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Sample records for seed weight variation

  1. The Natural Variation of Seed Weight Is Mainly Controlled by Maternal Genotype in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight is a very important and complex trait in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The seed weight of rapeseed shows great variation in its natural germplasm resources; however, the morphological, cytological and genetic causes of this variation have remained unclear. In the present study, nine highly pure inbred rapeseed lines with large seed weight variation and different genetic backgrounds were selected for morphological, cytological and genetic studies on seed weight. The results showed the following: (1) Seed weight showed an extremely significant correlation and coordinated variation with seed size (including seed diameter, seed surface area and seed volume), but it showed no significant correlation with bulk density, which suggests that seed weight is determined by size rather than bulk density. (2) Seed weight showed a higher correlation with the cell numbers of seed coats and cotyledons than the cell sizes of seed coats and cotyledons, which suggests that cell number is more tightly correlated with final seed weight. (3) Seed weight was mainly controlled by the maternal genotype, with little or no xenia and cytoplasmic effects. This is the first report on the morphological and cytological causes of seed weight natural variation in rapeseed. We concluded that the natural variation of seed weight is mainly controlled by maternal genotype. This finding lays a foundation for genetic and breeding studies of seed weight in rapeseed and opens a new field of research on the regulation of seed traits in plants. PMID:25915862

  2. Variation of hairy vetch seed weight alters germination and seedling growth response to an allelochemical

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be controlled more effectively than large-seeded species. In our...

  3. Genetic dissection of seed weight by QTL analysis and detection of allelic variation in Indian and east European gene pool lines of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Namrata; Rout, Kadambini; Yadava, Satish K; Sodhi, Yaspal Singh; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2017-02-01

    Seed weight QTL identified in different populations were synthesized into consensus QTL which were shown to harbor candidate genes by in silico mapping. Allelic variation inferred would be useful in breeding B. juncea lines with high seed weight. Seed weight is an important yield influencing trait in oilseed Brassicas and is a multigenic trait. Among the oilseed Brassicas, Brassica juncea harbors the maximum phenotypic variation wherein thousand seed weight varies from around 2.0 g to more than 7.0 g. In this study, we have undertaken quantitative trait locus/quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seed weight in B. juncea using four bi-parental doubled-haploid populations. These four populations were derived from six lines (three Indian and three east European lines) with parental phenotypic values for thousand seed weight ranging from 2.0 to 7.6 g in different environments. Multi-environment QTL analysis of the four populations identified a total of 65 QTL ranging from 10 to 25 in each population. Meta-analysis of these component QTL of the four populations identified six 'consensus' QTL (C-QTL) in A3, A7, A10 and B3 by merging 33 of the 65 component Tsw QTL from different bi-parental populations. Allelic diversity analysis of these six C-QTL showed that Indian lines, Pusajaikisan and Varuna, hold the most positive allele in all the six C-QTL. In silico mapping of candidate genes with the consensus QTL localized 11 genes known to influence seed weight in Arabidopsis thaliana and also showed conserved crucifer blocks harboring seed weight QTL between the A subgenomes of B. juncea and B. rapa. These findings pave the way for a better understanding of the genetics of seed weight in the oilseed crop B. juncea and reveal the scope available for improvement of seed weight through marker-assisted breeding.

  4. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  5. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  8. Effects of seed weight and rate of emergence on early growth of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1991-01-01

    Seed weight, time of emergence, and three measures of seedling size were recorded for 39 open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii[Mirb.] Franco) families in order to assess family variation in seed weight and emergence, and the influence of these seed traits on early growth. Families were planted both...

  9. Genetic Variation in Seed and Fruit Characters in Sugar Maple

    Treesearch

    William J. Gabriel

    1978-01-01

    A study of the seeds and fruits of sugar maples from 32 provenances has shown that: (1) dry weight of seed and percentage of filled fruit varied genetically among and within provenances; (2) dry weight of seed and latitude of provenance are positively correlated; provenances from higher latitudes and colder temperatures exhibited higher weights; (3) the percentage of...

  10. The genetics and ecology of seed size variation in a biennial plant, Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lorne M

    1995-03-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the sources of seed size variation in Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, an outcrossing, biennial plant. The genetic basis of seed size variation was examined with a diallel breeding design. The analysis did not reveal any evidence for additive genetic variance, suggesting that seed size could not evolve in response to natural selection. A series of greenhouse experiments was conducted to determine the sensitivity of seed weight to a number of ecological variables. Seed weight was affected by inbreeding depression: seeds produced by self-pollinations were significantly lighter that outcrossed seeds. Maternal plants did not differentially provision seeds that were the result of crosses between subpopulations (separated by 300 m) or between populations (separated by 1.7 km). Mean seed size was independent of the number of outcrossed pollen donors (one vs. many) that sired seeds on an inflorescence; however, the variance was greater on inflorescences pollinated by multiple donors. Direct manipulations of the abiotic environment showed that seed size was greater on plants growing under full sunlight compared to shaded plants. Seed size was unaffected by soil type, fertilizer addition, or defoliation. Finally, I determined the effect of varying pollination intensity at the level of a single inflorescence, and at the whole plant level. Seed weight was greatest on plants that had only 1 and 5 inflorescences pollinated, and least on those that had 10 and 20 pollinated. At the inflorescence level, seed weights were greatest on those where all flowers were pollinated, compared to inflorescences where only half of the flowers were pollinated. Perhaps the greatest contributor to variance in seed size in this species was the temporal decline within plants through the flowering season. These results indicate that maternal plants are not capable of producing uniform seed crops. Rather, the final distribution of seed size produced by plants within

  11. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition.

    PubMed

    Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Jolan; Gruppen, Harry; Visser, Richard G F

    2006-01-25

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with an overall average of 22.3%. Densitometric quantification of the individual globulins (legumin, vicilin, convicilin, and globulin-related proteins) based on SDS-PAGE gels showed no lines lacking any particular globulin. Among the lines tested, variation was shown in both their total globulins content and their globulin composition. The total globulin content ranged from 49.2 to 81.8% of the total pea protein extract (TPPE). Legumin content varied between 5.9 and 24.5% of the TPPE. Vicilin was the most abundant protein of pea, and its content varied between 26.3 and 52.0% of the TPPE. Both processed and nonprocessed vicilins occurred. The processed vicilin was the predominant one, with values between 17.8 and 40.8%, whereas the nonprocessed ones constituted between 3.1 and 13.5% of the TPPE. Convicilin was the least abundant globulin, and its content ranged from 3.9 to 8.3%. Finally, the globulin-related proteins were present in amounts ranging from 2.8 to 17.3%. They were less abundant in comparison with legumin and vicilin, but they showed the largest relative variation of the four globulin classes. Correlations between the different external characteristics and globulin composition were determined. Comparison with soybean showed that pea lines show more variety in the abundance of globulin proteins, enabling a wider range of food application.

  12. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  13. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Meng, Lihua; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae) on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments. PMID:26495428

  14. The effect of twig architecture and seed number on seed size variation in subtropical woody species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Niklas, Karl J; Yang, Dongmei; Sun, Shucun

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of twig (current year shoot) size on seed size variation and to test whether a seed size vs number tradeoff occurs for the twigs of subtropical broad-leaved species. Fruit-bearing twigs were sampled for 55 woody species (including 33 evergreen and 22 deciduous dicot species) from a southwest Chinese forest. Twig size, fruit size and number, and seed size and number were measured for each species. The relationships among these functional traits were determined both across species and across correlated phyletic divergences. Total fruit mass and total seed mass were positively correlated with twig size. Seed size was positively associated with fruit size, which was, in turn, positively correlated with twig diameter, but negatively correlated with the ratio of twig length to diameter. The effect of twig size on seed size variation was not significant, possibly as a result of the large variation in seed number per fruit. Cross-species and across-phyletic divergence analyses revealed that seed size was negatively and isometrically correlated with seed number per twig mass in both the evergreen and deciduous species groupings, demonstrating the existence of tradeoff between seed size and number. A seed size vs number tradeoff is detectable in the twigs of woody species. Comparatively little of the variance in seed size was attributable to twig size variation.

  15. Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H M; Cummings, C L; Kahn, L; Snow, A A

    2001-04-01

    The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds produced by crop-wild plants were twice the size of wild seeds and differed in coloration. Head diameter, date of flowering, identity of mother plant, and levels of predispersal predation explained some variation in mean seed size. We hypothesized that postdispersal vertebrate seed predation would be affected by seed size, with hybrid seeds preferentially eaten. In each of three field trials, significantly more hybrid seeds were eaten (62% of hybrid seed; 42% of wild seed). Within the category of wild seeds, larger seeds were preferentially eaten; however among hybrid seeds, predation was not significantly related to seed size. In this study, differential predation thus reduces hybrid fitness and would presumably slow the spread of transgenes into wild populations.

  16. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  17. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  18. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noorullah; Kazmi, Rashid H; Willems, Leo A J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms.

  19. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  20. Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-Hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

    1992-01-01

    A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight. In mung bean there were four unlinked genomic regions accounting for 49.7% of the variation for seed weight. In both cowpea and mung bean the genomic region with the greatest effect on seed weight spanned the same RFLP markers in the same linkage order. This suggests that the QTLs in this genomic region have remained conserved through evolution. This inference is supported by the observation that a significant interaction (i.e., epistasis) was detected between the QTL(s) in the conserved region and an unlinked RFLP marker locus in both species. PMID:1361476

  1. Genetic variation in paternal investment in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Savalli; Fox

    1998-10-01

    Males of many species invest resources in their offspring. For paternal investment to evolve, it must exhibit heritable variation. Using a standard half-sibling quantitative genetic design, we investigated whether genetic variation in male ejaculate size, a trait that affects female fecundity and copulation duration, are present in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ejaculate size was estimated as the amount of weight lost by males during mating. Dams, but not sires, had significant effects on their sons' absolute ejaculate size (both replicates) and relative ejaculate size (proportion of body weight; one replicate only), explaining 21-25% of the variance in absolute ejaculate size and 8-16% of the variance in relative ejaculate size. These results suggest either a large maternal effect on ejaculate size or sex-linkage of loci that affect the variation in ejaculate size. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by sex- linkage (assuming no maternal effects) was 42 and 49% (ejaculate size) and 17 and 31% (relative ejaculate size) in the two replicates. These results indicate that male paternal investment can respond to selection, and that it may be able to do so especially rapidly because sex-linked traits have the potential to evolve much more quickly than autosomal traits. There were only weak negative correlations between ejaculate size and mating duration, contrary to what we predicted. There was additive genetic variation in female copulation duration, but not in male copulation duration, suggesting that copulation duration is under female control. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  3. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  4. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  5. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  6. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Linking fruit traits to variation in predispersal vertebrate seed predation, insect seed predation, and pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2011-11-01

    The importance of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens for plant communities has long been recognized, but their absolute and relative importance in early recruitment of multiple coexisting tropical plant species has not been quantified. Further, little is known about the relationship of fruit traits to seed mortality due to natural enemies in tropical plants. To investigate the influences of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on reproduction of seven canopy plant species varying in fruit traits, we quantified reductions in fruit development and seed germination due to vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungal pathogens through experimental removal of these enemies using canopy exclosures, insecticide, and fungicide, respectively. We also measured morphological fruit traits hypothesized to mediate interactions of plants with natural enemies of seeds. Vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi differentially affected predispersal seed mortality depending on the plant species. Fruit morphology explained some variation among species; species with larger fruit and less physical protection surrounding seeds exhibited greater negative effects of fungi on fruit development and germination and experienced reduced seed survival integrated over fruit development and germination in response to vertebrates. Within species, variation in seed size also contributed to variation in natural enemy effects on seed viability. Further, seedling growth was higher for seeds that developed in vertebrate exclosures for Anacardium excelsum and under the fungicide treatment for Castilla elastica, suggesting that predispersal effects of natural enemies may carry through to the seedling stage. This is the first experimental test of the relative effects of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on seed survival in the canopy. This study motivates further investigation to determine the generality of our results for plant communities. If there is strong variation in natural enemy attack

  8. Exploring nitrogen remobilization for seed filling using natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Chardon, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen Arabidopsis accessions grown at low (LOW N) and high (HIGH N) nitrate supplies were labelled using 15N to trace nitrogen remobilization to the seeds. Effects of genotype and nutrition were examined. Nitrate availability affected biomass and yield, and highly modified the nitrogen concentration in the dry remains. Surprisingly, variations of one-seed dry weight (DW1S) and harvest index (HI) were poorly affected by nutrition. Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was highly correlated with HI and showed that nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was increased at LOW N. Nitrogen remobilization efficiency (NRE), as 15N partitioning in seeds (15NHI), was also higher at LOW N. The relative specific abundance (RSA) in seeds and whole plants indicated that the 14NO3 absorbed post-labelling was mainly allocated to the seeds (SEEDS) at LOW N, but to the dry remains (DR) at HIGH N. Nitrogen concentration (N%) in the DR was then 4-fold higher at HIGH N compared with LOW N, whilst N% in seeds was poorly modified. Although NHI and 15NHI were highly correlated to HI, significant variations in NUE and NRE were identified using normalization to HI. New insights provided in this report are helpful for the comprehension of NUE and NRE concepts in Arabidopsis as well as in crops and especially in Brassica napus. PMID:21273332

  9. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr period, we followed a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru to determine how their role as seed dispersers in a 9-yr-old secondary-growth forest varied across seasons. These tamarins dispersed small to large seeds of 166 tree species, 63 of which were into a degraded area. Tamarins’ efficiency in dispersing seeds from primary to secondary forest varied across seasons. During the late wet season, high dietary diversity and long forays in secondary forest allowed them to disperse large seeds involved in later stages of regeneration. This occurred precisely when tamarins spent a more equal amount of time eating a high diversity of fruit species in primary forest and pioneer species in secondary forest. We hypothesized that well-balanced fruit availability induced the movement of seed dispersers between these 2 habitats. The noteworthy number of large-seeded plant species dispersed by such small primates suggests that tamarins play an important, but previously neglected, role in the regeneration and maintenance of forest structure. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9413-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20651905

  10. Tree-to-tree variation in seed size and its consequences for seed dispersal versus predation by rodents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Ives, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    Individual variation in seed size and seed production is high in many plant species. How does this variation affect seed-dispersing animals and, in turn, the fitness of individual plants? In this study, we first surveyed intraspecific variation in seed mass and production in a population of a Chinese white pine, Pinus armandii. For 134 target trees investigated in 2012, there was very high variation in seed size, with mean seed mass varying among trees almost tenfold, from 0.038 to 0.361 g. Furthermore, 30 of the 134 trees produced seeds 2 years later, and for these individuals there was a correlation in seed mass of 0.59 between years, implying consistent differences among individuals. For a subset of 67 trees, we monitored the foraging preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents on a total of 15,301 seeds: 8380 were ignored, 3184 were eaten in situ, 2651 were eaten after being cached, and 395 were successfully dispersed (cached and left intact). At the scale of individual seeds, seed mass affected almost every decision that rodents made to eat, remove, and cache individual seeds. At the level of individual trees, larger seeds had increased probabilities of both predation and successful dispersal: the effects of mean seed size on costs (predation) and benefits (caching) balanced out. Thus, despite seed size affecting rodent decisions, variation among trees in dispersal success associated with mean seed size was small once seeds were harvested. This might explain, at least in part, the maintenance of high variation in mean seed mass among tree individuals.

  11. Variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe].

    PubMed

    Sivacioglu, A; Ayan, S

    2010-01-01

    Cone and seed characteristics of Anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. The orchard, originated from Kastamonu-Karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at Hanönü-Günlüburun, northern Turkey and includes 30 clones. The results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. The clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas this value varied in range of 11.16 to 24.06 g for cone dry weight. Cone length varied from 55.19 to 74.43 mm, while cone width varied in range of 26.66 to 36 57 mm. The range of scale number and fertile scale number varied from 80.02 to 110.64 and 38.03 to 56.20, respectively. Among the clones, the seed and filled seed number were 6.70-24.97 and 5.79-21.12, respectively. The 1000 seed weight varied in range of 20.36 to 29.73 g. The respective values of average seed length and width were 6.29 mm and 3.57 mm, while wing length and width were 19.59 mm and 7.21 mm. The average seed efficiency was 13.5%. Coefficients of variation among grafts (CV(G)) were mostly bigger than among clones (CV(c)), indicating high variation within the population. Year to year correlation coefficients for seed and cone characteristics were varied from moderate (0.58) to strong (0.83). The respective broad sense heritability values of clone mean basis (H2) for cone dry weight, cone width, 1000 seed weight were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.76. The seed efficiency had a H2 value of 0.43.

  12. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  13. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  14. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent-offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h(2)=0.55-0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW.

  15. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent–offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h2=0.55–0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW. PMID:25160045

  16. Seed weight - seedling size correlation in coastal Douglas-fir: genetic and environmental components.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen; Robert K. Campbell

    1992-01-01

    The effect of seed weight on nursery seedling height was analyzed in two experiments. In expt. 1, 16 seeds per family from 111 families were individually weighed and sown in autumn. In expt. 2, a second group of 16 seeds were individually weighed and stratified and sown in spring. Four-tree noncontiguous family plots were randomly assigned to two densities in two...

  17. Compatibility of breeding for increased wood production and longterm sustainability: the genetic variation of seed orchard seed and associated risks.

    Treesearch

    R Johnson; S. Lipow

    2002-01-01

    Because breeding imposes strong artificial selection for a narrow suite of economically important traits, genetic variation is reduced in seedlings derived from operational seed orchards. Both quantitative genetics theory and studies of allozyme variation show that seed orchards contain most of the genetic diversity found in natural populations, although low-frequency...

  18. Geographic variations in seed dispersal by ants: are plant and seed traits decisive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulay, R.; Coll-Toledano, J.; Manzaneda, A. J.; Cerdá, X.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of local ant species on the dispersal success of a myrmecochorous plant, Helleborus foetidus, was analyzed in two populations of the Iberian Peninsula (Caurel and Cazorla, respectively). The contribution of the various local ant species to dispersal was very unequal. While 5 and 19 ant taxa visited the plants of Caurel and Cazorla, respectively, most removal activity (67 and 80%) was performed by two species only (Formica lugubris and Camponotus cruentatus, respectively). Visits by dispersers were also unequally distributed between neighboring plants. While some plants were always visited during the period of seed release, others were never visited. A regression model indicated that this pattern might be explained by two plant traits: ants preferred to visit plants that released more seeds and whose elaiosomes were richer in oleic acid. Although it has long been known that this compound triggers removal by ants, it is the first demonstration that quantitative variations in elaiosome traits contribute to variation in dispersal success. Finally, other variables being equal, morphological traits (seed size, elaiosome size, and elaiosome/seed size ratio) did not affect ant behavior. Although myrmecochory has long been considered a diffuse interaction, our results support the idea that, at local scale, a limited number of ant species may be decisive to its evolution.

  19. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts protein, starch, and seed weight in intact seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Larbi, Bismark; Settles, A Mark

    2010-01-27

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to determine individual seed composition in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.). NIR spectra and analytical measurements of seed weight, protein, and starch were collected from 267 individual bean seeds representing 91 diverse genotypes. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed with 61 bean accessions randomly assigned to a calibration data set and 30 accessions assigned to an external validation set. Protein gave the most accurate PLS regression, with the external validation set having a standard error of prediction (SEP) = 1.6%. PLS regressions for seed weight and starch had sufficient accuracy for seed sorting applications, with SEP = 41.2 mg and 4.9%, respectively. Seed color had a clear effect on the NIR spectra, with black beans having a distinct spectral type. Seed coat color did not impact the accuracy of PLS predictions. This research demonstrates that NIR is a promising technique for simultaneous sorting of multiple seed traits in single bean seeds with no sample preparation.

  20. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  1. Seed predation and climate impacts on reproductive variation in temperate forests of the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Clark, James S

    2016-04-01

    Climatic effects on tree recruitment will be determined by the interactive effects of fecundity and seed predation. Evaluating how insect and vertebrate seed predators mediate tree reproductive responses to climate depends on long-term studies of seed production, development, and predation. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of interannual climate variation on seed abortion rates, (2) assess the impact of seed density on predation rates, and (3) examine the degree to which density-dependent seed predation would amplify or dampen interannual variation in fecundity associated with seed abortion. We used a 19-year study of seed abortion and pre-dispersal predation rates by insects and vertebrates (birds and rodents) for five temperate tree species across forest plots from the North Carolina Piedmont to the Southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern USA. We found that rates of seed abortion and predation increased reproductive variation for oaks (Quercus species). Probability of seed abortion was greatest during years with cool, dry springs. Responses of seed predation on Quercus species to current year's seed density varied by species, but exhibited positive density-dependence to previous year's seed density consistent with numerical responses of seed predators. Seed abortion and predation rates for two drupe species responded little to variation in climate or seed density, respectively. Given that predation increased interannual variation in seed availability and the negative density-dependence to previous year's seed density, our results indicate that consistent numerical responses of oak seed predators may amplify interannual variation due to climate-mediated processes like seed abortion.

  2. Wide genetic variation in phenolic compound content of seed coats among black soybean cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Phommalath, Siviengkhek; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Saito, Hiroki; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Nakazaki, Tetsuya; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Black soybeans have been used as a food source and also in traditional medicine because their seed coats contain natural phenolic compounds such as proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin. The objective of this research is to reveal the genetic variation in the phenolic compound contents (PCCs) of seed coats in 227 black soybean cultivars, most of which were Japanese landraces and cultivars. Total phenolics were extracted from seed coats using an acidic acetone reagent and the proanthocyanidin content, monomeric anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, total phenolics content, and radical scavenging activity were measured. The cultivars showed wide genetic variation in PCCs. Each of the contents was highly correlated with one another, and was closely associated with radical scavenging activity. PCCs were also moderately associated by flowering date but not associated by seed weight. Cultivars with purple flowers had a tendency to produce higher PCCs compared with cultivars with white flowers, suggesting that the W1 locus for flower color can affect phenolic compound composition and content. Our results suggest that developing black soybean cultivars with high functional phenolic compounds activity is feasible. PMID:25914597

  3. Variation of seed heteromorphism in Chenopodium album and the effect of salinity stress on the descendants

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shixiang; Lan, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Chenopodium album is well-known as a serious weed and is a salt-tolerant species inhabiting semi-arid and light-saline environments in Xinjiang, China. It produces large amounts of heteromorphic (black and brown) seeds. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the germination characteristics of heteromorphic seeds, the diversity of plant growth and seed proliferation pattern of the resulting plants, and the correlation between NaCl stress and variation of seed heteromorphism. Methods The phenotypic characters of heteromorphic seeds, e.g. seed morphology, seed mass and total seed protein were determined. The effects of dry storage at room temperature on dormancy behaviour, the germination response of seeds to salinity stress, and the effect of salinity on growth and seed proliferation with plants derived from different seed types were investigated. Key Results Black and brown seeds differed in seed morphology, mass, total seed protein, dormancy behaviour and salinity tolerance. Brown seeds were large, non-dormant and more salt tolerant, and could germinate rapidly to a high percentage in a wider range of environments; black seeds were salt-sensitive, and a large proportion of seeds were dormant. These characteristics varied between two populations. There was little difference in growth characteristics and seed output of plants produced from the two seed morphs except when plants were subjected to high salinity stress. Plants that suffered higher salinity stress produced more brown (salt-tolerant) seeds. Conclusions The two seed morphs of C. album exhibited distinct diversity in germination characteristics. There was a significant difference in plant development and seed proliferation pattern from the two types of seeds only when the parent plants were treated with high salinity. In addition, seed heteromorphism of C. album varied between the two populations, and such variation may be attributed, at least in part, to the salinity

  4. Variation of seed heteromorphism in Chenopodium album and the effect of salinity stress on the descendants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shixiang; Lan, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2010-06-01

    Chenopodium album is well-known as a serious weed and is a salt-tolerant species inhabiting semi-arid and light-saline environments in Xinjiang, China. It produces large amounts of heteromorphic (black and brown) seeds. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the germination characteristics of heteromorphic seeds, the diversity of plant growth and seed proliferation pattern of the resulting plants, and the correlation between NaCl stress and variation of seed heteromorphism. The phenotypic characters of heteromorphic seeds, e.g. seed morphology, seed mass and total seed protein were determined. The effects of dry storage at room temperature on dormancy behaviour, the germination response of seeds to salinity stress, and the effect of salinity on growth and seed proliferation with plants derived from different seed types were investigated. Black and brown seeds differed in seed morphology, mass, total seed protein, dormancy behaviour and salinity tolerance. Brown seeds were large, non-dormant and more salt tolerant, and could germinate rapidly to a high percentage in a wider range of environments; black seeds were salt-sensitive, and a large proportion of seeds were dormant. These characteristics varied between two populations. There was little difference in growth characteristics and seed output of plants produced from the two seed morphs except when plants were subjected to high salinity stress. Plants that suffered higher salinity stress produced more brown (salt-tolerant) seeds. The two seed morphs of C. album exhibited distinct diversity in germination characteristics. There was a significant difference in plant development and seed proliferation pattern from the two types of seeds only when the parent plants were treated with high salinity. In addition, seed heteromorphism of C. album varied between the two populations, and such variation may be attributed, at least in part, to the salinity.

  5. Oil content of Arabidopsis seeds: the influence of seed anatomy, light and plant-to-plant variation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2006-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is frequently used as a model for the study of oilseed biology and metabolism. However, the very small seeds of Arabidopsis can complicate analysis of their oil content and influence the application of results to larger-seeded plants. Here, we describe how seed anatomy, light, and plant-to-plant variation influence the content and measurement of oil in Arabidopsis seeds. The anatomy of Arabidopsis and Brassica napus seeds were compared and the distribution of mass, oil and the fatty acid composition of different seed parts were determined. In Brassica, 90% of the seed oil resides in the cotyledons that contribute 74% of seed mass. By contrast, the values for Arabidopsis are 60% and 45%, respectively, with a higher fraction of the oil deposited in the radicle, hypocotyl, endosperm and seed coat. Growth of Arabidopsis plants with 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light resulted in a two-fold higher seed yield, a 40% increase in mass per seed and a 60% increase in oil per seed compared to growth at 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Factors that influence the analysis of oil content were evaluated. Intact-seed transmethylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis provided reproducible analysis of Arabidopsis seed oil. However, plant-to-plant variation in oil content is large and we analyzed how this influences the ability to detect statistically valid changes in oil between different genotypes. These observations establish a reference data set on the fatty acid composition and distribution of mass and oil between tissues of Arabidopsis seeds that should help to predict the applicability of results obtained with Arabidopsis to other oilseeds.

  6. Variations of archived static-weight data and WIM

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.J.; Gillmann, R.; Kent, P.M.

    1998-12-01

    Using seven-card archived, static-weight and weigh-in-motion (WIM), truck data received by FHWA for 1966--1992, the authors examine the fluctuations of four fiducial weight measures reported at weight sites in the 50 states. The reduced 172 MB Class 9 (332000) database was prepared and ordered from 2 CD-ROMS with duplicate records removed. Front-axle weight and gross-vehicle weight (GVW) are combined conceptually by determining the front axle weight in four-quartile GVW categories. The four categories of front axle weight from the four GVW categories are combined in four ways. Three linear combinations are with fixed-coefficient fiducials and one is that optimal linear combination producing the smallest standard deviation to mean value ratio. The best combination gives coefficients of variation of 2--3% for samples of 100 trucks, below the expected accuracy of single-event WIM measurements. Time tracking of data shows some high-variation sites have seasonal variations, or linear variations over the time-ordered samples. Modeling of these effects is very site specific but provides a way to reduce high variations. Some automatic calibration schemes would erroneously remove such seasonal or linear variations were they static effects.

  7. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical seed defenses.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adam S; Fu, Xianhui; Schutte, Brian J; Berhow, Mark A; Dalling, James W

    2016-10-01

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study. Seeds of 11 annual weed species were buried in Savoy, IL, from 2007 through 2012. Seedling recruitment was measured weekly and seed viability measured annually. Seed physiological (dormancy), chemical (phenolic compound diversity and concentration; invertebrate toxicity), and physical traits (seed coat mass, thickness, and rupture resistance) were measured.Seed half-life in the soil (t0.5) showed strong interspecific variation (F10,30 = 15, p < .0001), ranging from 0.25 years (Bassia scoparia) to 2.22 years (Abutilon theophrasti). Modeling covariances among seed traits and seedbank persistence quantified support for two putative defense syndromes (physiological-chemical and physical-chemical) and highlighted the central role of seed dormancy in controlling seed persistence.A quantitative comparison between our results and other published work indicated that weed seed dormancy and seedbank persistence are linked across diverse environments and agroecosystems. Moreover, among seedbank-forming early successional plant species, relative investment in chemical and physical seed defense varies with seedbank persistence. Synthesis and applications. Strong covariance among weed seed traits and persistence in the soil seedbank indicates potential for seedbank management practices tailored to specific weed species. In particular, species with high t0.5 values tend to invest less in chemical defenses

  8. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1994-07-01

    The report includes an adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon which was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed sources and by classification analysis to seed zone and 300-meter elevation band within zone. A provisional transfer risk equation and tentative new seed zones were delineated to guide seed transfer in artificial regeneration.

  9. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for lodgepole pine in Central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    Pine cones were collected from 272 trees at 189 locations uniformly distributed over the east slopes of the Oregon Cascade Range and Warner Mountains. Variation in seed and seedling traits was related to (1) seed source latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect in multiple regression analyses; and (2) seed zone and elevation band in classification analyses. Provisional seed transfer guidelines are presented. These include a regression equation for guiding seed transfer and estimating transfer risk, and a new outline of fixed seed zones.

  10. Relating Pine Seed Coat Characteristics to Speed of Germination, Geographic Variation, and Seedling Development

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    1998-01-01

    The influence of seed size and weight on early seedling growth of tree species has been studied for over 50 years. Righter (1945) found that, in the genus Pinus, the positive correlation between seed weight and seedling height was temporary and disappeared after time in the field. A more recent study with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  11. Patterns of Cross-Continental Variation in Tree Seed Mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G.; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W.; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  12. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  13. Variation in semi-arid soil seed banks

    SciTech Connect

    Boudell-Flanary, J.A.; Link, S.O. |

    1995-09-01

    Seeds recovered from soils in the semi-arid shrub-steppe were compared to test for differences between the seed banks found beneath and cryptogamic crust and the crevices in the crust. Seed quantity found within the crevices was 56% higher than that under the cryptogamic crust. Pseudoroegneria spicata, Poa sandbergii, Bromus tectorum, and Artemisia tridentata are the common species found at the research site. Seeds of Bromus tectorum, Erigeron spp., and Poa spp. were found in the crevices of the crust. Seeds of Artemisia tridentata were not found in the seed banks of either the cryptogamic crust or the crevices in the crust. The higher amount of seeds found in the crevices of the cryptogamic crust suggests that the crevices play a significant role in determining the distributional pattern of shrub-steppe vegetation.

  14. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  15. Relationships of red pine seed source, seed weight, seedling weight, and height growth in Kane test plantation

    Treesearch

    A. F. Hough

    1952-01-01

    In 1928 the Lake States Forest Experiment Station of the U. S. Forest Service began studies of various races or strains of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), to find out how well red pine is adapted to climatic regions distant from its natural seed sources.

  16. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  17. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Evolutionary and ecological consequences of multiscale variation in pollen receipt for seed production.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability can select for traits that reduce the negative impacts of this variability on mean fitness. Such selection may be particularly potent for seed production in flowering plants, as they often experience variation in pollen receipt among individuals and among flowers within individuals. Using analytically tractable models, we examine the optimal allocations for producing ovules, attracting pollen, and maturing seeds in deterministic and stochastic pollen environments. In deterministic environments, the optimal strategy attracts sufficient pollen to fertilize every ovule and mature every zygote into a seed. Stochastic environments select for allocations proportional to the risk of seed production being limited by zygotes or seed maturation. When producing an ovule is cheap and maturing a seed is expensive, among-plant variation selects for attracting more pollen at the expense of producing fewer ovules and having fewer resources for seed maturation. Despite this increased allocation, such populations are likely to be pollen limited. In contrast, within-plant variation generally selects for an overproduction of ovules and, to a lesser extent, pollen attraction. Such populations are likely to be resource limited and exhibit low seed-to-ovule ratios. These results highlight the importance of multiscale variation in the evolution and ecology of resource allocations.

  19. Seed-Specific Over-Expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA Encoding a Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Enhances Seed Oil Content and Seed Weight1

    PubMed Central

    Jako, Colette; Kumar, Arvind; Wei, Yangdou; Zou, Jitao; Barton, Dennis L.; Giblin, E. Michael; Covello, Patrick S.; Taylor, David C.

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia) diacylglycerol acyltransferase cDNA (Zou et al., 1999) and found that in Arabidopsis mutant line AS11, an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation at a locus on chromosome II designated as Tag1 consists of a 147-bp insertion in the DNA, which results in a repeat of the 81-bp exon 2 in the Tag1 cDNA. This insertion mutation is correlated with an altered seed fatty acid composition, reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) activity, reduced seed triacylglycerol content, and delayed seed development in the AS11 mutant. The effect of the insertion mutation on microsomal acyl-coenzyme A-dependent DGAT is examined with respect to DGAT activity and its substrate specificity in the AS11 mutant relative to wild type. We demonstrate that transformation of mutant AS11 with a single copy of the wild-type Tag1 DGAT cDNA can complement the fatty acid and reduced oil phenotype of mutant AS11. More importantly, we show for the first time that seed-specific over-expression of the DGAT cDNA in wild-type Arabidopsis enhances oil deposition and average seed weight, which are correlated with DGAT transcript levels. The DGAT activity in developing seed of transgenic lines was enhanced by 10% to 70%. Thus, the current study confirms the important role of DGAT in regulating the quantity of seed triacylglycerols and the sink size in developing seeds. PMID:11402213

  20. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  1. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and...

  2. Influence of antenatal care, placental weight and genetic variation on low birth weight, Makassar Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Amiruddin, Ridwan; Yusuf, Irawan

    2008-10-01

    Inadequate antenatal care and nutrition, gene variation (CYP2A6), and poor placental growth are associated with low birthweight (LBW). The objective for this study was to analyze risk factors for LBW, including antenatal care, gene variation CYP2A6 and placental weight. A case control of infants with a birthweight less than 2500 gm, compared to a control group of infants with a birthweight > 2500 gm. There were 57 cases and a similar number of controls. In the analysis odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each risk factor. Low placental weight was strongly related to low birth weight (OR 43.9 CI 14.7-129.8). Mothers who had inadequate antenatal care had increased risk of LBW (OR 2.7, 95% CI. 1.2-6.1). The gene variation CYP2A6 was found to be risk factor for a lighter placenta weight (OR 9.5 95% CI. 4.0-22.3). Programs to improve antenatal care and monitoring for the gene variation CYP2A6 would reduce the incidence of LBW.

  3. The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Seed Size and Seed Number and Their Trade-Off Using Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gnan, Sebastian; Priest, Anne; Kover, Paula X.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring number and size are key traits determining an individual’s fitness and a crop’s yield. Yet, extensive natural variation within species is observed for these traits. Such variation is typically explained by trade-offs between fecundity and quality, for which an optimal solution is environmentally dependent. Understanding the genetic basis of seed size and number, as well as any possible genetic constraints preventing the maximization of both, is crucial from both an evolutionary and applied perspective. We investigated the genetic basis of natural variation in seed size and number using a set of Arabidopsis thaliana multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) lines. We also tested whether life history affects seed size, number, and their trade-off. We found that both seed size and seed number are affected by a large number of mostly nonoverlapping QTL, suggesting that seed size and seed number can evolve independently. The allele that increases seed size at most identified QTL is from the same natural accession, indicating past occurrence of directional selection for seed size. Although a significant trade-off between seed size and number is observed, its expression depends on life-history characteristics, and generally explains little variance. We conclude that the trade-off between seed size and number might have a minor role in explaining the maintenance of variation in seed size and number, and that seed size could be a valid target for selection. PMID:25313128

  4. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of seed weight and seed quality in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium(®) SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using 'pseudomolecules' representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their hypothetical order and to perform association mapping of seed weight and seed quality. As a result, two significant associations on A8 and C3 of Brassica napus were detected for erucic acid content, and the peak SNPs were found to be only 233 and 128 kb away from the key genes BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1. BnaA.FAE1 was also identified to be significantly associated with the oil content. Orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana HAG1 were identified close to four clusters of SNPs associated with glucosinolate content on A9, C2, C7 and C9. For seed weight, we detected two association signals on A7 and A9, which were consistent with previous studies of quantitative trait loci mapping. The results indicate that our association mapping approach is suitable for fine mapping of the complex traits in rapeseed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Dissects the Genetic Architecture of Seed Weight and Seed Quality in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L.; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using ‘pseudomolecules’ representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their hypothetical order and to perform association mapping of seed weight and seed quality. As a result, two significant associations on A8 and C3 of Brassica napus were detected for erucic acid content, and the peak SNPs were found to be only 233 and 128 kb away from the key genes BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1. BnaA.FAE1 was also identified to be significantly associated with the oil content. Orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana HAG1 were identified close to four clusters of SNPs associated with glucosinolate content on A9, C2, C7 and C9. For seed weight, we detected two association signals on A7 and A9, which were consistent with previous studies of quantitative trait loci mapping. The results indicate that our association mapping approach is suitable for fine mapping of the complex traits in rapeseed. PMID:24510440

  6. Low molecular weight squash trypsin inhibitors from Sechium edule seeds.

    PubMed

    Laure, Hélen J; Faça, Vítor M; Izumi, Clarice; Padovan, Júlio C; Greene, Lewis J

    2006-02-01

    Nine chromatographic components containing trypsin inhibitor activity were isolated from Sechium edule seeds by acetone fractionation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC in an overall yield of 46% of activity and 0.05% of protein. The components obtained with highest yield of total activity and highest specific activity were sequenced by Edman degradation and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The inhibitors contained 31, 32 and 27 residues per molecule and their sequences were: SETI-IIa, EDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG; SETI-IIb, EEDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG and SETI-V, CPRILMKCKLDTDCFPTCTCRPSGFCG. SETI-IIa and SETI-IIb, which differed by an amino-terminal E in the IIb form, were not separable under the conditions employed. The sequences are consistent with consensus sequences obtained from 37 other inhibitors: CPriI1meCk_DSDCla_C_C_G_CG, where capital letters are invariant amino acid residues and lower case letters are the most preserved in this position. SETI-II and SETI-V form complexes with trypsin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and have dissociation constants of 5.4x10(-11)M and 1.1x10(-9)M, respectively.

  7. Suppression of extracellular invertase inhibitor gene expression improves seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofei; Su, Tao; Han, Mei; Wei, Lai; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xue, Yongguo; Wei, Hongbin; Du, Yejie; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) play multiple functions in plant growth. As well as depending on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, there is growing evidence that CWI and VI are also subject to post-translational control by small inhibitory proteins. Despite the significance of this, genes encoding inhibitors, their molecular and biochemical properties, and their potential roles in regulating seed production have not been well documented in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two invertase inhibitor isoforms, GmCIF1 and GmC/VIF2, were characterized to possess inhibitory activities in vitro via heterologous expression. Transcript analyses showed that they were predominantly expressed in developing seeds and in response to ABA. In accordance with this, surveys of primary targets showed subcellular localizations to the apoplast in tobacco epidermis after expressing YFP-fusion constructs. Investigations using RNAi transgenic plants demonstrated marked elevations of CWI activities and improvements in seed weight in conjunction with higher accumulations of hexoses, starch, and protein in mature seeds. Further co-expression analyses of GmCIF1 with several putative CWI genes corroborated the notion that GmCIF1 modulation of CWI that affects seed weight is mainly contingent on post-translational mechanisms. Overall, the results suggest that post-translational elevation of CWI by silencing of GmCIF1 expression orchestrates the process of seed maturation through fine-tuning sucrose metabolism and sink strength.

  8. Hierarchical levels of seed predation variation by introduced beetles on an endemic Mediterranean palm.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marta; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José M

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators can limit plant recruitment and thus profoundly impinge the dynamics of plant populations, especially when diverse seed predators (e.g., native and introduced) attack particular plant populations. Surprisingly, however, we know little concerning the potential hierarchy of spatial scales (e.g., region, population, patch) and coupled ecological correlates governing variation in the overall impact that native and introduced seed predators have on plant populations. We investigated several spatial scales and ecological correlates of pre-dispersal seed predation by invasive borer beetles in Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae), a charismatic endemic palm of the Mediteranean basin. To this end, we considered 13 palm populations (115 palms) within four geographical regions of the Iberian Peninsula. The observed interregional differences in percentages of seed predation by invasive beetles were not significant likely because of considerable variation among populations within regions. Among population variation in seed predation was largely related to level of human impact. In general, levels of seed predation were several folds higher in human-altered populations than in natural populations. Within populations, seed predation declined significantly with the increase in amount of persisting fruit pulp, which acted as a barrier against seed predators. Our results revealed that a native species (a palm) is affected by the introduction of related species because of the concurrent introduction of seed predators that feed on both the introduced and native palms. We also show how the impact of invasive seed predators on plants can vary across a hierarchy of levels ranging from variation among individuals within local populations to large scale regional divergences.

  9. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  10. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  11. Natural variation in an ABC transporter gene associated with seed size evolution in tomato species.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Cintia Hotta; Tanksley, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Seed size is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness in plants and is a trait that often undergoes tremendous changes during crop domestication. Seed size is most often quantitatively inherited, and it has been shown that Sw4.1 is one of the most significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the evolution of seed size in the genus Solanum-especially in species related to the cultivated tomato. Using a combination of genetic, developmental, molecular, and transgenic techniques, we have pinpointed the cause of the Sw4.1 QTL to a gene encoding an ABC transporter gene. This gene exerts its control on seed size, not through the maternal plant, but rather via gene expression in the developing zygote. Phenotypic effects of allelic variation at Sw4.1 are manifested early in seed development at stages corresponding to the rapid deposition of starch and lipids into the endospermic cells. Through synteny, we have identified the Arabidopsis Sw4.1 ortholog. Mutagenesis has revealed that this ortholog is associated with seed length variation and fatty acid deposition in seeds, raising the possibility that the ABC transporter may modulate seed size variation in other species. Transcription studies show that the ABC transporter gene is expressed not only in seeds, but also in other tissues (leaves and roots) and, thus, may perform functions in parts of the plants other than developing seeds. Cloning and characterization of the Sw4.1 QTL gives new insight into how plants change seed during evolution and may open future opportunities for modulating seed size in crop plants for human purposes.

  12. Over-expression of AGPase genes enhances seed weight and starch content in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Bei; Zhang, Juren

    2011-02-01

    Cereal crops accumulate starch in the seed endosperm as an energy reserve. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds. The AGPase in the maize endosperm is a heterotetramer of two small subunits, encoded by Brittle2 (Bt2) gene, and two large subunits, encoded by the Shrunken2 (Sh2) gene. The two genes (Bt2, Sh2) from maize were introduced into two elite maize inbred lines, solely and in tandem, and under the control of endosperm-specific promoters for over-expression. PCR, Southern blotting, and real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the transgenes were integrated into the genome of transgenic plants and were over-expressed in their progeny. The over-expression of either gene enhanced AGPase activity, seed weight and starch content compared with the WT, but the amounts were lower than plants with over-expression of both Bt2 and Sh2. Developing seeds from co-expression transgenic maize plants had higher cytoplasmic AGPase activity: the 100-grain weight increased 15% over the wild type (WT), and the starch content increased to over 74% compared with the WT of 65%. These results indicate that over-expression of the genes in transgenic maize plants could improve kernel traits. This report provides a feasible approach for increasing starch content and seed weight in maize.

  13. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean.

  14. Comparative quantitative trait loci for silique length and seed weight in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Wei, Dayong; Dong, Hongli; He, Yajun; Cui, Yixin; Mei, Jiaqin; Wan, Huafang; Li, Jiana; Snowdon, Rod; Friedt, Wolfgang; Li, Xiaorong; Qian, Wei

    2015-09-23

    Silique length (SL) and seed weight (SW) are important yield-associated traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SL and SW have been identified in B. napus, comparative analysis for those QTL is seldom performed. In the present study, 20 and 21 QTL for SL and SW were identified in doubled haploid (DH) and DH-derived reconstructed F2 populations in rapeseed, explaining 55.1-74.3% and 24.4-62.9% of the phenotypic variation across three years, respectively. Of which, 17 QTL with partially or completely overlapped confidence interval on chromosome A09, were homologous with two overlapped QTL on chromosome C08 by aligning QTL confidence intervals with the reference genomes of Brassica crops. By high density selective genotyping of DH lines with extreme phenotypes, using a Brassica single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the QTL on chromosome A09 was narrowed, and aligned into 1.14-Mb region from 30.84 to 31.98 Mb on chromosome R09 of B. rapa and 1.05-Mb region from 27.21 to 28.26 Mb on chromosome A09 of B. napus. The alignment of QTL with Brassica reference genomes revealed homologous QTL on A09 and C08 for SL. The narrowed QTL region provides clues for gene cloning and breeding cultivars by marker-assisted selection.

  15. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in the Ochoco and Malheur National Forests of central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen; John C. Weber

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits was evaluated for 280 families from 220 locations. Factor scores from three principal components were related by multiple regression to latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed source, and by classification analysis to seed zone and elevation band in seed zone. Location variance was significant...

  16. Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to flowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Javad Ghorbani; Saidi, Abbas; Karami, Ezzat; Kharkesh, Mehrab; Talebi, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Drought is the major constraint to chickpea productivity worldwide. Utilizing early flowering genotypes and larger seed size have been suggested as strategies for breeding in drought zones. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential markers linked to days-to-flowering, 100-seed weight, and plant height in a chickpea intraspecific F(2:3) population derived from the cross ILC3279 × ICCV2. A closely linked marker (TA117) on linkage group LG3 was identified for the days-to-flowering trait, explaining 33% of the variation. In relation to plant height, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) was located in LG3, close to the Ts5 marker, that explained 29% of phenotypic variation. A QTL for 100-seed weight located in LG4, close to TA176, explained 51% of variation. The identification of a locus linked both to high 100-seed weight and days-to-flowering may account for the correlation observed between these traits in this and other breeding attempts.

  17. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    PubMed

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine.

  18. Characterization and quantitation of low and high molecular weight phenolic compounds in apple seeds.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-02-08

    The phenolic constituents of seeds of 12 different apple cultivars were fractionated by sequential extraction with aqueous acetone (30:70, v/v) and ethyl acetate after hexane extraction of the lipids. Low molecular weight phenolic compounds were individually quantitated by RP-HPLC-DAD. The contents of extractable and nonextractable procyanidins were determined by applying RP-HPLC following thiolysis and n-butanol/HCl hydrolysis, respectively. As expected, the results revealed marked differences of the ethyl acetate extracts, aqueous acetone extracts, and insoluble residues with regard to contents and mean degrees of polymerization of procyanidins. Total phenolic contents in the defatted apple seed residues ranged between 18.4 and 99.8 mg/g. Phloridzin was the most abundant phenolic compound, representing 79-92% of monomeric polyphenols. Yields of phenolic compounds significantly differed among the cultivars under study, with seeds of cider apples generally being richer in phloridzin and catechins than seeds of dessert apple cultivars. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of phenolic compounds in apple seeds comprising extractable and nonextractable procyanidins. Furthermore, the present work points out a strategy for the sustainable and complete exploitation of apple seeds as valuable agro-industrial byproducts, in particular as a rich source of phloridzin and antioxidant flavanols.

  19. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  20. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  1. Seed yield, development, and variation in diverse poa pratensis accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Post harvest residue removal is critical for continued high seed production of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Previous work showed some accessions have little or no yield reduction with mechanical residue removal compared with the controversial practice of open field burning. Using 10 of t...

  2. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  3. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  4. Geographic consistency and variation in conflicting selection generated by pollinators and seed predators.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Guo; Armbruster, W Scott; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Floral traits that attract pollinators may also attract seed predators, which, in turn, may generate conflicting natural selection on such traits. Although such selection trade-offs are expected to vary geographically, few studies have investigated selection mediated by pollinators and seed predators across a geographic mosaic of environments and floral variation. Floral traits were investigated in 14 populations of the bumble-bee-pollinated herb, Pedicularis rex, in which tubular flowers are subtended by cupular bracts holding rain water. To study potentially conflicting selection on floral traits generated by pollinators and florivores, stigmatic pollen loads, initial seed set, pre-dispersal seed predation and final viable seed production were measured in 12-14 populations in the field. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) analyses indicated that the pollen load on stigmas was positively related to the exsertion of the corolla beyond the cupular bracts and size of the lower corolla lip, but so too was the rate of seed predation, creating conflicting selection on both floral traits. A geographic mosaic of selection mediated by seed predators, but not pollinators, was indicated by significant variation in levels of seed predation and the inclusion of two-, three- and four-way interaction terms between population and seed predation in the best model [lowest corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc)] explaining final seed production. These results indicate opposing selection in operation: pollinators generated selection for greater floral exsertion beyond the bracts, but seed predators generated selection for reduced exsertion above the protective pools of water, although the strength of the latter varied across populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Geographic consistency and variation in conflicting selection generated by pollinators and seed predators

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Guo; Armbruster, W. Scott; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Floral traits that attract pollinators may also attract seed predators, which, in turn, may generate conflicting natural selection on such traits. Although such selection trade-offs are expected to vary geographically, few studies have investigated selection mediated by pollinators and seed predators across a geographic mosaic of environments and floral variation. Methods Floral traits were investigated in 14 populations of the bumble-bee-pollinated herb, Pedicularis rex, in which tubular flowers are subtended by cupular bracts holding rain water. To study potentially conflicting selection on floral traits generated by pollinators and florivores, stigmatic pollen loads, initial seed set, pre-dispersal seed predation and final viable seed production were measured in 12–14 populations in the field. Key Results Generalized Linear Model (GLM) analyses indicated that the pollen load on stigmas was positively related to the exsertion of the corolla beyond the cupular bracts and size of the lower corolla lip, but so too was the rate of seed predation, creating conflicting selection on both floral traits. A geographic mosaic of selection mediated by seed predators, but not pollinators, was indicated by significant variation in levels of seed predation and the inclusion of two-, three- and four-way interaction terms between population and seed predation in the best model [lowest corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc)] explaining final seed production. Conclusions These results indicate opposing selection in operation: pollinators generated selection for greater floral exsertion beyond the bracts, but seed predators generated selection for reduced exsertion above the protective pools of water, although the strength of the latter varied across populations. PMID:27325896

  6. Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45–864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364

  7. [Variation of muscle mass and weight in critical patient].

    PubMed

    Valls-Matarín, J; del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Grané-Mascarell, N; Quintana, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantify the muscle mass and body weight variation in critically ill patients and to identify associated factors. A descriptive follow-up study. Data for demographic variables, body weight, fluid balance, daily kilocalories, the amount of sedation and muscle relaxants received and motor physiotherapy applied were collected. Three consecutive measurements were performed in the brachial biceps and quadriceps rectus by using ultrasound, upon admission and every 5 days until discharge. 68 patients were included. Average age was of 73.5 [57-78,5] years. The median length of stay was 9.5 [5.5 -15] days. The median 16 (SD=5.7) daily kilocalories per kg/weight, 91.2% received sedation, 44.1% received muscle relaxants and 20% received physiotherapy. The patients presented a muscle wasting of 4.9 (SD=3.9)mm, p <.001 in the brachial biceps and 5.6 (SD=4.8)mm, p <.001 in the quadriceps rectus. Regression analysis selected the length of stay and the muscle relaxants are the most influential variables in the brachial biceps muscle wasting (R2=0.4), and length of stay as the most influential in the quadriceps rectus muscle wasting (R2=0.3). Patient's mean body weight on admission was of 81.1 (SD=15)kg and 81.2 (SD=14.2)kg on discharge, p=.95. The critically ill patient presents a significant muscle waste related with the length of stay and the treatment received with muscle relaxants. Patients are being discharged with a similar body weight to which they were admitted but with a significant reduction of muscle mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Camilla B; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle; McGrath, John; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-06-01

    Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine exposure during pregnancy. The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude and phase of the yearly cycles to change. There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May - June) and became the highest from 1964 to 1989. The amplitude of the fall peak started at 25.5 (95%CI 24.6; 25.9) grams and gradually disappeared. The amplitude of the early summer peak gradually arose from nothing to a peak of 18.6 (95%CI 17.7; 19.6) grams in the mid 1980s where it started to decrease again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s, an additional early summer peak emerged and became the highest from 1964 and onwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R. K.; Sharma, Tilak R.; Abdin, M. Z.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs. PMID:26436554

  10. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R K; Sharma, Tilak R; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  11. New NIRS calibrations for fiber fractions reveal broad genetic variation in Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2012-03-07

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the estimation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) in intact seeds of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). A set of 338 diverse winter oilseed rape genotypes showing broad variation for seed color was used as a basis for the new calibrations. Different calibrations were generated for 10 or 1 mL seed volumes, respectively. In both seed volumes good coefficients of determination for external validation (R(2)) of the calibrations were obtained for ADL, the major antinutritional fiber fraction in oilseed rape meal, and adequate calibrations for NDF and ADF. Evaluation of diverse B. napus germplasm with the new calibrations revealed a surprisingly broad variation in contents of ADL in dark-seeded oilseed rape. The ability to use NIRS for efficient selection of low-fiber genotypes, irrespective of seed color, represents an important breakthrough in breeding for improved nutritional quality of seed extraction meals from oilseed rape.

  12. Temporal patterns of genetic variation across a 9-year-old aerial seed bank of the shrub Banksia hookeriana (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2005-11-01

    The pattern of accumulation of genetic variation over time in seed banks is poorly understood. We examined the genetic structure of the aerial seed bank of Banksia hookeriana within a single 15-year-old population in fire-prone southwestern Australia, and compared genetic variation between adults and each year of a 9-year-old seed bank using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. hookeriana is well suited to the study of seed bank dynamics due to the canopy storage of its seeds, and because each annual crop can be identified. A total of 304 seeds from nine crop years and five maternal plants were genotyped, along with 113 plants from the adult population. Genetic variation, as assessed by the proportion of polymorphic markers (P(p)) and Shannon's index (I), increased slightly within the seed bank over time, while gene diversity (H(j)), did not change. P(p), I, and H(j) all indicated that genetic variation within the seed bank quickly approached the maximal level detected. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that less than 4% of variation could be accounted for by variation among seeds produced in different years, whereas there was greater differentiation among maternal plants (12.7%), and among individual seeds produced by different maternal plants (83.4%). With increasing population age, offspring generated each year were slightly more outbred, as indicated by an increase in the mean number of nonmaternal markers per offspring. There were no significant differences for H(j) or I between adults and the seed bank. Viability of seeds decreased with age, such that the viability of 9-year-old seeds was half that of 2-year-old seeds. These results suggest that variable fire frequencies have only limited potential to influence the amount of genetic variation stored within the seed bank of B. hookeriana.

  13. Fibrillar seeds alleviate amyloid-β cytotoxicity by omitting formation of higher-molecular-weight oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-hui; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xun; Yu, Ji-sheng; Zhao, De-sheng; Yu, Ye-ping; Luo, Jun-jie; Hu, Jia; Yu, Zhi-wu; Zhao, Yu-fen; Li, Yan-mei

    2013-09-27

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides can exist in distinct forms including monomers, oligomers and fibrils, consisting of increased numbers of monomeric units. Among these, Aβ oligomers are implicated as the primary toxic species as pointed by multiple lines of evidence. It has been suggested that toxicity could be rendered by the soluble higher-molecular-weight (high-n) Aβ oligomers. Yet, the most culpable form in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive. Moreover, the potential interaction among the insoluble fibrils that have been excluded from the responsible aggregates in AD development, Aβ monomers and high-n oligomers is undetermined. Here, we report that insoluble Aβ fibrillar seeds can interact with Aβ monomers at the stoichiometry of 1:2 (namely, each Aβ molecule of seed can bind to two Aβ monomers at a time) facilitating the fibrillization by omitting the otherwise mandatory formation of the toxic high-n oligomers during the fibril maturation. As a result, the addition of exogenous Aβ fibrillar seeds is seen to rescue neuronal cells from Aβ cytotoxicity presumably exerted by high-n oligomers, suggesting an unexpected protective role of Aβ fibrillar seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (p< or =0.05) correlations were found between female and male strobili production (r = 0.76, 0.55). Female fertility variation (1.03, 1.07) was larger than male fertility variation (1.02, 1.03) in the orchards. The status numbers estimated based on the total fertility were very high (97 and 98% of census numbers). The large fertility variation could be balanced by different treatments such as mixing seed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  15. Neonatal birth weight variations between inland and littoral Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Rodin, Urelija; Matanić, Dubravka; Jovancevic, Milivoj

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neonatal birth weight (BW) differences between inland and littoral Croatia, to identify BW groups with most pronounced differences, and possible variations in the rate of BW > or = 4000 g between Sibenik area and the rest of littoral (counties with access to the Adriatic Sea) and inland Croatia. The study included data on 99.42% of 200,740 live births recorded in 37 Croatian maternity hospitals during the 2001-2005 period. Distribution of 500-g BW groups was analyzed irrespective of neonatal sex and gestational age. Differences were found between the inland and littoral parts of Croatia according to distribution of the BW groups of < 2500 g (5.4% vs. 4.4%), 2500-3999 g (84% vs. 80.2%) and > or = 4000 g (10.6% vs. 15.4%) (chi2 = 882; p < 0.001).The highest rate of BW > or = 4000 g was recorded in Sibenik-Knin County (5-year mean 18.32%) and was greater throughout the littoral as compared with inland Croatia (5-year mean 14.99% vs. 9.58%). A shift towards higher BWgroups recorded throughout littoral as compared with inland Croatia supports the hypothesis on variation in anthropologic characteristics in the respective populations to be pronounced as early as at birth. Study results confirmed fetal macrosomia not to be exclusively characteristic of Sibenik-Knin County, since the rate of neonatal BW > or =4000 g was significantly higher in the entire littoral as compared with inland Croatia.

  16. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells.

  17. Genetic variation and seed zones of Douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Robert K. Campbell; Albert I. Sugano

    1993-01-01

    Provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth...

  18. Variation in Time of Flowering and Seed Dispersal of Eastern Cottonwood In the Lower Mississippi Valley

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer

    1966-01-01

    Flowering of Populus deItoides Bartr. occurred from early March to early April; differences between trees within stands accounted for 98 percent of the significant variation in dates. High correlation (r = .91 to .96) between 1963 and 1964 dates of individual trees indicated that trees within stands flower in a predictable sequence. Seed dispersal...

  19. Assessment of the natural variation of low abundant metabolic proteins in soybean seeds using proteomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we investigated the distribution of the low abundant proteins that are involved in soybean seed development in four wild and twelve cultivated soybean genotypes. We found proteomic variation of these proteins within and...

  20. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes indicates that the best populations in term of germination capacity may also be the richest in protein content. The present study finds that seed weight is not a good indicator for quality seed selection, nor is it recommended to increase the degree of germinability. Our results suggest that the pine population in southern Morocco might have adapted to drought conditions as it is characterized by heavy seed weight and lower speed of protein content mobilization in megagametophyte compared to northern populations growing in temperate climate.

  1. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  2. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  3. Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants.

    PubMed

    Moeller, David A; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moe, Annika M; Geber, Monica A; Goodwillie, Carol; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G; Elle, Elizabeth; Johnston, Mark O; Kalisz, Susan; Ree, Richard H; Sargent, Risa D; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2017-03-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant-pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We found a weak decline in outcrossing rate towards higher latitudes and among some biomes, but no biogeographic patterns in the frequency of self-incompatibility. Incorporating life history and growth form into biogeographic analyses reduced or eliminated the importance of latitude and biome in predicting outcrossing or self-incompatibility. Our results suggest that biogeographic patterns in mating system are more likely a reflection of the frequency of life forms across latitudes rather than the strength of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  5. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  6. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  7. Geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, R Craig; Morse, Geoffrey E; Fox, Charles W

    2007-09-01

    Body size of many animals varies with latitude: body size is either larger at higher latitudes (Bergmann's rule) or smaller at higher latitudes (converse Bergmann's rule). However, the causes underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Also, studies rarely explore how sexual size dimorphism varies with latitude. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of the seed-feeding beetle Stator limbatus, collected from 95 locations along a 38 degrees range in latitude. We examine 14 variables to test whether clines in environmental factors are adequate to explain geographic patterns of body size. We found that body size and sexual size dimorphism of S. limbatus varied considerably with latitude; beetles were smaller but more dimorphic at lower latitudes. Body size was not correlated with a gradient in mean temperature, contrary to the commonly accepted hypothesis that clines are produced by latitudinal gradients in temperature. Instead, we found that three factors were adequate to explain the cline in body size: clinal variation in host plant seed size, moisture (humidity), and seasonality (variance in humidity, precipitation, and temperature). We also found that the cline in sexual size dimorphism was partially explainable by a gradient in moisture, though moisture alone was not sufficient to explain the cline. Other ecological or environmental variables must necessarily contribute to differences in selection on male versus female body size. The main implications of our study are that the sexes differ in the magnitude of clinal variation in body size, creating latitudinal variation in sexual size dimorphism, and that clines in body size of seed beetles are likely influenced by variation in host seed size, water availability, and seasonality.

  8. Life-history variation in a seed beetle: adult egg-laying vs. larval competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank J

    1991-01-01

    Populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus differ genetically in several traits that mediate intraspecific competition. This study examined competitive interactions between larvae from two strains that differed in their propensity to oviposit on occupied hosts. In a strain (S) where females avoided laying >1 egg/seed, larvae were highly competitive; if two larvae entered a small host simultaneously, only one adult emerged. In a strain (I) whose females were "sloppier" in their egg-laying decisions, more than half of the seeds bearing two larvae yielded two adults. If seeds contained one larva from each strain, only one adult emerged per seed, and 70% of these adults belonged to the more competitive S strain. A larva's probability of emergence could be increased if it entered the seed before its competitor. A two-day headstart was needed merely for I larvae to compete equally with S larvae. Competition also affected development time and adult weight, but its effect was highly strain- and sex-specific. Adult life-history traits also differed substantially between strains. Compared to I beetles, S beetles exhibited decreased longevity, lower fecundity, a truncated period of oviposition, and larger egg and body size. Fecundity was linearly related to body size in the I strain, but was largely independent of size in the S strain. When faced with a shortage of hosts, S females (whose progeny are highly competitive) "withheld" eggs and died without depositing 40% of their lifetime supply. In contrast, the fecundity of I females was independent of seed availability. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that both highly uniform egg-laying and strong interference among larvae may be a consequence of chronic association with a relatively small host. Results from the larval competition experiments were used as parameter estimates for a simple, game-theoretic model that postulates interference vs. exploitative strategies. Fitness comparisons suggest that a

  9. Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mark; Gallagher, Tommy; Vintro, Luis Leon; Osborne, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most research on the genetics of invasive plant species has focused on analyzing spatial differences among existing populations. Using a long-established Gunnera tinctoria population from Ireland, we evaluated the potential of using plants derived from seeds associated with different soil layers to track genetic variation through time. This species and site were chosen because (1) G. tinctoria produces a large and persistent seed bank; (2) it has been present in this locality, Sraheens, for ∼90 years; (3) the soil is largely undisturbed; and (4) the soil's age can be reliably determined radiometrically at different depths. Amplified fragment length polymorphic markers (AFLPs) were used to assess differences in the genetic structure of 75 individuals sampled from both the standing population and from four soil layers, which spanned 18 cm (estimated at ∼90 years based on 210Pb and 137Cs dating). While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of lower total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed in deeper soils. The greatest percentage increase in the measured genetic variables occurred prior to the shift from the lag to the exponential range expansion phases and may be of adaptive significance. These findings highlight that seed banks in areas with long-established invasive populations can contain valuable genetic information relating to invasion processes and as such, should not be overlooked. PMID:24967082

  10. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  11. Analysis of natural allelic variation at seed dormancy loci of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanhart, Corrie J; Blankestijn-de Vries, Hetty; Koornneef, Maarten

    2003-06-01

    Arabidopsis accessions differ largely in their seed dormancy behavior. To understand the genetic basis of this intraspecific variation we analyzed two accessions: the laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler) with low dormancy and the strong-dormancy accession Cape Verde Islands (Cvi). We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify loci affecting the after-ripening requirement measured as the number of days of seed dry storage required to reach 50% germination. Thus, seven QTL were identified and named delay of germination (DOG) 1-7. To confirm and characterize these loci, we developed 12 near-isogenic lines carrying single and double Cvi introgression fragments in a Ler genetic background. The analysis of these lines for germination in water confirmed four QTL (DOG1, DOG2, DOG3, and DOG6) as showing large additive effects in Ler background. In addition, it was found that DOG1 and DOG3 genetically interact, the strong dormancy determined by DOG1-Cvi alleles depending on DOG3-Ler alleles. These genotypes were further characterized for seed dormancy/germination behavior in five other test conditions, including seed coat removal, gibberellins, and an abscisic acid biosynthesis inhibitor. The role of the Ler/Cvi allelic variation in affecting dormancy is discussed in the context of current knowledge of Arabidopsis germination.

  12. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.

  13. Comparative analysis of metabolic proteome variation in ascorbate-primed and unprimed wheat seeds during germination under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Fercha, Azzedine; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-08-28

    Seed priming with ascorbic acid improves salt tolerance in durum wheat. For understanding the potential mechanisms underlying this priming effect a gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis was performed comparing unprimed to ascorbate-primed wheat seed during germination under saline and non-saline conditions. Since seed germination is the result of interplay or cross-talk between embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, we studied the variation of metabolic proteome in both tissues separately. 167 of 697 identified and 69 of 471 identified proteins increase or decrease in abundance significantly in response to priming and/or salinity compared to untreated, unstressed control in embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, respectively. In untreated wheat embryo salt stress was accompanied by change in 129 proteins, most of which are belonging to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, protein destination and storage categories. Ascorbate pretreatment prevents and counteracts the effects of salinity upon most of these proteins and changes specifically the abundance of 35 others proteins, most of which are involved in metabolism, protein destination and storage categories. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed three and two major clusters of protein expression in embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, respectively. This study opens promising new avenues to understand priming-induced salt tolerance in plants. To clearly understand how ascorbate-priming enhance the salt tolerance of durum wheat during germination, we performed for the first time a comparative shotgun proteomic analysis between unprimed and ascorbate-primed wheat seeds during germination under saline and non-saline conditions. Furthermore, since seed germination is the result of interplay or cross-talk between embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues we analyzed the variation of metabolic proteome in both tissues separately. 1168 proteins exhibiting greater molecular weight diversity (ranging from 5 to 258kDa) were

  14. Intraspecific variation in fruit-frugivore interactions: effects of fruiting neighborhood and consequences for seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Tadeu J; Dayrell, Roberta L C; Arruda, André J; Dáttilo, Wesley; Teixido, Alberto L; Messeder, João V S; Silveira, Fernando A O

    2017-09-05

    The extent of specialization/generalization continuum in fruit-frugivore interactions at the individual level remains poorly explored. Here, we investigated the interactions between the Neotropical treelet Miconia irwinii (Melastomataceae) and its avian seed dispersers in Brazilian campo rupestre. We built an individual-based network to derive plant degree of interaction specialization regarding disperser species. Then, we explored how intraspecific variation in interaction niche breadth relates to fruit availability on individual plants in varying densities of fruiting conspecific neighbors, and how these factors affect the quantity of viable seeds dispersed. We predicted broader interaction niche breadths for individuals with larger fruit crops in denser fruiting neighborhoods. The downscaled network included nine bird species and 15 plants, which varied nearly five-fold in their degree of interaction specialization. We found positive effects of crop size on visitation and fruit removal rates, but not on degree of interaction specialization. Conversely, we found that an increase in the density of conspecific fruiting neighbors both increased visitation rate and reduced plant degree of interaction specialization. We suggest that tracking fruit-rich patches by avian frugivore species is the main driver of density-dependent intraspecific variation in plants' interaction niche breadth. Our study shed some light on the overlooked fitness consequences of intraspecific variation in interaction niches by showing that individuals along the specialization/generalization continuum may have their seed dispersed with similar effectiveness. Our study exemplifies how individual-based networks linking plants to frugivore species that differ in their seed dispersal effectiveness can advance our understanding of intraspecific variation in the outcomes of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  15. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  16. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  17. Free volume variation with molecular weight of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; St.clair, Terry L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    Free volume measurements were made in several molecular weight fractions of two different geometries of poly(arylene ether ketone)s. Free volumes were measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy. It has been observed that the free volume cell size V(sub f) varies with the molecular weight M of the test samples according to an equation of the form V(sub f) = AM(B), where A and B are constants. The molecular weights computed from the free volume cell sizes are in good agreement with the values measured by gel permeation chromatography.

  18. [Analysis of quantitative traits connected with seed weight and flowering terms in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) plants].

    PubMed

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2000-01-01

    The nature of inheritance of characters connected with the seed size (seed mass) and quality of the shoots (germination energy, seed viability, general shoot length, shoot mass, dry weight of shoots) in Lotus corniculatus L. was analyzed. The investigations were carried out on plants of three varieties: the wild form from the Krasnodar Region and local forms MF1 and MF3. The correlation analysis was carried out. The pattern of inheritance in the terms of plant flowering and length of shoots were studied.

  19. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variations in quantity or weight. 245.7309-8 Section 245.7309-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis,...

  20. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xinxin; Jiang, Chenghong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Lijun; Wu, Xiaoming; Wei, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7–9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW) data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq), was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885–25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001) might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight. PMID:26824525

  1. The influence of mitonuclear genetic variation on personality in seed beetles

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Immonen, Elina; Gustavsson, Emil; Kazancioğlu, Erem; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the influence of mitochondrial genetic variation on life-history phenotypes, particularly via epistatic interactions with nuclear genes. Owing to their direct effect on traits such as metabolic and growth rates, mitonuclear interactions may also affect variation in behavioural types or personalities (i.e. behavioural variation that is consistent within individuals, but differs among individuals). However, this possibility is largely unexplored. We used mitonuclear introgression lines, where three mitochondrial genomes were introgressed into three nuclear genetic backgrounds, to disentangle genetic effects on behavioural variation in a seed beetle. We found within-individual consistency in a suite of activity-related behaviours, providing evidence for variation in personality. Composite measures of overall activity of individuals in behavioural assays were influenced by both nuclear genetic variation and by the interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. More importantly, the degree of expression of behavioural and life-history phenotypes was correlated and mitonuclear genetic variation affected expression of these concerted phenotypes. These results show that mitonuclear genetic variation affects both behavioural and life-history traits, and they provide novel insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in behaviour and personality. PMID:25320161

  2. The influence of mitonuclear genetic variation on personality in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Immonen, Elina; Gustavsson, Emil; Kazancioğlu, Erem; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-12-07

    There is a growing awareness of the influence of mitochondrial genetic variation on life-history phenotypes, particularly via epistatic interactions with nuclear genes. Owing to their direct effect on traits such as metabolic and growth rates, mitonuclear interactions may also affect variation in behavioural types or personalities (i.e. behavioural variation that is consistent within individuals, but differs among individuals). However, this possibility is largely unexplored. We used mitonuclear introgression lines, where three mitochondrial genomes were introgressed into three nuclear genetic backgrounds, to disentangle genetic effects on behavioural variation in a seed beetle. We found within-individual consistency in a suite of activity-related behaviours, providing evidence for variation in personality. Composite measures of overall activity of individuals in behavioural assays were influenced by both nuclear genetic variation and by the interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. More importantly, the degree of expression of behavioural and life-history phenotypes was correlated and mitonuclear genetic variation affected expression of these concerted phenotypes. These results show that mitonuclear genetic variation affects both behavioural and life-history traits, and they provide novel insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in behaviour and personality.

  3. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.

  4. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Treesearch

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  5. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in a seed bank of a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Kleber A.; dos Santos, Danielle M.; dos Santos, Josiene M. F. F.; de Albuquerque, Ulysses P.; Ferraz, Elba M. N.; Araújo, Elcida de L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate variations in the seed bank within a 3-year temporal series in order to answer the following questions: 1) Does the seed bank's species richness and seed density differ among climatic seasons and between years? 2) Are there differences in the richness and density of seed banks between the litter and mineral soil? 3) Can the seed bank's species richness and seed density be explained by characteristics such as the previous year's precipitation and soil depth (litter or mineral soil)? The samples were collected from litter and mineral soil (0-5 cm), in 210 sub-plots, during the dry and rainy seasons of each year (August 2005 through February 2008). Overall, 79 species were recorded. On average, 1 168, 304 and 302 seeds.m-2 were recorded in the seed bank during years I, II and III, respectively. This study showed that the Caatinga's seed bank is rich in herbaceous species, yet species' density and richness are low in the litter. Furthermore, about 43% of the variation in species richness and density was explained by soil depth (litter and mineral soil) and previous years' rainfall.

  7. Variation in seed size is structured by dispersal syndrome and cone morphology in conifers and other nonflowering seed plants.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Mathews, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Seed size varies tremendously in plants and its evolution is influenced by multiple ecological and biological factors that are difficult to disentangle. In this study, we focus on understanding the role of seed dispersal by animals in the evolution of seed size in conifers, the most diverse extant nonflowering seed plant group. Relationships among seed size, dispersal syndrome, climate and cone morphology were analyzed across conifers using quantitative models of character evolution and phylogenetic regression techniques. Dispersal syndrome is a more consistent predictor of seed size within major extant conifer clades than climate. Seeds are generally larger in animal-dispersed than wind-dispersed species, and particular cone morphologies are consistently associated with specific ranges in seed size. Seed size and cone morphology evolve in a correlated manner in many animal-dispersed conifers, following a trade-off that minimizes the total size of the dispersal unit. These relationships are also present in other nonflowering seed plant groups, and have been important in the evolution of seeds and cones at least over the Cenozoic and perhaps over much of the later Mesozoic. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Effect of temperature, light, seed weight and GA3 on the germination of Verbascum bithynicum, Verbascum wiedemannianum and Salvia dicroantha.

    PubMed

    Senel, Emel; Ozdener, Yasemin; Incedere, Demet

    2007-04-01

    S. dicroantha, (Stapf in Denkseehr) Verbascum bithynicum and V. wiedemannianum are (Bioss.) endemic and medicinal potential plants disturbed in Turkey. V. wiedemannianum is different from the other Verbascum species in red-dark purple flowers and as a threated plant. Seed germination strategies of these species were studied with the aim of producing appropriate germination protocols for use ex situ conservation. The optimum temperature for seed germination of S. dicroantha, V. bithynicum and V. wiedemannianum was 200C and darkness. The seeds of V. bithynicum and V. wiedemannianum incubated in darkness showed higher germination percentages than the seeds incubated with a 16:8 h photoperiod or continuous light, but the effect of application of darkness,photoperiod (16:8 h) or continuous light on the germination percentage of the seeds of S. dicroantha was not significant. In the case of S. dicroantha, seed weight significantly affected germination percentage, but not significant in the case of V. bithynicum and V. wieqemannianum. Exogenous GA3 (20, 100, 200 mg L(-1)) was comletely prevented germination the seeds of these species.

  9. Seed-weighted random walk ranking for cancer biomarker prioritisation: a case study in leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tianxiao; Wu, Xiaogang; Bai, Zengliang; Chen, Jake Y

    2014-01-01

    A central focus of clinical proteomics for cancer is to identify protein biomarkers with diagnostic and therapeutic application potential. Network-based analyses have been used in computational disease-related gene prioritisation for several years. The Random Walk Ranking (RWR) algorithm has been successfully applied to prioritising disease-related gene candidates by exploiting global network topology in a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. Increasing the specificity and sensitivity ofbiomarkers may require consideration of similar or closely-related disease phenotypes and molecular pathological mechanisms shared across different disease phenotypes. In this paper, we propose a method called Seed-Weighted Random Walk Ranking (SW-RWR) for prioritizing cancer biomarker candidates. This method uses the information of cancer phenotype association to assign to each gene a disease-specific, weighted value to guide the RWR algorithm in a global human PPI network. In a case study of prioritizing leukaemia biomarkers, SW-RWR outperformed a typical local network-based analysis in coverage and also showed better accuracy and sensitivity than the original RWR method (global network-based analysis). Our results suggest that the tight correlation among different cancer phenotypes could play an important role in cancer biomarker discovery.

  10. Rapid Development of Adaptive, Climate-Driven Clinal Variation in Seed Mass in the Invasive Annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.

    PubMed Central

    Konarzewski, Tara K.; Murray, Brad R.; Godfree, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid. PMID:23284621

  11. Uncovering the genetic architecture of seed weight and size in intermediate wheatgrass through linkage and association mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG); Thinopyrum intermedium) is being developed as a new perennial grain crop that has a large allohexaploid genome similar to that of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Breeding for increased seed weight is one of the primary goals for improving grain yield of IWG. As a new crop, ...

  12. Genome-wide association study and marker-based selection for seed weight in soybean (Glycine max)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed weight (SW) is important for the yield and quality in food/vegetable uses of soybean (Glycine max), a worldwide major crop. However, our knowledge of genes controlling SW remains limited. To better understand the molecular mechanism of the trait and identify DNA markers usable in marker-based b...

  13. Preclinical safety evaluation of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute oral toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (LMWGAL-TF) in laboratory animals rats as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. For the acute toxicity (AOT) study, LMWGAL-TF was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg with vehicle control (VC) group (n = 5 per sex per group) as per OECD guideline no. 423. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the SD rats were orally administered with a daily oral dose of LMWGAL-TF 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day with VC group (n = 15 per sex) for a period of 90 days followed by a recovery period of 28 days as per OECD guideline no. 408. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weights with hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histology were studied. The mutagenic potential of LMWGAL-TF was tested using reverse mutation assay (AMES test, OECD guideline No. 471). The LMWGAL-TF did not show mortality or treatment-related adverse signs during acute (dose 2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (90-days repeated dose 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) administration. The LMWGAL-TF showed oral lethal dose (LD50) more than 2000 mg/kg during AOT study. The dose of 1000 mg/kg was found as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in rats during subchronic toxicity study. Furthermore, LMWGAL-TF did not show mutagenic potential in vitro. In conclusion, LMWGAL-TF was found safe during acute and subchronic (90 days repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats with no mutagenicity. PMID:27822173

  14. Identification of candidate genes of QTLs for seed weight in Brassica napus through comparative mapping among Arabidopsis and Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in polyploidy crop species remains a challenge due to the complexity of their genome structures. QTLs for seed weight in B. napus have been identified, but information on candidate genes for identified QTLs of this important trait is still rare. Results In this study, a whole genome genetic linkage map for B. napus was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that covered a genetic distance of 2,126.4 cM with an average distance of 5.36 cM between markers. A procedure was developed to establish colinearity of SSR loci on B. napus with its two progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea through extensive bioinformatics analysis. With the aid of B. rapa and B. oleracea genome sequences, the 421 homologous colinear loci deduced from the SSR loci of B. napus were shown to correspond to 398 homologous loci in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through comparative mapping of Arabidopsis and the three Brassica species, 227 homologous genes for seed size/weight were mapped on the B. napus genetic map, establishing the genetic bases for the important agronomic trait in this amphidiploid species. Furthermore, 12 candidate genes underlying 8 QTLs for seed weight were identified, and a gene-specific marker for BnAP2 was developed through molecular cloning using the seed weight/size gene distribution map in B. napus. Conclusions Our study showed that it is feasible to identify candidate genes of QTLs using a SSR-based B. napus genetic map through comparative mapping among Arabidopsis and B. napus and its two progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea. Identification of candidate genes for seed weight in amphidiploid B. napus will accelerate the process of isolating the mapped QTLs for this important trait, and this approach may be useful for QTL identification of other traits of agronomic significance. PMID:23216693

  15. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  16. Poppy seeds: differences in morphine and codeine content and variation in inter- and intra-individual excretion.

    PubMed

    Pelders, M G; Ros, J J

    1996-03-01

    Poppy seeds from seven different origins (Dutch, Australian, Hungarian, Spanish, Czech, and two Turkish) were analyzed for the amount of opiates present. Four grams of each kind of seeds, equivalent to the amount of seeds on two bagels, were ingested by volunteers. One volunteer also ingested four times the same amount of poppy seeds from the same origin (Spanish). During 24 hours urine samples were obtained and screened for the presence of morphine and codeine using the FPIA technique (cut-off = 200 ng/mL) and a GC/MS confirmation with a limit of detection (LOD) of 25 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. Poppy seeds from different origins contain a wide variation of morphine (2-251 micro g/g) and codeine (0.4-57.1 micro g/g) content. No other opiate could be detected. After ingestion a large interindividual variation of excretion of opiates exists. The testing results from the same kind of seeds ingested four times with a one week interval by the same volunteer also show a poor reproduceability. Several kinds of poppy seeds can give positive testing results (Australian, Hungarian, Spanish and one kind of Turkish seeds). Within 24 hours all testing results became negative.

  17. Genetic variation in flowering phenology and avoidance of seed predation in native populations of Ulex europaeus.

    PubMed

    Atlan, A; Barat, M; Legionnet, A S; Parize, L; Tarayre, M

    2010-02-01

    The genetic variation in flowering phenology may be an important component of a species' capacity to colonize new environments. In native populations of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, flowering phenology has been shown to be bimodal and related to seed predation. The aim of the present study was to determine if this bimodality has a genetic basis, and to investigate whether the polymorphism in flowering phenology is genetically linked to seed predation, pod production and growth patterns. We set up an experiment raising maternal families in a common garden. Based on mixed analyses of variance and correlations among maternal family means, we found genetic differences between the two main flowering types and confirmed that they reduced seed predation in two different ways: escape in time or predator satiation. We suggest that this polymorphism in strategy may facilitate maintain high genetic diversity for flowering phenology and related life-history traits in native populations of this species, hence providing high evolutionary potential for these traits in invaded areas.

  18. Weight and volume variation in truckloads of logs hauled in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson

    1974-01-01

    Variation in volume and weight was found among loaded log trucks even when such factors as truck type, logging job, and driver influence were eliminated. A load range of 10,000 pounds or 1,000 board feet was commonplace for the same truck, driver, and cutting site. Differences in log size, shape, weight, and species caused a major share of this variation. Yet,...

  19. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides.

  20. Temporal variation in seed predation by insects in a population of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) in Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F R; Begnini, R M; Lopes, B C; Castellani, T T

    2012-02-01

    Insect seed predation may vary depending on seed production. The present study considers the hypothesis that the rates of seed predation tend to be smaller in years of higher fruit production. Thus, we monitored the production of fruits and predation of seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana over 2 years in the Atlantic Forest (Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil), between July 2006 and June 2008. Plots of 0.25 m(2) were fitted under 20 mother plants and fruits were monthly collected for assessment of abundance and seed predation. There was variation in fruit production between the 2 years and among reproductive plants. Predation rates were high and occurred in the predispersal phase by the Curculionidae Revena rubiginosa Boheman, Anchylorhynchus aegrotus Fahraeus, and Anchylorhynchus variabilis Gyllenhal. Seed predation by these species of Anchylorhynchus is first registered in the present study. In average, about 60% of the seeds monthly produced in the population tend to escape insect predation in year of high or low production, becoming available for recruitment. The predation rate was not related to the amount of fruits produced per reproductive plant. Also, different than expected, there was a positive relation between the rates of seed predation and the total of fruits produced monthly on the plots. Thus, no evidence for the satiation of insect seed predators was found in this study with S. romanzoffiana.

  1. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  2. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of boron and their variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition and atomic weight value and their variation in nature are reviewed. Questions are raised about the previously recommended value and the uncertainty for the atomic weight. The problem of what constitutes an acceptable range for normal material and what should then be considered geologically exceptional is discussed. Recent measurements make some previous decisions in need of re-evaluation.

  3. Seasonal weight variation patterns in seven countries located in northern and southern hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Mehrang, Saeed; Helander, Elina; Chieh, Angela; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    The digital revolution of information and technology in late 20th century has led to emergence of devices that help people monitor their weight in a long-term manner. Investigation of population-level variations of body mass using smart connected weight scales enabled the health coaches acquire deeper insights about the models of people's behavior as a function of time. Typically, body mass varies when the seasons change. That is, during the warmer seasons people's body mass tend to decrease while in colder seasons it usually moves up. In this paper we study the seasonal variations of body mass in seven countries by utilization of linear regression. Deviation of monthly weight values from the starting point of astronomical years (beginning of spring) were modeled by fitting orthogonal polynomials in each country. The distinction of weight variations in southern and northern hemispheres were then investigated. The studied population involves 6429 anonymous weight scale users from:(1) Australia, (2) Brazil, (3) France, (4) Germany, (5) Great Britain, (6) Japan, and (7) United States of America. The results suggest that there are statistically significant differences between the models of weight variation in southern and northern hemispheres. In both northern and southern hemispheres the lowest weight values were observed in the summer. However, the highest weight values were noticed in the winter and in the spring for northern and southern hemispheres, respectively.

  4. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variation of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) from Iran using RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Farkhari, M; Naghavi, M R; Pyghambari, S A; Sabokdast

    2007-09-01

    Genetic variation of 28 populations of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), collected from different parts of Iran, were evaluated using both RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins. The diversity within and between populations for the three-band High Molecular Weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin pattern were extremely low. Out of 15 screened primers of RAPD, 14 primers generated 133 reproducible fragments which among them 92 fragments were polymorphic (69%). Genetic similarity calculated from the RAPD data ranged from 0.64 to 0.98. A dendrogram was prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm and separated the 28 populations into two groups. Confusion can happen between populations with the same origin as well as between populations of very diverse geographical origins. Our results show that compare to seed storage protein, RAPD is suitable for genetic diversity assessment in Ae. cylindrica populations.

  6. Variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for evaluation of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Topaçoğlu, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common and important forest tree species in Turkey due to usefulness of its wood to many commercial uses. This species is classified as one of the economically important tree species for Turkish Forestry in the "National Tree Breeding and Seed Production Program". The objective of the present study was to investigate variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine and to evaluate variation in cone and seed characters within and among clones and grafts. The results showed that maximum CV among the clones was found for SWe (21.95), FS (16.99) and CWe (16.88). According to the results of SAS, variation between the clones is averaged at 19.2% and variation within the clones is averaged at 24.4 %. Variation between the clones ranged from 3.6% (SW) to 34.5% (TC) and variation within the clones ranged from 12.3% (SW) to 38.1% (WL). For CW, AL, AW, WW and TC, genetic variation among clones was higher than within clones. When the results of study like compared with results obtained from natural populations, it was seen that genetic variability in seed orchard which was subjected to study was quite low. This case may have dangerous results for the future of forests.

  7. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  8. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  9. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  10. Variation in the effects of burial in different peatland successional stages on seed survival of four wetland species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Chika

    2017-01-01

    The availability of viable seeds in soil helps to determine the success of ecological restoration in disturbed habitats. Although seed survival in soil generally increases with an increase in burial depth, whether the effects of burial on seed survival are comparable across different sites is unclear. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that the positive effects of burial on seed survival decrease as vegetation develops through succession. Four wetland species, Drosera rotundifolia, Lobelia sessilifolia, Rhynchospora alba and Moliniopsis japonica, were used for the study. The four species differ in their light requirement for germination; i.e., D. rotundifolia, L. sessilifolia and R. alba germinate best in light, whereas M. japonica germinates equally well in light and darkness. The seeds of these species were buried for two years at three depths (litter, 0 and 4 cm) in three successional stages with different amounts of vegetation and litter in a post-mined peatland. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature at each of litter layer, 0 cm and 4 cm depths were measured for each successional stage. The between-depth differences in PAR and temperature fluctuations decreased as succession progressed. For the three light-demanding species, burial promoted seed survival more in the initial successional stage than in the later successional stages, whereas for M. japonica, burial promoted seed survival equally in all successional stages. This study revealed significant variation in the effects of burial on seed survival, particularly for light-sensitive seeds, and that the soil surface layers in vegetated sites can contain persistent seeds, which could be used as a seed source in restoration.

  11. A genome-wide association study reveals novel elite allelic variations in seed oil content of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jiana; Cai, Guangqin; Yang, Qingyong; Wu, Jian; Yi, Xinqi; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhou, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    A set of additive loci for seed oil content were identified using association mapping and one of the novel loci on the chromosome A5 was validated by linkage mapping. Increasing seed oil content is one of the most important goals in the breeding of oilseed crops including Brassica napus, yet the genetic basis for variations in this important trait remains unclear. By genome-wide association study of seed oil content using 521 B. napus accessions genotyped with the Brassica 60K SNP array, we identified 50 loci significantly associated with seed oil content using three statistical models, the general linear model, the mixed linear model and the Anderson-Darling test. Together, the identified loci could explain approximately 80 % of the total phenotypic variance, and 29 of these loci have not been reported previously. Furthermore, a novel locus on the chromosome A5 that could increase 1.5-1.7 % of seed oil content was validated in an independent bi-parental linkage population. Haplotype analysis showed that the favorable alleles for seed oil content exhibit cumulative effects. Our results thus provide valuable information for understanding the genetic control of seed oil content in B. napus and may facilitate marker-based breeding for a higher seed oil content in this important oil crop.

  12. Host-associated fitness variation in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): evidence for local adaptation to a poor quality host.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Waddell, Kim J; Mousseau, Timothy A

    1994-09-01

    The geographic distributions of many generalist herbivores differ from those of their host plants, such that they experience coarse-grained spatial variation in natural selection on characters influencing adaptation to host plants. Thus, populations differing in host use are expected to differ in their ability to survive and grow on these host plants. We examine host-associated variation in larval performance (survivorship, development time, and adult body weight) and oviposition preference, within and between two populations ofStator limbatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) that differ in the hosts available to them in nature. In one population,Acacia greggii (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) andCercidium microphyllum (Fabaceae: Caesalpininoideae) are each abundant, while in the second population onlyC. floridum andC. microphyllum are present. In both populations, egg-to-adult survivorship was less than 50% onC. floridum, while survivorship was greater than 90% onA. greggii. Most of the mortality onC. floridum occurred as larvae were burrowing through the seed coat; very low mortality occurred during penetration of the seed coat ofA. greggii. Significant variation was present between populations, and among families (within populations), in survivorship and egg-to-adult development time onC. floridum; beetles restricted toCercidium in nature, without access toC. floridum, survived better and developed faster onC. floridum than beetles that had access toA. greggii. Large host effects on body size were detected for female offspring: females reared onA. greggii were larger than those reared onC. floridum, whereas male offspring wee approximately the same size regardless of rearing host. Trade-offs between performance onC. floridum andC. floridum were not detected in this experiment. Instead, our data indicate that development time and survivorship onC. floridum may be largely independent of development time and survivorship onA. greggii. Patterns of oviposition preference corresponded

  13. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  14. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij; Zeegers, Maurice P; Holst, Claus; Wang, Ping; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H; Valsesia, Armand; Hager, Jörg; van Baak, Marleen A; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2015-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 males) were on an 8-week low-calorie diet with a 6-month follow-up. Body weight was measured before and after the diet, and after follow-up. Weight maintenance scores (WMS, regained weight as percentage of lost weight) were calculated based on the weight data. Genotype data were retrieved for 2903 SNPs corresponding to 124 ECM-related genes. Regression analyses provided us with six significant SNPs associated with the WMS in males: 3 SNPs in the POSTN gene and a SNP in the LAMB1, COL23A1, and FBLN5 genes. For females, 1 SNP was found in the FN1 gene. The risk of weight regain was increased by: the C/C genotype for POSTN in a co-dominant model (OR 8.25, 95 % CI 2.85-23.88) and the T/C-C/C genotype in a dominant model (OR 4.88, 95 % CI 2.35-10.16); the A/A genotype for LAMB1 both in a co-dominant model (OR 18.43, 95 % CI 2.35-144.63) and in a recessive model (OR 16.36, 95 % CI 2.14-124.9); the G/A genotype for COL23A1 in a co-dominant model (OR 3.94, 95 % CI 1.28-12.10), or the A-allele in a dominant model (OR 2.86, 95 % CI 1.10-7.49); the A/A genotype for FBLN5 in a co-dominant model (OR 13.00, 95 % CI 1.61-104.81); and the A/A genotype for FN1 in a recessive model (OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner.

  15. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for 100-seed weight and root/total plant dry weight ratio under rainfed conditions in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas K; Khan, Aamir W; Jaganathan, Deepa; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Takagi, Hiroki; Garg, Vanika; Kumar, Vinay; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Gaur, Pooran M; Sutton, Tim; Terauchi, Ryohei; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-11-01

    Terminal drought is a major constraint to chickpea productivity. Two component traits responsible for reduction in yield under drought stress include reduction in seeds size and root length/root density. QTL-seq approach, therefore, was used to identify candidate genomic regions for 100-seed weight (100SDW) and total dry root weight to total plant dry weight ratio (RTR) under rainfed conditions. Genomewide SNP profiling of extreme phenotypic bulks from the ICC 4958 × ICC 1882 population identified two significant genomic regions, one on CaLG01 (1.08 Mb) and another on CaLG04 (2.7 Mb) linkage groups for 100SDW. Similarly, one significant genomic region on CaLG04 (1.10 Mb) was identified for RTR. Comprehensive analysis revealed four and five putative candidate genes associated with 100SDW and RTR, respectively. Subsequently, two genes (Ca_04364 and Ca_04607) for 100SDW and one gene (Ca_04586) for RTR were validated using CAPS/dCAPS markers. Identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation for Relaxed Mumford-Shah Image Segmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    A WEIGHTED DIFFERENCE OF ANISOTROPIC AND ISOTROPIC TOTAL VARIATION FOR RELAXED MUMFORD-SHAH IMAGE SEGMENTATION Fredrick Park?† Yifei Lou? Jack Xin...University of California at Irvine, Mathematics Department, Irvine, CA 92697 ABSTRACT We propose to incorporate a weighted difference of anisotropic...Segmentation, Mumford- Shah Functional , Chan-Vese Model, Primal-Dual 1 Introduction The celebrated Mumford and Shah (MS) model [1] in 2-phase form known as the

  17. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in the Ochoco and Malheur National Forests of central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.; Weber, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits was evaluated for 280 families from 220 locations. Factor scores from three principal components were related by multiple regression to latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed source, and by classification analysis to seed zone and elevation band in seed zone. Location variance was significant but not large. Multiple regression equations explained less than 50 percent of location variance. Slope-aspect variables were important.

  18. Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants.

    PubMed

    Mower, Jeffrey P; Touzet, Pascal; Gummow, Julie S; Delph, Lynda F; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2007-08-09

    It has long been known that rates of synonymous substitutions are unusually low in mitochondrial genes of flowering and other land plants. Although two dramatic exceptions to this pattern have recently been reported, it is unclear how often major increases in substitution rates occur during plant mitochondrial evolution and what the overall magnitude of substitution rate variation is across plants. A broad survey was undertaken to evaluate synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Although most taxa conform to the generality that plant mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly, additional cases of highly accelerated rates were found. We explore in detail one of these new cases, within the genus Silene. A roughly 100-fold increase in synonymous substitution rate is estimated to have taken place within the last 5 million years and involves only one of ten species of Silene sampled in this study. Examples of unusually slow sequence evolution were also identified. Comparison of the fastest and slowest lineages shows that synonymous substitution rates vary by four orders of magnitude across seed plants. In other words, some plant mitochondrial lineages accumulate more synonymous change in 10,000 years than do others in 100 million years. Several perplexing cases of gene-to-gene variation in sequence divergence within a plant were uncovered. Some of these probably reflect interesting biological phenomena, such as horizontal gene transfer, mitochondrial-to-nucleus transfer, and intragenomic variation in mitochondrial substitution rates, whereas others are likely the result of various kinds of errors. The extremes of synonymous substitution rates measured here constitute by far the largest known range of rate variation for any group of organisms. These results highlight the utility of examining absolute substitution rates in a phylogenetic context rather than by traditional pairwise methods. Why substitution rates are generally so low

  19. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight secalins from triticale seeds by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boleslaw P

    2010-07-01

    A rapid and reliable method for separation and characterization of the variability of high-molecular-weight secalin subunits (HMW-SS) in hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) by CZE has been developed. In this method, a mixture of two poly(ethylene oxide) polymers differing in molecular weight and a high concentration of ACN in isoelectric buffer was applied as the running electrolyte. For dynamic coating of the capillary inner wall, a low-concentration mixture of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was employed. Wide allelic variations in rye HMW-SS composition, including some novel x- and y-type HMW-SS, were detected by CZE. The CZE electropherograms of HMW-SS showed two groups of peaks in accordance with y- and x-type subunits, with migration times of 8.0-8.8 and 11.0-13.3 min, respectively. HMW-SS differed in migration times from the simultaneously resolved HMW glutenin subunits, but frequently had very similar electrophoretic mobilities during separation by SDS-PAGE. Each of the two rye subunits 2r and 6.5r detected by SDS-PAGE represents in fact two subunits (5.1r or 5.2r, and 6.4r or 6.5r, respectively). After analyzing 106 European triticale cultivars, 12 HMW-SS were identified (six x-type and six y-type). They form six allelic variants of these subunits. The simultaneous separation and identification of triticale HMW glutenin and secalin subunits by CZE is an efficient alternative to SDS-PAGE and should facilitate breeding of valuable cultivars.

  20. Mathematically combined half-cell reduction potentials of low-molecular-weight thiols as markers of seed ageing.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Colville, Louise; Pritchard, Hugh W; Pearce, Stephen R; Kranner, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    The half-cell reduction potential of the glutathione disulphide (GSSG)/glutathione (GSH) redox couple appears to correlate with cell viability and has been proposed to be a marker of seed viability and ageing. This study investigated the relationship between seed viability and the individual half-cell reduction potentials (E(i)s) of four low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols in Lathyrus pratensis seeds subjected to artificial ageing: GSH, cysteine (Cys), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine (γ-Glu-Cys). The standard redox potential of γ-Glu-Cys was previously unknown and was experimentally determined. The E(i)s were mathematically combined to define a LMW thiol-disulphide based redox environment (E(thiol-disulphide)). Loss of seed viability correlated with a shift in E(thiol-disulphide) towards more positive values, with a LD(50) value of -0.90 ± 0.093 mV M (mean ± SD). The mathematical definition of E(thiol-disulphide) is envisaged as a step towards the definition of the overall cellular redox environment, which will need to include all known redox-couples.

  1. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  2. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Benkman, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  3. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape.

  4. Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana identifies determinants of natural variation in seed oil composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in...

  5. Seed predation and climate impacts on reproductive variation in temperate forests of the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    David M. Bell; James S. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Climatic effects on tree recruitment will be determined by the interactive effects of fecundity and seed predation. Evaluating how insect and vertebrate seed predators mediate tree reproductive responses to climate depends on long-term studies of seed production, development, and predation. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of...

  6. Seasonal variation in the fate of seeds under contrasting logging regimes.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marina; Rodrigues, Ricardo R; do Couto, Hilton T Z; Galetti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators and dispersers may drive the speed and structure of forest regeneration in natural ecosystems. Rodents and ants prey upon and disperse seeds, yet empirical studies on the magnitude of these effects are lacking. Here, we examined the role of ants and rodents on seed predation in 4 plant species in a successional gradient on a tropical rainforest island. We found that (1) seeds are mostly consumed rather than dispersed; (2) rates of seed predation vary by habitat, season, and species; (3) seed size, shape, and hardness do not affect the probability of being depredated. Rodents were responsible for 70% of seed predation and were negligible (0.14%) seed dispersers, whereas ants were responsible for only 2% of seed predation and for no dispersal. We detected seasonal and habitat effects on seed loss, with higher seed predation occurring during the wet season and in old-growth forests. In the absence of predators regulating seed-consumer populations, the densities of these resilient animals explode to the detriment of natural regeneration and may reduce diversity and carrying capacity for consumers and eventually lead to ecological meltdown.

  7. Seasonal Variation in the Fate of Seeds under Contrasting Logging Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; do Couto, Hilton T. Z.; Galetti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators and dispersers may drive the speed and structure of forest regeneration in natural ecosystems. Rodents and ants prey upon and disperse seeds, yet empirical studies on the magnitude of these effects are lacking. Here, we examined the role of ants and rodents on seed predation in 4 plant species in a successional gradient on a tropical rainforest island. We found that (1) seeds are mostly consumed rather than dispersed; (2) rates of seed predation vary by habitat, season, and species; (3) seed size, shape, and hardness do not affect the probability of being depredated. Rodents were responsible for 70% of seed predation and were negligible (0.14%) seed dispersers, whereas ants were responsible for only 2% of seed predation and for no dispersal. We detected seasonal and habitat effects on seed loss, with higher seed predation occurring during the wet season and in old-growth forests. In the absence of predators regulating seed-consumer populations, the densities of these resilient animals explode to the detriment of natural regeneration and may reduce diversity and carrying capacity for consumers and eventually lead to ecological meltdown. PMID:24614500

  8. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    DOE PAGES

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; ...

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination wasmore » recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal temperature estimates would

  9. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination was recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Determinants of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols (TAGs) fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel, and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in seed oil composition in nature provides targets for bioengineering fatty acid proportions optimized for various industrial and nutrition goals. Here, we characterized the seed oil composition of 391 world-wide, wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the 9 major fatty acids in the seed oil and 4 composite measures of the fatty acids. Four to 19 regions of interest were associated with the seed oil composition traits. Thirty-four of the genes in these regions are involved in lipid metabolism or transport, with 14 specific to fatty acid synthesis or breakdown. Eight of the genes encode transcription factors. We have identified genes significantly associated with variation in fatty acid proportions that can be used as a resource across the Brassicaceae. Two-thirds of the regions identified contain candidate genes that have never been implicated in lipid metabolism and represent potential new targets for bioengineering.

  11. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  12. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Ziegler, Greg; Dilkes, Brian P; Brenton, Zachary; Boyles, Richard; Connolly, Erin L; Kresovich, Stephen; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Natural variation of fecundity components in a widespread plant with dimorphic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Rita; Arroyo, J.; García, M. B.

    2010-09-01

    The number and size of seeds are the basis of the quantity and quality components of female reproductive fitness in plants, playing a central role in the evolutionary ecology of life history diversification. In this study we show and analyze the natural variability of several fecundity variables (fruit set, seed production per fruit, seed size, total seed production per plant, and proportion of small seeds) in Plantago coronopus, a widespread, short-lived herb with dimorphic seeds. The structure of such variability was examined at the individual, population (eight locations with different environments within the same region), and life history levels (annual vs perennial), and correlated to soil fertility. There was no divergence associated to the life history for any of the variables studied. Total seed production (the quantity component of female fitness) was correlated with maternal resources, while the size of the large mucilaginous, basal seeds, and the proportion of the small apical seeds (quality component) were more associated to environmental resources. Thus, internal and external resources shape different fitness components, maximizing seed production, and fitting the size and proportion of different kind of seeds to local conditions irrespective of life history. P. coronopus illustrates the versatility of short-lived widespread plants to combine fecundity traits in a flexible manner, in order to increase fitness at each of the many possible habitats they occupy over heterogeneous environments.

  14. [Effects of Pinus armandii seed size on rodents caching behavior and it's spatio-temporal variations].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-08-01

    Pinus armandii, a native pine species, has large (about 300 mg), wingless seeds, and distributes from central to western China at an altitude of 1000-3300 m. To determine how the seed size affects rodents caching behavior, tagged seed releasing and tracking experiments were conducted at 3 sites in Northwest Yunnan province in 2006 and 2007. Our data indicated that for all sites and both years, compared with the smaller seeds, the proportions of cached large seeds were significantly higher, whereas the consumed ones were significantly lower. Meanwhile, the mean and maximum values of caching distances were also significantly increased in large seeds. Seed fate was different between the two years and within the three sites as there have different rodent community compositions.

  15. Image registration under illumination variations using region-based confidence weighted M-estimators.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed M; Dansereau, Richard M; Whitehead, Anthony D

    2012-03-01

    We present an image registration model for image sets with arbitrarily shaped local illumination variations between images. Any nongeometric variations tend to degrade the geometric registration precision and impact subsequent processing. Traditional image registration approaches do not typically account for changes and movement of light sources, which result in interimage illumination differences with arbitrary shape. In addition, these approaches typically use a least-square estimator that is sensitive to outliers, where interimage illumination variations are often large enough to act as outliers. In this paper, we propose an image registration approach that compensates for arbitrarily shaped interimage illumination variations, which are processed using robust M -estimators tuned to that region. Each M-estimator for each illumination region has a distinct cost function by which small and large interimage residuals are unevenly penalized. Since the segmentation of the interimage illumination variations may not be perfect, a segmentation confidence weighting is also imposed to reduce the negative effect of mis-segmentation around illumination region boundaries. The proposed approach is cast in an iterative coarse-to-fine framework, which allows a convergence rate similar to competing intensity-based image registration approaches. The overall proposed approach is presented in a general framework, but experimental results use the bisquare M-estimator with region segmentation confidence weighting. A nearly tenfold improvement in subpixel registration precision is seen with the proposed technique when convergence is attained, as compared with competing techniques using both simulated and real data sets with interimage illumination variations.

  16. [Seasonal variations of wild apricot seed dispersal and hoarding by rodents in rehabilitated land].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-liang; Zhao, Xue-feng; Sun, Ming-yang; Lu, Ji-qi; Kong, Mao-cai

    2010-05-01

    Rodents feed with and disperse plant seeds, which may thereby affect the seed spatiotemporal distribution, germination, and seedling establishment, and eventually play an important role in the restoration of deforested area. Taking the State-owned Yugong Forest Farm in Jiyuan of Henan, China as study site, the tagged seeds of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) were artificially released in rehabilitated land in the spring, summer, and autumn 2008, aimed to investigate their dispersal and hoarding by rodents in different seasons. It was found that Apodemus peninsulae, Niviventer confucianus, and Apodemus agrarius were the main rodent species acting on the seed dispersal and hoarding. The dispersal rate of the seeds was significantly lower in spring than in summer, and also, lower in summer than in autumn. The amount of removed seeds was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, being significantly lesser in spring than in summer, and lesser in summer than in autumn. The mean transportation distance differed with seasons, which was longer in autumn than in spring and summer. The cache size in majority caches was 1 seed, but in a few caches, each cache contained 2 or 3 seeds. The cache number was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, i.e., one seed cache was lesser in spring than in summer and autumn, while the caches containing 2 or 3 seeds were more in summer and autumn. Among the 1800 seeds released, there were five seeds hoarded in summer and autumn respectively established seedlings in the next year of the experiment.

  17. Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Carol K; Franson, Susan E; Cushman, Katherine C; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The geometric mean rate of descent in still air among 20 parents was highly correlated with geometric mean wing loading(1/2) (r = 0.84). However, diaspore traits and rate of descent predicted less variation in dispersal distance from the tower, although descent rate(-1) consistently correlated with dispersal distance. Measured seed shadows, particularly their distribution edges, differed significantly among six parents (DBH range 62-181 cm) and were best fit by six separate anisotropic dispersal kernels and surveyed fecundities. Measured rate of descent and tree traits, combined in a mechanistic seed dispersal model, did not significantly explain variation among parents in natural seed dispersal distances, perhaps due to the limited power to detect effects with only six trees. Seedling and sapling distributions were at a greater mean distance from the parents than seed distributions; saplings were heavily concentrated at far distances. Variation among parents in the distribution tails so critical for recruitment could not be explained by measured diaspore or tree traits with this sample size, and may be determined more by wind patterns and the timing of abscission in relation to wind conditions. Studies of wind dispersal need to devote greater field efforts at recording the "rare" dispersal events that contribute to far dispersal distances, following their consequences, and in understanding the mechanisms that generate them.

  18. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha

    2016-01-01

    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  19. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Treesearch

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  20. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes.

  1. Geographic variation in the flood-induced fluctuating temperature requirement for germination in Setaria parviflora seeds.

    PubMed

    Mollard, F P O; Insausti, P

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to search for specific seed germinative strategies related to flooding escape in Setaria parviflora, a common species across the Americas. For this purpose, we investigated induction after floods, in relation to fluctuating temperature requirements for germination in seeds from mountain, floodplain and successional grasslands. A laboratory experiment was conducted in which seeds were imbibed or immersed in water at 5°C. Seeds were also buried in flood-prone and upland grasslands and exhumed during the flooding season. Additionally, seeds were buried in flooded or drained grassland mesocosms. Germination of exhumed seeds was assayed at 25°C or at 20°C/30°C in the dark or in the presence of red light pulses. After submergence or soil flooding, a high fraction (>32%) of seeds from the floodplain required fluctuating temperatures to germinate. In contrast, seeds from the mountains showed maximum differences in germination between fluctuating and constant temperature treatment only after imbibition (35%) or in non-flooded soil conditions (40%). The fluctuating temperature requirement was not clearly related to the foregoing conditions in the successional grassland seeds. Maximum germination could also be attained with red light pulses to seeds from mountain and successional grasslands. Results show that the fluctuating temperature requirement might help floodplain seeds to germinate after floods, indicating a unique feature of the dormancy of S. parviflora seeds from floodplains, which suggests an adaptive advantage aimed at postponing emergence during inundation periods. In contrast, the fluctuating temperature required for germination among seeds from mountain and successional grasslands show its importance for gap detection.

  2. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  3. Weight variation over time and its relevance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillén-Bravo, Sonia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to assess the variation in patient body weight over time according to the treatment outcome among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. This was a retrospective cohort study. The data of patients commencing MDR-TB therapy were analyzed. Data were collected from different public TB treatment facilities located in peri-urban areas to the south of Lima, Peru. The outcome was patient body weight (kilograms) from treatment commencement, measured monthly. A random effects model was fitted using robust standard errors to calculate 95% confidence intervals. Of a total of 1242 TB cases, 243 (19.6%) were MDR-TB. Only 201 cases were included in the analysis; 127 (63.2%) were males and the mean patient age was 33.6 (standard deviation 16.2) years. Weight changes over time among the patients who were cured differed from changes in those who died during therapy (p<0.001). Weight curve divergence was important at the end of the third, fourth, and fifth treatment months: on average, the weight difference was 2.18kg (p<0.001), 3.27kg (p=0.007), and 3.58kg (p=0.03), respectively, when cured patients were compared to those who died. Our results show that weight variation during treatment can be a useful surrogate for the treatment outcome, specifically death during therapy. MDR-TB patients with weight loss should be followed more closely, as they are at greater risk of death. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical and physical seed defenses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential. Limited understanding of interspecific variation ...

  5. Seed set, berry weight, and yield interactions in highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yields and berry weights of two widely grown, commercial, highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’, were evaluated for 3 or more harvests every season over ten years, and seed set was determined at each harvest over the last four. Across 10 years, yield and berry weight had no significant...

  6. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Judith L; Oben, Julius E; Minka, Samuel R

    2005-05-25

    Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years). Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG) (1.05 g three time a day for one month) while 12 were on placebo (P) and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normocaloric diet evaluated every week by a dietetic record book. At the end, the mean body weight of the IG group was decreased by 5.26 +/- 2.37% (p < 0.0001) and that of the placebo group by 1.32 +/- 0.41% (p < 0.02). The difference observed between the IG and the placebo groups was significant (p < 0.01). The obese patients under Irvingia gabonensis treatment also had a significant decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and an increase of HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the placebo group did not manifest any changes in blood lipid components. Irvingia gabonensis seed may find application in weight lose.

  7. Weight variation in a cohort of women using copper IUD for contraception.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Daniela Fink; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Aldrighi, José Mendes; Bahamondes, Luis; Perrotti, Marcos

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess weight changes over time in reproductive-age women using nonhormonal contraception [copper intrauterine device (IUD) users]. Baseline variables recorded included age, parity, decade when the IUD was inserted and the presence of hypertension. A total of 1697 IUD users were followed for 7 years of use. The mean age (+/- SD) of the women at the beginning of follow-up was 27.6 +/- 5.8 years and the mean height (+/- SD) was 150 +/- 10 cm. The mean weight (+/- SD) at the time of IUD insertion was 58.5 +/- 0.30 kg. After 5 and 7 years of follow-up, the mean weight (+/- SD) was 61.2 +/- 0.33 kg and 62.4 +/- 0.51 kg, respectively. At insertion, the body mass index mean (+/- SD) was 24.5 +/- 0.12 and after 3 years it was 25 +/- 0.14, remaining above 25 up to the 7th year of observation. During the 7 years of follow-up, older women gained more weight than younger women. Parity, decade of IUD insertion and hypertension were not noted to be significant determinants of weight variation. In conclusion, this cohort of lower and middle class Brazilian copper IUD users tended to gain weight during their reproductive life, independent of other factors. These observations may improve counseling of women regarding the prevention of age-related obesity.

  8. Genetic variation in variability: Phenotypic variability of fledging weight and its evolution in a songbird population.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Han A; Gienapp, Philip; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-09-01

    Variation in traits is essential for natural selection to operate and genetic and environmental effects can contribute to this phenotypic variation. From domesticated populations, we know that families can differ in their level of within-family variance, which leads to the intriguing situation that within-family variance can be heritable. For offspring traits, such as birth weight, this implies that within-family variance in traits can vary among families and can thus be shaped by natural selection. Empirical evidence for this in wild populations is however lacking. We investigated whether within-family variance in fledging weight is heritable in a wild great tit (Parus major) population and whether these differences are associated with fitness. We found significant evidence for genetic variance in within-family variance. The genetic coefficient of variation (GCV) was 0.18 and 0.25, when considering fledging weight a parental or offspring trait, respectively. We found a significant quadratic relationship between within-family variance and fitness: families with low or high within-family variance had lower fitness than families with intermediate within-family variance. Our results show that within-family variance can respond to selection and provides evidence for stabilizing selection on within-family variance. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Investigations of the Response of Swimming Paramecia to Variations in their Apparent Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James; Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Mickalide, Harry; Wagman, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is a set of micro-organisms that are small enough that they swim at low Reynolds number and large enough that gravity exerts an influence on their behavior Many protists, like paramecia, for example, exhibit negative gravi-taxis by orienting their swimming upward and negative gravi-kinesis by increasing their propulsion when swimming against their apparent weight. It is not clear whether these responses to a very weak force (about 100 pN) are active or passive. We have developed a technique, Magnetic Force Buoyancy Variation, which enables us to vary the apparent weight of the swimmers in situ. We will describe experiments on paramecia conducted at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In particular, we will describe how increasing the apparent weight induces paramecia to accumulate at upper surfaces. A simple force model suggests that this accumulation is a passive response. Supported by NSF-PHY0750360 and a grant to the NHMFL, NSF DMR-0654118.

  10. Variation in sagebrush communities historically seeded with crested wheatgrass in the eastern great basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although crested wheatgrass (CWG; Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.) has been one of the most commonly seeded exotic species in the western United States, long-term successional trajectories of seeded sites are poorly characterized, especially for big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentana Nutt.) ecosystems...

  11. Stochastic and deterministic processes regulate spatio-temporal variation in seed bank diversity

    Treesearch

    Alejandro A. Royo; Todd E. Ristau

    2013-01-01

    Seed banks often serve as reservoirs of taxonomic and genetic diversity that buffer plant populations and influence post-disturbance vegetation trajectories; yet evaluating their importance requires understanding how their composition varies within and across spatial and temporal scales (α- and β-diversity). Shifts in seed bank diversity are strongly...

  12. Isoflavones in soybean seeds: Genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both controlled environment and field studies indicate that isoflavones, a dietary source of a class of bioactive phytochemicals present primarily in soybean seeds, increase greatly when seeds mature under cooler conditions or when plants are well-watered. Environmental effects can be superimposed ...

  13. Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongji; Wang, Jianjian; Lai, Liming; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Lehua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-05-01

    Seed mass and morphology are plant life history traits that influence seed dispersal ability, seeding establishment success, and population distribution pattern. Southeastern Tibet is a diversity center for Rhododendron species, which are distributed from a few hundred meters to 5500 m above sea level. We examined intra- and interspecific variation in seed mass and morphology in relation to altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny. Seed mass decreased significantly with the increasing altitude and increased significantly with increasing plant height among populations of the same species. Seed mass differed significantly among species and subsections, but not among sections and subgenera. Seed length, width, surface area, and wing length were significantly negative correlated with altitude and significantly positive correlated with plant height. Further, these traits differed significantly among habitats and varied among species and subsection, but not among sections and subgenera. Species at low elevation had larger seeds with larger wings, and seeds became smaller and the wings of seeds tended to be smaller with the increasing altitude. Morphology of the seed varied from flat round to long cylindrical with increasing altitude. We suggest that seed mass and morphology have evolved as a result of both long-term adaptation and constraints of the taxonomic group over their long evolutionary history.

  14. Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongji; Wang, Jianjian; Lai, Liming; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Lehua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-01-01

    Seed mass and morphology are plant life history traits that influence seed dispersal ability, seeding establishment success, and population distribution pattern. Southeastern Tibet is a diversity center for Rhododendron species, which are distributed from a few hundred meters to 5500 m above sea level. We examined intra- and interspecific variation in seed mass and morphology in relation to altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny. Seed mass decreased significantly with the increasing altitude and increased significantly with increasing plant height among populations of the same species. Seed mass differed significantly among species and subsections, but not among sections and subgenera. Seed length, width, surface area, and wing length were significantly negative correlated with altitude and significantly positive correlated with plant height. Further, these traits differed significantly among habitats and varied among species and subsection, but not among sections and subgenera. Species at low elevation had larger seeds with larger wings, and seeds became smaller and the wings of seeds tended to be smaller with the increasing altitude. Morphology of the seed varied from flat round to long cylindrical with increasing altitude. We suggest that seed mass and morphology have evolved as a result of both long-term adaptation and constraints of the taxonomic group over their long evolutionary history. PMID:24963385

  15. Genetic Variation Controlling Wrinkled Seed Phenotypes in Pisum: How Lucky Was Mendel?

    PubMed

    Rayner, Tracey; Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike; Isaac, Peter G; Ellis, Noel; Domoney, Claire

    2017-06-06

    One of the traits studied by Mendel in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the wrinkled-seeded phenotype, and the molecular basis for a mutation underlying this phenotype was discovered in the 1990s. Although the starch-branching enzyme gene mutation identified at the genetic locus r is most likely to be that in seeds available to Mendel in the mid-1800s, it has remained an open question as to whether or not additional natural mutations in this gene exist within Pisum germplasm collections. Here, we explore this question and show that all but two wrinkled-seeded variants in one such collection correspond to either the mutant allele described previously for the r locus or a mutation at a second genetic locus, rb, affecting the gene encoding the large subunit of Adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADP-glucose) pyrophosphorylase; the molecular basis for the rb mutation is described here. The genetic basis for the phenotype of one (JI 2110) of the two lines which are neither r nor rb has been studied in crosses with a round-seeded variant (JI 281); for which extensive genetic marker data were expected. In marked contrast to the trait studied by Mendel and the rb phenotype; the data suggest that the wrinkled-seeded phenotype in JI 2110 is maternally determined, controlled by two genetic loci, and the extent to which it is manifested is very sensitive to the environment. Metabolite analysis of the cotyledons of JI 2110 revealed a profile for sucrose and sucrose-derived compounds that was more similar to that of wild-type round-seeded, than that of wrinkled-seeded r, pea lines. However, the metabolite profile of the seed coat (testa) of JI 2110 was distinct from that of other round-seeded genotypes tested which, together with analysis of recombinant inbred progeny lines, suggests an explanation for the seed phenotype.

  16. Co-Variation between Seed Dormancy, Growth Rate and Flowering Time Changes with Latitude in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Debieu, Marilyne; Tang, Chunlao; Stich, Benjamin; Sikosek, Tobias; Effgen, Sigi; Josephs, Emily; Schmitt, Johanna; Nordborg, Magnus; Koornneef, Maarten; de Meaux, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Life-history traits controlling the duration and timing of developmental phases in the life cycle jointly determine fitness. Therefore, life-history traits studied in isolation provide an incomplete view on the relevance of life-cycle variation for adaptation. In this study, we examine genetic variation in traits covering the major life history events of the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana: seed dormancy, vegetative growth rate and flowering time. In a sample of 112 genotypes collected throughout the European range of the species, both seed dormancy and flowering time follow a latitudinal gradient independent of the major population structure gradient. This finding confirms previous studies reporting the adaptive evolution of these two traits. Here, however, we further analyze patterns of co-variation among traits. We observe that co-variation between primary dormancy, vegetative growth rate and flowering time also follows a latitudinal cline. At higher latitudes, vegetative growth rate is positively correlated with primary dormancy and negatively with flowering time. In the South, this trend disappears. Patterns of trait co-variation change, presumably because major environmental gradients shift with latitude. This pattern appears unrelated to population structure, suggesting that changes in the coordinated evolution of major life history traits is adaptive. Our data suggest that A. thaliana provides a good model for the evolution of trade-offs and their genetic basis. PMID:23717385

  17. Interspecific and annual variation in pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird in two East Asian hackberries, Celtis biondii and Celtis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Masaki, T; Isagi, Y; Kikuzawa, K

    2012-05-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation by granivorous birds has potential to limit fruit removal and subsequent seed dispersal by legitimate avian seed dispersers in bird-dispersed plants, especially when the birds form flocks. We monitored pre-dispersal seed predation by the Japanese grosbeak, Eophona personata, of two bird-dispersed hackberry species (Cannabaceae), Celtis biondii (four trees) and Celtis sinensis (10 trees), for 3 years (2005, 2007 and 2008) in a fragmented forest in temperate Japan. Throughout the 3 years, predation was more intense on C. biondii, which, as a consequence, lost a larger part of its fruit crop. Grosbeaks preferred C. biondii seeds that had a comparatively lower energy content and lower hardness than C. sinensis, suggesting an association between seed hardness and selective foraging by grosbeaks. In C. biondii, intensive predation markedly reduced fruit duration and strongly limited fruit removal by seed dispersers, especially in 2007 and 2008. In C. sinensis, seed dispersers consumed fruits throughout the fruiting seasons in all 3 years. In C. biondii, variation in the timing of grosbeak migration among years was associated with annual variation in this bird's effects on fruit removal. Our results demonstrate that seed predation by flocks of granivorous birds can dramatically disrupt seed dispersal in fleshy-fruited plants and suggest the importance of understanding their flocking behaviour.

  18. Variation in Germination and Amino Acid Leakage of Seeds with Temperature Related to Membrane Phase Change

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Sterling B.; Taylorson, Ray B.

    1976-01-01

    Leakages of amino acids and/or fluorescent material as functions of temperature between 15 and 40 C are reported for imbibed seeds of Avena fatua L., Lactuca sativa L., Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Amaranthus albus L., Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Lychnis alba Mill., Daucus carota L., Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and Datura stramonium L. The leakage indicates prominent increase in permeability of the plasmalemma in the 30 to 35 C range for 8 of the 10 kinds of seeds studied. Germination of the seeds at constant temperatures or with daily shifts in temperature is related to the membrane transition temperature for permeation by amino acids. Seeds of A. albus and A. theophrasti, which did not show membrane changes in the 25 to 40 C range, germinated best at 35 to 40 C; the other seeds germinated best below 30 C. Seeds of B. vulgaris showed rapid permeation of limiting membranes upon initial wetting with water, which was indicative of membrane disorder when dry. Leakage under anaerobiosis was observed for S. faberi seeds. PMID:16659623

  19. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  20. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m(2); gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  1. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5′-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea. PMID:25504138

  2. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-03-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5'-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea.

  3. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy.

  4. Statistical variations in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete subjected to drop weight test

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraja, M.C.; Dhang, N.; Gupta, A.P.

    1999-07-01

    The variation in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete as determined from a drop weight test is reported. The observed coefficients of variation are about 57 and 46% for first-crack resistance and the ultimate resistance in the case of fiber concrete and the corresponding values for plain concrete are 54 and 51%, respectively. The goodness-of-fit test indicated poor fitness of the impact-resistance test results produced in this study to normal distribution at 95% level of confidence for both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete. However, the percentage increase in number of blows from first crack to failure for both fiber-reinforced concrete and as well as plain concrete fit to normal distribution as indicated by the goodness-of-fit test. The coefficient of variation in percentage increase in the number of blows beyond first crack for fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete is 51.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Minimum number of tests required to reliably measure the properties of the material can be suggested based on the observed levels of variation.

  5. Supplementation of cottonseed, linseed, and noug seed cakes on feed intake, digestibility, body weight, and carcass parameters of Sidama goats.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Tolera, Adugna

    2010-04-01

    A digestibility, feed intake, and carcass evaluation experiment using 20 yearling intact male Sidama goats weighing 16.4 +/- 0.63 kg (mean +/- SD) was conducted in Ethiopia with the objectives to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) gain, and carcass parameters. The treatments included feeding natural pasture hay (T1, control) and supplementation with cottonseed cake (284 g-T2), linseed cake (250 g-T3), and noug seed cake (296 g-T4) on dry matter (DM) basis to supply 85 g crude protein (CP) per head per day. Randomized complete block design for feed intake and BW parameters and complete randomized design for digestibility and carcass parameters were used. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.01) for T1 than for the other treatments. T3 promoted higher (P < 0.01) DM (29.3 g/kg W(0.75)/day) and CP (14.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day) intake than T4 (8.9 g/kg W(0.75)/day DM and 4.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day CP). T3 showed better (P < 0.05) organic matter and CP digestibility than T2. Goats in T3 had higher nitrogen intake (P < 0.01) and retention (P < 0.05) than those in T1. Goats in T2 and T3 showed higher (P < 0.05) daily BW gain and final BW than those in T4 and T1. Goats in T2 and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) slaughter weight, empty BW, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area, and dressing percentage on slaughter weight basis than those in T1. The results showed that T2 and T3 had similar effect on CP intake, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters for growing Sidama goats fed natural pasture hay.

  6. Spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal in an Atlantic forest: Effects of habitat, location and guilds of seed predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianini, Alexander V.; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-11-01

    Studies of post-dispersal seed removal in the Neotropics have rarely examined the magnitude of seed removal by different types of granivores. The relative impact of invertebrates, small rodents, and birds on seed removal was investigated in a 2,178 ha Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. We used popcorn kernels ( Zea mays—Poaceae) to investigate seed removal in a series of selective exclosure treatments in a replicated, paired design experiment that included forest understory, gaps, and forest edge sites. We recorded the vegetation around the experimental seed stations in detail in order to evaluate the influence of microhabitat traits on seed removal. Vertebrate granivores (rodents and birds) were surveyed to determine whether granivore abundance was correlated with seed removal levels. Seed removal varied spatially and in unpredictable ways at the study site. Seed encounter and seed use varied with treatments, but not with habitat type. However, seed removal by invertebrates was negatively correlated with gap-related traits, which suggested an avoidance of large gaps by granivorous ants. The abundance of small mammals was remarkably low, but granivorous birds (tinamous and doves) were abundant at the study site. Birds were the main seed consumers in open treatments, but there was no correlation between local granivorous bird abundance and seed removal. These results emphasize the stochastic spatial pattern of seed removal, and, contrary to previous studies, highlight the importance of birds as seed predators in forest habitats.

  7. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations.

    PubMed

    Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Nogala-Kałucka, Małgorzata; Szala, Laurencja; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%). The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114) was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg) than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg). The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ) and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH). Significantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01), γ-T (r = -0,34, p < 0.01) and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may be good parents for further breeding programs focused on increasing

  8. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  9. Variation in seed germination of 134 common species on the eastern Tibetan Plateau: phylogenetic, life history and environmental correlates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Li, Wenlong; Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Wei; Du, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is a crucial stage in the life history of a species because it represents the pathway from adult to offspring, and it can affect the distribution and abundance of species in communities. In this study, we examined the effects of phylogenetic, life history and environmental factors on seed germination of 134 common species from an alpine/subalpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. In one-way ANOVAs, phylogenetic groups (at or above order) explained 13.0% and 25.9% of the variance in germination percentage and mean germination time, respectively; life history attributes, such as seed size, dispersal mode, explained 3.7%, 2.1% of the variance in germination percentage and 6.3%, 8.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively; the environmental factors temperature and habitat explained 4.7%, 1.0% of the variance in germination percentage and 13.5%, 1.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively. Our results demonstrated that elevated temperature would lead to a significant increase in germination percentage and an accelerated germination. Multi-factorial ANOVAs showed that the three major factors contributing to differences in germination percentage and mean germination time in this alpine/subalpine meadow were phylogenetic attributes, temperature and seed size (explained 10.5%, 4.7% and 1.4% of the variance in germination percentage independently, respectively; and explained 14.9%, 13.5% and 2.7% of the variance in mean germination time independently, respectively). In addition, there were strong associations between phylogenetic group and life history attributes, and between life history attributes and environmental factors. Therefore, germination variation are constrained mainly by phylogenetic inertia in a community, and seed germination variation correlated with phylogeny is also associated with life history attributes, suggesting a role of niche adaptation in the conservation of germination variation within lineages

  10. Variation in Seed Germination of 134 Common Species on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Phylogenetic, Life History and Environmental Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Li, Wenlong; Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Wei; Du, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is a crucial stage in the life history of a species because it represents the pathway from adult to offspring, and it can affect the distribution and abundance of species in communities. In this study, we examined the effects of phylogenetic, life history and environmental factors on seed germination of 134 common species from an alpine/subalpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. In one-way ANOVAs, phylogenetic groups (at or above order) explained 13.0% and 25.9% of the variance in germination percentage and mean germination time, respectively; life history attributes, such as seed size, dispersal mode, explained 3.7%, 2.1% of the variance in germination percentage and 6.3%, 8.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively; the environmental factors temperature and habitat explained 4.7%, 1.0% of the variance in germination percentage and 13.5%, 1.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively. Our results demonstrated that elevated temperature would lead to a significant increase in germination percentage and an accelerated germination. Multi-factorial ANOVAs showed that the three major factors contributing to differences in germination percentage and mean germination time in this alpine/subalpine meadow were phylogenetic attributes, temperature and seed size (explained 10.5%, 4.7% and 1.4% of the variance in germination percentage independently, respectively; and explained 14.9%, 13.5% and 2.7% of the variance in mean germination time independently, respectively). In addition, there were strong associations between phylogenetic group and life history attributes, and between life history attributes and environmental factors. Therefore, germination variation are constrained mainly by phylogenetic inertia in a community, and seed germination variation correlated with phylogeny is also associated with life history attributes, suggesting a role of niche adaptation in the conservation of germination variation within lineages

  11. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine ( pinus ponderosa' dougl. ex laws). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.C.; Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-03-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with short, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation were highest in the region having the steepest precipitation gradients. Most of the variation occurred, however, within locations.

  12. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  13. Genetic variation and seed zones of douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Sugano, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    The provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in the common garden. Within the Forest, three breeding blocks were recommended, with different numbers of elevational bands in each block: from 0 to 610 meters, from 611 to 838 meters, and then a series of bands 152 meters wide at higher elevations.

  14. Identification of QTL with large effect on seed weight in a selective population of soybean with genome-wide association and fixation index analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to identify candidate QTL that had a large effect on seed weight using a selective population through GWAS and fixation index analysis. A selective population was previously used for the identification of QTL in linkage analysis of bi-parental RIL populations in plant species, but ...

  15. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

  16. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times.

  17. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times. PMID:25628873

  18. Spatial variation in seed bank dynamics of two annual brome species in the northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Annual bromes decrease forage production in northern central plains rangelands of North America. Early life history stages are when plants are most failure-prone, yet studying death post-germination and prior to emergence is difficult. In seed bank collections conducted over the course of two growin...

  19. Multiscale properties of weighted total variation flow with applications to denoising and registration.

    PubMed

    Athavale, Prashant; Xu, Robert; Radau, Perry; Nachman, Adrian; Wright, Graham A

    2015-07-01

    Images consist of structures of varying scales: large scale structures such as flat regions, and small scale structures such as noise, textures, and rapidly oscillatory patterns. In the hierarchical (BV, L(2)) image decomposition, Tadmor, et al. (2004) start with extracting coarse scale structures from a given image, and successively extract finer structures from the residuals in each step of the iterative decomposition. We propose to begin instead by extracting the finest structures from the given image and then proceed to extract increasingly coarser structures. In most images, noise could be considered as a fine scale structure. Thus, starting the image decomposition with finer scales, rather than large scales, leads to fast denoising. We note that our approach turns out to be equivalent to the nonstationary regularization in Scherzer and Weickert (2000). The continuous limit of this procedure leads to a time-scaled version of total variation flow. Motivated by specific clinical applications, we introduce an image depending weight in the regularization functional, and study the corresponding weighted TV flow. We show that the edge-preserving property of the multiscale representation of an input image obtained with the weighted TV flow can be enhanced and localized by appropriate choice of the weight. We use this in developing an efficient and edge-preserving denoising algorithm with control on speed and localization properties. We examine analytical properties of the weighted TV flow that give precise information about the denoising speed and the rate of change of energy of the images. An additional contribution of the paper is to use the images obtained at different scales for robust multiscale registration. We show that the inherently multiscale nature of the weighted TV flow improved performance for registration of noisy cardiac MRI images, compared to other methods such as bilateral or Gaussian filtering. A clinical application of the multiscale registration

  20. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Quiñones, Adriana; Mutch, David M; Debard, Cyrille; Wang, Ping; Combes, Marion; Roussel, Balbine; Holst, Claus; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kalouskova, Pavla; Jebb, Susan; Babalis, Dimitris; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H M; Mariman, Edwin; Clément, Karine; Vidal, Hubert; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood. We aimed to identify and characterize differences in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transcriptome of subjects with different weight changes after energy restriction-induced weight loss during 6 mo on 4 different diets. After an 8-wk low-calorie diet (800 kcal/d), we randomly assigned weight-reduced obese subjects from 8 European countries to receive 4 diets that differed in protein and glycemic index content. In addition to anthropometric and plasma markers, SAT biopsies were taken at the beginning [clinical investigation day (CID) 2] and end (CID3) of the weight follow-up period. Microarray analysis was used to define SAT gene expression profiles at CID2 and CID3 in 22 women with continued weight loss (successful group) and in 22 women with weight regain (unsuccessful group) across the 4 dietary arms. Differences in SAT gene expression patterns between successful and unsuccessful groups were mainly due to weight variations rather than to differences in dietary macronutrient content. An analysis of covariance with total energy intake as a covariate identified 1338 differentially expressed genes. Cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, cellular function, and maintenance were the main biological processes represented in SAT from subjects who regained weight. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was the major pattern associated with continued weight loss. The ability to control body weight loss independent of energy intake or diet composition is reflected in the SAT transcriptome. Although cell proliferation may be detrimental, a greater mitochondrial energy gene expression is suggested as being beneficial for weight control. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.

  1. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  2. Whole-Genome Analysis of Candidate genes Associated with Seed Size and Weight in Sorghum bicolor Reveals Signatures of Artificial Selection and Insights into Parallel Domestication in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yongfu; Mace, Emma S.; Tai, Shuaishuai; Cruickshank, Alan; Campbell, Bradley C.; Zhao, Xianrong; Van Oosterom, Erik J.; Godwin, Ian D.; Botella, Jose R.; Jordan, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication. A significant number of these genes also had domestication signatures in maize and rice, consistent with the parallel domestication of seed size in cereals. Seed size candidate genes that exhibited differentially high expression levels in seed were also found more likely to be under selection during domestication, supporting the hypothesis that modification to seed size during domestication preferentially targeted genes for intrinsic seed size rather than genes associated with physiological factors involved in the carbohydrate supply and transport. Our results provide improved understanding of the complex genetic control of seed size and weight and the impact of domestication on these genes. PMID:28769949

  3. Whole-Genome Analysis of Candidate genes Associated with Seed Size and Weight in Sorghum bicolor Reveals Signatures of Artificial Selection and Insights into Parallel Domestication in Cereal Crops.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yongfu; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Cruickshank, Alan; Campbell, Bradley C; Zhao, Xianrong; Van Oosterom, Erik J; Godwin, Ian D; Botella, Jose R; Jordan, David R

    2017-01-01

    Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication. A significant number of these genes also had domestication signatures in maize and rice, consistent with the parallel domestication of seed size in cereals. Seed size candidate genes that exhibited differentially high expression levels in seed were also found more likely to be under selection during domestication, supporting the hypothesis that modification to seed size during domestication preferentially targeted genes for intrinsic seed size rather than genes associated with physiological factors involved in the carbohydrate supply and transport. Our results provide improved understanding of the complex genetic control of seed size and weight and the impact of domestication on these genes.

  4. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  5. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bradley St Clair, John; Kilkenny, Francis F; Johnson, Richard C; Shaw, Nancy L; Weaver, George

    2013-09-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology, and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated with the climates of the seed sources. Pseudoroegneria spicata populations from warm, arid source environments were smaller with earlier phenology and had relatively narrow leaves than those from mild climates with cool summers, warm winters, low seasonal temperature differentials, high precipitation, and low aridity. Later phenology was generally associated with populations from colder climates. Releases were larger and more fecund than most of the native ecotypes, but were similar to native populations near their source of origin. Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure adapted plant materials for restoration activities.

  6. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley St. Clair, John; Kilkenny, Francis F; Johnson, Richard C; Shaw, Nancy L; Weaver, George

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology, and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated with the climates of the seed sources. Pseudoroegneria spicata populations from warm, arid source environments were smaller with earlier phenology and had relatively narrow leaves than those from mild climates with cool summers, warm winters, low seasonal temperature differentials, high precipitation, and low aridity. Later phenology was generally associated with populations from colder climates. Releases were larger and more fecund than most of the native ecotypes, but were similar to native populations near their source of origin. Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure adapted plant materials for restoration activities. PMID:24062802

  7. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  8. Seed size variability: from carob to carats

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth. PMID:17148413

  9. Jacobian weighted temporal total variation for motion compensated compressed sensing reconstruction of dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Royuela-Del-Val, Javier; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Simmross-Wattenberg, Federico; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Alberola-López, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To eliminate the need of spatial intraframe regularization in a recently reported dynamic MRI compressed-sensing-based reconstruction method with motion compensation and to increase its performance. We propose a new regularization metric based on the introduction of a spatial weighting measure given by the Jacobian of the estimated deformations. It shows convenient discretization properties and, as a byproduct, it also provides a theoretical support to a result reported by others based on an intuitive design. The method has been applied to the reconstruction of both short and long axis views of the heart of four healthy volunteers. Quantitative image quality metrics as well as straightforward visual assessment are reported. Short and long axis reconstructions of cardiac cine MRI sequences have shown superior results than previously reported methods both in terms of quantitative metrics and of visual assessment. Fine details are better preserved due to the lack of additional intraframe regularization, with no significant image artifacts even for an acceleration factor of 12. The proposed Jacobian Weighted temporal Total Variation results in better reconstructions of highly undersampled cardiac cine MRI than previously proposed methods and sets a theoretical ground for forward and backward predictors used elsewhere. Magn Reson Med 77:1208-1215, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution using adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Changfei; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease by assessing the myocardial perfusion hemodynamic maps (MPHM). Meanwhile, the repeated scanning of the same region results in a relatively large radiation dose to patients potentially. In this work, we present a robust MPCT deconvolution algorithm with adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization to estimate residue function accurately under the low-dose context, which is termed `MPD-AwTTV'. More specifically, the AwTTV regularization takes into account the anisotropic edge property of the MPCT images compared with the conventional total variation (TV) regularization, which can mitigate the drawbacks of TV regularization. Subsequently, an effective iterative algorithm was adopted to minimize the associative objective function. Experimental results on a modified XCAT phantom demonstrated that the present MPD-AwTTV algorithm outperforms and is superior to other existing deconvolution algorithms in terms of noise-induced artifacts suppression, edge details preservation and accurate MPHM estimation.

  12. Visualization of Anatomic Variation of the Anterior Septal Vein on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengzhen; Qiao, Huihuang; Guo, Yu; Li, Jiance; Miao, Huizhong; Wen, Caiyun; Wen, Xindong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Yang, Xindong; Chen, Chengchun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Understanding the anatomy of the anterior septal vein (ASV) is critical for minimally invasive procedures to the third ventricle and for assessing lesion size and venous drainage in the anterior cranial fossa. Accordingly, this study evaluated topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods Sixty volunteers were examined using a 3.0T MR system. The diameter of the ASV and distance between bilateral septal points were measured. ASVs were divided into types 1 (only drains frontal lobe) and 2 (drains both frontal lobe and head of the caudate nucleus). We evaluated the ASV-internal cerebral vein (ICV) junction based on its positional relationship with the appearance of a venous angle or a false venous angle and the foramen of Monro. Fused SW and T1-weighted images were used to observe positional relationships between the course of the ASV and the surrounding brain structures. Results The ASV and its small tributaries were clearly visualized in 120 hemispheres (100%). The average diameter of ASVs was 1.05±0.17 mm (range 0.9–1.6 mm). The average distance between bilateral septal points was 2.23±1.03 mm (range 1.3–6.6 mm). The ASV types 1 and 2 were in 77 (64.2%) and 43 (35.8%) hemispheres, respectively. In 83 (69.2%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated at the venous angle and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. In 37 (30.8%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated beyond the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. The average distance between the posteriorly located ASV-ICV junction and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro was 6.41±3.95 mm (range 2.4–15.9 mm). Conclusion Using SWI, the topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV were clearly demonstrated. Preoperative assessment of anatomic variation of the ASV may be advantageous for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. PMID:27716782

  13. Variation of Binge Eating One Year after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Its Relationship with Excess Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brito, César Luis de Souza; Debon, Letícia Manoel; Brandalise, Lívia Nora; de Azevedo, Juliana Tainski; Monbach, Karin Daniele; Heberle, Luísa Schmidt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity classes II and III. However, some patients do not get the desired results or initially lose and then regain the lost weight. Identifying these individuals early on and treating them adequately remains a challenge. As binge eating directly affects food intake, the study of this symptom and its relation to bariatric surgery and its results is increasing, because it appears to have an influence on the results of surgery. Objectives This study aimed to see how binge eating changes, measured with the Binge Eating Scale, interferes in the % excess weight loss one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 149 patients older than 18 years who were evaluated one year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The variation in the intensity of binge eating was measured with the pre- and postoperative Binge Eating Scale scores. Results The variation of one unit in the Binge Eating Scale implied an inverse variation of 0.41% of % excess weight loss (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient between the variation of binge eating and the % excess weight loss was -0.186 (p = 0.033). The correlation coefficient between the binge eating symptoms one year after surgery and the % excess weight loss was -0.353 (p<0.001). Conclusions There was a correlation between the variation of binge eating one year after gastric bypass and the % excess weight loss. The correlation between binge eating and the % excess weight loss was greater after the surgery than it was at the preoperative stage. This study provides new, valuable information on the intensity and variation of binge eating symptoms one year after gastric bypass, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been studied in depth earlier. PMID:27992541

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study in Arabidopsis thaliana of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Melting Point: A Widespread Adaptive Trait in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Sara J.; Reba, Aaron; Morrison, Ginnie D.; Linder, C. Randal

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were used to assess whether seed oil melting point within a species varied with germination temperature. In support of the adaptive explanation, long-term monthly spring and fall field temperatures of the accession collection sites significantly predicted their seed oil melting points. In addition, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to determine which genes were most likely responsible for the natural variation in seed oil melting point. The GWAS found a single highly significant association within the coding region of FAD2, which encodes a fatty acid desaturase central to the oil biosynthesis pathway. In a separate analysis of 15 a priori oil synthesis candidate genes, 2 (FAD2 and FATB) were located near significant SNPs associated with seed oil melting point. These results comport with others’ molecular work showing that lines with alterations in these genes affect seed oil melting point as expected. Our results suggest natural selection has acted on a small number of loci to alter a quantitative trait in response to local environmental conditions. PMID:26865732

  15. Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions.

  16. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species.

  17. QRS complex detection in ECG signals using locally adaptive weighted total variation denoising.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tanushree; Sharma, Kamalesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The QRS complex is the most prominent feature in the electrocardiogram (ECG), therefore, its detection is required for delineation of other waves and segments in the ECG and derivation of additional clinically useful information. QRS detection is complicated by factors like varying QRS morphologies, noise, artefacts and interference from tall and pointed P- and T-waves. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for QRS detection by preprocessing the ECG using weighted total variation (WTV) denoising. A local estimate of noise in the signal block under consideration is used to determine the regularization parameter in WTV minimization, which determines the amount of smoothing applied. This makes the denoising locally adaptive. The weights are chosen so as to give preference to preservation of QRS complexes over P- and T-waves while smoothing. Thus, the technique can simultaneously reduce the higher frequency noise as well as the lower frequency interference from P- and T-waves, in spite of the fact that they have overlapping spectra with the QRS complexes. The proposed method is evaluated on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and gives improved detection accuracy over established and state-of-the-art techniques. The technique has low computational load, therefore, it can be used for fast offline QRS detection in long duration ECG records, as well as real-time QRS detection in block-by-block processing mode. The average values of sensitivity, positive predictivity and detection error rate are 99.90%, 99.88% and 0.23%, for the offline implementation, respectively, and 99.86%, 99.85% and 0.29%, for the real-time mode, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy in annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivan; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Vaismaa, Matti; Vanninen, Paula; Koskela, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Powder-like extract of Ricinus communis seeds contain a toxic protein, ricin, which has a history of military, criminal and terroristic use. As the detection of ricin in this "terrorist powder" is difficult and time-consuming, related low mass metabolites have been suggested to be useful for screening as biomarkers of ricin. To apply a comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy for annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight plant metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds. The seed extract was prepared with a well-known acetone extraction approach. The common metabolites were annotated from seed extract dissolved in acidic solution using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with spectrum library comparison and standard addition, whereas unconfirmed metabolites were identified using multi-step off-line HPLC-DAD-NMR approach. In addition to the common plant metabolites, two previously unreported compounds, 1,3-digalactoinositol and ricinyl-alanine, were identified with support of MS analyses. The applied comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy provided identification of the prominent low molecular weight metabolites with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  20. [Evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xia, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao; Fan, Qin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Ya-Li; Liu, Xiong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the utilization of fuzzy matter-element model in evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis. The quality of Angelica sinensis from different habitats was evaluated by determining six main compositions contained in the samples with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight. Angelica sinensis collected from 22 hatitats were divided into three ranges based on the values of approach degrees. Fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight can judge the quality of Angelica sinensis objectively and feasibly.

  1. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  2. Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum

    PubMed Central

    Hay, F. R.; Smith, R. D.; Ellis, R. H.; Butler, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Methods Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Key Results Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33–36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 °C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Conclusions Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors. PMID:20228084

  3. Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum.

    PubMed

    Hay, F R; Smith, R D; Ellis, R H; Butler, L H

    2010-06-01

    Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33-36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p(50)) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 degrees C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors.

  4. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  5. Molecular weight and galloylation affect grape seed extract constituents’ ability to cross-link dentin collagen in clinically relevant time

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Bai, Xinyan; Li, Shaohua; Liu, Ying; Keightley, Andrew; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the structures of polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed extract (GSE) and their activity in cross-linking dentin collagen in clinically relevant settings. Methods Representative monomeric and dimeric GSE constituents including (+)-catechin (pCT), (−)-catechin (CT), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin B2 and a pCT-pCT dimer were purchased or synthesized. GSE was separated into low (PALM) and high molecular weight (PAHM) fractions. Human molars were processed into dentin films and beams. After demineralization, 11 groups of films (n=5) were treated for 1 min with the aforementioned reagents (1 wt% in 50/50 ethanol/water) and 1 group remained untreated. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by a quantitative mass spectroscopy-based digestion assay. Tensile properties of demineralized dentin beams were evaluated (n=7) after treatments (2h and 24h) with selective GSE species that were found to protect dentin collagen from collagenase. Results Efficacy of GSE constituents in cross-linking dentin collagen was dependent on molecular size and galloylation. Non-galloylated species with degree of polymerization up to two, including pCT, CT, EC, EGC, procyanidin B2 and pCT-pCT dimer were not active. Galloylated species were active starting from monomeric form, including ECG, EGCG, PALM, GSE and PAHM. PALM induced the best overall improvement in tensile properties of dentin collagen. Significance Identification under clinically relevant settings of structural features that contribute to GSE constituents’ efficacy in stabilizing demineralized dentin matrix has immediate impact on optimizing GSE’s use in dentin bonding. PMID:25958268

  6. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  7. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Takashi; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Fukai, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term "multimodality-weighted principal component analysis" (mPCA), and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student's t mixture model (SVB). The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP) inference for the "degree of freedom" parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these "difficult" neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3) is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/.

  8. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Mavrogianni, A; Johnson, F; Ucci, M; Marmot, A; Wardle, J; Oreszczyn, T; Summerfield, A

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain.

  9. Temporal variation in the prevalence of weight and obesity excess in adults: Brazil, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Meléndez, Gustavo Velasquez

    2011-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are public health issues that affect an important part of the world population. This study aims at describing the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence rates from 2006 to 2009, by means of telephone surveys in 27 Brazilian cities, with a population aged 18 years or older. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated by the reported height and weight; overweight and obesity were considered as BMI >25 kg/m² and >30 kg/m², respectively. Temporal variation in overweight and obesity prevalence is presented for men and women, according to age group, schooling, stable relationship, and skin color. Poisson regression was used for the analysis. Overweight prevalence was 43.0, 42.7, 44.2 and 46.6%,for each year of the period from 2006 to 2009, respectively. For obesity, in the same period, the trend was: 11.4, 12.7, 13.2 and 13.8%. The temporal trend varied in relation to some demographic and socioeconomic variables. The prevalence was higher among women and young adults. The temporal trend was independent of the relationship status of the interviewees, but the prevalence was higher among white women and those with less years of schooling. The results in this study confirmed the urgent need for effective prevention and control measures, as the increasing trend is occurring in a short period of time, especially among youngsters.

  10. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, Takashi; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Fukai, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term “multimodality-weighted principal component analysis” (mPCA), and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student's t mixture model (SVB). The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP) inference for the “degree of freedom” parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these “difficult” neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3) is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/. PMID:22448159

  11. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of oxygen and their variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    There is a problem with the absolute abundance measurements of oxygen. One of these calibrated measurements is in error, either oxygen in air, or oxygen in (V-SMOW), Vienna's standard mean ocean water reference material. Nier's measurement in air is probably wrong by three times his quoted error and his ratio for /sup 18/O//sup 16/O should be 0.002053 and not 0.002044. Fortunately, this has only a minor effect on the atomic weight. However, this error raises doubts on all /sup 17/O)//sup 16/O values. Each /sup 17/O//sup 16/O is determined using an enrichment factor, relative to the value of /sup 17/O//sup 16/O in the standard, which is the square root of the enrichment factor for /sup 18/O//sup 16/O relative to the standard. All standards, including V-SMOW, have /sup 17/O//sup 16/O values which have been derived originally from Nier's measurement of oxygen in air. In addition, a review of the literature provides isotopic abundance variations in various sources of oxygen. 115 refs., 12 tabs.

  12. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice.

    PubMed

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-05-01

    Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls remained untreated and experimental groups were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages during 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the brain was removed and blood samples were collected to measure sex hormone levels by ELISA. Data analysis was done by statistical ANOVA test using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The results of this study shows that the brain weight of mice did not change significantly, but the sex hormone levels in the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups increased significantly (P<0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of flax seed had no effect on the brain weight, but this extract improved the sexual hormone levels.

  13. Climatic variation and seed persistence: freeze-thaw cycles lower survival via the joint action of abiotic stress and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian M; Orrock, John L

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change is altering thermal cycles in soils during late winter, a transition that may directly threaten seed survival via abiotic stress, facilitate infection by soil-borne pathogens, or both. Using field-collected soil and seeds of the perennial bunchgrass Elymus canadensis, we tested the hypothesis that soil freeze-thaw events limit survival within the soil through direct effects on seed persistence and amplification of soil pathogen attack using a factorial experiment that manipulated freeze-thaw cycles (constant freeze vs. freeze-thaw) and fungicide addition. Freeze-thaw treatment resulted in lower seedling emergence and delayed emergence time relative to constant-freeze controls. Fungicide-treated soils had greater emergence relative to untreated soils; the lowest seedling emergence was observed in no-fungicide, freeze-thaw-treated soils (<1 %). The strong effects of thermal variability and fungi on seeds were mitigated through interactions at the seed-soil interface, as subsequent experiments showed that fungicide and freeze-thaw treatments alone do not influence dormancy. Our work demonstrates that changes in freeze-thaw events directly limit seedling emergence, delay seedling phenology, and provide opportunities for fungal pathogens to limit seed persistence. As recruitment from seeds is a key determinant of plant population dynamics, these results suggest that climatic variation may generate unique consequences for populations under changing climate regimes.

  14. Independence of genetic variation between circadian rhythm and development time in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Harano, Tomohiro; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2011-03-01

    A positive genetic correlation between periods of circadian rhythm and developmental time supports the hypothesis that circadian clocks are implicated in the timing of development. Empirical evidence for this genetic correlation in insects has been documented in two fly species. In contrast, here we show that there is no evidence of genetic correlation between circadian rhythm and development time in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. This species has variation that is explained by a major gene in the expression and period length of circadian rhythm between strains. In this study, we found genetic variation in development time between the strains. The development time was not covaried with either the incidence or the period length of circadian rhythm among the strains. Crosses between strains suggest that development time is controlled by a polygene. In the F(2) individuals from the crosses, the circadian rhythm is attributable to allelic variation in the major gene. Across the F(2) individuals, development time was not correlated with either the expression or the period length of circadian rhythm. Thus, we found no effects of major genes responsible for variation in the circadian rhythm on development time in C. chinensis. Our findings collectively give no support to the hypothesis that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of development time in this species.

  15. Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract stimulates whole brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and reduces feeding behavior and body weight in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Ahmed, Maryam; Parveen, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight.

  16. A combined linkage and regional association mapping validation and fine mapping of two major pleiotropic QTLs for seed weight and silique length in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seed weight (SW) and silique length (SL) are important determinants of the yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). However, the genetic basis of both traits is poorly understood. The main objectives of this study were to dissect the genetic basis of SW and SL in rapeseed through the preliminary mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTL) by linkage analysis and fine mapping of the target major QTL by regional association analysis. Results Preliminary linkage mapping identified thirteen and nine consensus QTLs for SW and SL, respectively. These QTLs explained 0.7-67.1% and 2.1-54.4% of the phenotypic variance for SW and SL, respectively. Of these QTLs, three pairs of SW and SL QTLs were co-localized and integrated into three unique QTLs. In addition, the significance level and genetic effect of the three co-localized QTLs for both SW and SL showed great variation before and after the conditional analysis. Moreover, the allelic effects of the three QTLs for SW were highly consistent with those for SL. Two of the three co-localized QTLs, uq.A09-1 (mean R2 = 20.1% and 19.0% for SW and SL, respectively) and uq.A09-3 (mean R2 = 13.5% and 13.2% for SW and SL, respectively), were detected in all four environments and showed the opposite additive-effect direction. These QTLs were validated and fine mapped (their confidence intervals were narrowed down from 5.3 cM to 1 cM for uq.A09-1 and 13.2 cM to 2.5 cM for uq.A09-3) by regional association analysis with a panel of 576 inbred lines, which has a relatively rapid linkage disequilibrium decay (0.3 Mb) in the target QTL region. Conclusions A few QTLs with major effects and several QTLs with moderate effects might contribute to the natural variation of SW and SL in rapeseed. The meta-, conditional and allelic effect analyses suggested that pleiotropy, rather than tight linkage, was the genetic basis of the three pairs of co-localized of SW and SL QTLs. Regional association analysis was an

  17. Variations in fatty acid composition of neem seeds collected from the Rajasthan state of India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Vir, S

    2000-12-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree native to the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asian countries. Products derived from neem have been used for centuries, particularly in India, for medicinal and pest-management purposes. Azadirachtin and neem oil are the two major commercially important products derived from the tree. The oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in good proportion. Although there is growing demand for quality planting material for plantation of neem, efforts are lacking for the selection of neem trees based on their biochemical composition. In the present study, 60 Neem seed samples were collected from different provinances of the Rajasthan state in India. These samples were analysed by GLC to study the variability of fatty acid composition. Significant variability in individual fatty acids was observed. The palmitic acid ranged from 16 to 34%, stearic acid from 6 to 24%, oleic acid from 25 to 58% and linoleic acid from 6 to 17%. This variability can be exploited for selection of trees and for studying the genetic variability in neem. These selections can also be utilized for genetic improvement of the tree.

  18. Structure-adaptive CBCT reconstruction using weighted total variation and Hessian penalties

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qi; Sun, Nanbo; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jing; Tan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of normal tissues to high radiation during cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging increases the risk of cancer and genetic defects. Statistical iterative algorithms with the total variation (TV) penalty have been widely used for low dose CBCT reconstruction, with state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noise and preserving edges. However, TV is a first-order penalty and sometimes leads to the so-called staircase effect, particularly over regions with smooth intensity transition in the reconstruction images. A second-order penalty known as the Hessian penalty was recently used to replace TV to suppress the staircase effect in CBCT reconstruction at the cost of slightly blurring object edges. In this study, we proposed a new penalty, the TV-H, which combines TV and Hessian penalties for CBCT reconstruction in a structure-adaptive way. The TV-H penalty automatically differentiates the edges, gradual transition and uniform local regions within an image using the voxel gradient, and adaptively weights TV and Hessian according to the local image structures in the reconstruction process. Our proposed penalty retains the benefits of TV, including noise suppression and edge preservation. It also maintains the structures in regions with gradual intensity transition more successfully. A majorization-minimization (MM) approach was designed to optimize the objective energy function constructed with the TV-H penalty. The MM approach employed a quadratic upper bound of the original objective function, and the original optimization problem was changed to a series of quadratic optimization problems, which could be efficiently solved using the Gauss-Seidel update strategy. We tested the reconstruction algorithm on two simulated digital phantoms and two physical phantoms. Our experiments indicated that the TV-H penalty visually and quantitatively outperformed both TV and Hessian penalties. PMID:27699100

  19. Structure-adaptive CBCT reconstruction using weighted total variation and Hessian penalties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Sun, Nanbo; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jing; Tan, Shan

    2016-09-01

    The exposure of normal tissues to high radiation during cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging increases the risk of cancer and genetic defects. Statistical iterative algorithms with the total variation (TV) penalty have been widely used for low dose CBCT reconstruction, with state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noise and preserving edges. However, TV is a first-order penalty and sometimes leads to the so-called staircase effect, particularly over regions with smooth intensity transition in the reconstruction images. A second-order penalty known as the Hessian penalty was recently used to replace TV to suppress the staircase effect in CBCT reconstruction at the cost of slightly blurring object edges. In this study, we proposed a new penalty, the TV-H, which combines TV and Hessian penalties for CBCT reconstruction in a structure-adaptive way. The TV-H penalty automatically differentiates the edges, gradual transition and uniform local regions within an image using the voxel gradient, and adaptively weights TV and Hessian according to the local image structures in the reconstruction process. Our proposed penalty retains the benefits of TV, including noise suppression and edge preservation. It also maintains the structures in regions with gradual intensity transition more successfully. A majorization-minimization (MM) approach was designed to optimize the objective energy function constructed with the TV-H penalty. The MM approach employed a quadratic upper bound of the original objective function, and the original optimization problem was changed to a series of quadratic optimization problems, which could be efficiently solved using the Gauss-Seidel update strategy. We tested the reconstruction algorithm on two simulated digital phantoms and two physical phantoms. Our experiments indicated that the TV-H penalty visually and quantitatively outperformed both TV and Hessian penalties.

  20. Oleosin Isoforms of High and Low Molecular Weights Are Present in the Oil Bodies of Diverse Seed Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, Jason T. C.; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chan, Kwai-Lan; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. We purified five different oleosins (maize [Zea mays L.] KD 16 and KD 18, soybean [Glycine max L.] KD 18 and KD 24, and rapeseed [Brassica campestris L.] KD 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. These antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. Within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did not cross-react with the other oleosin isoform (i.e. between maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18, and between soybean oleosins KD 18 and KD 24). However, the respective antibodies were able to recognize oleosins from other seed species. Where interspecies cross-reactivity occurred, the results suggest that there are at least two immunologically distinct isoforms of oleosins present in diverse seed species, one of lower Mr, and another one of higher Mr. This suggestion is also supported by the relative similarities between the amino acid sequence of a small portion of rapeseed oleosin KD 20 and those of maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18. In maize kernel, there was a tissue-specific differential presentation of the three oleosins, KD 16, KD 18, and KD 19, in the oil-storing scutellum, embryonic axis, and aleurone layer. The phylogenetic relationship between the high and low Mr isoforms within the same, and among diverse, seed species is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667830

  1. Dosimetric variations in permanent breast seed implant due to patient arm position.

    PubMed

    Watt, Elizabeth; Husain, Siraj; Sia, Michael; Brown, Derek; Long, Karen; Meyer, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Planning and delivery for permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) are performed with the ipsilateral arm raised; however, changes in implant geometry can be expected because of healing and anatomical motion as the patient resumes her daily activities. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of ipsilateral arm position on postplan dosimetry. Twelve patients treated at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre were included in this study. Patients underwent two postimplant CT scans on the day of implant (Day 0) and two scans approximately 8 weeks later (Day 60). One scan at each time was taken with the ipsilateral arm raised, recreating the planning scan position, and the other with both arms down in a relaxed position beside the body, recreating a more realistic postimplant arm position. Postplans were completed on all four scans using deformable image registration (MIM Maestro). On the Day 0 scan, the V200 for the evaluation planning target volume was significantly increased in the arm-down position compared with the arm-up position. Lung, rib, and chest wall dose were significantly reduced at both time points. Left anterior descending coronary artery, heart, and skin dose showed no significant differences at either time point. Although some dosimetric indices show significant differences between the arm-up and arm-down positions, the magnitude of these differences is small and the values remain indicative of implant quality. Despite the delivery of the majority of dose with the arm down, it is reasonable to use CT scans taken in the arm-up position for postplanning. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic determinism for within-litter birth weight variation and its relationship with litter weight and litter size in the Ripollesa ewe breed.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2007-06-01

    Birth weight plays a central role in lamb survival and growth, and the knowledge of its genetic determinism has become essential in worldwide selection programmes. Within this context, within-litter birth weight variation (BWV) has been suggested as an attractive trait to homogenise litters in prolific species, although it has not been analysed in sheep. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for BWV in Ripollesa ewes, and to study its genetic, permanent environmental and residual relationships with litter weight (LW) and litter size (LS) at birth. Data were recorded in the Ripollesa experimental flock of the Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, between 1986 and 2005, and included 1 662 litters from 380 ewes, with 712 records of BWV and 1 530 records of LW. Traits were analysed with a multivariate animal model solved through Bayesian methodologies, and with a threshold characterisation of LS. Additionally, the effect of BWV on lamb survival was studied. Additive genetic variance was observed for BWV (h2 = 0.061), as well as for LW (h2 = 0.200) and LS (h2 = 0.141). Nevertheless, genetic correlations among those traits were not substantial (BWV and LW = 0.151; BWV and LS = - 0.219; LW and LS = - 0.320) and suffered from a high degree of uncertainly, with the null correlation included within the highest posterior interval at 95%. Within-litter birth weight variation and LS showed a negative and large permanent environmental correlation ( - 0.872), and LW and LS were negatively correlated due to residual ( - 0.762) and permanent environmental ( - 0.449) random sources of variation. Within-litter birth weight variation influenced lamb mortality during the first 7 days of life (P < 0.05), increasing and decreasing survivability in heavier and lighter littermates, respectively. Nevertheless, stillbirths and lambs died after the 1st week of life were not affected by BWV (P>0.05). The low

  3. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  4. Induction of a germination specific, low molecular weight, acid phosphatase isozyme with specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in lentil (Lens esculenta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Bose, S K; Taneja, V

    1998-09-29

    A germination specific isozyme of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) hydrolysing O-phospho-L-Tyrosine, pH optima 5.5 is induced in lentil seeds. When seeds at 0 h, 24 h and 36 h of germination are electrophorezed, native PAGE on specific enzyme staining shows several constitutive isozymes of acid phosphatases. At 48 h, an isozyme is induced which gradually decreases and then disappears at 108 h of germination. The short lived, induced isozyme is present in the embryo and seed-coat but not in the plumule and the radical. Induction of this isozyme is inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D and increased by plant growth regulators such as heteroauxin and gibbrellic acid treatment during germination. The induced isozyme is a single 30 kD polypeptide, with subunit molecular mass of 25 kD, shows activity for O-phospho-L-Tyrosine. It is strongly inhibited by vanadate (microM), molybdate, tungustate as also by iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate and diethylpyrocarbonate. This study shows for the first time that the germination induced low molecular weight Acid phosphatase is a Tyrosine phosphatase super family class IV enzyme, having a role in cellular differentiation and development during seed germination. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Mapping genetic variation and seed zones for Bromus carinatus in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    R.C. Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Nancy L. Mandel; J. Bradley St. Clair; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland

    2010-01-01

    Seed transfer zones ensure that germplasm selected for restoration is suitable and sustainable in diverse environments. In this study, seed zones were developed for mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. Plants from 148 Blue Mountain seed source locations were...

  6. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hong-Sig; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-06-13

    This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (<13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (>24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese

  7. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  8. Relationships between intra-specific variation in seed size and recruitment in four species in two contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, K; Eriksson, O

    2013-05-01

    Large seeds contain more stored resources, and seedlings germinating from large seeds generally cope better with environmental stresses such as shading, competition and thick litter layers, than seedlings germinating from small seeds. A pattern with small-seeded species being associated with open habitats and large-seeded species being associated with closed (shaded) habitats has been suggested and supported by comparative studies. However, few studies have assessed the intra-specific relationship between seed size and recruitment, comparing plant communities differing in canopy cover. Here, seeds from four plant species commonly occurring in ecotones between open and closed habitats (Convallaria majalis, Frangula alnus, Prunus padus and Prunus spinosa) were weighed and sown individually (3200 seeds per species) in open and closed-canopy sites, and seedling emergence and survival recorded over 3 years. Our results show a generally positive, albeit weak, relationship between seed size and recruitment. In only one of the species, C. majalis, was there an association between closed canopy habitat and a positive seed size effect on recruitment. We conclude that there is a weak selection gradient favouring larger seeds, but that this selection gradient is not clearly related to habitat.

  9. Allelic Variation of BnaC.TT2.a and Its Association with Seed Coat Color and Fatty Acids in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Longhua; Li, Yuanlong; Hussain, Nazim; Li, Zhilan; Wu, Dezhi; Jiang, Lixi

    2016-01-01

    Efficient molecular markers for the selection of rapeseed genetic materials with high seed oil content and ideal fatty acid (FA) composition are preferred by rapeseed breeders. Recently, we reported the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2) in inhibiting seed FA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. However, evidence showing the association of rapeseed TT2 homologs and seed FA production are still insufficient. In this study, we collected 83 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) landraces from different geographical backgrounds to conduct association mapping of BnaC.TT2.a in relation to seed coat color and FA biosynthesis. Population background was corrected by 84 pairs of SSR markers that were uniformly distributed among the linkage groups of the Tapidor-Ningyou-7 DH population. A single copy of BnaC.TT2.a for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was cloned by a pair of previously reported specific primers. From the analysis of BnaC.TT2.a allelic variations using GLM+Q model, four SNPs on intron 1 of BnaC.TT2.a that were associated with seed FA were discovered. Moreover, an InDel at position 738 on exon 3 of BnaC.TT2.a indicated a change of protein function that was significantly associated with seed coat color, linoleic acid (C18:2), and total FA content. These findings revealed the role of BnaC.TT2.a in regulating the seed color formation and seed FA biosynthesis in rapeseed, thereby suggesting effective molecular markers for rapeseed breeding.

  10. Allelic Variation of BnaC.TT2.a and Its Association with Seed Coat Color and Fatty Acids in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Zhilan; Wu, Dezhi; Jiang, Lixi

    2016-01-01

    Efficient molecular markers for the selection of rapeseed genetic materials with high seed oil content and ideal fatty acid (FA) composition are preferred by rapeseed breeders. Recently, we reported the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2) in inhibiting seed FA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. However, evidence showing the association of rapeseed TT2 homologs and seed FA production are still insufficient. In this study, we collected 83 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) landraces from different geographical backgrounds to conduct association mapping of BnaC.TT2.a in relation to seed coat color and FA biosynthesis. Population background was corrected by 84 pairs of SSR markers that were uniformly distributed among the linkage groups of the Tapidor-Ningyou-7 DH population. A single copy of BnaC.TT2.a for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was cloned by a pair of previously reported specific primers. From the analysis of BnaC.TT2.a allelic variations using GLM+Q model, four SNPs on intron 1 of BnaC.TT2.a that were associated with seed FA were discovered. Moreover, an InDel at position 738 on exon 3 of BnaC.TT2.a indicated a change of protein function that was significantly associated with seed coat color, linoleic acid (C18:2), and total FA content. These findings revealed the role of BnaC.TT2.a in regulating the seed color formation and seed FA biosynthesis in rapeseed, thereby suggesting effective molecular markers for rapeseed breeding. PMID:26752200

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study in Arabidopsis thaliana of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Melting Point: A Widespread Adaptive Trait in Plants.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Morrison, Ginnie D; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were used to assess whether seed oil melting point within a species varied with germination temperature. In support of the adaptive explanation, long-term monthly spring and fall field temperatures of the accession collection sites significantly predicted their seed oil melting points. In addition, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to determine which genes were most likely responsible for the natural variation in seed oil melting point. The GWAS found a single highly significant association within the coding region of FAD2, which encodes a fatty acid desaturase central to the oil biosynthesis pathway. In a separate analysis of 15 a priori oil synthesis candidate genes, 2 (FAD2 and FATB) were located near significant SNPs associated with seed oil melting point. These results comport with others' molecular work showing that lines with alterations in these genes affect seed oil melting point as expected. Our results suggest natural selection has acted on a small number of loci to alter a quantitative trait in response to local environmental conditions. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adipose Tissue CIDEA Is Associated, Independently of Weight Variation, to Change in Insulin Resistance during a Longitudinal Weight Control Dietary Program in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Aim Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Research Design Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Results Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. Conclusion The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight

  13. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  14. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R 2) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R 2>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice. PMID:21121075

  15. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-12-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R(2)) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R(2)>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice.

  16. Prostate Postbrachytherapy Seed Distribution: Comparison of High-Resolution, Contrast-Enhanced, T1- and T2-Weighted Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus Computed Tomography: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, B. Nicolas Lenkinski, Robert E.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Ngo, Long; Oismueller, Renee; Jaromi, Silvia; Kubin, Klaus; Hawliczek, Robert; Kaplan, Irving D.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (CEMR) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2MR) with computed tomography (CT) for prostate brachytherapy seed location for dosimetric calculations. Methods and Materials: Postbrachytherapy prostate MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit with combined surface and endorectal coils in 13 patients. Both CEMR and T2MR used a section thickness of 3 mm. Spiral CT used a section thickness of 5 mm with a pitch factor of 1.5. All images were obtained in the transverse plane. Two readers using CT and MR imaging assessed brachytherapy seed distribution independently. The dependency of data read by both readers for a specific subject was assessed with a linear mixed effects model. Results: The mean percentage ({+-} standard deviation) values of the readers for seed detection and location are presented. Of 1205 implanted seeds, CEMR, T2MR, and CT detected 91.5% {+-} 4.8%, 78.5% {+-} 8.5%, and 96.1% {+-} 2.3%, respectively, with 11.8% {+-} 4.5%, 8.5% {+-} 3.5%, 1.9% {+-} 1.0% extracapsular, respectively. Assignment to periprostatic structures was not possible with CT. Periprostatic seed assignments for CEMR and T2MR, respectively, were as follows: neurovascular bundle, 3.5% {+-} 1.6% and 2.1% {+-} 0.9%; seminal vesicles, 0.9% {+-} 1.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.7%; periurethral, 7.1% {+-} 3.3% and 5.8% {+-} 2.9%; penile bulb, 0.6% {+-} 0.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.6%; Denonvillier's Fascia/rectal wall, 0.5% {+-} 0.6% and 0%; and urinary bladder, 0.1% {+-} 0.3% and 0%. Data dependency analysis showed statistical significance for the type of imaging but not for reader identification. Conclusion: Both enumeration and localization of implanted seeds are readily accomplished with CEMR. Calculations with MRI dosimetry do not require CT data. Dose determinations to specific extracapsular sites can be obtained with MRI but not with CT.

  17. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    time period has been used. In order to reach better results, images from MODIS satellite has been used as auxiliary data for the images that are with an error margin. Initial classification on the images was conducted to distinguish water and non water applications. Neural network classification was applied with specific scales on the images and the two major applications were thereby extracted. Then, in order to authenticate the proceedings, Error matrix and Kappa coefficient has been applied on the classified images. Base pixel method of neural network was used for the purpose of information extraction while authenticity of that was evaluated too. The outcomes display the trend of Urmia shoreline has been approximately constant between the years of 1976 to 1995 and has experienced very low variations. In 1998 the lake experienced increase of water and therefore advancement of the shoreline of the lake due to increase of precipitation and the volume of inflowing water to the basin. During 2000 to 20125, however, the lake's shoreline has experienced a downward trend, which was intensified in 2007 and reached to its most critical level ever since, that is decreasing to about one third. Further, temporal and spatial potentiality evaluation of clouds seeding in Urmia lake zone has been studied as a solution for improvement and recovery of the current status of the lake, and an algorithm was proposed for optimized temporal- spatial study on could seeding. Ecological, meteorological and synoptic data were used for timing study of the cloud's seeding plan, which upon study; it is easy to evaluate precipitation potential and quality of the system. At the next step, the rate of humidity and also stability of the precipitating system can be analyzed using radar acquired data. Whereas extracted date from MODIS images are expressing the spatial position, therefore in order to study the location of the cloud's seeding, MODIS images of the selected time intervals along with

  18. Discrepancy between Actual and Perceived Weight Status in Rural Patients: Variations by Race and Gender.

    PubMed

    Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob C; Morrissey, B David

    2017-01-01

    The study's goal was to determine if differences in weight misperception by race and/or gender occur within a sample of economically disadvantaged rural patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. Diabetic and hypertensive patients were enrolled in the study from a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in the rural South. Multivari-ate logistic regression analysis suggests that, even when controlling for age, education level, employment status, and poverty, rural African American patients with chronic disease are more likely than their White counterparts to misperceive their weight status (OR = 1.709, p = .037). This difference in perceived weight occurred despite the absence of an underlying difference in actual weight status between African American and White patients (p = .171). In addition, rural men were much more likely than rural women to misperceive their weight status (OR = 2.688, p < .001). Implications for intervention development and implementation are discussed.

  19. DRD2 promoter region variation predicts antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K

    2010-09-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between -141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone versus olanzapine. Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared with Ins/Ins homozygotes (noncarriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers showed significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. Although deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of olanzapine (but not risperidone), dose did not seem to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given earlier evidence that deletion carriers show reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients seems warranted.

  20. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management.

  1. A CT reconstruction approach from sparse projection with adaptive-weighted diagonal total-variation in biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Deng, Luzhen; Mi, Deling; He, Peng; Feng, Peng; Yu, Pengwei; Chen, Mianyi; Li, Zhichao; Wang, Jian; Wei, Biao

    2015-01-01

    For lack of directivity in Total Variation (TV) which only uses x-coordinate and y-coordinate gradient transform as its sparse representation approach during the iteration process, this paper brought in Adaptive-weighted Diagonal Total Variation (AwDTV) that uses the diagonal direction gradient to constraint reconstructed image and adds associated weights which are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity diagonal gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details, then using the steepest descent method to solve the optimization problem. Finally, we did two sets of numerical simulation and the results show that the proposed algorithm can reconstruct high-quality CT images from few-views projection, which has lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher Universal Quality Index (UQI) than Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and TV-based reconstruction method.

  2. Modeling seed weight under environmental resource limitations as a function of C, N, and C:N allocation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C:N ratio in seed of two genotypes each of five crops with different resource allocation patterns were assessed under normal growing degree days (GDD) and normal population density (NN) for each crop; normal GDD and 25%>normal population density (NL); sho...

  3. Small angle X-ray scattering of wheat seed-storage proteins: alpha-, gamma- and omega-gliadins and the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin.

    PubMed

    Thomson, N H; Miles, M J; Popineau, Y; Harries, J; Shewry, P; Tatham, A S

    1999-03-19

    Small angle X-ray scattering in solution was performed on seed-storage proteins from wheat. Three different groups of gliadins (alpha-, gamma- and omega-) and a high molecular weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin (1Bx20) were studied to determine molecular size parameters. All the gliadins could be modelled as prolate ellipsoids with extended conformations. The HMW subunit existed as a highly extended rod-like particle in solution with a length of about 69 nm and a diameter of about 6.4 nm. Specific aggregation effects were observed which may reflect mechanisms of self-assembly that contribute to the unique viscoelastic properties of wheat dough.

  4. Root morphology and seed and leaf ionomic traits in a Brassica napus L. diversity panel show wide phenotypic variation and are characteristic of crop habit.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C L; Alcock, T D; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Matterson, S; Wilson, L; Young, S D; Dupuy, L X; White, P J; Hammond, J P; Danku, J M C; Salt, D E; Sweeney, A; Bancroft, I; Broadley, M R

    2016-10-04

    Mineral nutrient uptake and utilisation by plants are controlled by many traits relating to root morphology, ion transport, sequestration and translocation. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in root morphology and leaf and seed mineral composition of a polyploid crop species, Brassica napus L., and how these traits relate to crop habit. Traits were quantified in a diversity panel of up to 387 genotypes: 163 winter, 127 spring, and seven semiwinter oilseed rape (OSR) habits, 35 swede, 15 winter fodder, and 40 exotic/unspecified habits. Root traits of 14 d old seedlings were measured in a 'pouch and wick' system (n = ~24 replicates per genotype). The mineral composition of 3-6 rosette-stage leaves, and mature seeds, was determined on compost-grown plants from a designed experiment (n = 5) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seed size explained a large proportion of the variation in root length. Winter OSR and fodder habits had longer primary and lateral roots than spring OSR habits, with generally lower mineral concentrations. A comparison of the ratios of elements in leaf and seed parts revealed differences in translocation processes between crop habits, including those likely to be associated with crop-selection for OSR seeds with lower sulphur-containing glucosinolates. Combining root, leaf and seed traits in a discriminant analysis provided the most accurate characterisation of crop habit, illustrating the interdependence of plant tissues. High-throughput morphological and composition phenotyping reveals complex interrelationships between mineral acquisition and accumulation linked to genetic control within and between crop types (habits) in B. napus. Despite its recent genetic ancestry (<10 ky), root morphology, and leaf and seed composition traits could potentially be used in crop improvement, if suitable markers can be identified and if these correspond with suitable agronomy and quality traits.

  5. Weight gain variation in infants of an impoverished community: Bellanse, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Van Oyen, H J

    1991-03-01

    Maintaining adequate growth remains one of the most difficult tasks for infants in developing countries. A cohort of rural infants (n = 354), median age four months, were weighed every 6-7 weeks over an 18-month period. Some 179 infants (51%) with weight information over at least 12 months were included in the study. The association between weight gain up to 6 months of age, and between 6 and 23 months of age, and factors amenable to prevention were assessed using weighted multiple linear regression. Infants whose mothers understood the 'Road to Health' chart had a weight gain that was 123 g/month (95% confidence interval (CI): 2-245) higher up to six months of age and 31 g/month (95% CI: 6-57) higher between 6 and 23 months of age compared to infants whose mothers did not seem to understand the chart. The weight gain between 6 and 23 months was also 28 g/month (95% CI: 3-54) higher for infants fully vaccinated at 11 months compared to not fully vaccinated children. It was 47 g/month (95% CI: 16-78) higher for infants living in two-parent families compared to children of a single-parent family. The results of the study suggest that maternal comprehension of the 'Road to Health' chart may contribute to more adequate weight gain.

  6. Concurrent Diurnal Variations of High-molecular-weight Dissolved Arsenic and Organic Phosphorus in the Upper Euphotic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. P.; Cheng, C. Y.; Wen, L. S.

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the global ocean has received concerned interests due to its potential competitive inhibition to phosphate. Arsenate can be uptake by phytoplankton or bacterioplankton, followed by transformation into arsenite or methylated arsenic and released into seawater by certain detoxification pathways. The arsenic/phosphate ratio in seawater has been proposed as the factor determining the arsenic speciation in the global ocean, however, the regeneration processes are much more complicated. In this study, ultra-clean sampling and cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF) were used to differentiate the molecular weight distribution of arsenic and phosphorous in the oligotrophic Western Philippine Sea. Our results indicated that 21±8% of total dissolved arsenic were in the high-molecular-weight (HMW, 1 kDa - 0.4μm) phase, and HMW phosphorous accounted for a significant amount of 61±16% in the DOP fraction. In the upper euphotic zone, HMW-As exhibited short-term temporal variations, corresponding to the change of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic phosphorus (HMW-DOP). The low-molecular-weight (LMW, MW < 1 kDa) arsenic, by contrast, was relatively unchanged. The concurrent variations between HMW-As and HMW-DOP may resulted from photoheterotrophy, marine ectoenzymes such as alkaline phosphatase might play an important role in recycling processes. All these evidences highlight the strong biological effect on production and assimilation of HMW materials and its vital importance in marine P and As cycle.

  7. DRD2 Promoter Region Variation Predicts Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in First Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G.; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M.; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between −141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone (RIS) vs. olanzapine (OLZ). Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared to Ins/Ins homozygotes (non-carriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers demonstrated significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. While deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of OLZ (but not RIS), dose did not appear to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given previous evidence that deletion carriers demonstrate reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients appears warranted. PMID:20664489

  8. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  9. α-TIP aquaporin distribution and size tonoplast variation in storage cells of Vicia faba cotyledons at seed maturation and germination stages.

    PubMed

    Béré, Emile; Lahbib, Karima; Merceron, Bruno; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Boughanmi, Néziha Ghanem

    2017-09-01

    Vacuoles have been shown to undergo deep modifications in relation to plant developmental stages and in the maintaining the cellular homeostasis. In this context, we studied the variations of the vacuolar membrane size and α-TIP aquaporin distribution at early and advanced seed stages of maturation, germination and embryo growth in Vicia faba cotyledon storage cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  11. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  12. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. L.; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94–96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82–96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8–25.8% with LOD: 7.0–13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1–171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  13. Yellow Oleander Seed, or "Codo de Fraile" (Thevetia spp.): A Review of Its Potential Toxicity as a Purported Weight-Loss Supplement.

    PubMed

    González-Stuart, Armando; Rivera, José O

    2017-09-28

    The Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act (DSHEA), passed by the United States Congress in October of 1994, defines herbal products as nutritional supplements, not medications. This opened the market for diverse products made from plants, including teas, extracts, essential oils, and syrups. Mexico and the United States share an extensive border, where diverse herbal products are available to the public without a medical prescription. Research undertaken in the neighboring cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, shows the use of herbs is higher in this border area compared to the rest of the United States. A portion of the population is still under the erroneous impression that "natural" products are completely safe to use and therefore lack side effects. We review the dangers of ingesting the toxic seed of Thevetia spp. (family Apocynaceae), commonly known as "yellow oleander" or "codo de fraile," misleadingly advertised on the Internet as an effective and safe dietary supplement for weight loss. Lack of proper quality control regarding herbs generates a great variability in the quantity and quality of the products' content. Herb-drug interactions occur between some herbal products and certain prescription pharmaceuticals. Certain herbs recently introduced into the U.S. market may not have been previously tested adequately for purity, safety, and efficacy. Due to the lack of reliable clinical data regarding the safe use of various herbal products currently available, the public should be made aware regarding the possible health hazards of using certain herbs for therapeutic purposes. The potentially fatal toxicity of yellow oleander seed is confirmed by cases reported from various countries, while the purported benefits of using it for weight loss have not been evaluated by any known clinical trials. For this reason, the use of yellow oleander seed as a dietary supplement should be avoided.

  14. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; McLean, Ian G.; Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights…

  15. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; McLean, Ian G.; Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights…

  16. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  17. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  18. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  19. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Acacia species collected from the northwest zone of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Riyazuddeen; Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Mather Ali; Alam, Pravej; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mahmooduzzafar

    2012-08-30

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of the mature seeds of Acacia species collected from natural habitat of the northwest zone of the Indian subcontinent (Rajasthan) were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. Oil content varied between 40 and 102 g kg⁻¹. The highest oil content was obtained in Acacia bivenosa DC. (102 g kg⁻¹) among the nine Acacia species. The fatty acid composition showed higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (~757.7 g kg⁻¹ in A. bivenosa), oleic acid (~525.0 g kg⁻¹ in A. nubica) and dominant saturated fatty acids were found to be 192.5 g kg⁻¹ palmitic acid and 275.6 g kg⁻¹ stearic acid in A. leucophloea and A. nubica respectively. Seed oils of Acacia species can thus be classified in the linoleic-oleic acid group. Significant variations were observed in oil content and fatty acid composition of Acacia species. The present study revealed that the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of high linoleic-oleic acid-rich edible oil and its full potential should be exploited. The use of oil from Acacia seed is of potential economic benefit to the poor native population of the areas where it is cultivated. The fatty acid composition of Acacia seed oils is very similar to that reported for commercially available edible vegetable oils like soybean, mustard, sunflower, groundnut and olive. Hence the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of edible vegetable oil after toxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Body weight- independent variations in HDL-cholesterol following gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Laguna, S; Andrada, P; Silva, C; Rotellar, F; Valenti, V; Gil, M J; Gómez-Ambrosi, J; Frühbeck, G; Salvador, J

    2016-04-29

    Bariatric surgery has multiple beneficial effects on lipid profile in patients with morbid obesity. However, these changes can be attenuated by weight regain. This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of gastric bypass(GBP) on different lipid fractions over a 6 year follow-up. We studied 177 patients (135 women)with morbid obesity (BMI 44.2+0.4 kg/m2) aged 42.4+0.9 years before and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months after laparoscopic proximal GBP. Anthropometry, body composition measurement (Bod-Pod) and fasting blood samples were taken in all evaluations to measure total cholesterol (TC),LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides(TG), glucose and insulin. GPB was followed by a significant BMI reduction (nadir BMI at 18 m 28.3+0.4 kg/m2 p<0,001) and fat mass decrease(p<0,001). Maximal percentage of excess BMI lost was 84.1%and that of body fat was 87% 18 months after GBP. These numbers decreased to 65.6% and 38.3% (p<0,005 vs nadir) respectively 72 months after the operation, indicating both weight and fat mass regain. TG and LDL-C values decreased 30% with respect to preoperative levels, while HDL-C increased 97%over initial values. This HDL-C increase was progressive even over the weight regain phase. Both TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-Cratios normalized after GBP and values were sustained over the weight regain period until the end of the study. These results confirm the beneficial effects of GBP on all lipid fractions, which are maintained over 6 years of follow-up. Globally, the rise in HDL-C seems to be independent of weight or fat mass changes, since it increases even over the weight regain phase, so contributing to a reduction in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  1. Variation in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jennifer D; Bernstein, Leslie; Teraoka, Sharon N; Knight, Julia A; Mellemkjær, Lene; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Lynch, Charles F; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2012-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered levels of adipose-derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change are associated with CBC risk. Variants in 20 genes [182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance, and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMI and type II-diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants [643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer (UBC)] in the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor (ER) status did not alter these findings. Among women with early-onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis, there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC. Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer.

  2. Temperature dependence of local segmental motion in polystyrene and its variation with molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, C. M.; Casalini, R.

    2003-07-01

    Dielectric measurements are reported for the α-relaxation in polystyrene (PS) of varying molecular weights. Although the segmental relaxation dispersion was essentially invariant to Mw, the Tg-normalized temperature dependence (fragility) increases systematically with molecular weight. The latter result corroborates dynamic mechanical and light scattering studies, but is at odds with the reported (T-Tg) superpositioning of the shift factors for the recoverable creep compliance of PS. The failure of the dielectric relaxations time to superimpose when expressed as a function of T-Tg is consistent with the analysis of equation of state data for PS. We find that volume is not the dominant control variable, and in fact, temperature exerts a stronger influence on the relaxation times.

  3. A specific dose of grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins to inhibit body weight gain limits food intake and increases energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Gual, Andreu; Pérez-Vendrell, Anna Maria; Blay, M Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that flavanols may have antiobesity effects; however, those effects clearly depend on the experimental conditions. In a previous study, we found that a single acute dose of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has satiating effects. We therefore hypothesise that satiating doses of GSPE could be used to reduce body weight gain, and our present objective was to define the most effective dose. We assayed two GSPE doses in aged male Wistar rats. First we performed a subchronic (8-day) treatment by intragastric administration, which was repeated after a washout period. We measured body weight, energy intake and faeces composition; we performed indirect calorimetry; and we analysed the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism to determine the target tissue for the GSPE. We observed that 0.5 g GSPE/kg BW significantly reduced food intake and thus the amount of energy absorbed. This dosage also increased lipid oxidation in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thus causing a higher total energy expenditure. These combined effects caused a decrease in body weight. Conversely, 1 g GSPE/kg BW, which also reduced energy absorption after the first treatment, had a rebound effect on body weight gain which resulted in a lower response to the proanthocyanidin extract. That is, after the second treatment, the GSPE did not reduce the energy absorbed or modify energy expenditure and body weight. GSPE at a dose of 0.5 g/kg can reduce body weight by limiting food intake and activating energy expenditure in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  4. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  5. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation Model for Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    model or a reconstructed result. A classical regularization is the total variation (TV) proposed by Rudin -Osher-Fatemi [33]. It is widely used in image...S. J. Osher and S. Esedoglu, Decomposition of images by the anisotropic rudin -osher-fatemi model, Comm. Pure Appl. Math, 57 (2003), pp. 1609–1626...R. B. Potts, Some generalized order-disorder transformations, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc, (1952), pp. 106–109. [33] L. Rudin , S. Osher, and E

  6. Birth weight and neonatal survival of harbour seal pups are positively correlated with genetic variation measured by microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Coltman, D W; Bowen, W D; Wright, J M

    1998-01-01

    We examined the relations between fitness-related traits of wild harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups with microsatellite heterozygosity, and with a measure of genomic diversity based on the mean squared distance between microsatellite alleles within an individual, mean d2. Birth weight was positively influenced by maternal age, pup sex, and either mean d2 or individual heterozygosity in separate multiple regression models. The association of birth weight with mean d2 was stronger than that with heterozygosity, however. The factors maternal age, pup sex, and mean d2 combined to account for 36.8% of the variation in birth weight, with mean d2 accounting for the greatest explanatory power (52.3% of the variance explained). Pups which survived until weaning had significantly higher mean d2 than pups which died, independent of birth weight. These effects are consistent with heterosis resulting from recent population mixing, and/or inbreeding depression in this population. Mean d2 thus provides (i) a better measure of individual genetic variability than heterozygosity for microsatellite data; and (ii) a convenient tool for assessing the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in natural populations. PMID:9628038

  7. How do low/high height and weight variation affect upper limb movements during manual material handling of industrial boxes?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana B; Silva, Luciana C C B; Coury, Helenice J C G

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG) recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg) from an intermediate height (waist level) to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

  8. Genetic variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) for seed quality-related traits and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M

    2011-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.

  9. Interacting effects of genetic variation for seed dormancy and flowering time on phenology, life history, and fitness of experimental Arabidopsis thaliana populations over multiple generations in the field.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark A; Cooper, Martha D; Sellamuthu, Reena; Braun, Peter; Migneault, Andrew; Browning, Alyssa; Perry, Emily; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    Major alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time are well studied, and can interact to influence seasonal timing and fitness within generations. However, little is known about how this interaction controls phenology, life history, and population fitness across multiple generations in natural seasonal environments. To examine how seed dormancy and flowering time shape annual plant life cycles over multiple generations, we established naturally dispersing populations of recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana segregating early and late alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time in a field experiment. We recorded seasonal phenology and fitness of each genotype over 2 yr and several generations. Strong seed dormancy suppressed mid-summer germination in both early- and late-flowering genetic backgrounds. Strong dormancy and late-flowering genotypes were both necessary to confer a winter annual life history; other genotypes were rapid-cycling. Strong dormancy increased within-season fecundity in an early-flowering background, but decreased it in a late-flowering background. However, there were no detectable differences among genotypes in population growth rates. Seasonal phenology, life history, and cohort fitness over multiple generations depend strongly upon interacting genetic variation for dormancy and flowering. However, similar population growth rates across generations suggest that different life cycle genotypes can coexist in natural populations. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Genetic Variation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) for Seed Quality-Related Traits and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M.

    2011-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed. PMID:21731465

  11. Seed set variation in wild Clarkia populations: teasing apart the effects of seasonal resource depletion, pollen quality, and pollen quantity.

    PubMed

    Hove, Alisa A; Mazer, Susan J; Ivey, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    In habitats where resource availability declines during the growing season, selection may favor early-flowering individuals. Under such ephemerally favorable conditions, late-blooming species (and individuals) may be particularly vulnerable to resource limitation of seed production. In California, a region prone to seasonal drought, members of the annual genus Clarkia are among the last to flower in the spring. We compared pollen limitation (PL) of seed set and outcrossing rates between early- and late-flowering individuals in two mixed-mating Clarkia taxa to detect whether flowering time is associated with changes in seed set due to resource depletion, PL, or increased selfing. In 2008-2010, we hand-pollinated one flower on a total of 1855 individual plants either Early (near the onset of flowering) or Late (near the end of flowering) in the flowering season and compared seed set to adjacent, open-pollinated flowers on the same stem. To assess the contribution of pollen quality to reproduction, we first (2008) used allozymes to estimate outcrossing rates of seeds produced by Early and Late open-pollinated flowers. Second (2009), we conducted an anther-removal experiment to estimate self-pollen deposition. Seed set in Clarkia unguiculata was not pollen-limited. Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana was pollen-limited in 2008 and 2010, but not 2009. PL did not differ between Early and Late treatments. In both taxa, seed set of Early flowers was greater than Late flowers, but not due to PL in the latter. Reproduction was generally pollinator-dependent. Most pollen deposition was xenogamous, and outcrossing rates were >0.7 - and similar between Early and Late periods. These results suggest that pollen receipt and pollen quality remain seasonally consistent. By contrast, the resources necessary to provision seeds decline, reducing the fitness benefits associated with resource allocation to ovules.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in proportional stock density and relative weight of smallmouth bass in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Duke, S.D.; Ward, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Population data for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui in 20,235 ha John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River were used to (1) determine whether Proportional Stock Density (PSD) and Relative Weight (Wr) varied spatially and temporally in two areas of the reservoir with established smallmouth bass fisheries; (2) explore possible causes of any observed variation; and (3) discuss some management implications and recommendations. Both PSD and Wr varied spatially and monthly in all years examined. On an annual basis, PSD varied at one area but not at the other, whereas Wr showed little variation. Possible explanations for the variation in PSD and Wr are differences in growth, mortality, recruitment, and exploitation. Our data suggested that regulations established or changed on a reservoir-wide basis may have different effects on the fishery, depending on location in the reservoir. Also, pooling data from various areas within a reservoir to yield point estimates of structural indices may not represent the variation present in the population as a whole. The significant temporal variability reflects the importance of determining the proper time to sample fish to yield representative estimates of the variable of interest. In areas with valuable fisheries or markedly different population structures, we suggest that an area-specific approach be made to reservoir fishery management, and that efforts be made toward effecting consistent harvest regulations in interstate waters.

  13. Genetic analysis of within-litter variation in piglets' birth weight using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Wang, S; Knol, E F; Mulder, H A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic variance for within-litter variation of birth weight (BW0) using genomic (GRM) or pedigree relationship matrices (PRM) and to compare the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) for within-litter variation of BW0 using GRM and PRM. The BW0 and residual variance of BW0 were modeled by the double hierarchical generalized linear model using GRM or PRM. Data came from 2 dam lines: Landrace and Large White. After editing, the data set in Landrace consisted of 748 sows with 1,938 litters and 29,430 piglets and in Large White of 989 sows with 3,320 litters and 51,818 piglets. To construct GRM, 46,466 (Landrace) and 44,826 (Large White) single nucleotide polymorphisms were used, whereas to construct PRM, 5 generations of pedigree were used. The accuracy of EBV with GRM was estimated with 8-fold cross-validation and compared to PRM. Estimated variance components were highly similar for GRM and PRM. The maternal genetic variance in residual variance of BW0 in Landrace was 0.05 with GRM and 0.06 with PRM. In Large White these were 0.04 with GRM and 0.05 with PRM. The genetic coefficient of variation (GCV SDe) was about 0.10 in both dam lines. This indicates a change of 10% in residual SD of BW0 when achieving a genetic response of 1 genetic standard deviation. The genetic correlation between birth weight and its residual variance was about 0.6 in both dam lines. The accuracies of selection for within-litter variation of birth weight were 0.35 with GRM and 0.23 with PRM in Landrace and 0.29 with GRM and 0.34 with PRM in Large White. In this case, using GRM did not significantly increase accuracies of selection. Results, however, show good opportunities to select for reduced within-litter variation of BW0. Genomic selection can increase accuracy of selection when reference populations contain at least 2,000 sows.

  14. Seed Development and Germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  15. Morpho-Physiological Variation of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources and Implications for Deployment under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Isabelle; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Benomar, Lahcen; Rainville, André; DeBlois, Josianne; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Margolis, Hank

    2016-01-01

    Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec. The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0) in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modeling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season) showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0) from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This knowledge could be

  16. Morpho-Physiological Variation of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources and Implications for Deployment under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Isabelle; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Benomar, Lahcen; Rainville, André; DeBlois, Josianne; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Margolis, Hank

    2016-01-01

    Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec. The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0) in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modeling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season) showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0) from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This knowledge could be

  17. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development. PMID:21303553

  18. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    PubMed

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation.

  19. Experimental field test of spatial variation in rodent predation of nuts relative to distance and seed density.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Díaz-Vélez, María C

    2010-06-01

    The spatial context in which seed predation occurs may modify the spatial structure of recruitment generated by seed dispersal. The Janzen-Connell (J-C) model predicts that granivores will exert greater pressure on the parent plant or at those sites where the density of dispersed seeds is higher. We have investigated how the probability of post-dispersal survival of Juglans australis varies with nut density across a hierarchy of spatial scales. We experimentally evaluated the survival of 3,120 nuts at three spatial scales: meso-scale (seed predation, a condition that allowed us to test the density-dependent seed predation hypothesis. We found that the probability of nut survival was greater at forest sites with higher J. australis density. Nut survival was not affected by nut density in the seed shadow of individual specimens: at sites where J. australis density was greater, the proportion of surviving nuts did not differ between microsites located at different distances from the parent plant, but it was greater at microsites with greater initial nut density. Nut survival depended on the scale at which rodents responded to nut density, being negatively density dependent at the meso-scale and spatially random at intermediate and small scales. At the meso-scale, excess nut supply increased the probability of nut survival, which is in agreement with a model of granivore satiation near the seed source. Rodent satiation at the meso-scale may favour maintenance of sites with high J. australis density, where individual trees may have greater probabilities of passing their genes onto the next stage of the dispersal cycle.

  20. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-12-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas.

  1. Investigating the weight ratio variation of alginate-hydroxyapatite composites for vertebroplasty method bone filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Gusti Ruri; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska

    2017-02-01

    One of the newly developed methods for curing spinal fracture due to osteoporosis is vertebroplasty. The method is basically based on injection of special material directly to the fractured spine in order to commence the formation of new bone. Therefore, appropriate injectable materials are very important to the curing success. In this study, injectable alginate-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites were fabricated varying the weight percentage of alginate upon synthesis procedure. The result of injection capability and compressive tests as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggested that bone filler composite containing 60 wt% alginate is the optimum composition obtaining a compressive modulus up to 0.15 MPa, injection capability of more than 85% and morphology with uniform porous and fibrous structure. This injectable composite fabrication process can be used for the development of injectable materials system for vertebroplasty method.

  2. Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits and reproductive success of the hermaphrodite Silene acutifolia.

    PubMed

    Buide, María Luisa

    2004-09-01

    Intraspecific variation in floral components and reproductive success is often located at the intra-individual level. The arrangement of flowers within inflorescences may explain a great deal of this variation. The variation in number of ovules, fruit set, number of seeds per fruit, seed set, seed weight and seed germination is investigated at different positions within the inflorescence of Silene acutifolia. Data were obtained in natural populations, and germination experiments were conducted in a germination chamber. The number of ovules, fruit set, number of seeds, seed set and seed weight, showed a significant decline from early (primary) position to later (tertiary) position. The patterns of intra-inflorescence variation were consistent in different populations and years of study. Seed germination showed an opposite pattern, seeds from primary position showed the lowest germination percentages and seeds from tertiary position the highest, although the effect of position on germination was only marginally significant. There was significant among-population variation in number of ovules per flower. Fruit set also varied significantly among populations, with lower fruit set in the smaller and more isolated population. No significant among-population differences were detected in number of seeds per fruit and seed set. Seeds from the smallest and more isolated population (Arnado) were the lightest. Seed germination showed strong differences between populations, seeds from Arnado started to germinate later, and showed the lowest final germination percentages. Architectural effects or resource competition are the most commonly proposed hypothesis to explain these patterns. Data suggest that there is less pollen available to pollinate tertiary flowers, and that there is not enough outcross pollen in Arnado. The germination percentages suggest that there is variation in the source of pollen within inflorescences, with high probability of receiving outcross pollen in

  3. The association between weight, physical activity, and stress and variation in the length of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Harlow, S D; Matanoski, G M

    1991-01-01

    The association between weight, physical activity, and stress and variation in the length of the menstrual cycle was prospectively examined in 166 college women, aged 17-19 years, who kept menstrual diaries during their freshman year. The unadjusted probability of a menstrual cycle being longer than 43 days was 5%. Women with a history of long cycles were more likely to have a long cycle during the study (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3). Stressors, characterized by situations which create a demand for performance or require adjustments to new demands, also increased the risk of a long cycle. Odds ratios for gain events and for coping with multiple performance demands (2 vs. 0) were 1.9. Starting college increased the risk of long cycles (OR = 2.3) regardless of whether a woman had left home. Moderate exercise minimally increased the probability of a long cycle (OR = 1.1, 75th vs. 50th percentiles). Change in weight (OR = 1.9) and being overweight (OR = 1.2, 15% above standard weight for height) were independently associated with the probability of long cycles. When 17- to 43-day cycles were evaluated, a history of long cycles lengthened expected cycle length by 1.42 days, while dieting, living on campus, and starting college tended to shorten expected length by 1.38, 0.90, and 0.64 days, respectively. Further investigation of the biologic mechanisms that mediate the stress effect is warranted.

  4. Impact of variation near MC4R on whole-body fat distribution, liver fat, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Tschritter, Otto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    Polymorphisms near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene locus are associated with body weight. Recent studies have shown that they influence insulin sensitivity and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17782313 near MC4R additionally influences body fat distribution and its change during lifestyle intervention. To test this, 343 German subjects were genotyped for SNP rs17782313. Body composition was assessed using magnetic resonance technique. Subjects were characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A subgroup of 242 subjects participated in a 9-month lifestyle intervention. In the overall cohort, the C allele was associated with a higher BMI (P=0.0013), but had no impact on glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity (all P>or=0.10). There was an effect of the SNP on total body fat (P=0.022) and nonvisceral fat (P=0.017), but not on liver fat and visceral fat (all P>or=0.33). In the subgroup undergoing lifestyle intervention, SNP rs17782313 had no impact on changes in body weight or fat distribution. Despite an association with BMI and nonvisceral adipose tissue, the SNP rs17782313 did not influence visceral adipose tissue. Thus, this candidate SNP for human obesity may preferentially affect the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, the variation near MC4R has no effect on success of weight loss during lifestyle intervention.

  5. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids.

  6. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Bindon, Keren A; Kennedy, James A; Bastian, Susan E P

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed procyanidins (PC) are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE) have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP) combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2). SixPC fractions (F1-F6) were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature) and ripe (mature), utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05), but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6) were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining) on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05). Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4) significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05). Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87%) compared to 5-FU alone (37%). PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4)not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  7. SIRT1 Polymorphisms Associate with Seasonal Weight Variation, Depressive Disorders, and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773).

  8. SIRT1 Polymorphisms Associate with Seasonal Weight Variation, Depressive Disorders, and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76–0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773). PMID:26509718

  9. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  10. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  11. Integration of experiments across diverse environments identifies the genetic determinants of variation in Sorghum bicolor seed element composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing the bioavailable elemental nutrient content in the edible portions of the crop has the potential to increase the value of sorghum for human and animal nutrition. Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality are in part determined by the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients...

  12. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  13. Orthodoxy, recalcitrance and in-between: describing variation in seed storage characteristics using threshold responses to water loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tolerance of desiccation is typically described by a threshold or low-water-content-limit to survival. This convention provides fairly good distinction between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, which show thresholds of less than about 0.07 and greater than about 0.2 g H2O g dw-1, respectively. Thresh...

  14. Local spatial variations analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in Xinjiang using Geographically Weighted Regression model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Yuan-Yuan, Jin; Ci, Yan; Ahan, Alayi; Ming-Qin, Cao

    2016-10-06

    The spatial interplay between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis (TB) cases contributes to the understanding of regional tuberculosis burdens. Historically, local Poisson Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has allowed for the identification of the geographic disparities of TB cases and their relevant socioeconomic determinants, thereby forecasting local regression coefficients for the relations between the incidence of TB and its socioeconomic determinants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (1) identify the socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of smear positive TB in Xinjiang, China (2) confirm if the incidence of smear positive TB and its associated socioeconomic determinants demonstrate spatial variability (3) compare the performance of two main models: one is Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS), and the other local GWR model. Reported smear-positive TB cases in Xinjiang were extracted from the TB surveillance system database during 2004-2010. The average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang was collected from 98 districts/counties. The population density (POPden), proportion of minorities (PROmin), number of infectious disease network reporting agencies (NUMagen), proportion of agricultural population (PROagr), and per capita annual gross domestic product (per capita GDP) were gathered from the Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook covering a period from 2004 to 2010. The OLS model and GWR model were then utilized to investigate socioeconomic determinants of smear-positive TB cases. Geoda 1.6.7, and GWR 4.0 software were used for data analysis. Our findings indicate that the relations between the average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang and their socioeconomic determinants (POPden, PROmin, NUMagen, PROagr, and per capita GDP) were significantly spatially non-stationary. This means that in some areas more smear-positive TB cases could be related to higher socioeconomic determinant regression

  15. Closed-form expressions for flip angle variation that maximize total signal in T1-weighted rapid gradient echo MRI.

    PubMed

    Drobnitzky, Matthias; Klose, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences are commonly employed for T1-weighted structural brain imaging. Following a contrast preparation radiofrequency (RF) pulse, the data acquisition proceeds under nonequilibrium conditions of the relaxing longitudinal magnetization. Variation of the flip angle can be used to maximize total available signal. Simulated annealing or greedy algorithms have so far been published to numerically solve this problem, with signal-to-noise ratios optimized for clinical imaging scenarios by adhering to a predefined shape of the signal evolution. We propose an unconstrained optimization of the MPRAGE experiment that employs techniques from resource allocation theory. A new dynamic programming solution is introduced that yields closed-form expressions for optimal flip angle variation. Flip angle series are proposed that maximize total transverse magnetization (Mxy) for a range of physiologic T1 values. A 3D MPRAGE sequence is modified to allow for a controlled variation of the excitation angle. Experiments employing a T1 contrast phantom are performed at 3T. 1D acquisitions without phase encoding permit measurement of the temporal development of Mxy. Image mean signal and standard deviation for reference flip angle trains are compared in 2D measurements. Signal profiles at sharp phantom edges are acquired to access image blurring related to nonuniform Mxy development. A novel closed-form expression for flip angle variation is found that constitutes the optimal policy to reach maximum total signal. It numerically equals previously published results of other authors when evaluated under their simplifying assumptions. Longitudinal magnetization (Mz) is exhaustively used without causing abrupt changes in the measured MR signal, which is a prerequisite for artifact free images. Phantom experiments at 3T verify the expected benefit for total accumulated k-space signal when compared with published flip angle series. Describing

  16. Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  17. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Krueger, H; Koot, J M; Rasali, D P; Gustin, S E; Pennock, M

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.). The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sex-specific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion) than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion). While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion) in economic burden could be avoided annually. There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region's attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  18. Differential seed dispersal in Oxalis acetosella,a cleistogamous perennial herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Henrik

    2000-03-01

    Explosive seed dispersal in the cleistogamous perennial forest herb Oxalis acetosella was studied during two growing seasons, to determine whether seeds derived from chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers differ in dispersal distance. Seed dispersal distance, seed weight, and height of fruits were measured for both flower types, and the effects of phenology and year were also taken into account. The dispersal experiment was performed indoors, using plants transplanted from natural populations to pots. CL seeds were thrown significantly further than were CH seeds, though there was a considerable overlap in dispersal distances. There was also a significant positive relationship between seed weight and dispersal distance. No relationship was found between fruit height and dispersal distance. The results of this study contradict the common view that CL progeny should always be dispersed closer to the mother plant than CH progeny. The ecological implications of the dispersal difference are unclear, especially since it is uncertain whether CH seeds are generally outcrossed or not. Variation in dispersal distance in O. acetosella seems to be mainly dependent on a combination of reproductive mode and variation in seed weight.

  19. Development of gene-based markers for use in construction of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genetic linkage map and identification of QTLs associated with seed weight and plant height.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shefali; Kumar, Tapan; Verma, Subodh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-11-01

    Seed weight and plant height are important agronomic traits and contribute to seed yield. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs underlying these traits using an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea. A F11 population of 177 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between SBD377 (100-seed weight--48 g and plant height--53 cm) and BGD112 (100-seed weight--15 g and plant height--65 cm) was used. A total of 367 novel EST-derived functional markers were developed which included 187 EST-SSRs, 130 potential intron polymorphisms (PIPs) and 50 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs). Along with these, 590 previously published markers including 385 EST-based markers and 205 genomic SSRs were utilized. Of the 957 markers tested for analysis of parental polymorphism between the two parents of the mapping population, 135 (14.64%) were found to be polymorphic. Of these, 131 polymorphic markers could be mapped to the 8 linkage groups. The linkage map had a total length of 1140.54 cM with an average marker density of 8.7 cM. The map was further used for QTL identification using composite interval mapping method (CIM). Two QTLs each for seed weight, qSW-1 and qSW-2 (explaining 11.54 and 19.24% of phenotypic variance, respectively) and plant height, qPH-1 and qPH-2 (explaining 13.98 and 12.17% of phenotypic variance, respectively) were detected. The novel set of genic markers, the intra-specific linkage map and the QTLs identified in the present study will serve as valuable genomic resources in improving the chickpea seed yield using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies.

  20. Variation in percentage weight bearing with changes in standing posture during water immersion: implication for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of weightlessness during water immersion is usually estimated through percentage weight bearing (PWB). However, variations in PWB in different standing postures have not been documented. The study was designed to investigate the PWB of apparently healthy individuals in four standing postures at the anterior superior iliac spine level of immersion. Methods One hundred and ninety-three consenting undergraduates were purposively enlisted in this study. Participants’ body weight (BW) was measured on land as well as in Erect Standing (ES), Grasp-Inclined-Prone-Standing (GIPS), Half-Grasp-Inclined-Towards-Side Standing (HGITSS) and Inclined-Standing with Head Support (ISHS) postures in hydro pool, using a specially designed water-proof weighing scale. PWB was calculated by dividing BW in water by BW on land and multiplying by 100. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and ANOVA at α = 0.05. Results The mean age and BW (on land) of the participants were 22.4 years and 60.7 kg respectively. Participants’ PWB were significantly different (p < 0.05) across the four standing postures. PWB was highest in ES and lowest in ISHS; PWB in ES (52.3 ± 5.8) being significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that observed in the derived standing postures. Further, PWB in GIPS (43.3 ± 5.6) and ISHS (43.2 ± 7.3) were significantly lower than in HGITSS (47.4 ± 5.2) posture while PWB in GIPS and ISHS postures were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusion Changes in standing posture have significant effect on PWB in hydro pool. The finding has implication for partial weight bearing exercises in hydro pool. PMID:25091034

  1. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion-Weighted Images using 4D Low-Rank and Total Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides invaluable information in white matter microstructure and is widely applied in neurological applications. However, DWI is largely limited by its relatively low spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose an image post-processing method, referred to as super-resolution reconstruction, to estimate a high spatial resolution DWI from the input low-resolution DWI, e.g., at a factor of 2. Instead of requiring specially designed DWI acquisition of multiple shifted or orthogonal scans, our method needs only a single DWI scan. To do that, we propose to model both the blurring and downsampling effects in the image degradation process where the low-resolution image is observed from the latent high-resolution image, and recover the latent high-resolution image with the help of two regularizations. The first regularization is 4-dimensional (4D) low-rank, proposed to gather self-similarity information from both the spatial domain and the diffusion domain of 4D DWI. The second regularization is total variation, proposed to depress noise and preserve local structures such as edges in the image recovery process. Extensive experiments were performed on 20 subjects, and results show that the proposed method is able to recover the fine details of white matter structures, and outperform other approaches such as interpolation methods, non-local means based upsampling, and total variation based upsampling. PMID:27845833

  2. Differential transcriptional activity of SAD, FAD2 and FAD3 desaturase genes in developing seeds of linseed contributes to varietal variation in α-linolenic acid content.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, Ashwini V; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Borikar, Sanjay P; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Ghorpade, Prakash B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2014-02-01

    Linseed or flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties differ markedly in their seed α-linolenic acid (ALA) levels. Fatty acid desaturases play a key role in accumulating ALA in seed. We performed fatty acid (FA) profiling of various seed developmental stages of ten Indian linseed varieties including one mutant variety. Depending on their ALA contents, these varieties were grouped under high ALA and low ALA groups. Transcript profiling of six microsomal desaturase genes (SAD1, SAD2, FAD2, FAD2-2, FAD3A and FAD3B), which act sequentially in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, was performed using real-time PCR. We observed gene specific as well as temporal expression pattern for all the desaturases and their differential expression profiles corresponded well with the variation in FA accumulation in the two groups. Our study points to efficient conversion of intermediate FAs [stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acids (LA)] to the final product, ALA, due to efficient action of all the desaturases in high ALA group. While in the low ALA group, even though the initial conversion up to OA was efficient, later conversions up to ALA seemed to be inefficient, leading to higher accumulation of OA and LA instead of ALA. We sequenced the six desaturase genes from the ten varieties and observed that variation in the amino acid (AA) sequences of desaturases was not responsible for differential ALA accumulation, except in the mutant variety TL23 with very low (<2%) ALA content. In TL23, a point mutation in the FAD3A gene resulted into a premature stop codon generating a truncated protein with 291 AA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution.

  4. Developmental variation of sugars, carboxylic acids, purine alkaloids, fatty acids, and endoproteinase activity during maturation of Theobroma cacao L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, P; Rousseau, G; Alvarez, M; Laloi, M; McCarthy, J

    2001-10-01

    The changes of mono- and oligosaccharides, carboxylic acids, purine alkaloids, and fatty acid composition, and of aspartic endoproteinase activity, were analyzed during seed development in two varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao). The majority of the components examined either decreased or accumulated steadily in concentration during the second half of bean development. Sucrose is the major sugar in the mature embryo, whereas fructose and glucose are at higher concentrations in the endosperm tissue. Considerable amounts of malate are found in the endosperm, whereas citrate is the dominant carboxylic acid in the embryo. A major change in the fatty acid composition occurs in the young embryo when the proportion of stearic acid increases rapidly at the expense of linoleic acid, which is reduced from about 18 to 3%. Theobromine is the dominant purine alkaloid (ca. 80%), and caffeine appears only toward the end of seed maturity. Aspartic endoproteinase activity increases rapidly during embryo expansion, reaching a maximal activity before final maturity. The results are discussed in conjunction with physiological changes in developing seeds, and the potential contributions of the compounds analyzed for cocoa quality.

  5. Aspectual Fertility Variation and Its Effect on Gene Diversity of Seeds in Natural Stands of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.)

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Nilüfer

    2017-01-01

    There are many environmental and biological factors on forestry practices as known. Aspect called as slope faces is one of the most important environmental factors in these practices because of its easy application for managers. Fertility variation defined as an individual ability to give progeny and gene diversity estimated based on effective number of parents were investigated as the proportion of numbers of cones counted from individuals in natural stands sampled aspectual of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) for three consecutive years. The averages of cone number were 19.4, 47.2, and 75.5 for the years. It was the highest in flat (23.5) for 2013, in south (92.1) for 2014, and in flat (95.7) for 2015, while it was lowest in south (16.3), in east (18.2), and in north (39.4) for the years, respectively. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were estimated among years for cone production in polled aspect. Estimated fertility variations changed for the years and stands. It could be generally acceptable level for typical natural stands except of west of 2014. Fertility variations were 1.55, 3.05, and 1.64 in polled stands for the years. Gene diversity was 0.99 for the years in polled stands. North aspect could be taken into consideration in establishment and selection of seed sources and gene conservation areas based on fertility variation and gene diversity. PMID:28164112

  6. The seed nuclear proteome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  7. Combinatorial variation in coding and promoter sequences of genes at the Tri locus in Pisum sativum accounts for variation in trypsin inhibitor activity in seeds.

    PubMed

    Page, D; Aubert, G; Duc, G; Welham, T; Domoney, C

    2002-05-01

    Cultivars of Pisum sativum that differ with respect to the quantitative expression of trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor proteins in seeds have been examined in terms of the structure of the corresponding genes. The patterns of divergence in the promoter and coding sequences are described, and the divergence among these exploited for the development of facile DNA-based assays to distinguish genotypes. Quantitative effects on gene expression may be attributed to the overall gene complement and to particular promoter/coding sequence combinations, as well as to the existence of distinct active-site variants that ultimately influence protein activity. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-002-0667-4.

  8. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  9. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens.

  10. Adaptive-weighted Total Variation Minimization for Sparse Data toward Low-dose X-ray Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, a piecewise-smooth X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing noticeable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously-reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several noticeable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full width at half maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm. PMID:23154621

  11. Effect of body weight support variation on muscle activities during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-05-01

    While body weight support (BWS) intonation is vital during conventional gait training of neurologically challenged subjects, it is important to evaluate its effect during robot assisted gait training. In the present research we have studied the effect of BWS intonation on muscle activities during robotic gait training using dynamic simulations. Two dimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed conjointly with another 2-D model of a robotic orthosis capable of actuating hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously. The musculoskeletal model consists of eight major muscle groups namely; soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius (GAS), tibialis anterior (TA), hamstrings (HAM), vasti (VAS), gluteus maximus (GLU), uniarticular hip flexors (iliopsoas, IP), and Rectus Femoris (RF). BWS was provided at levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60% during the simulations. In order to obtain a feasible set of muscle activities during subsequent gait cycles, an inverse dynamics algorithm along with a quadratic minimization algorithm was implemented. The dynamic parameters of the robot assisted human gait such as joint angle trajectories, ground contact force (GCF), human limb joint torques and robot induced torques at different levels of BWS were derived. The patterns of muscle activities at variable BWS were derived and analysed. For most part of the gait cycle (GC) the muscle activation patterns are quite similar for all levels of BWS as is apparent from the mean of muscle activities for the complete GC. Effect of BWS variation during robot assisted gait on muscle activities was studied by developing dynamic simulation. It is expected that the proposed dynamic simulation approach will provide important inferences and information about the muscle function variations consequent upon a change in BWS during robot assisted gait. This information shall be quite important while investigating the influence of BWS intonation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robotic gait training.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Contrasting Effects of Resident Vegetation on Establishment, Growth and Reproduction of Dry Grassland Plants: Implications for Seed Addition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

  13. Spatio-temporal variation in contrasting effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland plants: implications for seed addition experiments.

    PubMed

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle.

  14. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Fernández, J.; Chuvieco, E.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-02-01

    Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence. The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983-2007) was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire) to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density) to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53). Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence. For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from GWR indicated a significant spatial variation in the local

  15. Powder flow studies III: tensile strength, consolidation ratio, flow rate, and capsule-filling-weight variation relationships.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Yang, I C

    1981-08-01

    The tensile strength of consolidated powder beds was studied by applying a series of loads to the surface of the powder beds in a tensile tester. The results were plotted as tensile strength versus consolidation pressure. The linearity of these plots suggests a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation pressure. The following plots gave linear relationships: (1) tensile strength versus consolidation ratio, (b) tensile strength versus coefficient of variation of the filled weight of the capsules, and (c) logarithm of the tensile strength versus logarithm of the flow rate. These results suggest a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation ratio and their usefulness in studying powder flow. The physical significance of the empirical equation used in consolidation studies was explored. A comparison of the empirical equation with a theoretically derived equation, under certain assumptions, suggests that the consolidation ratio is a function of the ratio of the initial volume to the net volume and a function of the coefficient of Rankine. The coefficient of Rankine is a function of the angle of internal friction in the static powder bed.

  16. Weight variation in users of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and a copper intrauterine device for up to ten years of use.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Waleska; de Nazaré Silva dos Santos, Priscila; Correia, Vinicius Machado; Borges, Luiza; Bahamondes, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Data on record regarding weight variation in depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users are controversial. To date, no studies have yet evaluated weight variation in DMPA and LNG-IUS users in up to ten years of use compared to non-hormonal contraceptive users. A retrospective study analysed weight variations in 2138 women using uninterruptedly DMPA (150 mg intramuscularly, three-monthly; n = 714), the LNG-IUS (n = 701) or a copper-intrauterine device (Cu-IUD; n = 723). At the end of the first year of use, there was a mean weight increase of 1.3 kg, 0.7 kg and 0.2 kg among the DMPA-, LNG-IUS- and Cu-IUD users, respectively, compared to weight at baseline (p < 0.0001). After ten years of use, the mean weight had risen by 6.6 kg, 4.0 and 4.9 kg among the DMPA-, LNG-IUS- and Cu-IUD users, respectively. DMPA-users had gained more weight than LNG-IUS- (p = 0.0197) and than Cu-IUD users (p = 0.0294), with the latter two groups not differing significantly from each other in this respect (p = 0.5532). Users of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods gained a significant amount of weight over the years. DMPA users gained more weight over the treatment period of up to ten years than women fitted with either a LNG-IUS or a Cu-IUD.

  17. Development of new SNP derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker set and its successful utilization in the genetic analysis of seed color variation in barley.

    PubMed

    Bungartz, Annemarie; Klaus, Marius; Mathew, Boby; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new cost effective PCR based CAPS marker set using advantages of high-throughput SNP genotyping. Initially, SNP survey was made using 20 diverse barley genotypes via 9k iSelect array genotyping that resulted in 6334 polymorphic SNP markers. Principle component analysis using this marker data showed fine differentiation of barley diverse gene pool. Till this end, we developed 200 SNP derived CAPS markers distributed across the genome covering around 991cM with an average marker density of 5.09cM. Further, we genotyped 68 CAPS markers in an F2 population (Cheri×ICB181160) segregating for seed color variation in barley. Genetic mapping of seed color revealed putative linkage of single nuclear gene on chromosome 1H. These findings showed the proof of concept for the development and utility of a newer cost effective genomic tool kit to analyze broader genetic resources of barley worldwide.

  18. A metabonomic study of transgenic maize (Zea mays) seeds revealed variations in osmolytes and branched amino acids.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Cesare; Bianchetti, Cristiano; Casciani, Lorena; Castro, Cecilia; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Miccheli, Alfredo; Motto, Mario; Conti, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate metabolic variations associated with genetic modifications in the grains of Zea mays using metabonomic techniques. With this in mind, the non-targeted characteristic of the technique is useful to identify metabolites peculiar to the genetic modification and initially undefined. The results obtained showed that the genetic modification, introducing Cry1Ab gene expression, induces metabolic variations involving the primary nitrogen pathway. Concerning the methodological aspects, the experimental protocol used has been applied in this field for the first time. It consists of a combination of partial least square-discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. The most important metabolites for discrimination were selected and the metabolic correlations linking them are identified. Principal component analysis on selected signals confirms metabolic variations, highlighting important details about the changes induced on the metabolic network by the presence of a Bt transgene in the maize genome.

  19. Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Pardo, María; Arturo, Roca-Rivada; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4 ± 9.4 years; BMI 35.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71 ± 8.8 years; BMI 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1 ± 18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4 ± 7.8 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9 ± 20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6 ± 12 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Moreover, irisin plasma levels were significantly correlated with high levels of direct and indirect adiposity markers, such as weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacan, Mexico: implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming

    Treesearch

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; R. Ricardo Guzman-Reyna; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Pinus oocarpa has a large natural distribution in the sub-tropical forests of Mexico. Populations, however, are rapidly disappearing particularly in the Michoacan State as native forests are converted to avocado (Persea sp.) orchards.We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. oocarpa populations...

  1. Seed source variation in tracheid length and specific gravity of five-year-old jack pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is widely used in Lake States reforestation because of its ability to make rapid early growth on relatively infertile sites. It is a major pulpwood producing species. Since the quality and yield of pulp are so strongly influenced by tracheid length and specific gravity, information on genetic variation in these...

  2. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    Treesearch

    John Bradley St. Clair; Francis F. Kilkenny; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw; George Weaver

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial...

  3. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all p<0.0001), with a large variation observed in fat mass. Baseline fat mass, fat-free mass and daily energy intake were significant predictors of future body weight for both sexes (p<0.0001). Baseline fat mass was a significant predictor of future body fat (p<0.0001). Conclusions Both males and females have large variations in fat mass, and this variability increases over time, while that of fat-free mass remains relatively stable. Sex differences exist in HFD responses and multivariate predicting models of body weight. PMID:24942674

  4. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P < 0.0001), with a large variation observed in fat mass. Baseline fat mass, fat-free mass, and daily energy intake were significant predictors of future body weight for both sexes (P < 0.0001). Baseline fat mass was a significant predictor of future body fat (P < 0.0001). Both males and females have large variations in fat mass, and this variability increases over time, while that of fat-free mass remains relatively stable. Sex differences exist in HFD responses and multivariate predicting models of body weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Investigation of low-molecular weight organic acids and their spatiotemporal variation characteristics in Hongfeng Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Liying; Li, Xinqing; Huang, Rongsheng

    2013-02-01

    The identities and concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were determined by ion chromatography throughout a 20-m water column in Hongfeng Lake, China. The spatiotemporal variations of LMWOAs and their contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a research period of 24 hr were also investigated. The results demonstrated that five LMWOAs (lactic, acetic, pyruvic, sorbic, oxalic acid) were detected, and their total concentration and proportion in DOC were 6.55 micromol/L and 7.47%. Their average levels were 2.50, 0.65, 2.35, 0.96 and 0.09 micromol/L, respectively. LMWOAs were higher during daytime (10:00-18:00 on Jun 13, 2008) than nighttime (21:00-6:00 the next morning), in particular 4.99 micromol/L high in the epilimnion (< or = 1 m water depth), reflecting the fact that direct import from terrigenous sources and photochemical production from humic materials were dominant during LMWOAs' origin and accumulation. The same factors caused LMWOAs to be 0.63 micromol/L in the epilimnion higher than in the hypolimnion. The rapid decrease of total organic acid (TOA) up until 18:00 mainly resulted from bio-uptake and mineralization in the hypolimnion (>1 m water depth). Pyruvic acid increased with time in the epilimnion and decreased in the hypolimnion, largely related to the two contrary processes of continuous degradation and synthesis of macromolecular organic matter during life materials' cycle mediated by organisms. Simultaneously, plankton behavior and thermal stratification played a pivotal role in LMWOAs' behavior in the water column, causing decreasing and increasing profiles. The distribution of LMWOAs represents an interesting resource for biogeochemical research of DOM in aquatic ecosystems.

  6. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  7. Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro--a weighted tissue proportion model.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Ville; Andersson, Britt M; Bergh, Anders; Ljungberg, Börje; Lindahl, Olof A

    2006-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the US. The methods to detect prostate cancer are still precarious and new techniques are needed. A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system is set to vibrate with its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various patho-physiological conditions. In this study the sensor's ability to measure the stiffness of prostate tissue, from two excised prostatectomy specimens in vitro, was analysed. The specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5-1.7 mm, the maximum R(2) > or = 0.60 (p < 0.05, n = 75). An increase in the proportion of prostate stones (corpora amylacea), stroma, or cancer in relation to healthy glandular tissue increased the measured stiffness. Cancer and stroma had the greatest effect on the measured stiffness. The deeper the sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed. Tissue sections deeper in the tissue were assigned a lower mathematical weighting than sections closer to the sensor probe. It is concluded that cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differ from cancer.

  8. Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Bresnahan, M; Begg, M D; Susser, E

    2001-08-11

    To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings. Cohort study of siblings of the same sex. 12 cities in the United States. 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was restricted to children born at >/=37 weeks gestation and with birth weights of 1500-3999 g. Full scale IQ at age 7 years. Mean IQ increased monotonically with birth weight in both sexes across the range of birth weight in a linear regression analysis of one randomly selected sibling per family (n= 1683) with adjustment for maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and birth order. Within same sex sibling pairs, differences in birth weight were directly associated with differences in IQ in boys (812 pairs, predicted IQ difference per 100 g change in birth weight =0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.71) but not girls (871 pairs, 0.10, -0.09 to 0.30). The effect in boys remained after differences in birth order, maternal smoking, and head circumference were adjusted for and in an analysis restricted to children with birth weight >/= 2500 g. The increase in childhood IQ with birth weight continues well into the normal birth weight range. For boys this relation holds within same sex sibships and therefore cannot be explained by confounding from family social environment.

  9. Birth weight modifies the association between central-nervous-system gene variation and adult body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth-weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth-weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women’s Health Study, and were based on genotype data on twenty BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth-weight, weight at age 18, and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual SNPs with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth-weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1, and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth-weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth-weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient = −0.045 (95% CI −0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and −0.055 (95% CI −0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth-weight ≥3,200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient = 0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction = 0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction < 0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1, and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low birth-weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  10. Genome-wide association and regional heritability mapping to identify loci underlying variation in nematode resistance and body weight in Scottish Blackface lambs.

    PubMed

    Riggio, V; Matika, O; Pong-Wong, R; Stear, M J; Bishop, S C

    2013-05-01

    The genetic architecture underlying nematode resistance and body weight in Blackface lambs was evaluated comparing genome-wide association (GWA) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches. The traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC) and immunoglobulin A activity against third-stage larvae from Teladorsagia circumcincta, as indicators of nematode resistance, and body weight in a population of 752 Scottish Blackface lambs, genotyped with the 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. FEC for both Nematodirus and Strongyles nematodes (excluding Nematodirus), as well as body weight were collected at approximately 16, 20 and 24 weeks of age. In addition, a weighted average animal effect was estimated for both FEC and body weight traits. After quality control, 44 388 SNPs were available for the GWA analysis and 42 841 for the RHM, which utilises only mapped SNPs. The same fixed effects were used in both analyses: sex, year, management group, litter size and age of dam, with day of birth as covariate. Some genomic regions of interest for both nematode resistance and body weight traits were identified, using both GWA and RHM approaches. For both methods, strong evidence for association was found on chromosome 14 for Nematodirus average animal effect, chromosome 6 for Strongyles FEC at 16 weeks and chromosome 6 for body weight at 16 weeks. Across the entire data set, RHM identified more regions reaching the suggestive level than GWA, suggesting that RHM is capable of capturing some of the variation not detected by GWA analyses.

  11. Genome-wide association and regional heritability mapping to identify loci underlying variation in nematode resistance and body weight in Scottish Blackface lambs

    PubMed Central

    Riggio, V; Matika, O; Pong-Wong, R; Stear, M J; Bishop, S C

    2013-01-01

    The genetic architecture underlying nematode resistance and body weight in Blackface lambs was evaluated comparing genome-wide association (GWA) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches. The traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC) and immunoglobulin A activity against third-stage larvae from Teladorsagia circumcincta, as indicators of nematode resistance, and body weight in a population of 752 Scottish Blackface lambs, genotyped with the 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. FEC for both Nematodirus and Strongyles nematodes (excluding Nematodirus), as well as body weight were collected at approximately 16, 20 and 24 weeks of age. In addition, a weighted average animal effect was estimated for both FEC and body weight traits. After quality control, 44 388 SNPs were available for the GWA analysis and 42 841 for the RHM, which utilises only mapped SNPs. The same fixed effects were used in both analyses: sex, year, management group, litter size and age of dam, with day of birth as covariate. Some genomic regions of interest for both nematode resistance and body weight traits were identified, using both GWA and RHM approaches. For both methods, strong evidence for association was found on chromosome 14 for Nematodirus average animal effect, chromosome 6 for Strongyles FEC at 16 weeks and chromosome 6 for body weight at 16 weeks. Across the entire data set, RHM identified more regions reaching the suggestive level than GWA, suggesting that RHM is capable of capturing some of the variation not detected by GWA analyses. PMID:23512009

  12. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  13. Maturation of Sweetgum and American Sycamore Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1972-01-01

    Over three consecutive years in central Mississippi, sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) fruits had nearly reached full-size by late June. Sweetgum seeds were physiologically mature by mid-August, but dry weight increased until late September. As sweetgum seeds matured, the crude fat level rose to 27 percent of seed dry weight...

  14. Both Sides Now: Interpreting Beta Weights. "Beta" Weights Should Be Used to Interpret Regression Variates and to Assess In-Context Variable Importance. Cautions and Conditions for Interpreting Weighting Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard J.; McNeil, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Presents two viewpoints about the use and interpretability of beta weights in educational research: (1) that beta weights should be interpreted as a logical index of the importance of individual predictors within the context of the entire set of predictors; and (2) that interpretation requires certain cautions and conditions. (SV)

  15. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001–02, 2007–08, and 2014–15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85–125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  17. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively.

  18. Variation at the Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Delahanty, Linda M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Knowler, William C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations and genotype × treatment interactions for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) locus variants and obesity-related traits. Design and Methods Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants (N=3,819, of whom 3,356 were genotyped for baseline and 3,234 for longitudinal analyses) were randomized into intensive lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight loss), metformin or placebo control. Adiposity was assessed in a subgroup (n=909) using computed tomography. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and treatment. Results The rs1943218 minor allele was nominally associated with short-term (6 month; P=0.032) and long-term (2 year; P=0.038) weight change. Eight SNPs modified response to treatment on short-term (rs17066856, rs9966412, rs17066859, rs8091237, rs17066866, rs7240064) or long-term (rs12970134, rs17066866) reduction in body weight, or diabetes incidence (rs17066829) (all Pinteraction <0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the role of MC4R variants and weight regulation in a weight loss intervention trial. One MC4R variant was directly associated with obesity-related traits or diabetes; numerous other variants appear to influence body weight and diabetes risk by modifying the protective effects of the DPP interventions. PMID:23512951

  19. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  20. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  1. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  2. Spontaneous and experimental variations in body weight, food intake and metabolic rate in captive dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Stock, M J

    1986-01-01

    Captive dormice (Glis glis) showed spontaneous cyclical fluctuations in body weight that were not synchronous between animals and not directly related to season. Presenting the animals with a varied and palatable (cafeteria) diet for short periods caused marked increases in energy intake and body weight, and higher levels of oxygen consumption (V02). The level of hyperphagia was fairly constant, but the rise in V02 during cafeteria feeding varied (20-80%) according to season, being greatest in the winter (Nov.-Jan.). Removal of the cafeteria foods caused weight loss, hypophagia and a fall in V02 to levels below that seen in either normally-fed or fasted dormice. This hypometabolism was associated with increased periods of sleep and torpor, and it is suggested that the excess fat deposition resulting from cafeteria feeding may have induced a transient "hibernation-like" state.

  3. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS Lost trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490

  4. Variation and correlation of protein molecular weight distribution and semolina quality parameters for durum genotypes grown in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research assessed the associations between protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and quality characteristics for durum semolina samples that were obtained from thirteen durum genotypes grown at seven locations for two years in North Dakota. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractable and un...

  5. Altitudinal variation in growth, bud break and susceptibility to balsam twig aphid damage of balsam fir from 6 Vermont seed sources

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson; Paul G. Schaberg

    1992-01-01

    Differences in 10-year heights, 4-year growth from 1987 through 1990, relative timing of budbreak and damage by the balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) among balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) from 6 Vermont seed sources originating from different elevations were examined. Height differences among seed sources were...

  6. Genome-wide association study in arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to co-vary with germination temperatures because of a trade-o...

  7. Seed Germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  8. Recruitment of childhood leukaemia patients to clinical trials in Great Britain during 1980-2007: variation by birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anjali; Diggens, Nicole; Stiller, Charles; Richards, Sue; Stevens, Michael C G; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-05-01

    To assess recruitment of children to national clinical trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Great Britain during 1980-2007 and describe variation by some factors that might influence trial entry. Records of leukaemia patients aged 0-14 years at diagnosis were identified in the National Registry of Childhood Tumours and linked to birth registrations, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group records, Hospital Episode Statistics and Medical Research Council clinical trial registers. Trial entry rates were compared between categories of birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. 9147 ALL and 1466 AML patients were eligible for national clinical trials during 1980-2007. Overall recruitment rates were 81% and 60% respectively. For ALL, rates varied significantly with congenital malformation (Down syndrome 61%, other malformations 80%, none 82%; p<0.001) and ethnicity (South Asian 78%, other minority groups 80%, white 85%; p<0.001). For AML, rates varied with birth weight (< 2500 g 48%, 2500-4000 g 69%, >4000 g 67%; p=0.001) and congenital malformation (Down syndrome 28%, other malformations 56%, none 63%; p<0.001). Although recruitment rates to clinical trials for childhood leukaemia are high, future trials should monitor possible variation by birth weight, ethnicity and presence of congenital malformations.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  10. Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  11. Phenotypic Characteristics as Predictors of Phytosterols in Mature Cycas micronesica Seeds.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Shaw, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between mature Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seed sterol concentration and content and plant or seed phenotypic characteristics was established by multiple regression. Combined models were significant for free but not glycosylated sterols. Reduced models revealed leaf number as the only significant predictor. Free and glycosylated sterol concentrations were unaffected throughout the range of several predictors: tree height (1.7 to 5.8 m), seed fresh weight (48 to 120 g), seed load (one to 76 seeds per plant), and estimated tree age (32 to 110 years). The free and glycosylated sterol phenotypes were also not dependent on the presence/absence of developed embryos in mature seeds. The significant response to leaf number was subtle with an increase of 43 leaves associated with a 0.1-mg increase in free sterol per gram seed fresh weight. This is the first report for any cycad that discusses reproductive or physiological traits in the context of allometric relations. Results indicate a highly constrained phenotypic plasticity of Cycas gametophyte sterol and steryl glucoside concentration and seed content in relation to whole plant and organ size variation.

  12. Subsurface drip irrigation for native wildflower seed production

    Treesearch

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2008-01-01

    Native forb seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native forb seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture...

  13. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Treesearch

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  14. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Treesearch

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  15. Provisional tree and shrub seed zones for the Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Cunningham

    1975-01-01

    Seed collection zones are subdivisions of land areas established to identify seed sources and to control the movement of seed and planting stock. Seed zones are needed for many species because of the genetic variation associated with their geographic distribution. Zone boundaries may be delineated from experimental data that identify genetic variation, or by analysis...

  16. Evaluating the Role of LPIN1 Variation in Insulin Resistance, Body Weight, and Human Lipodystrophy in U.K. Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grimsey, Neil; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Daly, Allan; Soos, Maria; Semple, Robert; Syddall, Holly; Cooper, Cyrus; Siniossoglou, Symeon; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Barroso, Inês

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Loss of lipin 1 activity causes lipodystrophy and insulin resistance in the fld mouse, and LPIN1 expression and common genetic variation were recently suggested to influence adiposity and insulin sensitivity in humans. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive association study to clarify the influence of common LPIN1 variation on adiposity and insulin sensitivity in U.K. populations and to examine the role of LPIN1 mutations in insulin resistance syndromes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD— Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging common LPIN1 variation were genotyped in Medical Research Council (MRC) Ely (n = 1,709) and Hertfordshire (n = 2,901) population-based cohorts. LPIN1 exons, exon/intron boundaries, and 3′ untranslated region were sequenced in 158 patients with idiopathic severe insulin resistance (including 23 lipodystrophic patients) and 48 control subjects. RESULTS— We found no association between LPIN1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and fasting insulin but report a nominal association between rs13412852 and BMI (P = 0.042) in a meta-analysis of 8,504 samples from in-house and publicly available studies. Three rare nonsynonymous variants (A353T, R552K, and G582R) were detected in severely insulin-resistant patients. However, these did not cosegregate with disease in affected families, and Lipin1 protein expression and phosphorylation in patients with variants were indistinguishable from those in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS— Our data do not support a major effect of common LPIN1 variation on metabolic traits and suggest that mutations in LPIN1 are not a common cause of lipodystrophy in humans. The nominal associations with BMI and other metabolic traits in U.K. cohorts require replication in larger cohorts. PMID:18591397

  17. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  18. Differential impact of changes in adiposity distribution on insulin resistance and adiponectin variations over 4 years in normal weight young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacerte, G; Langlois, M-F; Doyon, M; Brown, C; Carpentier, A C; Hivert, M-F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of weight gain and changes in adiposity distribution on insulin resistance and circulating adiponectin variations over 4 years in free-living normal weight young adults. In this prospective observational cohort (n=42 women, 18 men), anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected in the fasting state at baseline and at 4 years. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). Circulating adiponectin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. To investigate increase in adiposity more specifically, subsidiary analyses were performed in a subgroup of individuals (n=31) who gained adiposity over the course of the 4-year follow-up (defined as gain >1% in percent body fat). Regression analyses were performed to adjust for sex, age, parental education, lifestyle, and fitness levels. At baseline, the participants were young adults (age=20.0 years old) in the normal weight range [body mass index (BMI)=22.7 kg/m2 (IQR=21.1-24.4)]. Median change in body fat percentage was +1.4% (IQR=-0.3-3.4; p=0.01) and in waist circumference was +1.2 cm (IQR=-2.6-5.3; p=0.05). In the subgroup of individuals who gained more than 1% body fat, increase in HOMA-IR was associated with an increase in BMI (r=0.44; p=0.01; p<0.01 in fully adjusted model), while decrease in adiponectin levels was associated with an increase in waist circumference (r=-0.38; p=0.03) but this was no longer significant after adjustment for sex and other potential confounders (p=0.14). In a population of young adults, small variations in adiposity within the normal weight range were associated with increase in insulin resistance.

  19. Spatial variations in the average rainfall-altitude relationship in Great Britain: an approach using geographically weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsdon, C.; McClatchey, J.; Unwin, D. J.

    2001-03-01

    The relationship between annual rainfall totals and gauge elevation over Great Britain is re-examined using the recently developed technique of geographically weighted regression (GWR). This enables the spatial drift of regression parameters to be identified, estimated and mapped. It is shown that the rate of increase of precipitation with height, or height coefficient, varies from around 4.5 mm/m in the northwest to almost zero in the southeast. There is a particularly rapid change in this value across the English Midlands. The predicted sea level precipitation varies from 1250 mm to less than 600 mm in much the same way.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K.; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as “peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb).” The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin), and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color. PMID

  1. GWR-PM - Spatial variation relationship analysis with Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) - An application at Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhuri, J.; Azhar, B. M. S.; Puan, C. L.; Norizah, K.

    2016-06-01

    GWR-PM has been developed exclusively for decision makers in Peninsular Malaysia and the purpose is to provide them with additional flexibility in analysing spatial variation. While GWR extension analysis in ArcMap application has a universal coordinate system, GWR-PM is specifically designed with Peninsular Malaysia's coordinate system of Kertau RSO Malaya Meter. This paper presents the development of GWR-PM model by using a model builder, the application of which is to examine the forest fire risk at North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest. This model can be extended and improved by using ArcGIS language of phyton.

  2. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    To further elucidate the regulation of dormancy release, we followed the natural afterripening of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds from about the 5th to 40th week after harvest. Seeds were kept at low temperature (3 ± 2 C) until just prior to testing for germination, ethylene production, and internal ethylene concentration. Germination tended to fluctuate but did not increase significantly during the first 30 weeks; internal ethylene concentrations and ethylene production remained comparatively low during this time. When the seeds were placed at room temperature during the 30th to 40th weeks after harvest, there was a large increase in germination, 49% and 47% for apical and basal seeds, respectively. The data confirm our previous suggestion that production rates of 2.0 to 3.0 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour are necessary to provide internal ethylene concentrations at activation levels which cause a substantial increase of germination. Activation levels internally must be more than 0.4 microliter per liter and 0.9 microliter per liter for some apical and basal seeds, respectively, since dormant-imbibed seeds containing these concentrations did not germinate. Abscisic acid inhibited germination and ethylene production of afterripened seeds. Kinetin reversed the effects of ABA and this was correlated with its ability to stimulate ethylene production by the seeds. Ethylene also reversed the effects of abscisic acid. Carbon dioxide did not compete with ethylene action in this system. The data indicate that ethylene and an inhibitor, possibly abscisic acid, interact to control dormant peanut seed germination. The inability of CO2 to inhibit competitively the action of ethylene on dormancy release, as it does other ethylene effects, suggests that the primary site of action of ethylene in peanut seeds is different from the site for other plant responses to ethylene. PMID:16658179

  3. Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-05-01

    Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes.

  4. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging.

  5. Seismic amplitude variation with offset: Its effects on weighted stacking, and its uses in characterization of sandstone and carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiba, Gislain Bolouvi

    An algorithm for weighted stacking, which is not particularly expensive in terms of computer time or memory and can be easily incorporated into routine processing is proposed. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed weighted stacking algorithm and the conventional stacking algorithm is conducted through testing on synthetics and a real data set from New Mexico, USA. This weighted stacking algorithm achieves the primary goal of signal-to-noise ratio improvement while at the same time providing better resolution, wider bandwidth, and a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the conventional stack. A novel hydrocarbon indicator [the water-filled porosity (S wv)], which is estimated from the ratio of P-velocity to S-velocity (Vp/Vs), is proposed and applied to characterize clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea. The separation between pore fluids and lithologies is enhanced by mapping from V p/Vs to Swv using an empirical crossplot-derived relationship. The Swv-V p/Vs plane still does not produce unique interpretations in many situations. However, the critical distinction, which is between hydrocarbon-bearing sands and all other geologic/reservoir configurations, is defined. Porosity is the dominant factor controlling reservoir signature for carbonate rocks. Acoustic impedance and seismic amplitudes are porosity and lithology indicators. Angle-dependent reflectivity effects are introduced for determination of fluid charactersitics by simultaneous elastic impedance inversion of three non-overlapping migrated common-angle stacked sections for P- and S-impedance (Ip and Is). Deviations of points from a water-filled baseline in the Ip-I s plane define a gas potential section that is used for direct identification of gas zones in the dolomitized limestone reservoirs of the Turner Valley Formation in southern Alberta, Canada. There is consistency with the known gas production at a well and agreement with gas index sections obtained through the use of Lame parameter

  6. Analysis of composition, molecular weight, and water content variations in sodium alginate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sperger, Diana M; Fu, Shao; Block, Lawrence H; Munson, Eric J

    2011-08-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy has become more prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry due to its nondestructive nature and the wealth of information it can provide on a wide variety of solid samples. In this study, SSNMR spectra and relaxation times were used to analyze differences in monomer composition, molecular weight (MW), and water content among various sodium alginate samples. Differences in structure could be determined via spectral deconvolution of SSNMR spectra, and differences in intrinsic viscosity, MW, and water content were found to correlate to SSNMR relaxation times. The technique was found to be selective and sensitive enough to detect these changes in sodium alginate even when diluted with another excipient and compressed into a tablet.

  7. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  8. Genetic Variations of Circulating Adiponectin Levels Modulate Changes in Appetite in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Dianjianyi; Tong, Jenny; Williamson, Donald A; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays key roles in regulating appetite and food intake. To investigate interactions between the genetic risk score (GRS) for adiponectin levels and weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on long-term changes in appetite and adiponectin levels. A GRS was calculated based on 5 adiponectin-associated variants in 692 overweight adults from the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Repeated measurements of plasma adiponectin levels and appetite-related traits, including cravings, fullness, prospective consumption, and hunger. Dietary fat showed nominally significant interactions with the adiponectin GRS on changes in appetite score and prospective consumption from baseline to 6 months (P for interaction = 0.014 and 0.017, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, and baseline respective outcome values. The GRS for lower adiponectin levels was associated with a greater decrease in appetite (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P = 0.008) among participants consuming a high-fat diet, whereas no significant associations were observed in the low-fat group. Additionally, a significant interaction was observed between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in adiponectin levels (P for interaction = 0.021). The lower GRS was associated with a greater increase in adiponectin in the low-fat group (P = 0.02), but it was not associated with adiponectin changes in the high-fat group (P = 0.31). Our findings suggest that individuals with varying genetic architecture of circulating adiponectin may respond divergently in appetite and adiponectin levels to weight-loss diets varying in fat intake.

  9. Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kim D.; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A.

    2007-01-01

    The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR-), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR-)] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR- or GRM+ IR- when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight. PMID:17679772

  10. Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae S; Thompson, Kim D; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A

    2007-09-01

    The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR(-)), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR(-))] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR(-) or GRM+ IR(-) when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight.

  11. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  12. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal to sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karubian, Jordan; Ottewell, Kym; Link, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees via 'destination-based' dispersal processes. For example, use of traditional sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys Ateles belzebuth generates high densities of seeds of a preferred food source, the palm Oenocarpus bataua, at these sites. Little is known about the maternal seed source diversity and population genetic metrics of seed pools encountered at these sites. Given the repeated use of sleeping trees over time, and the fluid social organization and wide ranging movements exhibited by spider monkeys, we predicted that O. bataua seed pools beneath sleeping trees would be characterized by relatively high values of maternal seed source diversity and standard metrics of genetic diversity. Contrary to these expectations, we found relatively low average maternal seed source diversity beneath each of 6 sleeping trees we studied (weighted mean α = 3.74), but considerable variation in diversity of maternal seed sources between sleeping trees (range = 1.75-10.1) and high heterogeneity in standard genetic diversity measures between sleeping trees. There was no evidence for overlap in maternal seed sources between sleeping tree sites (δ = 1.0), resulting in significant genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.055-0.319) between these sites. Observed variation between sleeping trees could not be explained by the number of individual spider monkeys whose core home ranges included a given tree, nor by distance to a central mineral lick, a focal point of spider monkey activity. These findings suggest that spider monkey seed dispersal to sleeping trees is spatially restricted, perhaps because the animals visit sleeping trees at the end of the day and therefore only disperse O. bataua fruits that they ingest late in the day. These results add to our growing appreciation of the ways frugivore behavior mechanistically shapes seed dispersal outcomes.

  13. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  14. Sorghum Seed Maturity Affects the Weight and Feeding Duration of Immature Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Alysha M.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; McCornack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed. PMID:24219328

  15. Seed Quality in Five Jack Pine Stands in North Central Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Jeffers

    1985-01-01

    Hundred-seed weights from 15 trees in each stand averaged 330 mg; 100-seed weights differed significantly among trees within stands and among stands. Germination of filled seed averaged 95 percent; germination differed significantly among trees within stands, but not among stands. Detailed seed records should be kept for all seed orchards.

  16. Total mercury levels in selected tissues of some marine crustaceans from Persian Gulf, Iran: variations related to length, weight and sex.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Mehdi; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Much of the variation in trace metal tissue concentrations in marine invertebrates has been attributed to the variety in individual organism size, age and sex. This study assessed the relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentrations in edible tissue, exoskeleton and viscera with length, weight and gender for 69 samples of crustaceans, Penaeus semisulcatus (n = 30), Thenus orientalis (n = 21) and Portunus pelagicus (n = 18) from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Significant increase in the Hg level in muscle and viscera (r > 0.65, p < 0.01) with an increase in length and weight for all three species. No relationship was found between the Hg level in exoskeleton and length or weight. Significantly higher Hg levels (p < 0.01) were found in female P. semisulcatus than in males (muscle and viscera), but no gender differences were found for the other two species.

  17. Direct seeding

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; G. A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    At present, direct seeding of hardwoods in the Lake States is more of a supplemental than a primary means of artificial regeneration. Direct seeding may be used to augment a poor seed crop or increase the proportion of a preferred species. In the future, it will no doubt play a bigger role-in anticipation of this we need to collect and store the amounts of seed needed...

  18. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  19. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  20. Testing tree seeds for vigor: a review

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1998-01-01

    This review examines the use of vigor tests for tree seeds. It suggests that precise evaluations of these tests and their application with seeds of woody plants is not yet possible. This is due to the wide genetic variation, primarily manifested in variable maturity and dormancy, that exists in most tree seed lots. Sensitive measurements of germination rate during...

  1. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  2. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes. PMID:27791139

  3. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  4. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  5. Phenology and Seed Yield Performance of Determinate Soybean Cultivars Grown at Elevated Temperatures in a Temperate Region

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Doug-Hwan; Ban, Ho-Young; Seo, Beom-Seok; Lee, Kyu-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Increased temperature means and fluctuations associated with climate change are predicted to exert profound effects on the seed yield of soybean. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the impacts of global warming on the phenology and yield of two determinate soybean cultivars in a temperate region (37.27°N, 126.99°E; Suwon, South Korea). These two soybean cultivars, Sinpaldalkong [maturity group (MG) IV] and Daewonkong (MG VI), were cultured on various sowing dates within a four-year period, under no water-stress conditions. Soybeans were kept in greenhouses controlled at the current ambient temperature (AT), AT+1.5°C, AT+3.0°C, and AT+5.0°C throughout the growth periods. Growth periods (VE–R7) were significantly prolonged by the elevated temperatures, especially the R1–R5 period. Cultivars exhibited no significant differences in seed yield at the AT+1.5°C and AT+3.0°C treatments, compared to AT, while a significant yield reduction was observed at the AT+5.0°C treatment. Yield reductions resulted from limited seed number, which was due to an overall low numbers of pods and seeds per pod. Heat stress conditions induced a decrease in pod number to a greater degree than in seed number per pod. Individual seed weight exhibited no significant variation among temperature elevation treatments; thus, seed weight likely had negligible impacts on overall seed yield. A boundary line analysis (using quantile regression) estimated optimum temperatures for seed number at 26.4 to 26.8°C (VE–R5) for both cultivars; the optimum temperatures (R5–R7) for single seed weight were estimated at 25.2°C for the Sinpaldalkong smaller-seeded cultivar, and at 22.3°C for the Daewonkong larger-seeded cultivar. The optimum growing season (VE–R7) temperatures for seed yield, which were estimated by combining the two boundary lines for seed number and seed weight, were 26.4 and 25.0°C for the Sinpaldalkong and Daewonkong cultivars, respectively. Considering the current

  6. Phenology and Seed Yield Performance of Determinate Soybean Cultivars Grown at Elevated Temperatures in a Temperate Region.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doug-Hwan; Ban, Ho-Young; Seo, Beom-Seok; Lee, Kyu-Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Increased temperature means and fluctuations associated with climate change are predicted to exert profound effects on the seed yield of soybean. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the impacts of global warming on the phenology and yield of two determinate soybean cultivars in a temperate region (37.27°N, 126.99°E; Suwon, South Korea). These two soybean cultivars, Sinpaldalkong [maturity group (MG) IV] and Daewonkong (MG VI), were cultured on various sowing dates within a four-year period, under no water-stress conditions. Soybeans were kept in greenhouses controlled at the current ambient temperature (AT), AT+1.5°C, AT+3.0°C, and AT+5.0°C throughout the growth periods. Growth periods (VE-R7) were significantly prolonged by the elevated temperatures, especially the R1-R5 period. Cultivars exhibited no significant differences in seed yield at the AT+1.5°C and AT+3.0°C treatments, compared to AT, while a significant yield reduction was observed at the AT+5.0°C treatment. Yield reductions resulted from limited seed number, which was due to an overall low numbers of pods and seeds per pod. Heat stress conditions induced a decrease in pod number to a greater degree than in seed number per pod. Individual seed weight exhibited no significant variation among temperature elevation treatments; thus, seed weight likely had negligible impacts on overall seed yield. A boundary line analysis (using quantile regression) estimated optimum temperatures for seed number at 26.4 to 26.8°C (VE-R5) for both cultivars; the optimum temperatures (R5-R7) for single seed weight were estimated at 25.2°C for the Sinpaldalkong smaller-seeded cultivar, and at 22.3°C for the Daewonkong larger-seeded cultivar. The optimum growing season (VE-R7) temperatures for seed yield, which were estimated by combining the two boundary lines for seed number and seed weight, were 26.4 and 25.0°C for the Sinpaldalkong and Daewonkong cultivars, respectively. Considering the current soybean

  7. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  8. Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-09-20

    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention.Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS.Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P-interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group.Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution for accurate residue function estimation via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization: a preclinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dong; Gong, Changfei; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Zhang; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for quick diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of dynamic MPCT imaging is the heavy radiation dose to patients due to its dynamic image acquisition protocol. In this work, to address this issue, we present a robust dynamic MPCT deconvolution algorithm via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation (AwTTV) regularization for accurate residue function estimation with low-mA s data acquisitions. For simplicity, the presented method is termed ‘MPD-AwTTV’. More specifically, the gains of the AwTTV regularization over the original tensor total variation regularization are from the anisotropic edge property of the sequential MPCT images. To minimize the associative objective function we propose an efficient iterative optimization strategy with fast convergence rate in the framework of an iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. We validate and evaluate the presented algorithm using both digital XCAT phantom and preclinical porcine data. The preliminary experimental results have demonstrated that the presented MPD-AwTTV deconvolution algorithm can achieve remarkable gains in noise-induced artifact suppression, edge detail preservation, and accurate flow-scaled residue function and MPHM estimation as compared with the other existing deconvolution algorithms in digital phantom studies, and similar gains can be obtained in the porcine data experiment.

  10. Insights into the Effects of Long-Term Artificial Selection on Seed Size in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Candice N.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Eichten, Steven R.; Deshpande, Shweta; Barry, Kerrie; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Buckler, Edward S.; Springer, Nathan; Buell, C. Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Grain produced from cereal crops is a primary source of human food and animal feed worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of seed-size variation, a grain yield component, we conducted a genome-wide scan to detect evidence of selection in the maize Krug Yellow Dent long-term divergent seed-size selection experiment. Previous studies have documented significant phenotypic divergence between the populations. Allele frequency estimates for ∼3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the base population and selected populations were estimated from pooled whole-genome resequencing of 48 individuals per population. Using FST values across sliding windows, 94 divergent regions with a median of six genes per region were identified. Additionally, 2729 SNPs that reached fixation in both selected populations with opposing fixed alleles were identified, many of which clustered in two regions of the genome. Copy-number variation was highly prevalent between the selected populations, with 532 total regions identified on the basis of read-depth variation and comparative genome hybridization. Regions important for seed weight in natural variation were identified in the maize nested association mapping population. However, the number of regions that overlapped with the long-term selection experiment did not exceed that expected by chance, possibly indicating unique sources of variation between the two populations. The results of this study provide insights into the genetic elements underlying seed-size variation in maize and could also have applications for other cereal crops. PMID:25037958

  11. Insights into the effects of long-term artificial selection on seed size in maize.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Candice N; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Beissinger, Timothy M; Eichten, Steven R; Deshpande, Shweta; Barry, Kerrie; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Buckler, Edward S; Springer, Nathan; Buell, C Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2014-09-01

    Grain produced from cereal crops is a primary source of human food and animal feed worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of seed-size variation, a grain yield component, we conducted a genome-wide scan to detect evidence of selection in the maize Krug Yellow Dent long-term divergent seed-size selection experiment. Previous studies have documented significant phenotypic divergence between the populations. Allele frequency estimates for ∼3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the base population and selected populations were estimated from pooled whole-genome resequencing of 48 individuals per population. Using FST values across sliding windows, 94 divergent regions with a median of six genes per region were identified. Additionally, 2729 SNPs that reached fixation in both selected populations with opposing fixed alleles were identified, many of which clustered in two regions of the genome. Copy-number variation was highly prevalent between the selected populations, with 532 total regions identified on the basis of read-depth variation and comparative genome hybridization. Regions important for seed weight in natural variation were identified in the maize nested association mapping population. However, the number of regions that overlapped with the long-term selection experiment did not exceed that expected by chance, possibly indicating unique sources of variation between the two populations. The results of this study provide insights into the genetic elements underlying seed-size variation in maize and could also have applications for other cereal crops.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of coordinated transcript abundance during seed development in different Brassica rapa morphotypes.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Moreno-Pachon, Natalia; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2013-12-01

    Brassica seeds are important as basic units of plant growth and sources of vegetable oil. Seed development is regulated by many dynamic metabolic processes controlled by complex networks of spatially and temporally expressed genes. We conducted a global microarray gene co-expression analysis by measuring transcript abundance of developing seeds from two diverse B. rapa morphotypes: a pak choi (leafy-type) and a yellow sarson (oil-type), and two of their doubled haploid (DH) progenies, (1) to study the timing of metabolic processes in developing seeds, (2) to explore the major transcriptional differences in developing seeds of the two morphotypes, and (3) to identify the optimum stage for a genetical genomics study in B. rapa seed. Seed developmental stages were similar in developing seeds of pak choi and yellow sarson of B. rapa; however, the colour of embryo and seed coat differed among these two morphotypes. In this study, most transcriptional changes occurred between 25 and 35 DAP, which shows that the timing of seed developmental processes in B. rapa is at later developmental stages than in the related species B. napus. Using a Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), we identified 47 "gene modules", of which 27 showed a significant association with temporal and/or genotypic variation. An additional hierarchical cluster analysis identified broad spectra of gene expression patterns during seed development. The predominant variation in gene expression was according to developmental stages rather than morphotype differences. Since lipids are the major storage compounds of Brassica seeds, we investigated in more detail the regulation of lipid metabolism. Four co-regulated gene clusters were identified with 17 putative cis-regulatory elements predicted in their 1000 bp upstream region, either specific or common to different lipid metabolic pathways. This is the first study of genome-wide profiling of transcript abundance during seed development in B

  13. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III)-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient) were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe) on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe) on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO) homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity under iron limited

  14. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Knewtson, Sharon Jb; Astudillo, Carolina; Li, Chee-Ming; Fernandez, Andrea C; Grusak, Michael A

    2010-10-05

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 x G19833), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III)-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient) were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe) on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe) on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO) homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity under iron limited conditions may be useful in

  15. Comprehensive speciation of low-molecular weight selenium metabolites in mustard seeds using HPLC-electrospray linear trap/Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouerdane, Laurent; Aureli, Federica; Flis, Paulina; Bierla, Katarzyna; Preud'homme, Hugues; Cubadda, Francesco; Szpunar, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    An analytical methodology based on high-resolution high mass accuracy electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS assisted by Se-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for speciation of selenium (Se) in seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) grown on Se-rich soil. Size-exclusion LC-ICP MS allowed the determination of the Se distribution according to the molecular mass and the control of the species stability during extraction. The optimization of hydrophilic interaction of LC and cation-exchange HPLC resulted in analytical conditions making it possible to detect and characterize over 30 Se species using ESI MS, including a number of minor (<0.5%) metabolites. Selenoglucosinolates were found to be the most important class of species accounting for at least 15% of the total Se present and over 50% of all the metabolites. They were found particularly unstable during aqueous extraction leading to the loss of Se by volatilization as methylselenonitriles and methylselenoisothiocyanates identified using gas chromatography (GC) with the parallel ICP MS and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS/MS detection. However, selenoglucosinolates could be efficiently recovered by extraction with 70% methanol. Other classes of identified species included selenoamino acids, selenosugars, selenosinapine and selenourea derivatives. The three types of reactions leading to the formation of selenometabolites were: the Se-S substitution in the metabolic pathway, oxidative reactions of -SeH groups with endogenous biomolecules, and chemical reactions, e.g., esterification, of Se-containing molecules and other biomolecules through functional groups not involving Se.

  16. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology in elite common wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins. They are encoded by a multigene family located at the Glu-3 loci, and their allelic variation strongly influences wheat end-use quality. Due to ambiguities in the LMW-GS allele nomenclature and to the co...

  17. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed.

  18. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1)1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Laurel K.; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  19. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1).

    PubMed

    Yoong, Fei-Yian; O'Brien, Laurel K; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  20. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Judith L; Etoundi, Blanche C; Nyangono, Christine B; Mbofung, Carl Mf; Oben, Julius E

    2009-03-02

    A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2) randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30-60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the emerging global epidemics of obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin

  1. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  2. Determinism of carbon and nitrogen reserve accumulation in legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Larmure, Annabelle; Salon, Christophe

    2008-10-01

    In legume plants, the determination of individual seed weight is a complex phenomenon that depends on two main factors. The first one corresponds to the number of cotyledon cells, which determines the potential seed weight as the cotyledon cell number is related to seed growth rate during seed filling. Since cell divisions take place between flowering and the beginning of seed filling, any stress occurring before the beginning of seed filling can affect individual seed growth rate (C and N reserve accumulation in seeds), and thus individual seed weights. The second factor concerns carbon and nitrogen supply to the growing seed to support reserve accumulation. Grain legume species produce protein-rich seeds involving high requirement of nitrogen. Since seed growth rate as determined by cotyledon cell number is hardly affected by photoassimilate availability during the filling period, a reduction of photosynthetic activity caused by nitrogen remobilization in leaves (e.g., remobilization of essential proteins involved in photosynthesis) can lead to shorten the duration of the filling period, and by that can provoke a limitation of individual seed weights. Accordingly, any biotic or abiotic stress during seed filling causing a decrease in photosynthetic activity should lead to a reduction of the duration of seed filling.

  3. Surface and Column Variations of CO2 using Weighting Functions for Future Active Remote CO2 sensors and Data from DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; Kooi, S. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Fast response (1 Hz) and high precision (< 0.1 ppmv) in situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. The campaign spanned 4 years and took place over four geographically different locations. These included, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). With the objective of obtaining better CO2 column calculations, each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 (from the surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface and column-averaged CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four different urban areas are used to examine the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the lower troposphere. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs will be used to identify the source of variations observed in these urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-mm and 2.05-mm measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we compare the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  4. Seed germination and seedling fitness in Mesua ferrea L. in relation to fruit size and seed number per fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Latif; Bhuyan, Putul; Shankar, Uma; Todaria, Nagendra P.

    1999-11-01

    Effect of fruit size and seediness (seed number per fruit) was examined on germination and early growth of seedlings in Mesua ferrea L. Fruiting incidence (number of fruited trees in a population) and fruit loading (number of fruits per tree) vary from one year to the other, and were greater in 1997 than in 1998. Seeds from large fruits (> 40 g) are preferred for forestry plantations and those from small fruits (< 40 g) are discarded, despite a greater proportion of small fruits (63.2 %) than large fruits (36.8 %). A fruit, large or small in size, may contain one, two, three or four seeds. The germination percentage of seeds increased from 1-seeded through 4-seeded fruits both in laboratory and greenhouse conditions, and both in case of large and small fruits. Conversely, the mean seed weight and germination time decreased along this gradient, i.e. seeds from 1-seeded fruits were the heaviest and required maximum time for germination, and the seeds from 4-seeded fruits were the lightest and required minimum time for germination. The seeds from small fruits were lighter in weight, achieved lower germination percentages and required greater germination time than the seeds from large fruits in all four seeded categories. Seedlings from seeds from 1-seeded fruits survived better and with stronger vigour after 1 year of growth than seedlings from 2-, 3- and 4-seeded fruits. Further, seedling survival and vigour were greater for seeds from large rather than small fruits.

  5. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  6. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  7. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  8. Dynamic Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Seed Reserve Utilization during Three Germination Stages in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Lai, Yanyan; Wang, Ling; Du, Wenli; Wang, Zhoufei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one rice population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to determine the genetic characteristics of seed reserve utilization during the early (day 6), middle (day 10) and late (day 14) germination stages. The seedling dry weight (SDW) and weight of the mobilized seed reserve (WMSR) were increased, while the seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE) decreased, during the process of seed germination. The SDW and WMSR were affected by the seed weight, while the SRUE was not affected by the seed weight. A total of twenty unconditional and twenty-one conditional additive QTLs and eight epistatic QTLs were identified at three germination stages, and the more QTLs were expressed at the late germination stage. Among them, twelve additive and three epistatic QTLs for SDW, eight additive and three epistatic QTLs for WMSR and thirteen additive and two epistatic QTLs for SRUE were identified, respectively. The phenotypic variation explained by each additive QTL, epistatic QTL and QTL × development interaction ranged from 6.10 to 23.91%, 1.79 to 6.88% and 0.22 to 2.86%, respectively. Two major additive QTLs qWMSR7.1 and qSRUE4.3 were identified, and each QTL could explain more than 20% of the total phenotypic variance. By comparing the chromosomal positions of these additive QTLs with those previously identified, eleven QTLs might represent novel genes. The best four cross combinations of each trait for the development of RIL populations were selected. The selected RILs and the identified QTLs might be applicable to improve rice seed reserve utilization by the marker-assisted selection approach. PMID:24244592

  9. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish.

    PubMed

    Pollux, Bart J A

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to quantify individual differences in disperser quality within the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using seeds of two aquatic plants: unbranched bur-reed (Sparganium emersum, Sparganiaceae) and arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alismataceae). I found substantial variation among carp individuals in their propensity to ingest seeds and their ability to digest them, resulting in up to 31-fold differences in the probability of seed dispersal. In addition, there were significant differences in the time that seeds are retained in their digestive systems, generating a twofold difference in the maximum distance over which they can potentially disperse seeds. I propose that seed-eating animal species consist of individuals that display continuous variation in disperser quality, with at one end of the continuum individuals that are likely to eat seeds, pass them unharmed through their digestive tract and transport them over large distances to new locations (i.e. high-quality seed dispersers) and at the other end individuals that rarely eat seeds, destroy most of the ones they ingest and transport the few surviving seeds over relatively short distances (low-quality seed dispersers). A