19. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  20. Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; John, Seth G.; Marsay, Christopher M.; Hoffman, Colleen L.; Nicholas, Sarah L.; Toner, Brandy M.; German, Christopher R.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrothermally sourced dissolved metals have been recorded in all ocean basins. In the oceans' largest known hydrothermal plume, extending westwards across the Pacific from the Southern East Pacific Rise, dissolved iron and manganese were shown by the GEOTRACES program to be transported halfway across the Pacific. Here, we report that particulate iron and manganese in the same plume also exceed background concentrations, even 4,000 km from the vent source. Both dissolved and particulate iron deepen by more than 350 m relative to 3He--a non-reactive tracer of hydrothermal input--crossing isopycnals. Manganese shows no similar descent. Individual plume particle analyses indicate that particulate iron occurs within low-density organic matrices, consistent with its slow sinking rate of 5-10 m yr-1. Chemical speciation and isotopic composition analyses reveal that particulate iron consists of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, whereas dissolved iron consists of nanoparticulate Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and an organically complexed iron phase. The descent of plume-dissolved iron is best explained by reversible exchange onto slowly sinking particles, probably mediated by organic compounds binding iron. We suggest that in ocean regimes with high particulate iron loadings, dissolved iron fluxes may depend on the balance between stabilization in the dissolved phase and the reversibility of exchange onto sinking particles.