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Sample records for seed weight variation

  1. The Natural Variation of Seed Weight Is Mainly Controlled by Maternal Genotype in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight is a very important and complex trait in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The seed weight of rapeseed shows great variation in its natural germplasm resources; however, the morphological, cytological and genetic causes of this variation have remained unclear. In the present study, nine highly pure inbred rapeseed lines with large seed weight variation and different genetic backgrounds were selected for morphological, cytological and genetic studies on seed weight. The results showed the following: (1) Seed weight showed an extremely significant correlation and coordinated variation with seed size (including seed diameter, seed surface area and seed volume), but it showed no significant correlation with bulk density, which suggests that seed weight is determined by size rather than bulk density. (2) Seed weight showed a higher correlation with the cell numbers of seed coats and cotyledons than the cell sizes of seed coats and cotyledons, which suggests that cell number is more tightly correlated with final seed weight. (3) Seed weight was mainly controlled by the maternal genotype, with little or no xenia and cytoplasmic effects. This is the first report on the morphological and cytological causes of seed weight natural variation in rapeseed. We concluded that the natural variation of seed weight is mainly controlled by maternal genotype. This finding lays a foundation for genetic and breeding studies of seed weight in rapeseed and opens a new field of research on the regulation of seed traits in plants. PMID:25915862

  2. Variation of hairy vetch seed weight alters germination and seedling growth response to an allelochemical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be controlled more effectively than large-seeded species. In our...

  3. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  4. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  5. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  6. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  7. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition.

    PubMed

    Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Jolan; Gruppen, Harry; Visser, Richard G F

    2006-01-25

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with an overall average of 22.3%. Densitometric quantification of the individual globulins (legumin, vicilin, convicilin, and globulin-related proteins) based on SDS-PAGE gels showed no lines lacking any particular globulin. Among the lines tested, variation was shown in both their total globulins content and their globulin composition. The total globulin content ranged from 49.2 to 81.8% of the total pea protein extract (TPPE). Legumin content varied between 5.9 and 24.5% of the TPPE. Vicilin was the most abundant protein of pea, and its content varied between 26.3 and 52.0% of the TPPE. Both processed and nonprocessed vicilins occurred. The processed vicilin was the predominant one, with values between 17.8 and 40.8%, whereas the nonprocessed ones constituted between 3.1 and 13.5% of the TPPE. Convicilin was the least abundant globulin, and its content ranged from 3.9 to 8.3%. Finally, the globulin-related proteins were present in amounts ranging from 2.8 to 17.3%. They were less abundant in comparison with legumin and vicilin, but they showed the largest relative variation of the four globulin classes. Correlations between the different external characteristics and globulin composition were determined. Comparison with soybean showed that pea lines show more variety in the abundance of globulin proteins, enabling a wider range of food application.

  8. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Meng, Lihua; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae) on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments. PMID:26495428

  9. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  10. Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-Hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

    1992-01-01

    A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight. In mung bean there were four unlinked genomic regions accounting for 49.7% of the variation for seed weight. In both cowpea and mung bean the genomic region with the greatest effect on seed weight spanned the same RFLP markers in the same linkage order. This suggests that the QTLs in this genomic region have remained conserved through evolution. This inference is supported by the observation that a significant interaction (i.e., epistasis) was detected between the QTL(s) in the conserved region and an unlinked RFLP marker locus in both species. PMID:1361476

  11. Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H M; Cummings, C L; Kahn, L; Snow, A A

    2001-04-01

    The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds produced by crop-wild plants were twice the size of wild seeds and differed in coloration. Head diameter, date of flowering, identity of mother plant, and levels of predispersal predation explained some variation in mean seed size. We hypothesized that postdispersal vertebrate seed predation would be affected by seed size, with hybrid seeds preferentially eaten. In each of three field trials, significantly more hybrid seeds were eaten (62% of hybrid seed; 42% of wild seed). Within the category of wild seeds, larger seeds were preferentially eaten; however among hybrid seeds, predation was not significantly related to seed size. In this study, differential predation thus reduces hybrid fitness and would presumably slow the spread of transgenes into wild populations.

  12. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  13. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  14. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noorullah; Kazmi, Rashid H; Willems, Leo A J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Genetic variation in paternal investment in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Savalli; Fox

    1998-10-01

    Males of many species invest resources in their offspring. For paternal investment to evolve, it must exhibit heritable variation. Using a standard half-sibling quantitative genetic design, we investigated whether genetic variation in male ejaculate size, a trait that affects female fecundity and copulation duration, are present in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ejaculate size was estimated as the amount of weight lost by males during mating. Dams, but not sires, had significant effects on their sons' absolute ejaculate size (both replicates) and relative ejaculate size (proportion of body weight; one replicate only), explaining 21-25% of the variance in absolute ejaculate size and 8-16% of the variance in relative ejaculate size. These results suggest either a large maternal effect on ejaculate size or sex-linkage of loci that affect the variation in ejaculate size. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by sex- linkage (assuming no maternal effects) was 42 and 49% (ejaculate size) and 17 and 31% (relative ejaculate size) in the two replicates. These results indicate that male paternal investment can respond to selection, and that it may be able to do so especially rapidly because sex-linked traits have the potential to evolve much more quickly than autosomal traits. There were only weak negative correlations between ejaculate size and mating duration, contrary to what we predicted. There was additive genetic variation in female copulation duration, but not in male copulation duration, suggesting that copulation duration is under female control. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  17. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  19. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  20. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  1. Linking fruit traits to variation in predispersal vertebrate seed predation, insect seed predation, and pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2011-11-01

    The importance of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens for plant communities has long been recognized, but their absolute and relative importance in early recruitment of multiple coexisting tropical plant species has not been quantified. Further, little is known about the relationship of fruit traits to seed mortality due to natural enemies in tropical plants. To investigate the influences of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on reproduction of seven canopy plant species varying in fruit traits, we quantified reductions in fruit development and seed germination due to vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungal pathogens through experimental removal of these enemies using canopy exclosures, insecticide, and fungicide, respectively. We also measured morphological fruit traits hypothesized to mediate interactions of plants with natural enemies of seeds. Vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi differentially affected predispersal seed mortality depending on the plant species. Fruit morphology explained some variation among species; species with larger fruit and less physical protection surrounding seeds exhibited greater negative effects of fungi on fruit development and germination and experienced reduced seed survival integrated over fruit development and germination in response to vertebrates. Within species, variation in seed size also contributed to variation in natural enemy effects on seed viability. Further, seedling growth was higher for seeds that developed in vertebrate exclosures for Anacardium excelsum and under the fungicide treatment for Castilla elastica, suggesting that predispersal effects of natural enemies may carry through to the seedling stage. This is the first experimental test of the relative effects of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on seed survival in the canopy. This study motivates further investigation to determine the generality of our results for plant communities. If there is strong variation in natural enemy attack

  2. Seasonal Variation in Seed Dispersal by Tamarins Alters Seed Rain in a Secondary Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Poncin, Pascal; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced dispersal of large seeds into degraded areas is one of the major factors limiting rain forest regeneration, as many seed dispersers capable of transporting large seeds avoid these sites with a limited forest cover. However, the small size of tamarins allows them to use small trees, and hence to disperse seeds into young secondary forests. Seasonal variations in diet and home range use might modify their contribution to forest regeneration through an impact on the seed rain. For a 2-yr period, we followed a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru to determine how their role as seed dispersers in a 9-yr-old secondary-growth forest varied across seasons. These tamarins dispersed small to large seeds of 166 tree species, 63 of which were into a degraded area. Tamarins’ efficiency in dispersing seeds from primary to secondary forest varied across seasons. During the late wet season, high dietary diversity and long forays in secondary forest allowed them to disperse large seeds involved in later stages of regeneration. This occurred precisely when tamarins spent a more equal amount of time eating a high diversity of fruit species in primary forest and pioneer species in secondary forest. We hypothesized that well-balanced fruit availability induced the movement of seed dispersers between these 2 habitats. The noteworthy number of large-seeded plant species dispersed by such small primates suggests that tamarins play an important, but previously neglected, role in the regeneration and maintenance of forest structure. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9413-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20651905

  3. Tree-to-tree variation in seed size and its consequences for seed dispersal versus predation by rodents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Ives, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    Individual variation in seed size and seed production is high in many plant species. How does this variation affect seed-dispersing animals and, in turn, the fitness of individual plants? In this study, we first surveyed intraspecific variation in seed mass and production in a population of a Chinese white pine, Pinus armandii. For 134 target trees investigated in 2012, there was very high variation in seed size, with mean seed mass varying among trees almost tenfold, from 0.038 to 0.361 g. Furthermore, 30 of the 134 trees produced seeds 2 years later, and for these individuals there was a correlation in seed mass of 0.59 between years, implying consistent differences among individuals. For a subset of 67 trees, we monitored the foraging preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents on a total of 15,301 seeds: 8380 were ignored, 3184 were eaten in situ, 2651 were eaten after being cached, and 395 were successfully dispersed (cached and left intact). At the scale of individual seeds, seed mass affected almost every decision that rodents made to eat, remove, and cache individual seeds. At the level of individual trees, larger seeds had increased probabilities of both predation and successful dispersal: the effects of mean seed size on costs (predation) and benefits (caching) balanced out. Thus, despite seed size affecting rodent decisions, variation among trees in dispersal success associated with mean seed size was small once seeds were harvested. This might explain, at least in part, the maintenance of high variation in mean seed mass among tree individuals.

  4. Variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe].

    PubMed

    Sivacioglu, A; Ayan, S

    2010-01-01

    Cone and seed characteristics of Anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. The orchard, originated from Kastamonu-Karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at Hanönü-Günlüburun, northern Turkey and includes 30 clones. The results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. The clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas this value varied in range of 11.16 to 24.06 g for cone dry weight. Cone length varied from 55.19 to 74.43 mm, while cone width varied in range of 26.66 to 36 57 mm. The range of scale number and fertile scale number varied from 80.02 to 110.64 and 38.03 to 56.20, respectively. Among the clones, the seed and filled seed number were 6.70-24.97 and 5.79-21.12, respectively. The 1000 seed weight varied in range of 20.36 to 29.73 g. The respective values of average seed length and width were 6.29 mm and 3.57 mm, while wing length and width were 19.59 mm and 7.21 mm. The average seed efficiency was 13.5%. Coefficients of variation among grafts (CV(G)) were mostly bigger than among clones (CV(c)), indicating high variation within the population. Year to year correlation coefficients for seed and cone characteristics were varied from moderate (0.58) to strong (0.83). The respective broad sense heritability values of clone mean basis (H2) for cone dry weight, cone width, 1000 seed weight were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.76. The seed efficiency had a H2 value of 0.43.

  5. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  6. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  7. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent–offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h2=0.55–0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW. PMID:25160045

  8. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent-offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h(2)=0.55-0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW.

  9. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  10. Seed predation and climate impacts on reproductive variation in temperate forests of the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Clark, James S

    2016-04-01

    Climatic effects on tree recruitment will be determined by the interactive effects of fecundity and seed predation. Evaluating how insect and vertebrate seed predators mediate tree reproductive responses to climate depends on long-term studies of seed production, development, and predation. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of interannual climate variation on seed abortion rates, (2) assess the impact of seed density on predation rates, and (3) examine the degree to which density-dependent seed predation would amplify or dampen interannual variation in fecundity associated with seed abortion. We used a 19-year study of seed abortion and pre-dispersal predation rates by insects and vertebrates (birds and rodents) for five temperate tree species across forest plots from the North Carolina Piedmont to the Southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern USA. We found that rates of seed abortion and predation increased reproductive variation for oaks (Quercus species). Probability of seed abortion was greatest during years with cool, dry springs. Responses of seed predation on Quercus species to current year's seed density varied by species, but exhibited positive density-dependence to previous year's seed density consistent with numerical responses of seed predators. Seed abortion and predation rates for two drupe species responded little to variation in climate or seed density, respectively. Given that predation increased interannual variation in seed availability and the negative density-dependence to previous year's seed density, our results indicate that consistent numerical responses of oak seed predators may amplify interannual variation due to climate-mediated processes like seed abortion.

  11. Wide genetic variation in phenolic compound content of seed coats among black soybean cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Phommalath, Siviengkhek; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Saito, Hiroki; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Nakazaki, Tetsuya; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Black soybeans have been used as a food source and also in traditional medicine because their seed coats contain natural phenolic compounds such as proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin. The objective of this research is to reveal the genetic variation in the phenolic compound contents (PCCs) of seed coats in 227 black soybean cultivars, most of which were Japanese landraces and cultivars. Total phenolics were extracted from seed coats using an acidic acetone reagent and the proanthocyanidin content, monomeric anthocyanin content, total flavonoids content, total phenolics content, and radical scavenging activity were measured. The cultivars showed wide genetic variation in PCCs. Each of the contents was highly correlated with one another, and was closely associated with radical scavenging activity. PCCs were also moderately associated by flowering date but not associated by seed weight. Cultivars with purple flowers had a tendency to produce higher PCCs compared with cultivars with white flowers, suggesting that the W1 locus for flower color can affect phenolic compound composition and content. Our results suggest that developing black soybean cultivars with high functional phenolic compounds activity is feasible. PMID:25914597

  12. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  13. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1994-07-01

    The report includes an adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon which was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed sources and by classification analysis to seed zone and 300-meter elevation band within zone. A provisional transfer risk equation and tentative new seed zones were delineated to guide seed transfer in artificial regeneration.

  14. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for lodgepole pine in Central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    Pine cones were collected from 272 trees at 189 locations uniformly distributed over the east slopes of the Oregon Cascade Range and Warner Mountains. Variation in seed and seedling traits was related to (1) seed source latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect in multiple regression analyses; and (2) seed zone and elevation band in classification analyses. Provisional seed transfer guidelines are presented. These include a regression equation for guiding seed transfer and estimating transfer risk, and a new outline of fixed seed zones.

  15. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  16. Influence of antenatal care, placental weight and genetic variation on low birth weight, Makassar Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Amiruddin, Ridwan; Yusuf, Irawan

    2008-10-01

    Inadequate antenatal care and nutrition, gene variation (CYP2A6), and poor placental growth are associated with low birthweight (LBW). The objective for this study was to analyze risk factors for LBW, including antenatal care, gene variation CYP2A6 and placental weight. A case control of infants with a birthweight less than 2500 gm, compared to a control group of infants with a birthweight > 2500 gm. There were 57 cases and a similar number of controls. In the analysis odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each risk factor. Low placental weight was strongly related to low birth weight (OR 43.9 CI 14.7-129.8). Mothers who had inadequate antenatal care had increased risk of LBW (OR 2.7, 95% CI. 1.2-6.1). The gene variation CYP2A6 was found to be risk factor for a lighter placenta weight (OR 9.5 95% CI. 4.0-22.3). Programs to improve antenatal care and monitoring for the gene variation CYP2A6 would reduce the incidence of LBW.

  17. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  18. Variation in semi-arid soil seed banks

    SciTech Connect

    Boudell-Flanary, J.A.; Link, S.O. |

    1995-09-01

    Seeds recovered from soils in the semi-arid shrub-steppe were compared to test for differences between the seed banks found beneath and cryptogamic crust and the crevices in the crust. Seed quantity found within the crevices was 56% higher than that under the cryptogamic crust. Pseudoroegneria spicata, Poa sandbergii, Bromus tectorum, and Artemisia tridentata are the common species found at the research site. Seeds of Bromus tectorum, Erigeron spp., and Poa spp. were found in the crevices of the crust. Seeds of Artemisia tridentata were not found in the seed banks of either the cryptogamic crust or the crevices in the crust. The higher amount of seeds found in the crevices of the cryptogamic crust suggests that the crevices play a significant role in determining the distributional pattern of shrub-steppe vegetation.

  19. Over-expression of AGPase genes enhances seed weight and starch content in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Bei; Zhang, Juren

    2011-02-01

    Cereal crops accumulate starch in the seed endosperm as an energy reserve. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds. The AGPase in the maize endosperm is a heterotetramer of two small subunits, encoded by Brittle2 (Bt2) gene, and two large subunits, encoded by the Shrunken2 (Sh2) gene. The two genes (Bt2, Sh2) from maize were introduced into two elite maize inbred lines, solely and in tandem, and under the control of endosperm-specific promoters for over-expression. PCR, Southern blotting, and real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the transgenes were integrated into the genome of transgenic plants and were over-expressed in their progeny. The over-expression of either gene enhanced AGPase activity, seed weight and starch content compared with the WT, but the amounts were lower than plants with over-expression of both Bt2 and Sh2. Developing seeds from co-expression transgenic maize plants had higher cytoplasmic AGPase activity: the 100-grain weight increased 15% over the wild type (WT), and the starch content increased to over 74% compared with the WT of 65%. These results indicate that over-expression of the genes in transgenic maize plants could improve kernel traits. This report provides a feasible approach for increasing starch content and seed weight in maize.

  20. Comparative quantitative trait loci for silique length and seed weight in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Wei, Dayong; Dong, Hongli; He, Yajun; Cui, Yixin; Mei, Jiaqin; Wan, Huafang; Li, Jiana; Snowdon, Rod; Friedt, Wolfgang; Li, Xiaorong; Qian, Wei

    2015-09-23

    Silique length (SL) and seed weight (SW) are important yield-associated traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SL and SW have been identified in B. napus, comparative analysis for those QTL is seldom performed. In the present study, 20 and 21 QTL for SL and SW were identified in doubled haploid (DH) and DH-derived reconstructed F2 populations in rapeseed, explaining 55.1-74.3% and 24.4-62.9% of the phenotypic variation across three years, respectively. Of which, 17 QTL with partially or completely overlapped confidence interval on chromosome A09, were homologous with two overlapped QTL on chromosome C08 by aligning QTL confidence intervals with the reference genomes of Brassica crops. By high density selective genotyping of DH lines with extreme phenotypes, using a Brassica single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the QTL on chromosome A09 was narrowed, and aligned into 1.14-Mb region from 30.84 to 31.98 Mb on chromosome R09 of B. rapa and 1.05-Mb region from 27.21 to 28.26 Mb on chromosome A09 of B. napus. The alignment of QTL with Brassica reference genomes revealed homologous QTL on A09 and C08 for SL. The narrowed QTL region provides clues for gene cloning and breeding cultivars by marker-assisted selection.

  1. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean.

  2. Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to flowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Javad Ghorbani; Saidi, Abbas; Karami, Ezzat; Kharkesh, Mehrab; Talebi, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Drought is the major constraint to chickpea productivity worldwide. Utilizing early flowering genotypes and larger seed size have been suggested as strategies for breeding in drought zones. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential markers linked to days-to-flowering, 100-seed weight, and plant height in a chickpea intraspecific F(2:3) population derived from the cross ILC3279 × ICCV2. A closely linked marker (TA117) on linkage group LG3 was identified for the days-to-flowering trait, explaining 33% of the variation. In relation to plant height, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) was located in LG3, close to the Ts5 marker, that explained 29% of phenotypic variation. A QTL for 100-seed weight located in LG4, close to TA176, explained 51% of variation. The identification of a locus linked both to high 100-seed weight and days-to-flowering may account for the correlation observed between these traits in this and other breeding attempts.

  3. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  4. The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Seed Size and Seed Number and Their Trade-Off Using Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gnan, Sebastian; Priest, Anne; Kover, Paula X.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring number and size are key traits determining an individual’s fitness and a crop’s yield. Yet, extensive natural variation within species is observed for these traits. Such variation is typically explained by trade-offs between fecundity and quality, for which an optimal solution is environmentally dependent. Understanding the genetic basis of seed size and number, as well as any possible genetic constraints preventing the maximization of both, is crucial from both an evolutionary and applied perspective. We investigated the genetic basis of natural variation in seed size and number using a set of Arabidopsis thaliana multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) lines. We also tested whether life history affects seed size, number, and their trade-off. We found that both seed size and seed number are affected by a large number of mostly nonoverlapping QTL, suggesting that seed size and seed number can evolve independently. The allele that increases seed size at most identified QTL is from the same natural accession, indicating past occurrence of directional selection for seed size. Although a significant trade-off between seed size and number is observed, its expression depends on life-history characteristics, and generally explains little variance. We conclude that the trade-off between seed size and number might have a minor role in explaining the maintenance of variation in seed size and number, and that seed size could be a valid target for selection. PMID:25313128

  5. Hierarchical levels of seed predation variation by introduced beetles on an endemic Mediterranean palm.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marta; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José M

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators can limit plant recruitment and thus profoundly impinge the dynamics of plant populations, especially when diverse seed predators (e.g., native and introduced) attack particular plant populations. Surprisingly, however, we know little concerning the potential hierarchy of spatial scales (e.g., region, population, patch) and coupled ecological correlates governing variation in the overall impact that native and introduced seed predators have on plant populations. We investigated several spatial scales and ecological correlates of pre-dispersal seed predation by invasive borer beetles in Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae), a charismatic endemic palm of the Mediteranean basin. To this end, we considered 13 palm populations (115 palms) within four geographical regions of the Iberian Peninsula. The observed interregional differences in percentages of seed predation by invasive beetles were not significant likely because of considerable variation among populations within regions. Among population variation in seed predation was largely related to level of human impact. In general, levels of seed predation were several folds higher in human-altered populations than in natural populations. Within populations, seed predation declined significantly with the increase in amount of persisting fruit pulp, which acted as a barrier against seed predators. Our results revealed that a native species (a palm) is affected by the introduction of related species because of the concurrent introduction of seed predators that feed on both the introduced and native palms. We also show how the impact of invasive seed predators on plants can vary across a hierarchy of levels ranging from variation among individuals within local populations to large scale regional divergences.

  6. Natural variation in an ABC transporter gene associated with seed size evolution in tomato species.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Cintia Hotta; Tanksley, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Seed size is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness in plants and is a trait that often undergoes tremendous changes during crop domestication. Seed size is most often quantitatively inherited, and it has been shown that Sw4.1 is one of the most significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the evolution of seed size in the genus Solanum-especially in species related to the cultivated tomato. Using a combination of genetic, developmental, molecular, and transgenic techniques, we have pinpointed the cause of the Sw4.1 QTL to a gene encoding an ABC transporter gene. This gene exerts its control on seed size, not through the maternal plant, but rather via gene expression in the developing zygote. Phenotypic effects of allelic variation at Sw4.1 are manifested early in seed development at stages corresponding to the rapid deposition of starch and lipids into the endospermic cells. Through synteny, we have identified the Arabidopsis Sw4.1 ortholog. Mutagenesis has revealed that this ortholog is associated with seed length variation and fatty acid deposition in seeds, raising the possibility that the ABC transporter may modulate seed size variation in other species. Transcription studies show that the ABC transporter gene is expressed not only in seeds, but also in other tissues (leaves and roots) and, thus, may perform functions in parts of the plants other than developing seeds. Cloning and characterization of the Sw4.1 QTL gives new insight into how plants change seed during evolution and may open future opportunities for modulating seed size in crop plants for human purposes.

  7. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  8. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  9. Characterization and quantitation of low and high molecular weight phenolic compounds in apple seeds.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-02-08

    The phenolic constituents of seeds of 12 different apple cultivars were fractionated by sequential extraction with aqueous acetone (30:70, v/v) and ethyl acetate after hexane extraction of the lipids. Low molecular weight phenolic compounds were individually quantitated by RP-HPLC-DAD. The contents of extractable and nonextractable procyanidins were determined by applying RP-HPLC following thiolysis and n-butanol/HCl hydrolysis, respectively. As expected, the results revealed marked differences of the ethyl acetate extracts, aqueous acetone extracts, and insoluble residues with regard to contents and mean degrees of polymerization of procyanidins. Total phenolic contents in the defatted apple seed residues ranged between 18.4 and 99.8 mg/g. Phloridzin was the most abundant phenolic compound, representing 79-92% of monomeric polyphenols. Yields of phenolic compounds significantly differed among the cultivars under study, with seeds of cider apples generally being richer in phloridzin and catechins than seeds of dessert apple cultivars. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of phenolic compounds in apple seeds comprising extractable and nonextractable procyanidins. Furthermore, the present work points out a strategy for the sustainable and complete exploitation of apple seeds as valuable agro-industrial byproducts, in particular as a rich source of phloridzin and antioxidant flavanols.

  10. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    PubMed

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine.

  11. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  12. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  13. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  14. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  15. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R. K.; Sharma, Tilak R.; Abdin, M. Z.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs. PMID:26436554

  16. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R K; Sharma, Tilak R; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  17. Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45–864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364

  18. Neonatal birth weight variations between inland and littoral Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Rodin, Urelija; Matanić, Dubravka; Jovancevic, Milivoj

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neonatal birth weight (BW) differences between inland and littoral Croatia, to identify BW groups with most pronounced differences, and possible variations in the rate of BW > or = 4000 g between Sibenik area and the rest of littoral (counties with access to the Adriatic Sea) and inland Croatia. The study included data on 99.42% of 200,740 live births recorded in 37 Croatian maternity hospitals during the 2001-2005 period. Distribution of 500-g BW groups was analyzed irrespective of neonatal sex and gestational age. Differences were found between the inland and littoral parts of Croatia according to distribution of the BW groups of < 2500 g (5.4% vs. 4.4%), 2500-3999 g (84% vs. 80.2%) and > or = 4000 g (10.6% vs. 15.4%) (chi2 = 882; p < 0.001).The highest rate of BW > or = 4000 g was recorded in Sibenik-Knin County (5-year mean 18.32%) and was greater throughout the littoral as compared with inland Croatia (5-year mean 14.99% vs. 9.58%). A shift towards higher BWgroups recorded throughout littoral as compared with inland Croatia supports the hypothesis on variation in anthropologic characteristics in the respective populations to be pronounced as early as at birth. Study results confirmed fetal macrosomia not to be exclusively characteristic of Sibenik-Knin County, since the rate of neonatal BW > or =4000 g was significantly higher in the entire littoral as compared with inland Croatia.

  19. New NIRS calibrations for fiber fractions reveal broad genetic variation in Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2012-03-07

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the estimation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) in intact seeds of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). A set of 338 diverse winter oilseed rape genotypes showing broad variation for seed color was used as a basis for the new calibrations. Different calibrations were generated for 10 or 1 mL seed volumes, respectively. In both seed volumes good coefficients of determination for external validation (R(2)) of the calibrations were obtained for ADL, the major antinutritional fiber fraction in oilseed rape meal, and adequate calibrations for NDF and ADF. Evaluation of diverse B. napus germplasm with the new calibrations revealed a surprisingly broad variation in contents of ADL in dark-seeded oilseed rape. The ability to use NIRS for efficient selection of low-fiber genotypes, irrespective of seed color, represents an important breakthrough in breeding for improved nutritional quality of seed extraction meals from oilseed rape.

  20. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells.

  1. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes indicates that the best populations in term of germination capacity may also be the richest in protein content. The present study finds that seed weight is not a good indicator for quality seed selection, nor is it recommended to increase the degree of germinability. Our results suggest that the pine population in southern Morocco might have adapted to drought conditions as it is characterized by heavy seed weight and lower speed of protein content mobilization in megagametophyte compared to northern populations growing in temperate climate.

  2. Drivers of Spatial Variation in the Role of Ants as Secondary Seed Dispersers.

    PubMed

    Bottcher, C; Peixoto, P E C; Silva, W R; Pizo, M A

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variation in the outcome of the interaction between secondary dispersers and seeds is superimposed upon the variation produced by primary dispersers. Investigating the factors that drive the outcome of the interactions with secondary seed dispersers thus represents an essential refinement to our understanding of the complete seed dispersal process. We studied the interactions between two ponerine ants (Pachycondyla striata Smith, 1858 and Odontomachus chelifer (Latreille, 1802)) with fruits experimentally set on the ground, and estimated the effects of ants on seedling establishment in three areas distributed along a 2-km stretch of a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that differ in soil properties and vegetation physiognomies. We tested the hypothesis that interactions are more frequent, resulting in greater seedling establishment at the site with harsher abiotic and biotic conditions. Both ant species removed fruits frequently and have a positive effect on seedling establishment in all study areas, but fruit removal did not differ among areas, while seedling establishment was more pronounced at the site with stressful abiotic conditions. The two ant species differed in important aspects of their seed dispersal services, including the propensity to interact with seeds. As a result, both the species of ant and abiotic conditions interact at the scale of 2 km to determine the fate of seeds interacting with ants, thus creating a mosaic of outcomes with variable benefits to plants.

  3. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (p< or =0.05) correlations were found between female and male strobili production (r = 0.76, 0.55). Female fertility variation (1.03, 1.07) was larger than male fertility variation (1.02, 1.03) in the orchards. The status numbers estimated based on the total fertility were very high (97 and 98% of census numbers). The large fertility variation could be balanced by different treatments such as mixing seed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  4. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  5. Assessment of the natural variation of low abundant metabolic proteins in soybean seeds using proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we investigated the distribution of the low abundant proteins that are involved in soybean seed development in four wild and twelve cultivated soybean genotypes. We found proteomic variation of these proteins within and...

  6. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  7. Free volume variation with molecular weight of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; St.clair, Terry L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    Free volume measurements were made in several molecular weight fractions of two different geometries of poly(arylene ether ketone)s. Free volumes were measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy. It has been observed that the free volume cell size V(sub f) varies with the molecular weight M of the test samples according to an equation of the form V(sub f) = AM(B), where A and B are constants. The molecular weights computed from the free volume cell sizes are in good agreement with the values measured by gel permeation chromatography.

  8. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  9. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variations in quantity or weight. 245.7309-8 Section 245.7309-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis,...

  10. Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants.

    PubMed

    Moeller, David A; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moe, Annika M; Geber, Monica A; Goodwillie, Carol; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G; Elle, Elizabeth; Johnston, Mark O; Kalisz, Susan; Ree, Richard H; Sargent, Risa D; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2017-03-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant-pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We found a weak decline in outcrossing rate towards higher latitudes and among some biomes, but no biogeographic patterns in the frequency of self-incompatibility. Incorporating life history and growth form into biogeographic analyses reduced or eliminated the importance of latitude and biome in predicting outcrossing or self-incompatibility. Our results suggest that biogeographic patterns in mating system are more likely a reflection of the frequency of life forms across latitudes rather than the strength of plant-pollinator interactions.

  11. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.

  12. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  13. [Analysis of quantitative traits connected with seed weight and flowering terms in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) plants].

    PubMed

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2000-01-01

    The nature of inheritance of characters connected with the seed size (seed mass) and quality of the shoots (germination energy, seed viability, general shoot length, shoot mass, dry weight of shoots) in Lotus corniculatus L. was analyzed. The investigations were carried out on plants of three varieties: the wild form from the Krasnodar Region and local forms MF1 and MF3. The correlation analysis was carried out. The pattern of inheritance in the terms of plant flowering and length of shoots were studied.

  14. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.

  15. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  16. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  17. Geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, R Craig; Morse, Geoffrey E; Fox, Charles W

    2007-09-01

    Body size of many animals varies with latitude: body size is either larger at higher latitudes (Bergmann's rule) or smaller at higher latitudes (converse Bergmann's rule). However, the causes underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Also, studies rarely explore how sexual size dimorphism varies with latitude. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of the seed-feeding beetle Stator limbatus, collected from 95 locations along a 38 degrees range in latitude. We examine 14 variables to test whether clines in environmental factors are adequate to explain geographic patterns of body size. We found that body size and sexual size dimorphism of S. limbatus varied considerably with latitude; beetles were smaller but more dimorphic at lower latitudes. Body size was not correlated with a gradient in mean temperature, contrary to the commonly accepted hypothesis that clines are produced by latitudinal gradients in temperature. Instead, we found that three factors were adequate to explain the cline in body size: clinal variation in host plant seed size, moisture (humidity), and seasonality (variance in humidity, precipitation, and temperature). We also found that the cline in sexual size dimorphism was partially explainable by a gradient in moisture, though moisture alone was not sufficient to explain the cline. Other ecological or environmental variables must necessarily contribute to differences in selection on male versus female body size. The main implications of our study are that the sexes differ in the magnitude of clinal variation in body size, creating latitudinal variation in sexual size dimorphism, and that clines in body size of seed beetles are likely influenced by variation in host seed size, water availability, and seasonality.

  18. Life-history variation in a seed beetle: adult egg-laying vs. larval competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank J

    1991-01-01

    Populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus differ genetically in several traits that mediate intraspecific competition. This study examined competitive interactions between larvae from two strains that differed in their propensity to oviposit on occupied hosts. In a strain (S) where females avoided laying >1 egg/seed, larvae were highly competitive; if two larvae entered a small host simultaneously, only one adult emerged. In a strain (I) whose females were "sloppier" in their egg-laying decisions, more than half of the seeds bearing two larvae yielded two adults. If seeds contained one larva from each strain, only one adult emerged per seed, and 70% of these adults belonged to the more competitive S strain. A larva's probability of emergence could be increased if it entered the seed before its competitor. A two-day headstart was needed merely for I larvae to compete equally with S larvae. Competition also affected development time and adult weight, but its effect was highly strain- and sex-specific. Adult life-history traits also differed substantially between strains. Compared to I beetles, S beetles exhibited decreased longevity, lower fecundity, a truncated period of oviposition, and larger egg and body size. Fecundity was linearly related to body size in the I strain, but was largely independent of size in the S strain. When faced with a shortage of hosts, S females (whose progeny are highly competitive) "withheld" eggs and died without depositing 40% of their lifetime supply. In contrast, the fecundity of I females was independent of seed availability. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that both highly uniform egg-laying and strong interference among larvae may be a consequence of chronic association with a relatively small host. Results from the larval competition experiments were used as parameter estimates for a simple, game-theoretic model that postulates interference vs. exploitative strategies. Fitness comparisons suggest that a

  19. Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mark; Gallagher, Tommy; Vintro, Luis Leon; Osborne, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most research on the genetics of invasive plant species has focused on analyzing spatial differences among existing populations. Using a long-established Gunnera tinctoria population from Ireland, we evaluated the potential of using plants derived from seeds associated with different soil layers to track genetic variation through time. This species and site were chosen because (1) G. tinctoria produces a large and persistent seed bank; (2) it has been present in this locality, Sraheens, for ∼90 years; (3) the soil is largely undisturbed; and (4) the soil's age can be reliably determined radiometrically at different depths. Amplified fragment length polymorphic markers (AFLPs) were used to assess differences in the genetic structure of 75 individuals sampled from both the standing population and from four soil layers, which spanned 18 cm (estimated at ∼90 years based on 210Pb and 137Cs dating). While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of lower total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed in deeper soils. The greatest percentage increase in the measured genetic variables occurred prior to the shift from the lag to the exponential range expansion phases and may be of adaptive significance. These findings highlight that seed banks in areas with long-established invasive populations can contain valuable genetic information relating to invasion processes and as such, should not be overlooked. PMID:24967082

  20. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  1. The influence of mitonuclear genetic variation on personality in seed beetles

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Immonen, Elina; Gustavsson, Emil; Kazancioğlu, Erem; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the influence of mitochondrial genetic variation on life-history phenotypes, particularly via epistatic interactions with nuclear genes. Owing to their direct effect on traits such as metabolic and growth rates, mitonuclear interactions may also affect variation in behavioural types or personalities (i.e. behavioural variation that is consistent within individuals, but differs among individuals). However, this possibility is largely unexplored. We used mitonuclear introgression lines, where three mitochondrial genomes were introgressed into three nuclear genetic backgrounds, to disentangle genetic effects on behavioural variation in a seed beetle. We found within-individual consistency in a suite of activity-related behaviours, providing evidence for variation in personality. Composite measures of overall activity of individuals in behavioural assays were influenced by both nuclear genetic variation and by the interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. More importantly, the degree of expression of behavioural and life-history phenotypes was correlated and mitonuclear genetic variation affected expression of these concerted phenotypes. These results show that mitonuclear genetic variation affects both behavioural and life-history traits, and they provide novel insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in behaviour and personality. PMID:25320161

  2. The influence of mitonuclear genetic variation on personality in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Immonen, Elina; Gustavsson, Emil; Kazancioğlu, Erem; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-12-07

    There is a growing awareness of the influence of mitochondrial genetic variation on life-history phenotypes, particularly via epistatic interactions with nuclear genes. Owing to their direct effect on traits such as metabolic and growth rates, mitonuclear interactions may also affect variation in behavioural types or personalities (i.e. behavioural variation that is consistent within individuals, but differs among individuals). However, this possibility is largely unexplored. We used mitonuclear introgression lines, where three mitochondrial genomes were introgressed into three nuclear genetic backgrounds, to disentangle genetic effects on behavioural variation in a seed beetle. We found within-individual consistency in a suite of activity-related behaviours, providing evidence for variation in personality. Composite measures of overall activity of individuals in behavioural assays were influenced by both nuclear genetic variation and by the interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. More importantly, the degree of expression of behavioural and life-history phenotypes was correlated and mitonuclear genetic variation affected expression of these concerted phenotypes. These results show that mitonuclear genetic variation affects both behavioural and life-history traits, and they provide novel insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in behaviour and personality.

  3. Preclinical safety evaluation of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute oral toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (LMWGAL-TF) in laboratory animals rats as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. For the acute toxicity (AOT) study, LMWGAL-TF was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg with vehicle control (VC) group (n = 5 per sex per group) as per OECD guideline no. 423. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the SD rats were orally administered with a daily oral dose of LMWGAL-TF 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day with VC group (n = 15 per sex) for a period of 90 days followed by a recovery period of 28 days as per OECD guideline no. 408. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weights with hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histology were studied. The mutagenic potential of LMWGAL-TF was tested using reverse mutation assay (AMES test, OECD guideline No. 471). The LMWGAL-TF did not show mortality or treatment-related adverse signs during acute (dose 2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (90-days repeated dose 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) administration. The LMWGAL-TF showed oral lethal dose (LD50) more than 2000 mg/kg during AOT study. The dose of 1000 mg/kg was found as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in rats during subchronic toxicity study. Furthermore, LMWGAL-TF did not show mutagenic potential in vitro. In conclusion, LMWGAL-TF was found safe during acute and subchronic (90 days repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats with no mutagenicity. PMID:27822173

  4. Genome-wide association study and marker-based selection for seed weight in soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed weight (SW) is important for the yield and quality in food/vegetable uses of soybean (Glycine max), a worldwide major crop. However, our knowledge of genes controlling SW remains limited. To better understand the molecular mechanism of the trait and identify DNA markers usable in marker-based b...

  5. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  6. Seasonal weight variation patterns in seven countries located in northern and southern hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Mehrang, Saeed; Helander, Elina; Chieh, Angela; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    The digital revolution of information and technology in late 20th century has led to emergence of devices that help people monitor their weight in a long-term manner. Investigation of population-level variations of body mass using smart connected weight scales enabled the health coaches acquire deeper insights about the models of people's behavior as a function of time. Typically, body mass varies when the seasons change. That is, during the warmer seasons people's body mass tend to decrease while in colder seasons it usually moves up. In this paper we study the seasonal variations of body mass in seven countries by utilization of linear regression. Deviation of monthly weight values from the starting point of astronomical years (beginning of spring) were modeled by fitting orthogonal polynomials in each country. The distinction of weight variations in southern and northern hemispheres were then investigated. The studied population involves 6429 anonymous weight scale users from:(1) Australia, (2) Brazil, (3) France, (4) Germany, (5) Great Britain, (6) Japan, and (7) United States of America. The results suggest that there are statistically significant differences between the models of weight variation in southern and northern hemispheres. In both northern and southern hemispheres the lowest weight values were observed in the summer. However, the highest weight values were noticed in the winter and in the spring for northern and southern hemispheres, respectively.

  7. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of boron and their variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition and atomic weight value and their variation in nature are reviewed. Questions are raised about the previously recommended value and the uncertainty for the atomic weight. The problem of what constitutes an acceptable range for normal material and what should then be considered geologically exceptional is discussed. Recent measurements make some previous decisions in need of re-evaluation.

  8. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in a seed bank of a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Kleber A.; dos Santos, Danielle M.; dos Santos, Josiene M. F. F.; de Albuquerque, Ulysses P.; Ferraz, Elba M. N.; Araújo, Elcida de L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate variations in the seed bank within a 3-year temporal series in order to answer the following questions: 1) Does the seed bank's species richness and seed density differ among climatic seasons and between years? 2) Are there differences in the richness and density of seed banks between the litter and mineral soil? 3) Can the seed bank's species richness and seed density be explained by characteristics such as the previous year's precipitation and soil depth (litter or mineral soil)? The samples were collected from litter and mineral soil (0-5 cm), in 210 sub-plots, during the dry and rainy seasons of each year (August 2005 through February 2008). Overall, 79 species were recorded. On average, 1 168, 304 and 302 seeds.m-2 were recorded in the seed bank during years I, II and III, respectively. This study showed that the Caatinga's seed bank is rich in herbaceous species, yet species' density and richness are low in the litter. Furthermore, about 43% of the variation in species richness and density was explained by soil depth (litter and mineral soil) and previous years' rainfall.

  10. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides.

  11. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  12. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  13. Variation in seed size is structured by dispersal syndrome and cone morphology in conifers and other nonflowering seed plants.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Mathews, Sarah

    2017-02-10

    Seed size varies tremendously in plants and its evolution is influenced by multiple ecological and biological factors that are difficult to disentangle. In this study, we focus on understanding the role of seed dispersal by animals in the evolution of seed size in conifers, the most diverse extant nonflowering seed plant group. Relationships among seed size, dispersal syndrome, climate and cone morphology were analyzed across conifers using quantitative models of character evolution and phylogenetic regression techniques. Dispersal syndrome is a more consistent predictor of seed size within major extant conifer clades than climate. Seeds are generally larger in animal-dispersed than wind-dispersed species, and particular cone morphologies are consistently associated with specific ranges in seed size. Seed size and cone morphology evolve in a correlated manner in many animal-dispersed conifers, following a trade-off that minimizes the total size of the dispersal unit. These relationships are also present in other nonflowering seed plant groups, and have been important in the evolution of seeds and cones at least over the Cenozoic and perhaps over much of the later Mesozoic.

  14. Poppy seeds: differences in morphine and codeine content and variation in inter- and intra-individual excretion.

    PubMed

    Pelders, M G; Ros, J J

    1996-03-01

    Poppy seeds from seven different origins (Dutch, Australian, Hungarian, Spanish, Czech, and two Turkish) were analyzed for the amount of opiates present. Four grams of each kind of seeds, equivalent to the amount of seeds on two bagels, were ingested by volunteers. One volunteer also ingested four times the same amount of poppy seeds from the same origin (Spanish). During 24 hours urine samples were obtained and screened for the presence of morphine and codeine using the FPIA technique (cut-off = 200 ng/mL) and a GC/MS confirmation with a limit of detection (LOD) of 25 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. Poppy seeds from different origins contain a wide variation of morphine (2-251 micro g/g) and codeine (0.4-57.1 micro g/g) content. No other opiate could be detected. After ingestion a large interindividual variation of excretion of opiates exists. The testing results from the same kind of seeds ingested four times with a one week interval by the same volunteer also show a poor reproduceability. Several kinds of poppy seeds can give positive testing results (Australian, Hungarian, Spanish and one kind of Turkish seeds). Within 24 hours all testing results became negative.

  15. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij; Zeegers, Maurice P; Holst, Claus; Wang, Ping; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H; Valsesia, Armand; Hager, Jörg; van Baak, Marleen A; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2015-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 males) were on an 8-week low-calorie diet with a 6-month follow-up. Body weight was measured before and after the diet, and after follow-up. Weight maintenance scores (WMS, regained weight as percentage of lost weight) were calculated based on the weight data. Genotype data were retrieved for 2903 SNPs corresponding to 124 ECM-related genes. Regression analyses provided us with six significant SNPs associated with the WMS in males: 3 SNPs in the POSTN gene and a SNP in the LAMB1, COL23A1, and FBLN5 genes. For females, 1 SNP was found in the FN1 gene. The risk of weight regain was increased by: the C/C genotype for POSTN in a co-dominant model (OR 8.25, 95 % CI 2.85-23.88) and the T/C-C/C genotype in a dominant model (OR 4.88, 95 % CI 2.35-10.16); the A/A genotype for LAMB1 both in a co-dominant model (OR 18.43, 95 % CI 2.35-144.63) and in a recessive model (OR 16.36, 95 % CI 2.14-124.9); the G/A genotype for COL23A1 in a co-dominant model (OR 3.94, 95 % CI 1.28-12.10), or the A-allele in a dominant model (OR 2.86, 95 % CI 1.10-7.49); the A/A genotype for FBLN5 in a co-dominant model (OR 13.00, 95 % CI 1.61-104.81); and the A/A genotype for FN1 in a recessive model (OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner.

  16. Genetic variation in flowering phenology and avoidance of seed predation in native populations of Ulex europaeus.

    PubMed

    Atlan, A; Barat, M; Legionnet, A S; Parize, L; Tarayre, M

    2010-02-01

    The genetic variation in flowering phenology may be an important component of a species' capacity to colonize new environments. In native populations of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, flowering phenology has been shown to be bimodal and related to seed predation. The aim of the present study was to determine if this bimodality has a genetic basis, and to investigate whether the polymorphism in flowering phenology is genetically linked to seed predation, pod production and growth patterns. We set up an experiment raising maternal families in a common garden. Based on mixed analyses of variance and correlations among maternal family means, we found genetic differences between the two main flowering types and confirmed that they reduced seed predation in two different ways: escape in time or predator satiation. We suggest that this polymorphism in strategy may facilitate maintain high genetic diversity for flowering phenology and related life-history traits in native populations of this species, hence providing high evolutionary potential for these traits in invaded areas.

  17. Temporal variation in seed predation by insects in a population of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) in Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F R; Begnini, R M; Lopes, B C; Castellani, T T

    2012-02-01

    Insect seed predation may vary depending on seed production. The present study considers the hypothesis that the rates of seed predation tend to be smaller in years of higher fruit production. Thus, we monitored the production of fruits and predation of seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana over 2 years in the Atlantic Forest (Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil), between July 2006 and June 2008. Plots of 0.25 m(2) were fitted under 20 mother plants and fruits were monthly collected for assessment of abundance and seed predation. There was variation in fruit production between the 2 years and among reproductive plants. Predation rates were high and occurred in the predispersal phase by the Curculionidae Revena rubiginosa Boheman, Anchylorhynchus aegrotus Fahraeus, and Anchylorhynchus variabilis Gyllenhal. Seed predation by these species of Anchylorhynchus is first registered in the present study. In average, about 60% of the seeds monthly produced in the population tend to escape insect predation in year of high or low production, becoming available for recruitment. The predation rate was not related to the amount of fruits produced per reproductive plant. Also, different than expected, there was a positive relation between the rates of seed predation and the total of fruits produced monthly on the plots. Thus, no evidence for the satiation of insect seed predators was found in this study with S. romanzoffiana.

  18. Genetic variation of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) from Iran using RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Farkhari, M; Naghavi, M R; Pyghambari, S A; Sabokdast

    2007-09-01

    Genetic variation of 28 populations of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), collected from different parts of Iran, were evaluated using both RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins. The diversity within and between populations for the three-band High Molecular Weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin pattern were extremely low. Out of 15 screened primers of RAPD, 14 primers generated 133 reproducible fragments which among them 92 fragments were polymorphic (69%). Genetic similarity calculated from the RAPD data ranged from 0.64 to 0.98. A dendrogram was prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm and separated the 28 populations into two groups. Confusion can happen between populations with the same origin as well as between populations of very diverse geographical origins. Our results show that compare to seed storage protein, RAPD is suitable for genetic diversity assessment in Ae. cylindrica populations.

  19. Variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for evaluation of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Topaçoğlu, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common and important forest tree species in Turkey due to usefulness of its wood to many commercial uses. This species is classified as one of the economically important tree species for Turkish Forestry in the "National Tree Breeding and Seed Production Program". The objective of the present study was to investigate variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine and to evaluate variation in cone and seed characters within and among clones and grafts. The results showed that maximum CV among the clones was found for SWe (21.95), FS (16.99) and CWe (16.88). According to the results of SAS, variation between the clones is averaged at 19.2% and variation within the clones is averaged at 24.4 %. Variation between the clones ranged from 3.6% (SW) to 34.5% (TC) and variation within the clones ranged from 12.3% (SW) to 38.1% (WL). For CW, AL, AW, WW and TC, genetic variation among clones was higher than within clones. When the results of study like compared with results obtained from natural populations, it was seen that genetic variability in seed orchard which was subjected to study was quite low. This case may have dangerous results for the future of forests.

  20. Variation in the effects of burial in different peatland successional stages on seed survival of four wetland species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Chika

    2017-01-01

    The availability of viable seeds in soil helps to determine the success of ecological restoration in disturbed habitats. Although seed survival in soil generally increases with an increase in burial depth, whether the effects of burial on seed survival are comparable across different sites is unclear. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that the positive effects of burial on seed survival decrease as vegetation develops through succession. Four wetland species, Drosera rotundifolia, Lobelia sessilifolia, Rhynchospora alba and Moliniopsis japonica, were used for the study. The four species differ in their light requirement for germination; i.e., D. rotundifolia, L. sessilifolia and R. alba germinate best in light, whereas M. japonica germinates equally well in light and darkness. The seeds of these species were buried for two years at three depths (litter, 0 and 4 cm) in three successional stages with different amounts of vegetation and litter in a post-mined peatland. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature at each of litter layer, 0 cm and 4 cm depths were measured for each successional stage. The between-depth differences in PAR and temperature fluctuations decreased as succession progressed. For the three light-demanding species, burial promoted seed survival more in the initial successional stage than in the later successional stages, whereas for M. japonica, burial promoted seed survival equally in all successional stages. This study revealed significant variation in the effects of burial on seed survival, particularly for light-sensitive seeds, and that the soil surface layers in vegetated sites can contain persistent seeds, which could be used as a seed source in restoration.

  1. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight secalins from triticale seeds by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boleslaw P

    2010-07-01

    A rapid and reliable method for separation and characterization of the variability of high-molecular-weight secalin subunits (HMW-SS) in hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) by CZE has been developed. In this method, a mixture of two poly(ethylene oxide) polymers differing in molecular weight and a high concentration of ACN in isoelectric buffer was applied as the running electrolyte. For dynamic coating of the capillary inner wall, a low-concentration mixture of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was employed. Wide allelic variations in rye HMW-SS composition, including some novel x- and y-type HMW-SS, were detected by CZE. The CZE electropherograms of HMW-SS showed two groups of peaks in accordance with y- and x-type subunits, with migration times of 8.0-8.8 and 11.0-13.3 min, respectively. HMW-SS differed in migration times from the simultaneously resolved HMW glutenin subunits, but frequently had very similar electrophoretic mobilities during separation by SDS-PAGE. Each of the two rye subunits 2r and 6.5r detected by SDS-PAGE represents in fact two subunits (5.1r or 5.2r, and 6.4r or 6.5r, respectively). After analyzing 106 European triticale cultivars, 12 HMW-SS were identified (six x-type and six y-type). They form six allelic variants of these subunits. The simultaneous separation and identification of triticale HMW glutenin and secalin subunits by CZE is an efficient alternative to SDS-PAGE and should facilitate breeding of valuable cultivars.

  2. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  3. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  4. Mathematically combined half-cell reduction potentials of low-molecular-weight thiols as markers of seed ageing.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Colville, Louise; Pritchard, Hugh W; Pearce, Stephen R; Kranner, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    The half-cell reduction potential of the glutathione disulphide (GSSG)/glutathione (GSH) redox couple appears to correlate with cell viability and has been proposed to be a marker of seed viability and ageing. This study investigated the relationship between seed viability and the individual half-cell reduction potentials (E(i)s) of four low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols in Lathyrus pratensis seeds subjected to artificial ageing: GSH, cysteine (Cys), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine (γ-Glu-Cys). The standard redox potential of γ-Glu-Cys was previously unknown and was experimentally determined. The E(i)s were mathematically combined to define a LMW thiol-disulphide based redox environment (E(thiol-disulphide)). Loss of seed viability correlated with a shift in E(thiol-disulphide) towards more positive values, with a LD(50) value of -0.90 ± 0.093 mV M (mean ± SD). The mathematical definition of E(thiol-disulphide) is envisaged as a step towards the definition of the overall cellular redox environment, which will need to include all known redox-couples.

  5. Image registration under illumination variations using region-based confidence weighted M-estimators.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed M; Dansereau, Richard M; Whitehead, Anthony D

    2012-03-01

    We present an image registration model for image sets with arbitrarily shaped local illumination variations between images. Any nongeometric variations tend to degrade the geometric registration precision and impact subsequent processing. Traditional image registration approaches do not typically account for changes and movement of light sources, which result in interimage illumination differences with arbitrary shape. In addition, these approaches typically use a least-square estimator that is sensitive to outliers, where interimage illumination variations are often large enough to act as outliers. In this paper, we propose an image registration approach that compensates for arbitrarily shaped interimage illumination variations, which are processed using robust M -estimators tuned to that region. Each M-estimator for each illumination region has a distinct cost function by which small and large interimage residuals are unevenly penalized. Since the segmentation of the interimage illumination variations may not be perfect, a segmentation confidence weighting is also imposed to reduce the negative effect of mis-segmentation around illumination region boundaries. The proposed approach is cast in an iterative coarse-to-fine framework, which allows a convergence rate similar to competing intensity-based image registration approaches. The overall proposed approach is presented in a general framework, but experimental results use the bisquare M-estimator with region segmentation confidence weighting. A nearly tenfold improvement in subpixel registration precision is seen with the proposed technique when convergence is attained, as compared with competing techniques using both simulated and real data sets with interimage illumination variations.

  6. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha

    2016-01-01

    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  7. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes.

  8. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  9. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in the Ochoco and Malheur National Forests of central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.; Weber, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits was evaluated for 280 families from 220 locations. Factor scores from three principal components were related by multiple regression to latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed source, and by classification analysis to seed zone and elevation band in seed zone. Location variance was significant but not large. Multiple regression equations explained less than 50 percent of location variance. Slope-aspect variables were important.

  10. Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana identifies determinants of natural variation in seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in...

  11. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Benkman, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  12. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape.

  13. Weight variation in a cohort of women using copper IUD for contraception.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Daniela Fink; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Aldrighi, José Mendes; Bahamondes, Luis; Perrotti, Marcos

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess weight changes over time in reproductive-age women using nonhormonal contraception [copper intrauterine device (IUD) users]. Baseline variables recorded included age, parity, decade when the IUD was inserted and the presence of hypertension. A total of 1697 IUD users were followed for 7 years of use. The mean age (+/- SD) of the women at the beginning of follow-up was 27.6 +/- 5.8 years and the mean height (+/- SD) was 150 +/- 10 cm. The mean weight (+/- SD) at the time of IUD insertion was 58.5 +/- 0.30 kg. After 5 and 7 years of follow-up, the mean weight (+/- SD) was 61.2 +/- 0.33 kg and 62.4 +/- 0.51 kg, respectively. At insertion, the body mass index mean (+/- SD) was 24.5 +/- 0.12 and after 3 years it was 25 +/- 0.14, remaining above 25 up to the 7th year of observation. During the 7 years of follow-up, older women gained more weight than younger women. Parity, decade of IUD insertion and hypertension were not noted to be significant determinants of weight variation. In conclusion, this cohort of lower and middle class Brazilian copper IUD users tended to gain weight during their reproductive life, independent of other factors. These observations may improve counseling of women regarding the prevention of age-related obesity.

  14. Genetic variation in variability: Phenotypic variability of fledging weight and its evolution in a songbird population.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Han A; Gienapp, Philip; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-09-01

    Variation in traits is essential for natural selection to operate and genetic and environmental effects can contribute to this phenotypic variation. From domesticated populations, we know that families can differ in their level of within-family variance, which leads to the intriguing situation that within-family variance can be heritable. For offspring traits, such as birth weight, this implies that within-family variance in traits can vary among families and can thus be shaped by natural selection. Empirical evidence for this in wild populations is however lacking. We investigated whether within-family variance in fledging weight is heritable in a wild great tit (Parus major) population and whether these differences are associated with fitness. We found significant evidence for genetic variance in within-family variance. The genetic coefficient of variation (GCV) was 0.18 and 0.25, when considering fledging weight a parental or offspring trait, respectively. We found a significant quadratic relationship between within-family variance and fitness: families with low or high within-family variance had lower fitness than families with intermediate within-family variance. Our results show that within-family variance can respond to selection and provides evidence for stabilizing selection on within-family variance.

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Fate of Seeds under Contrasting Logging Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; do Couto, Hilton T. Z.; Galetti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Seed predators and dispersers may drive the speed and structure of forest regeneration in natural ecosystems. Rodents and ants prey upon and disperse seeds, yet empirical studies on the magnitude of these effects are lacking. Here, we examined the role of ants and rodents on seed predation in 4 plant species in a successional gradient on a tropical rainforest island. We found that (1) seeds are mostly consumed rather than dispersed; (2) rates of seed predation vary by habitat, season, and species; (3) seed size, shape, and hardness do not affect the probability of being depredated. Rodents were responsible for 70% of seed predation and were negligible (0.14%) seed dispersers, whereas ants were responsible for only 2% of seed predation and for no dispersal. We detected seasonal and habitat effects on seed loss, with higher seed predation occurring during the wet season and in old-growth forests. In the absence of predators regulating seed-consumer populations, the densities of these resilient animals explode to the detriment of natural regeneration and may reduce diversity and carrying capacity for consumers and eventually lead to ecological meltdown. PMID:24614500

  16. Investigations of the Response of Swimming Paramecia to Variations in their Apparent Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James; Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Mickalide, Harry; Wagman, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is a set of micro-organisms that are small enough that they swim at low Reynolds number and large enough that gravity exerts an influence on their behavior Many protists, like paramecia, for example, exhibit negative gravi-taxis by orienting their swimming upward and negative gravi-kinesis by increasing their propulsion when swimming against their apparent weight. It is not clear whether these responses to a very weak force (about 100 pN) are active or passive. We have developed a technique, Magnetic Force Buoyancy Variation, which enables us to vary the apparent weight of the swimmers in situ. We will describe experiments on paramecia conducted at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In particular, we will describe how increasing the apparent weight induces paramecia to accumulate at upper surfaces. A simple force model suggests that this accumulation is a passive response. Supported by NSF-PHY0750360 and a grant to the NHMFL, NSF DMR-0654118.

  17. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    DOE PAGES

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; ...

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination wasmore » recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal temperature estimates would

  18. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination was recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Determinants of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols (TAGs) fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel, and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in seed oil composition in nature provides targets for bioengineering fatty acid proportions optimized for various industrial and nutrition goals. Here, we characterized the seed oil composition of 391 world-wide, wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the 9 major fatty acids in the seed oil and 4 composite measures of the fatty acids. Four to 19 regions of interest were associated with the seed oil composition traits. Thirty-four of the genes in these regions are involved in lipid metabolism or transport, with 14 specific to fatty acid synthesis or breakdown. Eight of the genes encode transcription factors. We have identified genes significantly associated with variation in fatty acid proportions that can be used as a resource across the Brassicaceae. Two-thirds of the regions identified contain candidate genes that have never been implicated in lipid metabolism and represent potential new targets for bioengineering.

  20. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  1. Natural variation of fecundity components in a widespread plant with dimorphic seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braza, Rita; Arroyo, J.; García, M. B.

    2010-09-01

    The number and size of seeds are the basis of the quantity and quality components of female reproductive fitness in plants, playing a central role in the evolutionary ecology of life history diversification. In this study we show and analyze the natural variability of several fecundity variables (fruit set, seed production per fruit, seed size, total seed production per plant, and proportion of small seeds) in Plantago coronopus, a widespread, short-lived herb with dimorphic seeds. The structure of such variability was examined at the individual, population (eight locations with different environments within the same region), and life history levels (annual vs perennial), and correlated to soil fertility. There was no divergence associated to the life history for any of the variables studied. Total seed production (the quantity component of female fitness) was correlated with maternal resources, while the size of the large mucilaginous, basal seeds, and the proportion of the small apical seeds (quality component) were more associated to environmental resources. Thus, internal and external resources shape different fitness components, maximizing seed production, and fitting the size and proportion of different kind of seeds to local conditions irrespective of life history. P. coronopus illustrates the versatility of short-lived widespread plants to combine fecundity traits in a flexible manner, in order to increase fitness at each of the many possible habitats they occupy over heterogeneous environments.

  2. [Effects of Pinus armandii seed size on rodents caching behavior and it's spatio-temporal variations].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-08-01

    Pinus armandii, a native pine species, has large (about 300 mg), wingless seeds, and distributes from central to western China at an altitude of 1000-3300 m. To determine how the seed size affects rodents caching behavior, tagged seed releasing and tracking experiments were conducted at 3 sites in Northwest Yunnan province in 2006 and 2007. Our data indicated that for all sites and both years, compared with the smaller seeds, the proportions of cached large seeds were significantly higher, whereas the consumed ones were significantly lower. Meanwhile, the mean and maximum values of caching distances were also significantly increased in large seeds. Seed fate was different between the two years and within the three sites as there have different rodent community compositions.

  3. [Seasonal variations of wild apricot seed dispersal and hoarding by rodents in rehabilitated land].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-liang; Zhao, Xue-feng; Sun, Ming-yang; Lu, Ji-qi; Kong, Mao-cai

    2010-05-01

    Rodents feed with and disperse plant seeds, which may thereby affect the seed spatiotemporal distribution, germination, and seedling establishment, and eventually play an important role in the restoration of deforested area. Taking the State-owned Yugong Forest Farm in Jiyuan of Henan, China as study site, the tagged seeds of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) were artificially released in rehabilitated land in the spring, summer, and autumn 2008, aimed to investigate their dispersal and hoarding by rodents in different seasons. It was found that Apodemus peninsulae, Niviventer confucianus, and Apodemus agrarius were the main rodent species acting on the seed dispersal and hoarding. The dispersal rate of the seeds was significantly lower in spring than in summer, and also, lower in summer than in autumn. The amount of removed seeds was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, being significantly lesser in spring than in summer, and lesser in summer than in autumn. The mean transportation distance differed with seasons, which was longer in autumn than in spring and summer. The cache size in majority caches was 1 seed, but in a few caches, each cache contained 2 or 3 seeds. The cache number was affected by the interaction of season and seed status, i.e., one seed cache was lesser in spring than in summer and autumn, while the caches containing 2 or 3 seeds were more in summer and autumn. Among the 1800 seeds released, there were five seeds hoarded in summer and autumn respectively established seedlings in the next year of the experiment.

  4. Intraspecific variation in seed dispersal of a Neotropical tree and its relationship to fruit and tree traits.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Carol K; Franson, Susan E; Cushman, Katherine C; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of wind-dispersed seeds around a parent tree depends on diaspore and tree traits, as well as wind conditions and surrounding vegetation. This study of a neotropical canopy tree, Platypodium elegans, explored the extent to which parental variation in diaspore and tree traits explained (1) rate of diaspore descent in still air, (2) distributions of diaspores dispersed from a 40-m tower in the forest, and (3) natural diaspore distributions around the parent tree. The geometric mean rate of descent in still air among 20 parents was highly correlated with geometric mean wing loading(1/2) (r = 0.84). However, diaspore traits and rate of descent predicted less variation in dispersal distance from the tower, although descent rate(-1) consistently correlated with dispersal distance. Measured seed shadows, particularly their distribution edges, differed significantly among six parents (DBH range 62-181 cm) and were best fit by six separate anisotropic dispersal kernels and surveyed fecundities. Measured rate of descent and tree traits, combined in a mechanistic seed dispersal model, did not significantly explain variation among parents in natural seed dispersal distances, perhaps due to the limited power to detect effects with only six trees. Seedling and sapling distributions were at a greater mean distance from the parents than seed distributions; saplings were heavily concentrated at far distances. Variation among parents in the distribution tails so critical for recruitment could not be explained by measured diaspore or tree traits with this sample size, and may be determined more by wind patterns and the timing of abscission in relation to wind conditions. Studies of wind dispersal need to devote greater field efforts at recording the "rare" dispersal events that contribute to far dispersal distances, following their consequences, and in understanding the mechanisms that generate them.

  5. Geographic variation in the flood-induced fluctuating temperature requirement for germination in Setaria parviflora seeds.

    PubMed

    Mollard, F P O; Insausti, P

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to search for specific seed germinative strategies related to flooding escape in Setaria parviflora, a common species across the Americas. For this purpose, we investigated induction after floods, in relation to fluctuating temperature requirements for germination in seeds from mountain, floodplain and successional grasslands. A laboratory experiment was conducted in which seeds were imbibed or immersed in water at 5°C. Seeds were also buried in flood-prone and upland grasslands and exhumed during the flooding season. Additionally, seeds were buried in flooded or drained grassland mesocosms. Germination of exhumed seeds was assayed at 25°C or at 20°C/30°C in the dark or in the presence of red light pulses. After submergence or soil flooding, a high fraction (>32%) of seeds from the floodplain required fluctuating temperatures to germinate. In contrast, seeds from the mountains showed maximum differences in germination between fluctuating and constant temperature treatment only after imbibition (35%) or in non-flooded soil conditions (40%). The fluctuating temperature requirement was not clearly related to the foregoing conditions in the successional grassland seeds. Maximum germination could also be attained with red light pulses to seeds from mountain and successional grasslands. Results show that the fluctuating temperature requirement might help floodplain seeds to germinate after floods, indicating a unique feature of the dormancy of S. parviflora seeds from floodplains, which suggests an adaptive advantage aimed at postponing emergence during inundation periods. In contrast, the fluctuating temperature required for germination among seeds from mountain and successional grasslands show its importance for gap detection.

  6. Multiscale properties of weighted total variation flow with applications to denoising and registration.

    PubMed

    Athavale, Prashant; Xu, Robert; Radau, Perry; Nachman, Adrian; Wright, Graham A

    2015-07-01

    Images consist of structures of varying scales: large scale structures such as flat regions, and small scale structures such as noise, textures, and rapidly oscillatory patterns. In the hierarchical (BV, L(2)) image decomposition, Tadmor, et al. (2004) start with extracting coarse scale structures from a given image, and successively extract finer structures from the residuals in each step of the iterative decomposition. We propose to begin instead by extracting the finest structures from the given image and then proceed to extract increasingly coarser structures. In most images, noise could be considered as a fine scale structure. Thus, starting the image decomposition with finer scales, rather than large scales, leads to fast denoising. We note that our approach turns out to be equivalent to the nonstationary regularization in Scherzer and Weickert (2000). The continuous limit of this procedure leads to a time-scaled version of total variation flow. Motivated by specific clinical applications, we introduce an image depending weight in the regularization functional, and study the corresponding weighted TV flow. We show that the edge-preserving property of the multiscale representation of an input image obtained with the weighted TV flow can be enhanced and localized by appropriate choice of the weight. We use this in developing an efficient and edge-preserving denoising algorithm with control on speed and localization properties. We examine analytical properties of the weighted TV flow that give precise information about the denoising speed and the rate of change of energy of the images. An additional contribution of the paper is to use the images obtained at different scales for robust multiscale registration. We show that the inherently multiscale nature of the weighted TV flow improved performance for registration of noisy cardiac MRI images, compared to other methods such as bilateral or Gaussian filtering. A clinical application of the multiscale registration

  7. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical and physical seed defences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential. Limited understanding of interspecific variation ...

  8. Statistical variations in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete subjected to drop weight test

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraja, M.C.; Dhang, N.; Gupta, A.P.

    1999-07-01

    The variation in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete as determined from a drop weight test is reported. The observed coefficients of variation are about 57 and 46% for first-crack resistance and the ultimate resistance in the case of fiber concrete and the corresponding values for plain concrete are 54 and 51%, respectively. The goodness-of-fit test indicated poor fitness of the impact-resistance test results produced in this study to normal distribution at 95% level of confidence for both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete. However, the percentage increase in number of blows from first crack to failure for both fiber-reinforced concrete and as well as plain concrete fit to normal distribution as indicated by the goodness-of-fit test. The coefficient of variation in percentage increase in the number of blows beyond first crack for fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete is 51.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Minimum number of tests required to reliably measure the properties of the material can be suggested based on the observed levels of variation.

  9. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-03-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5'-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea.

  10. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy.

  11. Isoflavones in soybean seeds: Genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both controlled environment and field studies indicate that isoflavones, a dietary source of a class of bioactive phytochemicals present primarily in soybean seeds, increase greatly when seeds mature under cooler conditions or when plants are well-watered. Environmental effects can be superimposed ...

  12. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  13. Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongji; Wang, Jianjian; Lai, Liming; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Lehua; Zheng, Yuanrun; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2014-01-01

    Seed mass and morphology are plant life history traits that influence seed dispersal ability, seeding establishment success, and population distribution pattern. Southeastern Tibet is a diversity center for Rhododendron species, which are distributed from a few hundred meters to 5500 m above sea level. We examined intra- and interspecific variation in seed mass and morphology in relation to altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny. Seed mass decreased significantly with the increasing altitude and increased significantly with increasing plant height among populations of the same species. Seed mass differed significantly among species and subsections, but not among sections and subgenera. Seed length, width, surface area, and wing length were significantly negative correlated with altitude and significantly positive correlated with plant height. Further, these traits differed significantly among habitats and varied among species and subsection, but not among sections and subgenera. Species at low elevation had larger seeds with larger wings, and seeds became smaller and the wings of seeds tended to be smaller with the increasing altitude. Morphology of the seed varied from flat round to long cylindrical with increasing altitude. We suggest that seed mass and morphology have evolved as a result of both long-term adaptation and constraints of the taxonomic group over their long evolutionary history. PMID:24963385

  14. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  15. Interspecific and annual variation in pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird in two East Asian hackberries, Celtis biondii and Celtis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Masaki, T; Isagi, Y; Kikuzawa, K

    2012-05-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation by granivorous birds has potential to limit fruit removal and subsequent seed dispersal by legitimate avian seed dispersers in bird-dispersed plants, especially when the birds form flocks. We monitored pre-dispersal seed predation by the Japanese grosbeak, Eophona personata, of two bird-dispersed hackberry species (Cannabaceae), Celtis biondii (four trees) and Celtis sinensis (10 trees), for 3 years (2005, 2007 and 2008) in a fragmented forest in temperate Japan. Throughout the 3 years, predation was more intense on C. biondii, which, as a consequence, lost a larger part of its fruit crop. Grosbeaks preferred C. biondii seeds that had a comparatively lower energy content and lower hardness than C. sinensis, suggesting an association between seed hardness and selective foraging by grosbeaks. In C. biondii, intensive predation markedly reduced fruit duration and strongly limited fruit removal by seed dispersers, especially in 2007 and 2008. In C. sinensis, seed dispersers consumed fruits throughout the fruiting seasons in all 3 years. In C. biondii, variation in the timing of grosbeak migration among years was associated with annual variation in this bird's effects on fruit removal. Our results demonstrate that seed predation by flocks of granivorous birds can dramatically disrupt seed dispersal in fleshy-fruited plants and suggest the importance of understanding their flocking behaviour.

  16. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  17. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments.

  18. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution using adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Changfei; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease by assessing the myocardial perfusion hemodynamic maps (MPHM). Meanwhile, the repeated scanning of the same region results in a relatively large radiation dose to patients potentially. In this work, we present a robust MPCT deconvolution algorithm with adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization to estimate residue function accurately under the low-dose context, which is termed `MPD-AwTTV'. More specifically, the AwTTV regularization takes into account the anisotropic edge property of the MPCT images compared with the conventional total variation (TV) regularization, which can mitigate the drawbacks of TV regularization. Subsequently, an effective iterative algorithm was adopted to minimize the associative objective function. Experimental results on a modified XCAT phantom demonstrated that the present MPD-AwTTV algorithm outperforms and is superior to other existing deconvolution algorithms in terms of noise-induced artifacts suppression, edge details preservation and accurate MPHM estimation.

  19. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  20. Spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal in an Atlantic forest: Effects of habitat, location and guilds of seed predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianini, Alexander V.; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-11-01

    Studies of post-dispersal seed removal in the Neotropics have rarely examined the magnitude of seed removal by different types of granivores. The relative impact of invertebrates, small rodents, and birds on seed removal was investigated in a 2,178 ha Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. We used popcorn kernels ( Zea mays—Poaceae) to investigate seed removal in a series of selective exclosure treatments in a replicated, paired design experiment that included forest understory, gaps, and forest edge sites. We recorded the vegetation around the experimental seed stations in detail in order to evaluate the influence of microhabitat traits on seed removal. Vertebrate granivores (rodents and birds) were surveyed to determine whether granivore abundance was correlated with seed removal levels. Seed removal varied spatially and in unpredictable ways at the study site. Seed encounter and seed use varied with treatments, but not with habitat type. However, seed removal by invertebrates was negatively correlated with gap-related traits, which suggested an avoidance of large gaps by granivorous ants. The abundance of small mammals was remarkably low, but granivorous birds (tinamous and doves) were abundant at the study site. Birds were the main seed consumers in open treatments, but there was no correlation between local granivorous bird abundance and seed removal. These results emphasize the stochastic spatial pattern of seed removal, and, contrary to previous studies, highlight the importance of birds as seed predators in forest habitats.

  1. Visualization of Anatomic Variation of the Anterior Septal Vein on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengzhen; Qiao, Huihuang; Guo, Yu; Li, Jiance; Miao, Huizhong; Wen, Caiyun; Wen, Xindong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Yang, Xindong; Chen, Chengchun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Understanding the anatomy of the anterior septal vein (ASV) is critical for minimally invasive procedures to the third ventricle and for assessing lesion size and venous drainage in the anterior cranial fossa. Accordingly, this study evaluated topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods Sixty volunteers were examined using a 3.0T MR system. The diameter of the ASV and distance between bilateral septal points were measured. ASVs were divided into types 1 (only drains frontal lobe) and 2 (drains both frontal lobe and head of the caudate nucleus). We evaluated the ASV-internal cerebral vein (ICV) junction based on its positional relationship with the appearance of a venous angle or a false venous angle and the foramen of Monro. Fused SW and T1-weighted images were used to observe positional relationships between the course of the ASV and the surrounding brain structures. Results The ASV and its small tributaries were clearly visualized in 120 hemispheres (100%). The average diameter of ASVs was 1.05±0.17 mm (range 0.9–1.6 mm). The average distance between bilateral septal points was 2.23±1.03 mm (range 1.3–6.6 mm). The ASV types 1 and 2 were in 77 (64.2%) and 43 (35.8%) hemispheres, respectively. In 83 (69.2%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated at the venous angle and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. In 37 (30.8%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated beyond the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. The average distance between the posteriorly located ASV-ICV junction and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro was 6.41±3.95 mm (range 2.4–15.9 mm). Conclusion Using SWI, the topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV were clearly demonstrated. Preoperative assessment of anatomic variation of the ASV may be advantageous for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. PMID:27716782

  2. Variation in seed germination of 134 common species on the eastern Tibetan Plateau: phylogenetic, life history and environmental correlates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Li, Wenlong; Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Wei; Du, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is a crucial stage in the life history of a species because it represents the pathway from adult to offspring, and it can affect the distribution and abundance of species in communities. In this study, we examined the effects of phylogenetic, life history and environmental factors on seed germination of 134 common species from an alpine/subalpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. In one-way ANOVAs, phylogenetic groups (at or above order) explained 13.0% and 25.9% of the variance in germination percentage and mean germination time, respectively; life history attributes, such as seed size, dispersal mode, explained 3.7%, 2.1% of the variance in germination percentage and 6.3%, 8.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively; the environmental factors temperature and habitat explained 4.7%, 1.0% of the variance in germination percentage and 13.5%, 1.7% of the variance in mean germination time, respectively. Our results demonstrated that elevated temperature would lead to a significant increase in germination percentage and an accelerated germination. Multi-factorial ANOVAs showed that the three major factors contributing to differences in germination percentage and mean germination time in this alpine/subalpine meadow were phylogenetic attributes, temperature and seed size (explained 10.5%, 4.7% and 1.4% of the variance in germination percentage independently, respectively; and explained 14.9%, 13.5% and 2.7% of the variance in mean germination time independently, respectively). In addition, there were strong associations between phylogenetic group and life history attributes, and between life history attributes and environmental factors. Therefore, germination variation are constrained mainly by phylogenetic inertia in a community, and seed germination variation correlated with phylogeny is also associated with life history attributes, suggesting a role of niche adaptation in the conservation of germination variation within lineages

  3. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine ( pinus ponderosa' dougl. ex laws). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.C.; Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-03-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with short, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation were highest in the region having the steepest precipitation gradients. Most of the variation occurred, however, within locations.

  4. Variation of Binge Eating One Year after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Its Relationship with Excess Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brito, César Luis de Souza; Debon, Letícia Manoel; Brandalise, Lívia Nora; de Azevedo, Juliana Tainski; Monbach, Karin Daniele; Heberle, Luísa Schmidt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity classes II and III. However, some patients do not get the desired results or initially lose and then regain the lost weight. Identifying these individuals early on and treating them adequately remains a challenge. As binge eating directly affects food intake, the study of this symptom and its relation to bariatric surgery and its results is increasing, because it appears to have an influence on the results of surgery. Objectives This study aimed to see how binge eating changes, measured with the Binge Eating Scale, interferes in the % excess weight loss one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 149 patients older than 18 years who were evaluated one year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The variation in the intensity of binge eating was measured with the pre- and postoperative Binge Eating Scale scores. Results The variation of one unit in the Binge Eating Scale implied an inverse variation of 0.41% of % excess weight loss (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient between the variation of binge eating and the % excess weight loss was -0.186 (p = 0.033). The correlation coefficient between the binge eating symptoms one year after surgery and the % excess weight loss was -0.353 (p<0.001). Conclusions There was a correlation between the variation of binge eating one year after gastric bypass and the % excess weight loss. The correlation between binge eating and the % excess weight loss was greater after the surgery than it was at the preoperative stage. This study provides new, valuable information on the intensity and variation of binge eating symptoms one year after gastric bypass, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been studied in depth earlier. PMID:27992541

  5. Genetic variation and seed zones of douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Sugano, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    The provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in the common garden. Within the Forest, three breeding blocks were recommended, with different numbers of elevational bands in each block: from 0 to 610 meters, from 611 to 838 meters, and then a series of bands 152 meters wide at higher elevations.

  6. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times. PMID:25628873

  7. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times.

  8. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

  9. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  10. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bradley St Clair, John; Kilkenny, Francis F; Johnson, Richard C; Shaw, Nancy L; Weaver, George

    2013-09-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology, and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated with the climates of the seed sources. Pseudoroegneria spicata populations from warm, arid source environments were smaller with earlier phenology and had relatively narrow leaves than those from mild climates with cool summers, warm winters, low seasonal temperature differentials, high precipitation, and low aridity. Later phenology was generally associated with populations from colder climates. Releases were larger and more fecund than most of the native ecotypes, but were similar to native populations near their source of origin. Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure adapted plant materials for restoration activities.

  11. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley St. Clair, John; Kilkenny, Francis F; Johnson, Richard C; Shaw, Nancy L; Weaver, George

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology, and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated with the climates of the seed sources. Pseudoroegneria spicata populations from warm, arid source environments were smaller with earlier phenology and had relatively narrow leaves than those from mild climates with cool summers, warm winters, low seasonal temperature differentials, high precipitation, and low aridity. Later phenology was generally associated with populations from colder climates. Releases were larger and more fecund than most of the native ecotypes, but were similar to native populations near their source of origin. Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure adapted plant materials for restoration activities. PMID:24062802

  12. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, Takashi; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Fukai, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term “multimodality-weighted principal component analysis” (mPCA), and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student's t mixture model (SVB). The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP) inference for the “degree of freedom” parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these “difficult” neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3) is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/. PMID:22448159

  13. Temporal variation in the prevalence of weight and obesity excess in adults: Brazil, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Meléndez, Gustavo Velasquez

    2011-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are public health issues that affect an important part of the world population. This study aims at describing the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence rates from 2006 to 2009, by means of telephone surveys in 27 Brazilian cities, with a population aged 18 years or older. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated by the reported height and weight; overweight and obesity were considered as BMI >25 kg/m² and >30 kg/m², respectively. Temporal variation in overweight and obesity prevalence is presented for men and women, according to age group, schooling, stable relationship, and skin color. Poisson regression was used for the analysis. Overweight prevalence was 43.0, 42.7, 44.2 and 46.6%,for each year of the period from 2006 to 2009, respectively. For obesity, in the same period, the trend was: 11.4, 12.7, 13.2 and 13.8%. The temporal trend varied in relation to some demographic and socioeconomic variables. The prevalence was higher among women and young adults. The temporal trend was independent of the relationship status of the interviewees, but the prevalence was higher among white women and those with less years of schooling. The results in this study confirmed the urgent need for effective prevention and control measures, as the increasing trend is occurring in a short period of time, especially among youngsters.

  14. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Mavrogianni, A; Johnson, F; Ucci, M; Marmot, A; Wardle, J; Oreszczyn, T; Summerfield, A

    2013-04-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain.

  15. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  16. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Takashi; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Fukai, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term "multimodality-weighted principal component analysis" (mPCA), and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student's t mixture model (SVB). The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP) inference for the "degree of freedom" parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these "difficult" neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3) is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/.

  17. Seed size variability: from carob to carats

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth. PMID:17148413

  18. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  19. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  20. Molecular weight and galloylation affect grape seed extract constituents’ ability to cross-link dentin collagen in clinically relevant time

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Bai, Xinyan; Li, Shaohua; Liu, Ying; Keightley, Andrew; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the structures of polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed extract (GSE) and their activity in cross-linking dentin collagen in clinically relevant settings. Methods Representative monomeric and dimeric GSE constituents including (+)-catechin (pCT), (−)-catechin (CT), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin B2 and a pCT-pCT dimer were purchased or synthesized. GSE was separated into low (PALM) and high molecular weight (PAHM) fractions. Human molars were processed into dentin films and beams. After demineralization, 11 groups of films (n=5) were treated for 1 min with the aforementioned reagents (1 wt% in 50/50 ethanol/water) and 1 group remained untreated. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by a quantitative mass spectroscopy-based digestion assay. Tensile properties of demineralized dentin beams were evaluated (n=7) after treatments (2h and 24h) with selective GSE species that were found to protect dentin collagen from collagenase. Results Efficacy of GSE constituents in cross-linking dentin collagen was dependent on molecular size and galloylation. Non-galloylated species with degree of polymerization up to two, including pCT, CT, EC, EGC, procyanidin B2 and pCT-pCT dimer were not active. Galloylated species were active starting from monomeric form, including ECG, EGCG, PALM, GSE and PAHM. PALM induced the best overall improvement in tensile properties of dentin collagen. Significance Identification under clinically relevant settings of structural features that contribute to GSE constituents’ efficacy in stabilizing demineralized dentin matrix has immediate impact on optimizing GSE’s use in dentin bonding. PMID:25958268

  1. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  2. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species.

  3. Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study in Arabidopsis thaliana of Natural Variation in Seed Oil Melting Point: A Widespread Adaptive Trait in Plants.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Wright, Sara J; Reba, Aaron; Morrison, Ginnie D; Linder, C Randal

    2016-05-01

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were used to assess whether seed oil melting point within a species varied with germination temperature. In support of the adaptive explanation, long-term monthly spring and fall field temperatures of the accession collection sites significantly predicted their seed oil melting points. In addition, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to determine which genes were most likely responsible for the natural variation in seed oil melting point. The GWAS found a single highly significant association within the coding region of FAD2, which encodes a fatty acid desaturase central to the oil biosynthesis pathway. In a separate analysis of 15 a priori oil synthesis candidate genes, 2 (FAD2 and FATB) were located near significant SNPs associated with seed oil melting point. These results comport with others' molecular work showing that lines with alterations in these genes affect seed oil melting point as expected. Our results suggest natural selection has acted on a small number of loci to alter a quantitative trait in response to local environmental conditions.

  5. Structure-adaptive CBCT reconstruction using weighted total variation and Hessian penalties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Sun, Nanbo; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jing; Tan, Shan

    2016-09-01

    The exposure of normal tissues to high radiation during cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging increases the risk of cancer and genetic defects. Statistical iterative algorithms with the total variation (TV) penalty have been widely used for low dose CBCT reconstruction, with state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noise and preserving edges. However, TV is a first-order penalty and sometimes leads to the so-called staircase effect, particularly over regions with smooth intensity transition in the reconstruction images. A second-order penalty known as the Hessian penalty was recently used to replace TV to suppress the staircase effect in CBCT reconstruction at the cost of slightly blurring object edges. In this study, we proposed a new penalty, the TV-H, which combines TV and Hessian penalties for CBCT reconstruction in a structure-adaptive way. The TV-H penalty automatically differentiates the edges, gradual transition and uniform local regions within an image using the voxel gradient, and adaptively weights TV and Hessian according to the local image structures in the reconstruction process. Our proposed penalty retains the benefits of TV, including noise suppression and edge preservation. It also maintains the structures in regions with gradual intensity transition more successfully. A majorization-minimization (MM) approach was designed to optimize the objective energy function constructed with the TV-H penalty. The MM approach employed a quadratic upper bound of the original objective function, and the original optimization problem was changed to a series of quadratic optimization problems, which could be efficiently solved using the Gauss-Seidel update strategy. We tested the reconstruction algorithm on two simulated digital phantoms and two physical phantoms. Our experiments indicated that the TV-H penalty visually and quantitatively outperformed both TV and Hessian penalties.

  6. Structure-adaptive CBCT reconstruction using weighted total variation and Hessian penalties

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qi; Sun, Nanbo; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jing; Tan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of normal tissues to high radiation during cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging increases the risk of cancer and genetic defects. Statistical iterative algorithms with the total variation (TV) penalty have been widely used for low dose CBCT reconstruction, with state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noise and preserving edges. However, TV is a first-order penalty and sometimes leads to the so-called staircase effect, particularly over regions with smooth intensity transition in the reconstruction images. A second-order penalty known as the Hessian penalty was recently used to replace TV to suppress the staircase effect in CBCT reconstruction at the cost of slightly blurring object edges. In this study, we proposed a new penalty, the TV-H, which combines TV and Hessian penalties for CBCT reconstruction in a structure-adaptive way. The TV-H penalty automatically differentiates the edges, gradual transition and uniform local regions within an image using the voxel gradient, and adaptively weights TV and Hessian according to the local image structures in the reconstruction process. Our proposed penalty retains the benefits of TV, including noise suppression and edge preservation. It also maintains the structures in regions with gradual intensity transition more successfully. A majorization-minimization (MM) approach was designed to optimize the objective energy function constructed with the TV-H penalty. The MM approach employed a quadratic upper bound of the original objective function, and the original optimization problem was changed to a series of quadratic optimization problems, which could be efficiently solved using the Gauss-Seidel update strategy. We tested the reconstruction algorithm on two simulated digital phantoms and two physical phantoms. Our experiments indicated that the TV-H penalty visually and quantitatively outperformed both TV and Hessian penalties. PMID:27699100

  7. Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract stimulates whole brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and reduces feeding behavior and body weight in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Ahmed, Maryam; Parveen, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight.

  8. Genetic determinism for within-litter birth weight variation and its relationship with litter weight and litter size in the Ripollesa ewe breed.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2007-06-01

    Birth weight plays a central role in lamb survival and growth, and the knowledge of its genetic determinism has become essential in worldwide selection programmes. Within this context, within-litter birth weight variation (BWV) has been suggested as an attractive trait to homogenise litters in prolific species, although it has not been analysed in sheep. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for BWV in Ripollesa ewes, and to study its genetic, permanent environmental and residual relationships with litter weight (LW) and litter size (LS) at birth. Data were recorded in the Ripollesa experimental flock of the Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, between 1986 and 2005, and included 1 662 litters from 380 ewes, with 712 records of BWV and 1 530 records of LW. Traits were analysed with a multivariate animal model solved through Bayesian methodologies, and with a threshold characterisation of LS. Additionally, the effect of BWV on lamb survival was studied. Additive genetic variance was observed for BWV (h2 = 0.061), as well as for LW (h2 = 0.200) and LS (h2 = 0.141). Nevertheless, genetic correlations among those traits were not substantial (BWV and LW = 0.151; BWV and LS = - 0.219; LW and LS = - 0.320) and suffered from a high degree of uncertainly, with the null correlation included within the highest posterior interval at 95%. Within-litter birth weight variation and LS showed a negative and large permanent environmental correlation ( - 0.872), and LW and LS were negatively correlated due to residual ( - 0.762) and permanent environmental ( - 0.449) random sources of variation. Within-litter birth weight variation influenced lamb mortality during the first 7 days of life (P < 0.05), increasing and decreasing survivability in heavier and lighter littermates, respectively. Nevertheless, stillbirths and lambs died after the 1st week of life were not affected by BWV (P>0.05). The low

  9. A combined linkage and regional association mapping validation and fine mapping of two major pleiotropic QTLs for seed weight and silique length in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seed weight (SW) and silique length (SL) are important determinants of the yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). However, the genetic basis of both traits is poorly understood. The main objectives of this study were to dissect the genetic basis of SW and SL in rapeseed through the preliminary mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTL) by linkage analysis and fine mapping of the target major QTL by regional association analysis. Results Preliminary linkage mapping identified thirteen and nine consensus QTLs for SW and SL, respectively. These QTLs explained 0.7-67.1% and 2.1-54.4% of the phenotypic variance for SW and SL, respectively. Of these QTLs, three pairs of SW and SL QTLs were co-localized and integrated into three unique QTLs. In addition, the significance level and genetic effect of the three co-localized QTLs for both SW and SL showed great variation before and after the conditional analysis. Moreover, the allelic effects of the three QTLs for SW were highly consistent with those for SL. Two of the three co-localized QTLs, uq.A09-1 (mean R2 = 20.1% and 19.0% for SW and SL, respectively) and uq.A09-3 (mean R2 = 13.5% and 13.2% for SW and SL, respectively), were detected in all four environments and showed the opposite additive-effect direction. These QTLs were validated and fine mapped (their confidence intervals were narrowed down from 5.3 cM to 1 cM for uq.A09-1 and 13.2 cM to 2.5 cM for uq.A09-3) by regional association analysis with a panel of 576 inbred lines, which has a relatively rapid linkage disequilibrium decay (0.3 Mb) in the target QTL region. Conclusions A few QTLs with major effects and several QTLs with moderate effects might contribute to the natural variation of SW and SL in rapeseed. The meta-, conditional and allelic effect analyses suggested that pleiotropy, rather than tight linkage, was the genetic basis of the three pairs of co-localized of SW and SL QTLs. Regional association analysis was an

  10. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  11. Oleosin Isoforms of High and Low Molecular Weights Are Present in the Oil Bodies of Diverse Seed Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, Jason T. C.; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chan, Kwai-Lan; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. We purified five different oleosins (maize [Zea mays L.] KD 16 and KD 18, soybean [Glycine max L.] KD 18 and KD 24, and rapeseed [Brassica campestris L.] KD 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. These antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. Within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did not cross-react with the other oleosin isoform (i.e. between maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18, and between soybean oleosins KD 18 and KD 24). However, the respective antibodies were able to recognize oleosins from other seed species. Where interspecies cross-reactivity occurred, the results suggest that there are at least two immunologically distinct isoforms of oleosins present in diverse seed species, one of lower Mr, and another one of higher Mr. This suggestion is also supported by the relative similarities between the amino acid sequence of a small portion of rapeseed oleosin KD 20 and those of maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18. In maize kernel, there was a tissue-specific differential presentation of the three oleosins, KD 16, KD 18, and KD 19, in the oil-storing scutellum, embryonic axis, and aleurone layer. The phylogenetic relationship between the high and low Mr isoforms within the same, and among diverse, seed species is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667830

  12. Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum

    PubMed Central

    Hay, F. R.; Smith, R. D.; Ellis, R. H.; Butler, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Methods Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Key Results Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33–36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 °C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Conclusions Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors. PMID:20228084

  13. Adipose Tissue CIDEA Is Associated, Independently of Weight Variation, to Change in Insulin Resistance during a Longitudinal Weight Control Dietary Program in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Aim Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Research Design Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Results Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. Conclusion The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight

  14. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  15. Independence of genetic variation between circadian rhythm and development time in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Harano, Tomohiro; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2011-03-01

    A positive genetic correlation between periods of circadian rhythm and developmental time supports the hypothesis that circadian clocks are implicated in the timing of development. Empirical evidence for this genetic correlation in insects has been documented in two fly species. In contrast, here we show that there is no evidence of genetic correlation between circadian rhythm and development time in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. This species has variation that is explained by a major gene in the expression and period length of circadian rhythm between strains. In this study, we found genetic variation in development time between the strains. The development time was not covaried with either the incidence or the period length of circadian rhythm among the strains. Crosses between strains suggest that development time is controlled by a polygene. In the F(2) individuals from the crosses, the circadian rhythm is attributable to allelic variation in the major gene. Across the F(2) individuals, development time was not correlated with either the expression or the period length of circadian rhythm. Thus, we found no effects of major genes responsible for variation in the circadian rhythm on development time in C. chinensis. Our findings collectively give no support to the hypothesis that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of development time in this species.

  16. DRD2 promoter region variation predicts antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K

    2010-09-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between -141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone versus olanzapine. Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared with Ins/Ins homozygotes (noncarriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers showed significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. Although deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of olanzapine (but not risperidone), dose did not seem to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given earlier evidence that deletion carriers show reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients seems warranted.

  17. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hong-Sig; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-06-13

    This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (<13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (>24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese

  18. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management.

  19. Variations in fatty acid composition of neem seeds collected from the Rajasthan state of India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Vir, S

    2000-12-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree native to the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asian countries. Products derived from neem have been used for centuries, particularly in India, for medicinal and pest-management purposes. Azadirachtin and neem oil are the two major commercially important products derived from the tree. The oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in good proportion. Although there is growing demand for quality planting material for plantation of neem, efforts are lacking for the selection of neem trees based on their biochemical composition. In the present study, 60 Neem seed samples were collected from different provinances of the Rajasthan state in India. These samples were analysed by GLC to study the variability of fatty acid composition. Significant variability in individual fatty acids was observed. The palmitic acid ranged from 16 to 34%, stearic acid from 6 to 24%, oleic acid from 25 to 58% and linoleic acid from 6 to 17%. This variability can be exploited for selection of trees and for studying the genetic variability in neem. These selections can also be utilized for genetic improvement of the tree.

  20. A CT reconstruction approach from sparse projection with adaptive-weighted diagonal total-variation in biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Deng, Luzhen; Mi, Deling; He, Peng; Feng, Peng; Yu, Pengwei; Chen, Mianyi; Li, Zhichao; Wang, Jian; Wei, Biao

    2015-01-01

    For lack of directivity in Total Variation (TV) which only uses x-coordinate and y-coordinate gradient transform as its sparse representation approach during the iteration process, this paper brought in Adaptive-weighted Diagonal Total Variation (AwDTV) that uses the diagonal direction gradient to constraint reconstructed image and adds associated weights which are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity diagonal gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details, then using the steepest descent method to solve the optimization problem. Finally, we did two sets of numerical simulation and the results show that the proposed algorithm can reconstruct high-quality CT images from few-views projection, which has lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher Universal Quality Index (UQI) than Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and TV-based reconstruction method.

  1. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  2. Modeling seed weight under environmental resource limitations as a function of C, N, and C:N allocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C:N ratio in seed of two genotypes each of five crops with different resource allocation patterns were assessed under normal growing degree days (GDD) and normal population density (NN) for each crop; normal GDD and 25%>normal population density (NL); sho...

  3. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  4. DRD2 Promoter Region Variation Predicts Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in First Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G.; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M.; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between −141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone (RIS) vs. olanzapine (OLZ). Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared to Ins/Ins homozygotes (non-carriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers demonstrated significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. While deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of OLZ (but not RIS), dose did not appear to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given previous evidence that deletion carriers demonstrate reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients appears warranted. PMID:20664489

  5. Small angle X-ray scattering of wheat seed-storage proteins: alpha-, gamma- and omega-gliadins and the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin.

    PubMed

    Thomson, N H; Miles, M J; Popineau, Y; Harries, J; Shewry, P; Tatham, A S

    1999-03-19

    Small angle X-ray scattering in solution was performed on seed-storage proteins from wheat. Three different groups of gliadins (alpha-, gamma- and omega-) and a high molecular weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin (1Bx20) were studied to determine molecular size parameters. All the gliadins could be modelled as prolate ellipsoids with extended conformations. The HMW subunit existed as a highly extended rod-like particle in solution with a length of about 69 nm and a diameter of about 6.4 nm. Specific aggregation effects were observed which may reflect mechanisms of self-assembly that contribute to the unique viscoelastic properties of wheat dough.

  6. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  7. Relationships between intra-specific variation in seed size and recruitment in four species in two contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, K; Eriksson, O

    2013-05-01

    Large seeds contain more stored resources, and seedlings germinating from large seeds generally cope better with environmental stresses such as shading, competition and thick litter layers, than seedlings germinating from small seeds. A pattern with small-seeded species being associated with open habitats and large-seeded species being associated with closed (shaded) habitats has been suggested and supported by comparative studies. However, few studies have assessed the intra-specific relationship between seed size and recruitment, comparing plant communities differing in canopy cover. Here, seeds from four plant species commonly occurring in ecotones between open and closed habitats (Convallaria majalis, Frangula alnus, Prunus padus and Prunus spinosa) were weighed and sown individually (3200 seeds per species) in open and closed-canopy sites, and seedling emergence and survival recorded over 3 years. Our results show a generally positive, albeit weak, relationship between seed size and recruitment. In only one of the species, C. majalis, was there an association between closed canopy habitat and a positive seed size effect on recruitment. We conclude that there is a weak selection gradient favouring larger seeds, but that this selection gradient is not clearly related to habitat.

  8. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  9. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; McLean, Ian G.; Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights…

  10. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  11. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    time period has been used. In order to reach better results, images from MODIS satellite has been used as auxiliary data for the images that are with an error margin. Initial classification on the images was conducted to distinguish water and non water applications. Neural network classification was applied with specific scales on the images and the two major applications were thereby extracted. Then, in order to authenticate the proceedings, Error matrix and Kappa coefficient has been applied on the classified images. Base pixel method of neural network was used for the purpose of information extraction while authenticity of that was evaluated too. The outcomes display the trend of Urmia shoreline has been approximately constant between the years of 1976 to 1995 and has experienced very low variations. In 1998 the lake experienced increase of water and therefore advancement of the shoreline of the lake due to increase of precipitation and the volume of inflowing water to the basin. During 2000 to 20125, however, the lake's shoreline has experienced a downward trend, which was intensified in 2007 and reached to its most critical level ever since, that is decreasing to about one third. Further, temporal and spatial potentiality evaluation of clouds seeding in Urmia lake zone has been studied as a solution for improvement and recovery of the current status of the lake, and an algorithm was proposed for optimized temporal- spatial study on could seeding. Ecological, meteorological and synoptic data were used for timing study of the cloud's seeding plan, which upon study; it is easy to evaluate precipitation potential and quality of the system. At the next step, the rate of humidity and also stability of the precipitating system can be analyzed using radar acquired data. Whereas extracted date from MODIS images are expressing the spatial position, therefore in order to study the location of the cloud's seeding, MODIS images of the selected time intervals along with

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-12-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R(2)) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R(2)>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice.

  13. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang, Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-mei; Wang, Fu-hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R 2) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R 2>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice. PMID:21121075

  14. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  15. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  16. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation Model for Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    model or a reconstructed result. A classical regularization is the total variation (TV) proposed by Rudin -Osher-Fatemi [33]. It is widely used in image...S. J. Osher and S. Esedoglu, Decomposition of images by the anisotropic rudin -osher-fatemi model, Comm. Pure Appl. Math, 57 (2003), pp. 1609–1626...R. B. Potts, Some generalized order-disorder transformations, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc, (1952), pp. 106–109. [33] L. Rudin , S. Osher, and E

  17. Birth weight and neonatal survival of harbour seal pups are positively correlated with genetic variation measured by microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Coltman, D W; Bowen, W D; Wright, J M

    1998-01-01

    We examined the relations between fitness-related traits of wild harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups with microsatellite heterozygosity, and with a measure of genomic diversity based on the mean squared distance between microsatellite alleles within an individual, mean d2. Birth weight was positively influenced by maternal age, pup sex, and either mean d2 or individual heterozygosity in separate multiple regression models. The association of birth weight with mean d2 was stronger than that with heterozygosity, however. The factors maternal age, pup sex, and mean d2 combined to account for 36.8% of the variation in birth weight, with mean d2 accounting for the greatest explanatory power (52.3% of the variance explained). Pups which survived until weaning had significantly higher mean d2 than pups which died, independent of birth weight. These effects are consistent with heterosis resulting from recent population mixing, and/or inbreeding depression in this population. Mean d2 thus provides (i) a better measure of individual genetic variability than heterozygosity for microsatellite data; and (ii) a convenient tool for assessing the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in natural populations. PMID:9628038

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in proportional stock density and relative weight of smallmouth bass in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Duke, S.D.; Ward, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Population data for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui in 20,235 ha John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River were used to (1) determine whether Proportional Stock Density (PSD) and Relative Weight (Wr) varied spatially and temporally in two areas of the reservoir with established smallmouth bass fisheries; (2) explore possible causes of any observed variation; and (3) discuss some management implications and recommendations. Both PSD and Wr varied spatially and monthly in all years examined. On an annual basis, PSD varied at one area but not at the other, whereas Wr showed little variation. Possible explanations for the variation in PSD and Wr are differences in growth, mortality, recruitment, and exploitation. Our data suggested that regulations established or changed on a reservoir-wide basis may have different effects on the fishery, depending on location in the reservoir. Also, pooling data from various areas within a reservoir to yield point estimates of structural indices may not represent the variation present in the population as a whole. The significant temporal variability reflects the importance of determining the proper time to sample fish to yield representative estimates of the variable of interest. In areas with valuable fisheries or markedly different population structures, we suggest that an area-specific approach be made to reservoir fishery management, and that efforts be made toward effecting consistent harvest regulations in interstate waters.

  19. Genetic analysis of within-litter variation in piglets' birth weight using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Wang, S; Knol, E F; Mulder, H A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic variance for within-litter variation of birth weight (BW0) using genomic (GRM) or pedigree relationship matrices (PRM) and to compare the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) for within-litter variation of BW0 using GRM and PRM. The BW0 and residual variance of BW0 were modeled by the double hierarchical generalized linear model using GRM or PRM. Data came from 2 dam lines: Landrace and Large White. After editing, the data set in Landrace consisted of 748 sows with 1,938 litters and 29,430 piglets and in Large White of 989 sows with 3,320 litters and 51,818 piglets. To construct GRM, 46,466 (Landrace) and 44,826 (Large White) single nucleotide polymorphisms were used, whereas to construct PRM, 5 generations of pedigree were used. The accuracy of EBV with GRM was estimated with 8-fold cross-validation and compared to PRM. Estimated variance components were highly similar for GRM and PRM. The maternal genetic variance in residual variance of BW0 in Landrace was 0.05 with GRM and 0.06 with PRM. In Large White these were 0.04 with GRM and 0.05 with PRM. The genetic coefficient of variation (GCV SDe) was about 0.10 in both dam lines. This indicates a change of 10% in residual SD of BW0 when achieving a genetic response of 1 genetic standard deviation. The genetic correlation between birth weight and its residual variance was about 0.6 in both dam lines. The accuracies of selection for within-litter variation of birth weight were 0.35 with GRM and 0.23 with PRM in Landrace and 0.29 with GRM and 0.34 with PRM in Large White. In this case, using GRM did not significantly increase accuracies of selection. Results, however, show good opportunities to select for reduced within-litter variation of BW0. Genomic selection can increase accuracy of selection when reference populations contain at least 2,000 sows.

  20. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation for Relaxed Mumford-Shah Image Segmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    proposed model utilizing the difference-of-convex algorithm (DCA) and the primal dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method. Index Terms— Total-Variation... algorithm (DCA) [10, 11, 12]. L1 − 0.5L2 is also observed to be numerically more stable compared to L1 − L2. We also note that the level curves for the...boundaries of regions over the standard CV model. • Presentation of new numerical schemes utilizing a DCA algorithm with primal dual hybrid gradient

  1. Investigating the weight ratio variation of alginate-hydroxyapatite composites for vertebroplasty method bone filler material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Gusti Ruri; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska

    2017-02-01

    One of the newly developed methods for curing spinal fracture due to osteoporosis is vertebroplasty. The method is basically based on injection of special material directly to the fractured spine in order to commence the formation of new bone. Therefore, appropriate injectable materials are very important to the curing success. In this study, injectable alginate-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites were fabricated varying the weight percentage of alginate upon synthesis procedure. The result of injection capability and compressive tests as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggested that bone filler composite containing 60 wt% alginate is the optimum composition obtaining a compressive modulus up to 0.15 MPa, injection capability of more than 85% and morphology with uniform porous and fibrous structure. This injectable composite fabrication process can be used for the development of injectable materials system for vertebroplasty method.

  2. SIRT1 Polymorphisms Associate with Seasonal Weight Variation, Depressive Disorders, and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76–0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773). PMID:26509718

  3. SIRT1 Polymorphisms Associate with Seasonal Weight Variation, Depressive Disorders, and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Partonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 polymorphisms have previously been associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. We aimed at confirming these earlier findings and extending the analyses to seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common variation in the SIRT1 gene. 5910 individuals (with blood sample, diagnostic interview, self-report of on seasonal changes in mood and behavior) were selected from a representative Finnish nationwide population-based sample. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between the SNPs and depressive and anxiety disorders, metabolic syndrome (EGIR criteria) and its components, and health examination measurements, Homeostasis Model Assessments, and diagnoses of type 2 and type 1 diabetes. SIRT1 rs2273773 showed evidence of association with seasonal variation in weight (C-allele, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.95, p = 0.005). In addition, our study gave further support for the association of SIRT1 gene with depressive disorders (rs3758391) and diastolic blood pressure (rs2273773).

  4. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  5. Genetic variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) for seed quality-related traits and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M

    2011-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.

  6. Seed set variation in wild Clarkia populations: teasing apart the effects of seasonal resource depletion, pollen quality, and pollen quantity.

    PubMed

    Hove, Alisa A; Mazer, Susan J; Ivey, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    In habitats where resource availability declines during the growing season, selection may favor early-flowering individuals. Under such ephemerally favorable conditions, late-blooming species (and individuals) may be particularly vulnerable to resource limitation of seed production. In California, a region prone to seasonal drought, members of the annual genus Clarkia are among the last to flower in the spring. We compared pollen limitation (PL) of seed set and outcrossing rates between early- and late-flowering individuals in two mixed-mating Clarkia taxa to detect whether flowering time is associated with changes in seed set due to resource depletion, PL, or increased selfing. In 2008-2010, we hand-pollinated one flower on a total of 1855 individual plants either Early (near the onset of flowering) or Late (near the end of flowering) in the flowering season and compared seed set to adjacent, open-pollinated flowers on the same stem. To assess the contribution of pollen quality to reproduction, we first (2008) used allozymes to estimate outcrossing rates of seeds produced by Early and Late open-pollinated flowers. Second (2009), we conducted an anther-removal experiment to estimate self-pollen deposition. Seed set in Clarkia unguiculata was not pollen-limited. Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana was pollen-limited in 2008 and 2010, but not 2009. PL did not differ between Early and Late treatments. In both taxa, seed set of Early flowers was greater than Late flowers, but not due to PL in the latter. Reproduction was generally pollinator-dependent. Most pollen deposition was xenogamous, and outcrossing rates were >0.7 - and similar between Early and Late periods. These results suggest that pollen receipt and pollen quality remain seasonally consistent. By contrast, the resources necessary to provision seeds decline, reducing the fitness benefits associated with resource allocation to ovules.

  7. Morpho-Physiological Variation of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources and Implications for Deployment under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Isabelle; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Benomar, Lahcen; Rainville, André; DeBlois, Josianne; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Margolis, Hank

    2016-01-01

    Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec. The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0) in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modeling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season) showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0) from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This knowledge could be

  8. Morpho-Physiological Variation of White Spruce Seedlings from Various Seed Sources and Implications for Deployment under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Isabelle; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Benomar, Lahcen; Rainville, André; DeBlois, Josianne; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Margolis, Hank

    2016-01-01

    Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec. The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0) in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modeling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season) showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0) from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This knowledge could be

  9. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  10. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    PubMed

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation.

  11. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development. PMID:21303553

  12. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion-Weighted Images using 4D Low-Rank and Total Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides invaluable information in white matter microstructure and is widely applied in neurological applications. However, DWI is largely limited by its relatively low spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose an image post-processing method, referred to as super-resolution reconstruction, to estimate a high spatial resolution DWI from the input low-resolution DWI, e.g., at a factor of 2. Instead of requiring specially designed DWI acquisition of multiple shifted or orthogonal scans, our method needs only a single DWI scan. To do that, we propose to model both the blurring and downsampling effects in the image degradation process where the low-resolution image is observed from the latent high-resolution image, and recover the latent high-resolution image with the help of two regularizations. The first regularization is 4-dimensional (4D) low-rank, proposed to gather self-similarity information from both the spatial domain and the diffusion domain of 4D DWI. The second regularization is total variation, proposed to depress noise and preserve local structures such as edges in the image recovery process. Extensive experiments were performed on 20 subjects, and results show that the proposed method is able to recover the fine details of white matter structures, and outperform other approaches such as interpolation methods, non-local means based upsampling, and total variation based upsampling. PMID:27845833

  13. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids.

  14. Development of gene-based markers for use in construction of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genetic linkage map and identification of QTLs associated with seed weight and plant height.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shefali; Kumar, Tapan; Verma, Subodh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-11-01

    Seed weight and plant height are important agronomic traits and contribute to seed yield. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs underlying these traits using an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea. A F11 population of 177 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between SBD377 (100-seed weight--48 g and plant height--53 cm) and BGD112 (100-seed weight--15 g and plant height--65 cm) was used. A total of 367 novel EST-derived functional markers were developed which included 187 EST-SSRs, 130 potential intron polymorphisms (PIPs) and 50 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs). Along with these, 590 previously published markers including 385 EST-based markers and 205 genomic SSRs were utilized. Of the 957 markers tested for analysis of parental polymorphism between the two parents of the mapping population, 135 (14.64%) were found to be polymorphic. Of these, 131 polymorphic markers could be mapped to the 8 linkage groups. The linkage map had a total length of 1140.54 cM with an average marker density of 8.7 cM. The map was further used for QTL identification using composite interval mapping method (CIM). Two QTLs each for seed weight, qSW-1 and qSW-2 (explaining 11.54 and 19.24% of phenotypic variance, respectively) and plant height, qPH-1 and qPH-2 (explaining 13.98 and 12.17% of phenotypic variance, respectively) were detected. The novel set of genic markers, the intra-specific linkage map and the QTLs identified in the present study will serve as valuable genomic resources in improving the chickpea seed yield using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies.

  15. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution.

  16. Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  17. Integration of experiments across diverse environments identifies the genetic determinants of variation in Sorghum bicolor seed element composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the bioavailable elemental nutrient content in the edible portions of the crop has the potential to increase the value of sorghum for human and animal nutrition. Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality are in part determined by the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients...

  18. Orthodoxy, recalcitrance and in-between: describing variation in seed storage characteristics using threshold responses to water loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance of desiccation is typically described by a threshold or low-water-content-limit to survival. This convention provides fairly good distinction between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, which show thresholds of less than about 0.07 and greater than about 0.2 g H2O g dw-1, respectively. Thresh...

  19. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  20. Adaptive-weighted Total Variation Minimization for Sparse Data toward Low-dose X-ray Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, a piecewise-smooth X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing noticeable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously-reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several noticeable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full width at half maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm. PMID:23154621

  1. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  2. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Fernández, J.; Chuvieco, E.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-02-01

    Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence. The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983-2007) was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire) to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density) to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53). Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence. For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from GWR indicated a significant spatial variation in the local

  3. Differential seed dispersal in Oxalis acetosella,a cleistogamous perennial herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Henrik

    2000-03-01

    Explosive seed dispersal in the cleistogamous perennial forest herb Oxalis acetosella was studied during two growing seasons, to determine whether seeds derived from chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers differ in dispersal distance. Seed dispersal distance, seed weight, and height of fruits were measured for both flower types, and the effects of phenology and year were also taken into account. The dispersal experiment was performed indoors, using plants transplanted from natural populations to pots. CL seeds were thrown significantly further than were CH seeds, though there was a considerable overlap in dispersal distances. There was also a significant positive relationship between seed weight and dispersal distance. No relationship was found between fruit height and dispersal distance. The results of this study contradict the common view that CL progeny should always be dispersed closer to the mother plant than CH progeny. The ecological implications of the dispersal difference are unclear, especially since it is uncertain whether CH seeds are generally outcrossed or not. Variation in dispersal distance in O. acetosella seems to be mainly dependent on a combination of reproductive mode and variation in seed weight.

  4. Powder flow studies III: tensile strength, consolidation ratio, flow rate, and capsule-filling-weight variation relationships.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Yang, I C

    1981-08-01

    The tensile strength of consolidated powder beds was studied by applying a series of loads to the surface of the powder beds in a tensile tester. The results were plotted as tensile strength versus consolidation pressure. The linearity of these plots suggests a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation pressure. The following plots gave linear relationships: (1) tensile strength versus consolidation ratio, (b) tensile strength versus coefficient of variation of the filled weight of the capsules, and (c) logarithm of the tensile strength versus logarithm of the flow rate. These results suggest a direct relationship between tensile strength and consolidation ratio and their usefulness in studying powder flow. The physical significance of the empirical equation used in consolidation studies was explored. A comparison of the empirical equation with a theoretically derived equation, under certain assumptions, suggests that the consolidation ratio is a function of the ratio of the initial volume to the net volume and a function of the coefficient of Rankine. The coefficient of Rankine is a function of the angle of internal friction in the static powder bed.

  5. Aspectual Fertility Variation and Its Effect on Gene Diversity of Seeds in Natural Stands of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.)

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Nilüfer

    2017-01-01

    There are many environmental and biological factors on forestry practices as known. Aspect called as slope faces is one of the most important environmental factors in these practices because of its easy application for managers. Fertility variation defined as an individual ability to give progeny and gene diversity estimated based on effective number of parents were investigated as the proportion of numbers of cones counted from individuals in natural stands sampled aspectual of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) for three consecutive years. The averages of cone number were 19.4, 47.2, and 75.5 for the years. It was the highest in flat (23.5) for 2013, in south (92.1) for 2014, and in flat (95.7) for 2015, while it was lowest in south (16.3), in east (18.2), and in north (39.4) for the years, respectively. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were estimated among years for cone production in polled aspect. Estimated fertility variations changed for the years and stands. It could be generally acceptable level for typical natural stands except of west of 2014. Fertility variations were 1.55, 3.05, and 1.64 in polled stands for the years. Gene diversity was 0.99 for the years in polled stands. North aspect could be taken into consideration in establishment and selection of seed sources and gene conservation areas based on fertility variation and gene diversity. PMID:28164112

  6. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  7. Investigation of low-molecular weight organic acids and their spatiotemporal variation characteristics in Hongfeng Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Liying; Li, Xinqing; Huang, Rongsheng

    2013-02-01

    The identities and concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were determined by ion chromatography throughout a 20-m water column in Hongfeng Lake, China. The spatiotemporal variations of LMWOAs and their contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a research period of 24 hr were also investigated. The results demonstrated that five LMWOAs (lactic, acetic, pyruvic, sorbic, oxalic acid) were detected, and their total concentration and proportion in DOC were 6.55 micromol/L and 7.47%. Their average levels were 2.50, 0.65, 2.35, 0.96 and 0.09 micromol/L, respectively. LMWOAs were higher during daytime (10:00-18:00 on Jun 13, 2008) than nighttime (21:00-6:00 the next morning), in particular 4.99 micromol/L high in the epilimnion (< or = 1 m water depth), reflecting the fact that direct import from terrigenous sources and photochemical production from humic materials were dominant during LMWOAs' origin and accumulation. The same factors caused LMWOAs to be 0.63 micromol/L in the epilimnion higher than in the hypolimnion. The rapid decrease of total organic acid (TOA) up until 18:00 mainly resulted from bio-uptake and mineralization in the hypolimnion (>1 m water depth). Pyruvic acid increased with time in the epilimnion and decreased in the hypolimnion, largely related to the two contrary processes of continuous degradation and synthesis of macromolecular organic matter during life materials' cycle mediated by organisms. Simultaneously, plankton behavior and thermal stratification played a pivotal role in LMWOAs' behavior in the water column, causing decreasing and increasing profiles. The distribution of LMWOAs represents an interesting resource for biogeochemical research of DOM in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Combinatorial variation in coding and promoter sequences of genes at the Tri locus in Pisum sativum accounts for variation in trypsin inhibitor activity in seeds.

    PubMed

    Page, D; Aubert, G; Duc, G; Welham, T; Domoney, C

    2002-05-01

    Cultivars of Pisum sativum that differ with respect to the quantitative expression of trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor proteins in seeds have been examined in terms of the structure of the corresponding genes. The patterns of divergence in the promoter and coding sequences are described, and the divergence among these exploited for the development of facile DNA-based assays to distinguish genotypes. Quantitative effects on gene expression may be attributed to the overall gene complement and to particular promoter/coding sequence combinations, as well as to the existence of distinct active-site variants that ultimately influence protein activity. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-002-0667-4.

  9. The seed nuclear proteome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Contrasting Effects of Resident Vegetation on Establishment, Growth and Reproduction of Dry Grassland Plants: Implications for Seed Addition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

  11. Development of new SNP derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker set and its successful utilization in the genetic analysis of seed color variation in barley.

    PubMed

    Bungartz, Annemarie; Klaus, Marius; Mathew, Boby; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new cost effective PCR based CAPS marker set using advantages of high-throughput SNP genotyping. Initially, SNP survey was made using 20 diverse barley genotypes via 9k iSelect array genotyping that resulted in 6334 polymorphic SNP markers. Principle component analysis using this marker data showed fine differentiation of barley diverse gene pool. Till this end, we developed 200 SNP derived CAPS markers distributed across the genome covering around 991cM with an average marker density of 5.09cM. Further, we genotyped 68 CAPS markers in an F2 population (Cheri×ICB181160) segregating for seed color variation in barley. Genetic mapping of seed color revealed putative linkage of single nuclear gene on chromosome 1H. These findings showed the proof of concept for the development and utility of a newer cost effective genomic tool kit to analyze broader genetic resources of barley worldwide.

  12. Genome-wide association and regional heritability mapping to identify loci underlying variation in nematode resistance and body weight in Scottish Blackface lambs.

    PubMed

    Riggio, V; Matika, O; Pong-Wong, R; Stear, M J; Bishop, S C

    2013-05-01

    The genetic architecture underlying nematode resistance and body weight in Blackface lambs was evaluated comparing genome-wide association (GWA) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches. The traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC) and immunoglobulin A activity against third-stage larvae from Teladorsagia circumcincta, as indicators of nematode resistance, and body weight in a population of 752 Scottish Blackface lambs, genotyped with the 50k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. FEC for both Nematodirus and Strongyles nematodes (excluding Nematodirus), as well as body weight were collected at approximately 16, 20 and 24 weeks of age. In addition, a weighted average animal effect was estimated for both FEC and body weight traits. After quality control, 44 388 SNPs were available for the GWA analysis and 42 841 for the RHM, which utilises only mapped SNPs. The same fixed effects were used in both analyses: sex, year, management group, litter size and age of dam, with day of birth as covariate. Some genomic regions of interest for both nematode resistance and body weight traits were identified, using both GWA and RHM approaches. For both methods, strong evidence for association was found on chromosome 14 for Nematodirus average animal effect, chromosome 6 for Strongyles FEC at 16 weeks and chromosome 6 for body weight at 16 weeks. Across the entire data set, RHM identified more regions reaching the suggestive level than GWA, suggesting that RHM is capable of capturing some of the variation not detected by GWA analyses.

  13. A metabonomic study of transgenic maize (Zea mays) seeds revealed variations in osmolytes and branched amino acids.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Cesare; Bianchetti, Cristiano; Casciani, Lorena; Castro, Cecilia; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Miccheli, Alfredo; Motto, Mario; Conti, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate metabolic variations associated with genetic modifications in the grains of Zea mays using metabonomic techniques. With this in mind, the non-targeted characteristic of the technique is useful to identify metabolites peculiar to the genetic modification and initially undefined. The results obtained showed that the genetic modification, introducing Cry1Ab gene expression, induces metabolic variations involving the primary nitrogen pathway. Concerning the methodological aspects, the experimental protocol used has been applied in this field for the first time. It consists of a combination of partial least square-discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. The most important metabolites for discrimination were selected and the metabolic correlations linking them are identified. Principal component analysis on selected signals confirms metabolic variations, highlighting important details about the changes induced on the metabolic network by the presence of a Bt transgene in the maize genome.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001–02, 2007–08, and 2014–15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85–125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  15. Variation at the Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Delahanty, Linda M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Knowler, William C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations and genotype × treatment interactions for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) locus variants and obesity-related traits. Design and Methods Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants (N=3,819, of whom 3,356 were genotyped for baseline and 3,234 for longitudinal analyses) were randomized into intensive lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight loss), metformin or placebo control. Adiposity was assessed in a subgroup (n=909) using computed tomography. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and treatment. Results The rs1943218 minor allele was nominally associated with short-term (6 month; P=0.032) and long-term (2 year; P=0.038) weight change. Eight SNPs modified response to treatment on short-term (rs17066856, rs9966412, rs17066859, rs8091237, rs17066866, rs7240064) or long-term (rs12970134, rs17066866) reduction in body weight, or diabetes incidence (rs17066829) (all Pinteraction <0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the role of MC4R variants and weight regulation in a weight loss intervention trial. One MC4R variant was directly associated with obesity-related traits or diabetes; numerous other variants appear to influence body weight and diabetes risk by modifying the protective effects of the DPP interventions. PMID:23512951

  16. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  17. Spontaneous and experimental variations in body weight, food intake and metabolic rate in captive dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Stock, M J

    1986-01-01

    Captive dormice (Glis glis) showed spontaneous cyclical fluctuations in body weight that were not synchronous between animals and not directly related to season. Presenting the animals with a varied and palatable (cafeteria) diet for short periods caused marked increases in energy intake and body weight, and higher levels of oxygen consumption (V02). The level of hyperphagia was fairly constant, but the rise in V02 during cafeteria feeding varied (20-80%) according to season, being greatest in the winter (Nov.-Jan.). Removal of the cafeteria foods caused weight loss, hypophagia and a fall in V02 to levels below that seen in either normally-fed or fasted dormice. This hypometabolism was associated with increased periods of sleep and torpor, and it is suggested that the excess fat deposition resulting from cafeteria feeding may have induced a transient "hibernation-like" state.

  18. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS Lost trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490

  19. The influence of food restriction versus ad libitum feeding of chow and purified diets on variation in body weight, growth and physiology of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moraal, M; Leenaars, P P A M; Arnts, H; Smeets, K; Savenije, B S; Curfs, J H A J; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2012-04-01

    Ad libitum (AL) supply of standard chow is the feeding method most often used for rodents in animal experiments. However, AL feeding is known to result in a shorter lifespan and decreased health as compared with restricted feeding. Restricted feeding and thus limiting calorie intake prevents many health problems, increases lifespan and can also increase group uniformity. All this leads to a reduced number of animals needed. So-called standard chows are known to be prone to variation in composition. Synthetic foods have a more standard composition, contributing to group uniformity which, like diet reduction, may decrease the number of animals necessary to obtain statistical significance. In this study, we compared the effects of AL versus restricted feeding (25% reduction in food intake) on standard chow versus synthetic food of three different suppliers on body weight (BW), growth, several blood parameters and organ weights in growing female Wistar rats over a period of 61 days. Diet restriction led to a decreased growth and significantly reduced variation in BW and growth as compared with AL feeding. AL feeding on synthetic diets caused a significantly higher BW gain than on chow diets. Due to experimental design, this same effect occurred on food restriction. Blood parameters and organ weights were affected neither by diet type nor by amount. Incidentally, variations were significantly reduced on food restriction versus AL, and on synthetic diets versus chow diets. This study demonstrates that food restriction versus AL feeding leads to a significantly reduced variation in BW and growth, thereby indicating the potential for reduction when applying this feeding schedule.

  20. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  1. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively.

  2. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  3. Differential impact of changes in adiposity distribution on insulin resistance and adiponectin variations over 4 years in normal weight young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacerte, G; Langlois, M-F; Doyon, M; Brown, C; Carpentier, A C; Hivert, M-F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of weight gain and changes in adiposity distribution on insulin resistance and circulating adiponectin variations over 4 years in free-living normal weight young adults. In this prospective observational cohort (n=42 women, 18 men), anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected in the fasting state at baseline and at 4 years. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). Circulating adiponectin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. To investigate increase in adiposity more specifically, subsidiary analyses were performed in a subgroup of individuals (n=31) who gained adiposity over the course of the 4-year follow-up (defined as gain >1% in percent body fat). Regression analyses were performed to adjust for sex, age, parental education, lifestyle, and fitness levels. At baseline, the participants were young adults (age=20.0 years old) in the normal weight range [body mass index (BMI)=22.7 kg/m2 (IQR=21.1-24.4)]. Median change in body fat percentage was +1.4% (IQR=-0.3-3.4; p=0.01) and in waist circumference was +1.2 cm (IQR=-2.6-5.3; p=0.05). In the subgroup of individuals who gained more than 1% body fat, increase in HOMA-IR was associated with an increase in BMI (r=0.44; p=0.01; p<0.01 in fully adjusted model), while decrease in adiponectin levels was associated with an increase in waist circumference (r=-0.38; p=0.03) but this was no longer significant after adjustment for sex and other potential confounders (p=0.14). In a population of young adults, small variations in adiposity within the normal weight range were associated with increase in insulin resistance.

  4. GWR-PM - Spatial variation relationship analysis with Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) - An application at Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhuri, J.; Azhar, B. M. S.; Puan, C. L.; Norizah, K.

    2016-06-01

    GWR-PM has been developed exclusively for decision makers in Peninsular Malaysia and the purpose is to provide them with additional flexibility in analysing spatial variation. While GWR extension analysis in ArcMap application has a universal coordinate system, GWR-PM is specifically designed with Peninsular Malaysia's coordinate system of Kertau RSO Malaya Meter. This paper presents the development of GWR-PM model by using a model builder, the application of which is to examine the forest fire risk at North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest. This model can be extended and improved by using ArcGIS language of phyton.

  5. Seismic amplitude variation with offset: Its effects on weighted stacking, and its uses in characterization of sandstone and carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiba, Gislain Bolouvi

    An algorithm for weighted stacking, which is not particularly expensive in terms of computer time or memory and can be easily incorporated into routine processing is proposed. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed weighted stacking algorithm and the conventional stacking algorithm is conducted through testing on synthetics and a real data set from New Mexico, USA. This weighted stacking algorithm achieves the primary goal of signal-to-noise ratio improvement while at the same time providing better resolution, wider bandwidth, and a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the conventional stack. A novel hydrocarbon indicator [the water-filled porosity (S wv)], which is estimated from the ratio of P-velocity to S-velocity (Vp/Vs), is proposed and applied to characterize clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea. The separation between pore fluids and lithologies is enhanced by mapping from V p/Vs to Swv using an empirical crossplot-derived relationship. The Swv-V p/Vs plane still does not produce unique interpretations in many situations. However, the critical distinction, which is between hydrocarbon-bearing sands and all other geologic/reservoir configurations, is defined. Porosity is the dominant factor controlling reservoir signature for carbonate rocks. Acoustic impedance and seismic amplitudes are porosity and lithology indicators. Angle-dependent reflectivity effects are introduced for determination of fluid charactersitics by simultaneous elastic impedance inversion of three non-overlapping migrated common-angle stacked sections for P- and S-impedance (Ip and Is). Deviations of points from a water-filled baseline in the Ip-I s plane define a gas potential section that is used for direct identification of gas zones in the dolomitized limestone reservoirs of the Turner Valley Formation in southern Alberta, Canada. There is consistency with the known gas production at a well and agreement with gas index sections obtained through the use of Lame parameter

  6. Analysis of composition, molecular weight, and water content variations in sodium alginate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sperger, Diana M; Fu, Shao; Block, Lawrence H; Munson, Eric J

    2011-08-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy has become more prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry due to its nondestructive nature and the wealth of information it can provide on a wide variety of solid samples. In this study, SSNMR spectra and relaxation times were used to analyze differences in monomer composition, molecular weight (MW), and water content among various sodium alginate samples. Differences in structure could be determined via spectral deconvolution of SSNMR spectra, and differences in intrinsic viscosity, MW, and water content were found to correlate to SSNMR relaxation times. The technique was found to be selective and sensitive enough to detect these changes in sodium alginate even when diluted with another excipient and compressed into a tablet.

  7. Genome-wide association study in arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to co-vary with germination temperatures because of a trade-o...

  8. Total mercury levels in selected tissues of some marine crustaceans from Persian Gulf, Iran: variations related to length, weight and sex.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Mehdi; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Much of the variation in trace metal tissue concentrations in marine invertebrates has been attributed to the variety in individual organism size, age and sex. This study assessed the relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentrations in edible tissue, exoskeleton and viscera with length, weight and gender for 69 samples of crustaceans, Penaeus semisulcatus (n = 30), Thenus orientalis (n = 21) and Portunus pelagicus (n = 18) from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Significant increase in the Hg level in muscle and viscera (r > 0.65, p < 0.01) with an increase in length and weight for all three species. No relationship was found between the Hg level in exoskeleton and length or weight. Significantly higher Hg levels (p < 0.01) were found in female P. semisulcatus than in males (muscle and viscera), but no gender differences were found for the other two species.

  9. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  10. Phenotypic Characteristics as Predictors of Phytosterols in Mature Cycas micronesica Seeds.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Shaw, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between mature Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seed sterol concentration and content and plant or seed phenotypic characteristics was established by multiple regression. Combined models were significant for free but not glycosylated sterols. Reduced models revealed leaf number as the only significant predictor. Free and glycosylated sterol concentrations were unaffected throughout the range of several predictors: tree height (1.7 to 5.8 m), seed fresh weight (48 to 120 g), seed load (one to 76 seeds per plant), and estimated tree age (32 to 110 years). The free and glycosylated sterol phenotypes were also not dependent on the presence/absence of developed embryos in mature seeds. The significant response to leaf number was subtle with an increase of 43 leaves associated with a 0.1-mg increase in free sterol per gram seed fresh weight. This is the first report for any cycad that discusses reproductive or physiological traits in the context of allometric relations. Results indicate a highly constrained phenotypic plasticity of Cycas gametophyte sterol and steryl glucoside concentration and seed content in relation to whole plant and organ size variation.

  11. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K.; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as “peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb).” The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin), and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color. PMID

  13. Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-05-01

    Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes.

  14. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution for accurate residue function estimation via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization: a preclinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dong; Gong, Changfei; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Zhang; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for quick diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of dynamic MPCT imaging is the heavy radiation dose to patients due to its dynamic image acquisition protocol. In this work, to address this issue, we present a robust dynamic MPCT deconvolution algorithm via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation (AwTTV) regularization for accurate residue function estimation with low-mA s data acquisitions. For simplicity, the presented method is termed ‘MPD-AwTTV’. More specifically, the gains of the AwTTV regularization over the original tensor total variation regularization are from the anisotropic edge property of the sequential MPCT images. To minimize the associative objective function we propose an efficient iterative optimization strategy with fast convergence rate in the framework of an iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. We validate and evaluate the presented algorithm using both digital XCAT phantom and preclinical porcine data. The preliminary experimental results have demonstrated that the presented MPD-AwTTV deconvolution algorithm can achieve remarkable gains in noise-induced artifact suppression, edge detail preservation, and accurate flow-scaled residue function and MPHM estimation as compared with the other existing deconvolution algorithms in digital phantom studies, and similar gains can be obtained in the porcine data experiment.

  15. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging.

  16. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  17. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  18. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  19. Comprehensive speciation of low-molecular weight selenium metabolites in mustard seeds using HPLC-electrospray linear trap/Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouerdane, Laurent; Aureli, Federica; Flis, Paulina; Bierla, Katarzyna; Preud'homme, Hugues; Cubadda, Francesco; Szpunar, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    An analytical methodology based on high-resolution high mass accuracy electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS assisted by Se-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for speciation of selenium (Se) in seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) grown on Se-rich soil. Size-exclusion LC-ICP MS allowed the determination of the Se distribution according to the molecular mass and the control of the species stability during extraction. The optimization of hydrophilic interaction of LC and cation-exchange HPLC resulted in analytical conditions making it possible to detect and characterize over 30 Se species using ESI MS, including a number of minor (<0.5%) metabolites. Selenoglucosinolates were found to be the most important class of species accounting for at least 15% of the total Se present and over 50% of all the metabolites. They were found particularly unstable during aqueous extraction leading to the loss of Se by volatilization as methylselenonitriles and methylselenoisothiocyanates identified using gas chromatography (GC) with the parallel ICP MS and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS/MS detection. However, selenoglucosinolates could be efficiently recovered by extraction with 70% methanol. Other classes of identified species included selenoamino acids, selenosugars, selenosinapine and selenourea derivatives. The three types of reactions leading to the formation of selenometabolites were: the Se-S substitution in the metabolic pathway, oxidative reactions of -SeH groups with endogenous biomolecules, and chemical reactions, e.g., esterification, of Se-containing molecules and other biomolecules through functional groups not involving Se.

  20. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  1. Surface and Column Variations of CO2 using Weighting Functions for Future Active Remote CO2 sensors and Data from DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; Kooi, S. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Fast response (1 Hz) and high precision (< 0.1 ppmv) in situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. The campaign spanned 4 years and took place over four geographically different locations. These included, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). With the objective of obtaining better CO2 column calculations, each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 (from the surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface and column-averaged CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four different urban areas are used to examine the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the lower troposphere. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs will be used to identify the source of variations observed in these urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-mm and 2.05-mm measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we compare the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  2. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes. PMID:27791139

  3. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  4. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  5. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  6. Phenology and Seed Yield Performance of Determinate Soybean Cultivars Grown at Elevated Temperatures in a Temperate Region

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Doug-Hwan; Ban, Ho-Young; Seo, Beom-Seok; Lee, Kyu-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Increased temperature means and fluctuations associated with climate change are predicted to exert profound effects on the seed yield of soybean. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the impacts of global warming on the phenology and yield of two determinate soybean cultivars in a temperate region (37.27°N, 126.99°E; Suwon, South Korea). These two soybean cultivars, Sinpaldalkong [maturity group (MG) IV] and Daewonkong (MG VI), were cultured on various sowing dates within a four-year period, under no water-stress conditions. Soybeans were kept in greenhouses controlled at the current ambient temperature (AT), AT+1.5°C, AT+3.0°C, and AT+5.0°C throughout the growth periods. Growth periods (VE–R7) were significantly prolonged by the elevated temperatures, especially the R1–R5 period. Cultivars exhibited no significant differences in seed yield at the AT+1.5°C and AT+3.0°C treatments, compared to AT, while a significant yield reduction was observed at the AT+5.0°C treatment. Yield reductions resulted from limited seed number, which was due to an overall low numbers of pods and seeds per pod. Heat stress conditions induced a decrease in pod number to a greater degree than in seed number per pod. Individual seed weight exhibited no significant variation among temperature elevation treatments; thus, seed weight likely had negligible impacts on overall seed yield. A boundary line analysis (using quantile regression) estimated optimum temperatures for seed number at 26.4 to 26.8°C (VE–R5) for both cultivars; the optimum temperatures (R5–R7) for single seed weight were estimated at 25.2°C for the Sinpaldalkong smaller-seeded cultivar, and at 22.3°C for the Daewonkong larger-seeded cultivar. The optimum growing season (VE–R7) temperatures for seed yield, which were estimated by combining the two boundary lines for seed number and seed weight, were 26.4 and 25.0°C for the Sinpaldalkong and Daewonkong cultivars, respectively. Considering the current

  7. Insights into the Effects of Long-Term Artificial Selection on Seed Size in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Candice N.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Eichten, Steven R.; Deshpande, Shweta; Barry, Kerrie; McMullen, Michael D.; Holland, James B.; Buckler, Edward S.; Springer, Nathan; Buell, C. Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Grain produced from cereal crops is a primary source of human food and animal feed worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of seed-size variation, a grain yield component, we conducted a genome-wide scan to detect evidence of selection in the maize Krug Yellow Dent long-term divergent seed-size selection experiment. Previous studies have documented significant phenotypic divergence between the populations. Allele frequency estimates for ∼3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the base population and selected populations were estimated from pooled whole-genome resequencing of 48 individuals per population. Using FST values across sliding windows, 94 divergent regions with a median of six genes per region were identified. Additionally, 2729 SNPs that reached fixation in both selected populations with opposing fixed alleles were identified, many of which clustered in two regions of the genome. Copy-number variation was highly prevalent between the selected populations, with 532 total regions identified on the basis of read-depth variation and comparative genome hybridization. Regions important for seed weight in natural variation were identified in the maize nested association mapping population. However, the number of regions that overlapped with the long-term selection experiment did not exceed that expected by chance, possibly indicating unique sources of variation between the two populations. The results of this study provide insights into the genetic elements underlying seed-size variation in maize and could also have applications for other cereal crops. PMID:25037958

  8. Insights into the effects of long-term artificial selection on seed size in maize.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Candice N; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Beissinger, Timothy M; Eichten, Steven R; Deshpande, Shweta; Barry, Kerrie; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Buckler, Edward S; Springer, Nathan; Buell, C Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2014-09-01

    Grain produced from cereal crops is a primary source of human food and animal feed worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of seed-size variation, a grain yield component, we conducted a genome-wide scan to detect evidence of selection in the maize Krug Yellow Dent long-term divergent seed-size selection experiment. Previous studies have documented significant phenotypic divergence between the populations. Allele frequency estimates for ∼3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the base population and selected populations were estimated from pooled whole-genome resequencing of 48 individuals per population. Using FST values across sliding windows, 94 divergent regions with a median of six genes per region were identified. Additionally, 2729 SNPs that reached fixation in both selected populations with opposing fixed alleles were identified, many of which clustered in two regions of the genome. Copy-number variation was highly prevalent between the selected populations, with 532 total regions identified on the basis of read-depth variation and comparative genome hybridization. Regions important for seed weight in natural variation were identified in the maize nested association mapping population. However, the number of regions that overlapped with the long-term selection experiment did not exceed that expected by chance, possibly indicating unique sources of variation between the two populations. The results of this study provide insights into the genetic elements underlying seed-size variation in maize and could also have applications for other cereal crops.

  9. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  10. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed.

  11. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1).

    PubMed

    Yoong, Fei-Yian; O'Brien, Laurel K; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  12. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  13. Seasonal, sex and live weight variations in feed and water consumptions of adult captive African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse-1840) kept individually in cages.

    PubMed

    Dzenda, T; Ayo, J O; Lakpini, C A M; Adelaiye, A B

    2013-06-01

    Adult African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) (AGRs) (n = 231) of both sexes (117 bucks, 114 does) were live-trapped in the wild in Zaria, Nigeria. Live weight (LW), daily feed consumption (FC) and water consumption (WC) of the AGRs were measured during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RS) seasons for 2 years with the aim of determining seasonal, sex and LW variations. Feed consumption was significantly different (p < 0.001) between all the seasons, with the lowest mean value recorded during the HDS, while the highest was obtained during the RS. Water consumption was also lowest (p < 0.001) during the HDS but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the CDS and RS. Both feed and water consumptions were higher (p < 0.01) in the males (bucks) than the females (does) during the CDS and HDS, but the sex difference was not significant (p > 0.05) during the RS. Feed consumption correlated positively (p < 0.0001) with WC and relative humidity, but negatively (p < 0.0001) with LW, ambient temperature and heat index. In conclusion, both feed and water consumptions in AGRs decrease with increased seasonal heat and adult LW and are lower in does than in bucks during the dry seasons (CDS and HDS). Intervention may be indicated during the HDS to improve feed and water consumptions for optimal performance of the AGRs.

  14. Determinism of carbon and nitrogen reserve accumulation in legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Larmure, Annabelle; Salon, Christophe

    2008-10-01

    In legume plants, the determination of individual seed weight is a complex phenomenon that depends on two main factors. The first one corresponds to the number of cotyledon cells, which determines the potential seed weight as the cotyledon cell number is related to seed growth rate during seed filling. Since cell divisions take place between flowering and the beginning of seed filling, any stress occurring before the beginning of seed filling can affect individual seed growth rate (C and N reserve accumulation in seeds), and thus individual seed weights. The second factor concerns carbon and nitrogen supply to the growing seed to support reserve accumulation. Grain legume species produce protein-rich seeds involving high requirement of nitrogen. Since seed growth rate as determined by cotyledon cell number is hardly affected by photoassimilate availability during the filling period, a reduction of photosynthetic activity caused by nitrogen remobilization in leaves (e.g., remobilization of essential proteins involved in photosynthesis) can lead to shorten the duration of the filling period, and by that can provoke a limitation of individual seed weights. Accordingly, any biotic or abiotic stress during seed filling causing a decrease in photosynthetic activity should lead to a reduction of the duration of seed filling.

  15. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  16. Dynamic Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Seed Reserve Utilization during Three Germination Stages in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Lai, Yanyan; Wang, Ling; Du, Wenli; Wang, Zhoufei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one rice population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to determine the genetic characteristics of seed reserve utilization during the early (day 6), middle (day 10) and late (day 14) germination stages. The seedling dry weight (SDW) and weight of the mobilized seed reserve (WMSR) were increased, while the seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE) decreased, during the process of seed germination. The SDW and WMSR were affected by the seed weight, while the SRUE was not affected by the seed weight. A total of twenty unconditional and twenty-one conditional additive QTLs and eight epistatic QTLs were identified at three germination stages, and the more QTLs were expressed at the late germination stage. Among them, twelve additive and three epistatic QTLs for SDW, eight additive and three epistatic QTLs for WMSR and thirteen additive and two epistatic QTLs for SRUE were identified, respectively. The phenotypic variation explained by each additive QTL, epistatic QTL and QTL × development interaction ranged from 6.10 to 23.91%, 1.79 to 6.88% and 0.22 to 2.86%, respectively. Two major additive QTLs qWMSR7.1 and qSRUE4.3 were identified, and each QTL could explain more than 20% of the total phenotypic variance. By comparing the chromosomal positions of these additive QTLs with those previously identified, eleven QTLs might represent novel genes. The best four cross combinations of each trait for the development of RIL populations were selected. The selected RILs and the identified QTLs might be applicable to improve rice seed reserve utilization by the marker-assisted selection approach. PMID:24244592

  17. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  18. Comparison of the effects explained by variations in the bovine PLAG1 and NCAPG genes on daily body weight gain, linear skeletal measurements and carcass traits in Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program.

    PubMed

    Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Kouji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kinoshita, Akihiro; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko

    2013-07-01

    The c.1326T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NCAPG gene, which leads to an amino acid change of Ile442 to Met442, was previously identified as a candidate causative variation for a bovine carcass weight quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6, which was associated with linear skeletal measurement gains and daily body weight gain at puberty. Recently, we identified the stature quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region as the causative variations for another carcass weight QTL on chromosome 14. This study aimed to compare the effects of the two QTL on growth and carcass traits using 768 Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program and to determine whether a genetic interaction was present between them. The FJX_250879 SNP representing the stature QTL was associated with linear skeletal measurements and average daily body weight gain at early and late periods during adolescence. A genetic interaction between FJX_250879 and NCAPG c.1326T>G was detected only for body and rump lengths. Both were associated with increased carcass weight and Longissimus muscle area, and NCAPG c.1326T>G was also associated with reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and increased carcass yield estimate. These results will provide useful information to improve carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle.

  19. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C D; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W Y; Nohr, Ellen A; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain P; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H Rob; Watt, Graham C M; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Pennell, Craig E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M

    2012-12-15

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4-36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: -4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight.

  20. Variation in seed fatty acid composition and sequence divergence in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated sesame.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenbang; Tonnis, Brandon; Morris, Brad; Wang, Richard B; Zhang, Amy L; Pinnow, David; Wang, Ming Li

    2014-12-03

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examination of fatty acid composition. The coding region of the FAD2 gene for fatty acid desaturase (FAD) in these accessions was also sequenced. Cultivated sesame accessions flowered and matured earlier than the wild species. The cultivated sesame seeds contained a significantly higher percentage of oleic acid (40.4%) than the seeds of the wild species (26.1%). Nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated species. Some nucleotide polymorphisms led to amino acid changes, one of which was located in the enzyme active site and may contribute to the altered fatty acid composition. Based on the morphology observation, chemical analysis, and sequence analysis, it was determined that two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study are useful for sesame improvement in molecular breeding programs.

  1. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  2. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  3. Methodological bias in the seed bank flora holds significant implications for understanding seed bank community functions.

    PubMed

    Plue, J; Colas, F; Auffret, A G; Cousins, S A O

    2017-03-01

    Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesise that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank-driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences. Failure in detecting (specialist) species may then introduce methodological bias into the ecological interpretation of seed bank functions using greenhouse data. The persistent seed bank was surveyed in 40 semi-natural grassland plots across a fragmented landscape, quantifying seedling emergence in both the greenhouse and in disturbance gaps. Given the suspected interpretational bias, we tested whether each census uncovers similar seed bank responses to fragmentation. Seed bank characteristics were similar between censuses. Census type affected seed bank composition, with >25% of species retrieved better by either census type, dependent on functional traits including seed longevity, production and size. Habitat specialists emerged more in disturbance gaps than in the greenhouse, while the opposite was true for ruderal species. Both censuses uncovered fragmentation-induced seed bank patterns. Low surface area sampling, larger depth of sampling and germination conditions cause underrepresentation of the habitat-specialised part of the persistent seed bank flora during greenhouse censuses. Methodological bias introduced in the recorded seed bank data may consequently have significant implications for the ecological interpretation of seed bank community functions based on greenhouse data.

  4. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49; P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46; P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58; P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Conclusions Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  5. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  6. Catalog of microRNA seed polymorphisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zorc, Minja; Skok, Dasa Jevsinek; Godnic, Irena; Calin, George Adrian; Horvat, Simon; Jiang, Zhihua; Dovc, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNA that plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA. Evidence has shown that miRNA gene variability might interfere with its function resulting in phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. A major role in miRNA target recognition is ascribed to complementarity with the miRNA seed region that can be affected by polymorphisms. In the present study, we developed an online tool for the detection of miRNA polymorphisms (miRNA SNiPer) in vertebrates (http://www.integratomics-time.com/miRNA-SNiPer) and generated a catalog of miRNA seed region polymorphisms (miR-seed-SNPs) consisting of 149 SNPs in six species. Although a majority of detected polymorphisms were due to point mutations, two consecutive nucleotide substitutions (double nucleotide polymorphisms, DNPs) were also identified in nine miRNAs. We determined that miR-SNPs are frequently located within the quantitative trait loci (QTL), chromosome fragile sites, and cancer susceptibility loci, indicating their potential role in the genetic control of various complex traits. To test this further, we performed an association analysis between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP rs30372501, which is polymorphic in a large number of standard inbred strains, and all phenotypic traits in these strains deposited in the Mouse Phenome Database. Analysis showed a significant association between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP and a diverse array of traits including behavior, blood-clinical chemistry, body weight size and growth, and immune system suggesting that seed SNPs can indeed have major pleiotropic effects. The bioinformatics analyses, data and tools developed in the present study can serve researchers as a starting point in testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments using optimal species or strains for further mechanistic studies.

  7. Three Rice NAC Transcription Factors Heteromerize and Are Associated with Seed Size

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Iny Elizebeth; Das, Sweta; Mahto, Arunima; Agarwal, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    NACs are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) involved in multiple aspects of development and stress. In rice, three NAC TF encoding genes, namely ONAC020, ONAC026, and ONAC023 express specifically during seed development, at extremely high levels. They exhibit significantly strong association with seed size/weight with the sequence variations located in the upstream regulatory region. Concomitantly, their expression pattern/levels during seed development vary amongst different accessions with variation in seed size. The alterations in the promoter sequences of the three genes, amongst the five rice accessions, correlate with the expression levels to a certain extent only. In terms of transcriptional properties, the three NAC TFs can activate and/or suppress downstream genes, though to different extents. Only ONAC026 is localized to the nucleus while ONAC020 and ONAC023 are targeted to the ER and cytoplasm, respectively. Interestingly, these two proteins interact with ONAC026 and the dimers localize in the nucleus. Trans-splicing between ONAC020 and ONAC026 results in three additional forms of ONAC020. The transcriptional properties including activation, repression, subcellular localization and heterodimerization of trans-spliced forms of ONAC020 and ONAC026 are different, indicating toward their role as competitors. The analysis presented in this paper helps to conclude that the three NAC genes, which are associated with seed size, have independent as well as overlapping roles during the process and can be exploited as potential targets for crop improvement. PMID:27872632

  8. QTL mapping of protein content and seed characteristics under water-stress conditions in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, A; Maury, P; Berger, M; Calmon, A; Grieu, P; Sarrafi, A

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions controlling seed protein content, kernel and hull weights, and seed density in water-stress conditions in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiments consisted of a split-plot design (water treatment and recombinant inbred lines) with three blocks in two environments (greenhouse and field). High significant variation was observed between genotypes for all traits as well as for water treatment x genotype interaction. Several specific and nonspecific QTLs were detected for all traits under well-watered and water-stress conditions. Two SSR markers, ORS671_2 and HA2714, linked to protein content were identified that have no interaction with water treatments in greenhouse conditions. We also detected the E35M60_4 marker associated with kernel weight that had no interaction with water treatments. A specific QTL for protein content was detected with important phenotypic variance (17%) under water-stress conditions. Overlapping QTLs for protein content and seed density were identified in linkage group 15. This region probably has a peliotropic effect on protein content and seed density. QTLs for protein content colocated with grain weight traits were also identified.

  9. Effect of weight and adiposity at conception and wide variations in gestational dietary intake on pregnancy outcome and early postnatal performance in young adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P

    2010-02-01

    Nutritional backgrounds prior to pregnancy may interact with subsequent gestational intake to influence pregnancy outcome, particularly in young, growing adolescents. To investigate this interaction, singleton pregnancies were established in two groups of adolescent sheep of identical age but different initial weight and adiposity score, classified as good (G) and poor (P) body mass index (BMI). Thereafter, ewes were offered either an optimal control (C) intake to maintain adiposity throughout pregnancy, undernourished (UN) to maintain weight at conception but deplete maternal body reserves, or overnourished (ON) to promote rapid maternal growth and adiposity, resulting in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Gestation length was independent of BMI and reduced in ON dams. Average placental and lamb birth weights were influenced by initial BMI (G > P) and gestational intake (C > UN > ON), with the highest incidence of growth restriction in ON groups. Metabolic challenges at two thirds of gestation revealed enhanced insulin insensitivity in ON dams (higher glucose postinsulin challenge and higher insulin postglucose challenge), but nevertheless fetal growth was constrained. Initial colostrum yield, total IgG, and nutrient supply were reduced in ON groups, but these low-birth-weight lambs exhibited rapid catch-up growth to weaning. Thus, both maternal BMI at conception and gestational intake have a profound influence on pregnancy outcome in young, putatively growing adolescent sheep and may have implications for the nutritional management of pregnant adolescent humans.

  10. Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod β-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Xiong, You-Cai; Bai, Xue; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Zhu, Hao; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Wang, Jian-Yong; Turner, Neil C

    2015-07-15

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed β-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of β-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased β-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed β-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed β-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of β-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.

  11. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  12. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  13. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests.

  14. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  15. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    PubMed

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

  16. Yield components, leaf pigment contents, patterns of seed filling, dry matter, LAI and LAID of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A; Akbari, Gh Al; Mirhadi, M J; Pazoki, A R; Soufizadeh, S

    2007-05-01

    In order to assess the genotypic variation among yield components and different physiological parameters and their relationships with safflower seed yield, six safflower genotypes were grown in Pakdasht, Iran in a randomized complete block design with four replications, during 2003-2004 growing season. Among the genotypes, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, total carotenoids contents, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio and Chlorophyll a+b/total cartenoids ratio ranged from 0.78 to 1.10, from 0.54 to 0.71, from 1.37 to 1.71, from 0.09 to 0.13 mg g(-1), from 1.33 to 1.68 and from 13.52 to 14.82, respectively. Negative relationships existed between seed yield and pigment contents. There were significant yield differences among genotypes and varied from 2452.60 to 3897.20 kg ha(-1). A diverse range of capitulum diameter (24.08-28.91 mm), seed weight/capitulum (1.18-2.04 g), number of seeds/m2 (8704.5-13165.4), number of capitula/plant (16.38-23.27), number of seeds/capitulum (35.65-41.90) and 1000-seed weight (29.94-50.60 g) was recorded. Genotypes differed in HI and the HI values ranged from 21.83% (LRK-262) to 29.62% (IL.111). In the studied set of 6 safflower genotypes, total biomass and LAI peaked around after full flowering and at the beginning of flowering, respectively. Zarghan-279 (with the greatest LAID) had 25% longer LAID than LRV.51.51 (with the lowest LAID). Differences among genotypes for rate of seed filling and effective seed filling duration were significant and differences in seed yield could be attributed to differences in the rate of seed filling. The results of this experiment indicate that physiological parameters including rate of seed filling, rapid leaf formation and expansion and delayed plant senescence are the characteristics of high-yielding safflower. Also, higher dry matter accumulation, HI, seed weight/capitulum, 1000-seed weight and capitulum diameter were found to be closely related to high-yield genotypes.

  17. Genomic constitution and variation in five partial amphiploids of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium as revealed by GISH, multicolor GISH and seed storage protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Fangpu; Liu, Bao; Fedak, George; Liu, Zhaohui

    2004-09-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor GISH (mcGISH) methodology were used to establish the cytogenetic constitution of five partial amphiploid lines obtained from wheat x Thinopyrum intermedium hybridizations. Line Zhong 1, 2 n=52, contained 14 chromosomes from each of the wheat genomes plus ten Th. intermedium chromosomes, with one pair of A-genome chromosomes having a Th. intermedium chromosomal segment translocated to the short arm. Line Zhong 2, 2 n=54, had intact ABD wheat genome chromosomes plus 12 Th. intermedium chromosomes. The multicolor GISH results, using different fluorochrome labeled Th. intermedium and the various diploid wheat genomic DNAs as probes, indicated that both Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 contained one pair of Th. intermedium chromosomes with a significant homology to the wheat D genome. High-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin and gliadin analysis revealed that Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 had identical banding patterns that contained all of the wheat bands and a specific HMW band from Th. intermedium. Zhong 1 and Zhong 2 had good HMW subunits for wheat breeding. Zhong 3 and Zhong 5, both 2 n=56, possessed no gross chromosomal aberrations or translocations that were detectable at the GISH level. Zhong 4 also had a chromosome number of 2 n=56 and contained the complete wheat ABD-genome chromosomes plus 14 Th. intermedium chromosomes, with one pair of Th. intermedium chromosomes being markedly smaller. Multicolor GISH results indicated that Zhong 4 also contained two pairs of reciprocally translocated chromosomes involving the A and D genomes. Zhong 3, Zhong 4 and Zhong 5 contained a specific gliadin band from Th. intermedium. Based on the above data, it was concluded that inter-genomic transfer of chromosomal segments and/or sequence introgression had occurred in these newly synthesized partial amphiploids despite their diploid-like meiotic behavior and disomic inheritance.

  18. Variation in Adult Plant Phenotypes and Partitioning among Seed and Stem-Borne Roots across Brachypodium distachyon Accessions to Exploit in Breeding Cereals for Well-Watered and Drought Environments.

    PubMed

    Chochois, Vincent; Vogel, John P; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Watt, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Seedling roots enable plant establishment. Their small phenotypes are measured routinely. Adult root systems are relevant to yield and efficiency, but phenotyping is challenging. Root length exceeds the volume of most pots. Field studies measure partial adult root systems through coring or use seedling roots as adult surrogates. Here, we phenotyped 79 diverse lines of the small grass model Brachypodium distachyon to adults in 50-cm-long tubes of soil with irrigation; a subset of 16 lines was droughted. Variation was large (total biomass, ×8; total root length [TRL], ×10; and root mass ratio, ×6), repeatable, and attributable to genetic factors (heritabilities ranged from approximately 50% for root growth to 82% for partitioning phenotypes). Lines were dissected into seed-borne tissues (stem and primary seminal axile roots) and stem-borne tissues (tillers and coleoptile and leaf node axile roots) plus branch roots. All lines developed one seminal root that varied, with branch roots, from 31% to 90% of TRL in the well-watered condition. With drought, 100% of TRL was seminal, regardless of line because nodal roots were almost always inhibited in drying topsoil. Irrigation stimulated nodal roots depending on genotype. Shoot size and tillers correlated positively with roots with irrigation, but partitioning depended on genotype and was plastic with drought. Adult root systems of B. distachyon have genetic variation to exploit to increase cereal yields through genes associated with partitioning among roots and their responsiveness to irrigation. Whole-plant phenotypes could enhance gain for droughted environments because root and shoot traits are coselected.

  19. Variation in Adult Plant Phenotypes and Partitioning among Seed and Stem-Borne Roots across Brachypodium distachyon Accessions to Exploit in Breeding Cereals for Well-Watered and Drought Environments1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seedling roots enable plant establishment. Their small phenotypes are measured routinely. Adult root systems are relevant to yield and efficiency, but phenotyping is challenging. Root length exceeds the volume of most pots. Field studies measure partial adult root systems through coring or use seedling roots as adult surrogates. Here, we phenotyped 79 diverse lines of the small grass model Brachypodium distachyon to adults in 50-cm-long tubes of soil with irrigation; a subset of 16 lines was droughted. Variation was large (total biomass, ×8; total root length [TRL], ×10; and root mass ratio, ×6), repeatable, and attributable to genetic factors (heritabilities ranged from approximately 50% for root growth to 82% for partitioning phenotypes). Lines were dissected into seed-borne tissues (stem and primary seminal axile roots) and stem-borne tissues (tillers and coleoptile and leaf node axile roots) plus branch roots. All lines developed one seminal root that varied, with branch roots, from 31% to 90% of TRL in the well-watered condition. With drought, 100% of TRL was seminal, regardless of line because nodal roots were almost always inhibited in drying topsoil. Irrigation stimulated nodal roots depending on genotype. Shoot size and tillers correlated positively with roots with irrigation, but partitioning depended on genotype and was plastic with drought. Adult root systems of B. distachyon have genetic variation to exploit to increase cereal yields through genes associated with partitioning among roots and their responsiveness to irrigation. Whole-plant phenotypes could enhance gain for droughted environments because root and shoot traits are coselected. PMID:25975834

  20. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 02: Evaluation of Dosimetric Variations in Partial Breast Seed Implant (PBSI) due to Patient Arm Position (Up vs. Down)

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, E; Long, K; Husain, S; Meyer, T

    2014-08-15

    The planning for PBSI is done with the patient's ipsilateral arm raised, however, anatomical changes and variations are unavoidable as the patient resumes her daily activities, potentially resulting in significant deviations in implant geometry from the treatment plan. This study aims to quantify the impact of the ipsilateral arm position on the geometry and dosimetry of the implant at eight weeks, evaluated on post-plans using the MIM Symphony™ software (MIM Software, Cleveland, OH). The average dose metrics for the three patients treated at the TBCC thus far using rigid fusion and contour transfer for the arms up position were 76% for the CTV V100, 61% for the PTV V100, and 37% for the PTV V200; and for the arms down position 81% for the CTV V100, 64% for the PTV V100, and 42% for the PTV V200. Qualitative analysis of the post-implant CT for one of the three patients showed poor agreement between the seroma contour transferred from the pre-implant CT and the seroma visible on the post-implant CT. To obtain a clinically accurate plan for that patient, contour modifications were used, yielding improved dose metric averages for the arms-up position for all three patients of 87% for the CTV V100, 68% for the PTV V100, and 39% for the PTV V200. Overall, the data available shows that dosimetric parameters increase with the patient's arm down, both in terms of coverage and in terms of the hot spot, and accrual of more patients may confirm this in a larger population.

  1. [Effects of storage time on quality of Desmodium styracifolium seeds].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan; Tang, Xiao-min; Pan, Hai-yun; Mei, Ling-feng; Zhang, Chun-rong; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic changes of germination percentage, germination potential, thousand-seed weight, antioxidase activity in Desmodium styracifolium seeds with different storage time were tested, and electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, starch in seed leach liquor were also determined in order to reveal the mechanism of seed deterioration. The results as the following. (1) The germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds declined, while the seed coat color darkened with the extension of storage time. (2) The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The SOD activity declined fastest in 1,095-1,185 d of storage, while the POD activity declined significantly in 365-395 d of storage. (3) The electrical conductivity and the contents of soluble sugar, starch in seed leach liquor increased, while the content of soluble protein declined with the extension of storage time. (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds have a significantly positive correlation with SOD and POD activity, while have a significantly negative correlation with the electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar and starch. It can be concluded that during the storage of D. styracifolium seeds, physiological and biochemical changes including decrease in antioxidase activity, rise in electrical conductivity, degradation effluent of soluble sugar and starch, degradation of soluble protein were the main factors leading to the seed deterioration.

  2. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  3. Temporal assessment of gene expression in source leaves of Medicago truncatula: Correlations with seed Fe concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral accumulation in seeds is dictated by several processes, including nutrient mobilization from source tissues. The timing and robustness of these processes, with respect to seed growth and development, may affect harvest characteristics such as seed number and seed weight as well as nutritiona...

  4. Biological risk versus socio-economic advantage: low birth-weight, multiple births and income variations among Irish infants born following fertility treatments.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aisling

    2014-12-01

    The Growing Up in Ireland Infant Cohort dataset (n = 11,134) includes information on fertility treatments for over 400 infants. IVF (28.1 %) and IVF-related treatments (17.8 %) were the most frequent, but there was also a high percentage following clomiphene citrate alone (31.5 %). Infants born following fertility treatment were much more likely to be in higher income families, and this relationship was not accounted for by older mothers in wealthier families. Analysis of fertility-treatment pregnancies among Irish infants, controlling for income and maternal age, shows a greater risk of multiple birth and low birth-weight, although the latter appears to be largely related to the former especially for IVF-type treatments.

  5. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, P. Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  6. Seed production temperature regulation of primary dormancy occurs through control of seed coat phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Dana R; Kendall, Sarah L; Florance, Hannah; Fedi, Fabio; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Penfield, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes during seed production are important drivers of lot-to-lot variation in seed behaviour and enable wild species to time their life history with seasonal cues. Temperature during seed set is the dominant environmental signal determining the depth of primary dormancy, although the mechanisms though which temperature changes impart changes in dormancy state are still only partly understood. We used molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques to examine the mechanism through which temperature variation affects Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, low temperatures during seed maturation result in an increase in phenylpropanoid gene expression in seeds and that this correlates with higher concentrations of seed coat procyanidins. Lower maturation temperatures cause differences in coat permeability to tetrazolium, and mutants with increased seed coat permeability and/or low procyanidin concentrations are less able to enter strongly dormant states after exposure to low temperatures during seed maturation. Our data show that maternal temperature signalling regulates seed coat properties, and this is an important pathway through which the environmental signals control primary dormancy depth.

  7. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  8. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  9. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  10. [Study on seed quality test and quality standard of Pesudostellaria heterophylla].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Chen, Min; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Liao, Ming-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Referring to the rules for agricultural seed testing (GB /T 3543-1995) issued by China, the test of sampling, seed purity, weight per 1 000 seeds, seed moisture, seed viability and germination rate had been studied for screening seed quality test methods of Pesudostellaria heterophylla. The seed quality from different collection areas was measured. The results showed that at least 6.5 g seeds should be sampled and passed through 10-mesh sieve for purity analysis. The weight of 1 000 seeds was determined by using the 500-seed method. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The seed moisture was determined under the higher temperature (130 ± 2) degrees C for 5 hours. The seeds were dipped into 0.2% TTC sustaining 1 hour at 40 degrees C, then the viability could be determined. The break dormancy seeds were cultured on sand at 10 degrees C. K cluster analysis was applied for the data analysis, the seed quality from different collection areas grading of P. Heterophylla was described as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should reach following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 86%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.59 g, purity ≥ 87%, moisture ≤ 13.1%; for second grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 70%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.40 g, purity ≥ 77%, moisture ≤ 14.3%; for third grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 41%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.29 g, purity ≥ 76%, moisture ≤ 15.8%. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. heterophylla had been initially established, as well as the primary P. heterophylla seed quality classification standard.

  11. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  12. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity More Weight Management Topics Healthy ... Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Being Healthy is a Big ...

  13. Seasonal variation in live weight, testes size, testosterone, LH secretion, melatonin and thyroxine in Merino and Corriedale rams in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Pérez Clariget, R; Forsberg, M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we studied the seasonal changes in live weight and testes and pituitary activity in Merino and Corriedale rams in a subtropical climate. Testes activity was measured as scrotal circumference (SC), plasma concentration of testosterone (T) and release of testosterone after exogenous GnRH injection. LH pulsatility and pituitary LH responsiveness to exogenous GnRH was measured as an index of pituitary activity. In addition, we wanted to characterize the seasonal pattern of thyroxine (T4) secretion and the 24 h secretory pattern of melatonin (M) at the winter and summer solstices in the 2 breeds. Nine Corriedale and 7 Merino adult (4-6 years) rams were kept on native pasture and managed in one group. Twice a month live weight (LW) and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. To monitor plasma concentration of testosterone (T), and thyroxine (T4), 5 animals of each breed were bled every month except during autumn (March-May), when blood samples were collected with 15 day intervals and in spring (October) with 10 day intervals. To monitor pulsatile LH secretion, 3 rams of each breed were bled at 15 min intervals for 6 h at the winter and summer solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. Pituitary LH and testicular testosterone response to GnRH injection was performed bimonthly from 2 animals of each breed. No effect of breed was found on any of the variables investigated. An interaction between breed and sampling date was found in LW (p < 0.001) and total T response after GnRH challenge (p < 0.001). Sampling date had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on all the variables studied. In both breeds SC decreased during autumn and increased during spring with minimum T concentrations in late autumn and maximum in mid-summer/early autumn. The lowest (p < 0.05) number of LH pulses were observed in winter (June) and the highest (p < 0.05) in early autumn (March). The highest LH and testosterone response to GnRH challenge was observed in autumn (April

  14. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation for canopy morphology in little bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, is a native grass that has been shown to have high level of genetic variation for traits such as; biomass yield, disease resistance, plant height, leafiness, maturity, seed yield, and seed yield components. If high levels of genetic variation ...

  16. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Kenneth J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Lennon, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs. PMID:28119666

  17. Interspecific Variations in Seed Germination of Corylopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was initiated to investigate the difference in germination pattern between C. coreana Uyeki and C. sinensis var. calvescens Rehder & E. H. Wilson responding to a warm (WS) and cold stratification (CS), and to study the effect of different WS temperatures interacting with different duratio...

  18. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  19. Phylogeny, Seed Trait, and Ecological Correlates of Seed Germination at the Community Level in a Degraded Sandy Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengning; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Zhimin; Li, Yanjuan; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination strongly affects plant population growth and persistence, and it can be dramatically influenced by phylogeny, seed traits, and ecological factors. In this study, we examined the relationships among seed mass, seed shape, and germination percentage (GP), and assessed the extent to which phylogeny, seed traits (seed mass, shape, and color) and ecological factors (ecotype, life form, adult longevity, dispersal type, and onset of flowering) influence GP at the community level. All analyses were conducted on the log-transformed values of seed mass and arcsine square root-transformed values of GP. We found that seed mass and GP were significantly negatively correlated, whereas seed shape and GP were significantly positively correlated. The three major factors contributing to differences in GP were phylogeny, dispersal type, and seed shape (explained 5.8, 4.9, and 3.1% of the interspecific variations independently, respectively), but GP also influenced by seed mass and onset of flowering. Thus, GP was constrained not only by phylogeny but also by seed traits and ecological factors. These results indicated that GP is shaped by short-term selective pressures, and long-term phylogenetic constrains. We suggest that correlates of phylogeny, seed traits, and ecology should be taken into account in comparative studies on seed germination strategies. PMID:27799934

  20. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    from each site, as well as several environmental variables, were used to evaluate seed viability within the context of habitat variation. Initial viability of seeds used in the seed retrieval experiment was 81 and 92 percent for mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush, respectively. After remaining in the field for 24 months, buried Wyoming big sagebrush seeds retained 28-58 percent viability,11-23 percent of seeds under litter remained viable, and no seeds remained viable on the surface (estimates are 95-percent confidence intervals). The odds of remaining viable did not change from 12 to 24 months. However, after 24 months the odds of seeds beneath litter being viable decreased to 75 percent of the odds of viability at 12 months. Similar to Wyoming big sagebrush, buried seeds of mountain big sagebrush were 31-68 percent viable, seeds under litter retained 10-22 percent of their viability, and no surface seeds were viable after 24 months. Both subspecies of big sagebrush had some portion of seed that remained viable for more than one growing season provided they were buried or under litter. Although seeds beneath litter may remain viable in intact communities, seeds are susceptible to incineration during fires. Nine months after seed dispersal, seed bank estimates for Wyoming big sagebrush ranged from 19 to 49 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 19-57 viable seeds/m2 in soil samples (95-percent confidence interval). For mountain big sagebrush, estimates were 27-75 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 54-139 viable seeds/m2 in soil (95-percent confidence interval). The number of viable seeds present in the seed bank 9 months after seed dispersal was not significantly different from the number present immediately after seed dispersal. Seed viability was highest in mountain big sagebrush sites for seeds on the surface and beneath litter, but decreased after one season. Buried seeds of both subspecies were in equal abundances and may be insulated from the effect

  1. Seed morphology characteristics in relation to seed loss by water erosion in the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juying; Han, Luyan; Jia, Yanfeng; Lei, Dong; Wang, Ning; Li, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    The role of water erosion on seed loss and on plant establishment and distribution is unknown on the Chinese Loess Plateau, which suffers serious soil erosion. The seed susceptibility of 16 local species to removal by water erosion from loess slopes was determined by rainfall simulation experiments. The experiments were performed on slopes with gradients of 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° for a 60-min duration at an intensity of 50 mm/h, 100 mm/h and 150 mm/h, respectively. The total seed removal rate obviously increased with rainfall intensity but did not obviously change with slope gradient, and the responses were varied among the species. The morphological characteristics affecting seed loss of the various species are quite different. Our experiments showed that the seed removal from some species are mainly due to seed weight, some species are mainly affected by seed shape, some are affected by appendage, some by surface structure, some by the comprehensive effects of the different morphological characteristics, while seeds having mucilage secretion are not easily moved by water erosion. We argued that the seed removal during water erosion can clearly effect seed redistribution and deposition, and consequently, species composition and vegetation spatial distribution.

  2. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  3. Evaluation of an automated seed loader for seed calibration in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shuying; Joshi, Chandra P; Carnes, Greg; Schreiner, L John

    2006-01-01

    Automated seed loaders for permanent prostate implants are now commercially available. Besides improved radiation safety, these systems offer seed assay capability and ease of needle loading, making preplanned as well as intra-operative implant procedures more time-efficient. The Isoloader (Mentor Corp., CA) uses individual I125 seeds (SL-125 ProstaSeed) loaded in up to 199 chambers inside a shielded cartridge. The unit performs seed counting and calibration using a builtin solid-state detector. In order to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of the calibration process, two test cartridges were measured with the Isoloader itself and compared with a well-type ionization chamber (HDR-1000Plus, Standard Imaging). The air kerma strength measurements for all seeds using the Isoloader had a standard deviation of about 2.7%. For the eight seeds assayed more intensively using both the Isoloader and well chamber, the standard deviations of the measurements for each seed were in the range of 0.8% to 2.8% and 0.6% to 1.3%, respectively. The variation in the Isoloader calibration is attributed to small detector solid angle and bead geometry within seed capsules (verified by radiographs). The reproducibility of the air kerma strength measured by the Isoloader was comparable to that from the well chamber and was clinically acceptable. Seed strength measured with the Isoloader was on average 1% 2% larger than that measured with the well chamber, indicating that the accuracy of the Isoloader was clinically acceptable.

  4. Dissecting the proteome of pea mature seeds reveals the phenotypic plasticity of seed protein composition.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Michael; Jacquin, Françoise; Savois, Vincent; Sommerer, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Henry, Céline; Burstin, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the most cultivated European pulse crop and the pea seeds mainly serve as a protein source for monogastric animals. Because the seed protein composition impacts on seed nutritional value, we aimed at identifying the determinants of its variability. This paper presents the first pea mature seed proteome reference map, which includes 156 identified proteins (http://www.inra.fr/legumbase/peaseedmap/). This map provides a fine dissection of the pea seed storage protein composition revealing a large diversity of storage proteins resulting both from gene diversity and post-translational processing. It gives new insights into the pea storage protein processing (especially 7S globulins) as a possible adaptation towards progressive mobilization of the proteins during germination. The nonstorage seed proteome revealed the presence of proteins involved in seed defense together with proteins preparing germination. The plasticity of the seed proteome was revealed for seeds produced in three successive years of cultivation, and 30% of the spots were affected by environmental variations. This work pinpoints seed proteins most affected by environment, highlighting new targets to stabilize storage protein composition that should be further analyzed.

  5. Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

    2003-04-01

    The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management.

  6. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds) Maximum limits of— Damaged Sunflower Seed Heat Damaged (percent... U.S. Nos. 1 or 2; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.20 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds (Crotalaria spp.),...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds) Maximum limits of— Damaged Sunflower Seed Heat Damaged (percent... U.S. Nos. 1 or 2; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.20 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds (Crotalaria spp.),...

  8. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds) Maximum limits of— Damaged Sunflower Seed Heat Damaged (percent... U.S. Nos. 1 or 2; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.20 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds (Crotalaria spp.),...

  9. A case study on the association of variation of bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38 with the height, weight and energy intake in Japanese female college students.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroko; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Suzuki, Yuichi; Nakano, Teruyo; Hayashi, Hisayoshi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical factors that determines individual differences in dietary behavior and nutritional status is the sensory-affecting quality of food, in particular its taste. Variation of one bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R38, which is associated with the differential sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), has been demonstrated to affect the dietary intake pattern. A case study was performed to examine the association of the TAS2R38 genotypes/haplotypes with the body size (height, weight and BMI) and with the food and nutrient intake. Eighty-four college students, all females, with an age range of 18-21 y were recruited from the University of Shizuoka. The genotypes of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 (A49P and I296V) were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI), and (in a subgroup of 47 subjects) food and nutrition intake estimated from 3 d of food recording, were compared between homozygotes for the PTC/PROP-nontaster haplotype (AI haplotype) and carriers with the PTC/PROP-taster haplotype (PV haplotype). The results show that the homozygotes with AI haplotype were taller and heavier than the carriers of PV haplotype, while BMI values were similar between them. The former group also had higher energy and carbohydrate intakes than the latter group. Neither vegetable nor dairy product intake was different between the homozygotes with AI haplotype and the carriers of PV haplotype. In conclusion, the PTC/PROP-nontaster TAS2R38 genotype/haplotype was associated with height and weight but not with BMI, which may in turn have influenced the energy and carbohydrate intakes.

  10. Analysis of river health variation under the background of urbanization based on entropy weight and matter-element model: A case study in Huzhou City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guangbo; Xu, Youpeng; Yu, Zhihui; Song, Song; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining the health of the river ecosystem is an essential ecological and environmental guarantee for regional sustainable development and one of the basic objectives in water resource management. With the rapid development of urbanization, the river health situation is deteriorating, especially in urban areas. The river health evaluation is a complex process that involves various natural and social components; eight eco-hydrological indicators were selected to establish an evaluation system, and the variation of river health status under the background of urbanization was explored based on entropy weight and matter-element model. The comprehensive correlative degrees of urban river health of Huzhou City in 2001, 2006 and 2010 were then calculated. The results indicated that river health status of the study area was in the direction of pathological trend, and the impact of limiting factors (such as Shannon's diversity index and agroforestry output growth rate) played an important role in river health. The variation of maximum correlative degree could be classified into stationary status, deterioration status, deterioration-to-improvement status, and improvement-to-deterioration status. There was a severe deterioration situation of river health under the background of urbanization.

  11. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  12. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  13. Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rao, P U

    1996-01-01

    Two varieties of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds were analysed for their proximal composition. Their protein (18.8-22.3%), fat (19.1-22.8%) and dietary fiber (39.5-42.6%) content were found to be high. The seeds were found to be a good source of minerals like phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. Their lysine and tryptophan contents were also high. Sulphur containing amino acids were limiting in this seed protein and the chemical score of mesta seed protein was 40 and 57 for AMV-2 and Bhimili-1 varieties respectively. Mesta seed oil is rich in unsaturate fatty acids (70%), of which linoleic acid constituted 44%. Weanling rats were fed with 10% mesta seed protein before and after cooking for 4 weeks. Food intake of animals receiving raw mesta seed diets was significantly lower than those receiving cooked mesta seed diets as well as the casein control diet. Protein and dry matter digestibilities of raw and cooked mesta seed diets were lower than that of casein control diet. Cooking improved the food intake, gain in body weight, dry matte and protein digestibility of mesta seed diets. PER and NPU of cooked mesta seed diets were significantly higher than the corresponding raw diets. These results indicate that cooked mesta seed protein is of relatively good quality.

  14. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  15. Spatial dynamics of specialist seed predators on synchronized and intermittent seed production of host plants.

    PubMed

    Satake, Akiko; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2004-04-01

    Masting, the synchronized and intermittent seed production by plant populations, provides highly variable food resources for specialist seed predators. Such a reproductive mode helps minimize seed losses through predator satiation and extinction of seed predator populations. The seed predators can buffer the resource variation through dispersal or extended diapause. We developed a spatially explicit resource-consumer model to understand the effect of masting on specialist seed predators. The masting dynamics were assumed to follow a resource-based model for plant reproduction, and the population dynamics of the predator were represented by a spatially extended Nicholson-Bailey model. The resultant model demonstrated that when host plants reproduce intermittently, seed predator populations go locally extinct, but global persistence of the predator is facilitated by dispersal or extended diapause. Global extinction of the predator resulted when the intermittent reproduction is highly synchronized among plants. An approximate invasion criterion for the predators showed that negative lag-1 autocorrelation in seeding reduces invasibility, and positive lag-1 cross-correlation enhances invasibility. Spatial synchronization in seeding at local scale caused by pollen coupling (or climate forcing) further prevented invasion of the predators. If the predators employed extended diapause, extremely high temporal variability in reproduction was required for plants to evade the predators.

  16. Effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqin; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Qian; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanization and simplification are inevitable trends in agriculture production to decrease input demands and simultaneously improve resource use efficiency. Dry direct-seeded rice is a resource-saving cropping system and has been considered as a replacement for traditional transplanted rice. However, the poor establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice, primarily induced by chilling stress, has limited the wide adoption of this system. To examine the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on rice germination, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under chilling stress, two seed coating treatments (Hanyubaomu coating and Miaoboshi coating) and two seed priming treatments (selenium priming and salicylic acid priming) were tested in field and growth chamber experiments. The results revealed that under chilling stress, seed priming increased the rice seed germination by 20.96–26.31 %. The length and weight of shoots and roots were also significantly increased. The two seed coating treatments were not effective in enhancing seed germination and seedling growth under chilling stress. The improved germination and seedling growth of primed seeds under chilling stress were strongly linked with higher α-amylase activity and total soluble sugar content. Conclusively, these findings will provide new avenues for understanding and advancing pre-sowing seed treatments of dry direct-seeded early rice. PMID:27821516

  17. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A P S; Joshi, D K; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin-spin relaxation time (T2). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin-spin relaxation (T2) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40-50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30-40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  18. Effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqin; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Qian; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanization and simplification are inevitable trends in agriculture production to decrease input demands and simultaneously improve resource use efficiency. Dry direct-seeded rice is a resource-saving cropping system and has been considered as a replacement for traditional transplanted rice. However, the poor establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice, primarily induced by chilling stress, has limited the wide adoption of this system. To examine the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on rice germination, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under chilling stress, two seed coating treatments (Hanyubaomu coating and Miaoboshi coating) and two seed priming treatments (selenium priming and salicylic acid priming) were tested in field and growth chamber experiments. The results revealed that under chilling stress, seed priming increased the rice seed germination by 20.96-26.31 %. The length and weight of shoots and roots were also significantly increased. The two seed coating treatments were not effective in enhancing seed germination and seedling growth under chilling stress. The improved germination and seedling growth of primed seeds under chilling stress were strongly linked with higher α-amylase activity and total soluble sugar content. Conclusively, these findings will provide new avenues for understanding and advancing pre-sowing seed treatments of dry direct-seeded early rice.

  19. Opiate concentrations following the ingestion of poppy seed products--evidence for 'the poppy seed defence'.

    PubMed

    Meadway, C; George, S; Braithwaite, R

    1998-08-31

    The universally accepted 300 ng/ml cut-off limit for opiate assays stated to be mandatory for all drug screening laboratories by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, has been questioned recently due to positive results being obtained following the ingestion of poppy seed containing food products. To establish the plausibility of the 'the poppy seed defence' the concentrations of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, normorphine and thebaine (a potential marker for seed ingestion) in several varieties of poppy seeds from different countries were quantified by GC-MS. The country of origin of the seed specimen analysed and the preparation of the seeds prior to their culinary use was found to influence the alkaloid concentration determined. The maximum morphine and codeine concentrations determined in the seeds were found to be 33.2 and 13.7 micrograms/g seed respectively. In addition, thebaine concentrations were found to vary with each seed sample analysed. Following the consumption of bread rolls (mean 0.76 g seed covering per roll) by four subjects, all urine specimens analysed produced negative results (using the Dade Bebring EMIT II opiate screening assay) with the exception of one subject (body weight 63.0 kg) who consumed two poppy seed rolls. In this subject opiate positive screening results were obtained for up to 6 h post ingestion with maximum urinary morphine and codeine concentrations of 832.0 ng/ml (@ 2-4 h post ingestion) and 47.9 ng/ml (@ 0-2 h post ingestion) respectively being achieved. Following the ingestion of poppy seed cake containing an average of 4.69 g of seed per slice by four individuals, opiate positive screening results were obtained for up to 24 h. In one subject (dose equivalent to 0.07 g poppy seed/kg body weight) maximum urinary morphine and codeine concentrations of 302.1 ng/ml (@ 0-2 h) and 83.8 ng/ml (@ 2-4 h) respectively were recorded. The elimination of thebaine was found to vary widely between individuals

  20. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    PubMed

    Bebbere, Daniela; Bauersachs, Stefan; Fürst, Rainer W; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Medugorac, Ivica; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Wolf, Eckhard; Ledda, Sergio; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus) carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term) and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle) differed significantly (P<0.05) from endodermal tissues (liver, lung). The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001) from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest changes in IGF2R

  1. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  2. Influence of different seed materials on multi-crystalline silicon ingot properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, C.; Trempa, M.; Lehmann, T.; Rosshirt, K.; Stenzenberger, J.; Friedrich, J.; Hesse, K.; Dornberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    Different silicon feedstock materials, Single Crystalline Crushed (SCS), Fluidized-Bed-Reactor (FBR) and Siemens (SIE) feedstock, were used as seeding layer for growing cylindrical shaped, high performance multi-crystalline ingots with a weight of 1.2 kg. Within the investigations a systematic variation of the particle size of the seeding material in the range of <1 mm up to 15 mm was performed. Grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary type were evaluated at different ingot heights. These results show clearly, that the microstructure size, respectively the particle size for the crushed single crystalline material, determines the resulting grain structure in the ingot near the seeding position. If the microstructure size is equal to the particle size, as it is the case for the SCS material, the particle size has a significant influence on grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary distribution. With increasing average particle size of the SCS seed material the grain size increases, the grain orientation distribution becomes less uniform, and the random grain boundary length fraction decreases. If the microstructure size is smaller than the particle size, as it is the case for FBR and SIE feedstock materials, the particle size has no influence on the initial grain structure of the ingot. For FBR and SIE seeding material, small grains, with a homogeneous orientation distribution and a high random grain boundary length fraction are obtained. Therefore, all FBR and all SIE seeding materials, as well as the SCS with particle size <1 mm, show lowest fractions of defected areas at about the same level which were determined by etch pit analysis.

  3. Seasonal variation in dry weight and elemental composition of the early developmental stages of Petrolisthes laevigatus (Guérin, 1835) (Decapoda: Porcellanidae) in the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, P.; Paschke, K.; Barría, A.; Anger, K.

    2013-03-01

    In the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile, seasonal changes in dry weight (DW) and elemental composition (CHN) were studied in embryo (initial embryonic stage), newly hatched zoeae, and newly settled megalopae of a porcelain crab, Petrolisthes laevigatus. Samples were taken throughout the seasons of egg laying (March-December), hatching (August-February), and settlement (October-February). Values of DW and CHN per embryo or larva, respectively, were consistently minimum in the middle of each season and maximum near its beginning and end. Patterns of seasonal variation in early embryonic biomass may thus be carried over to larvae at hatching and, possibly, to the settlement stage. Such carry-over effects may be selectively advantageous, as zoeae released at the beginning or near the end of the hatching season face conditions of poor planktonic food availability in combination with low winter temperatures or decreasing temperatures at the end of summer (enforcing long development duration). Hence, an enhanced female energy allocation into egg production may subsequently translate to enhanced yolk reserves remaining at hatching, allowing for a larval development under unfavourable winter conditions. In summer, by contrast, plankton productivity and temperatures are generally high, allowing for fast larval growth and development. This coincides with minimal biomass and energy contents both at hatching and settlement. In conclusion, our data suggest that seasonal patterns in the biomass of early developmental stages of P. laevigatus may reflect phenotypic variability as an adaptive response to predictable variations in environmental conditions, allowing this species to reproduce in temperate regions with marked seasonality in water temperature and plankton productivity.

  4. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Kwapich, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant's approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes.

  5. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kwapich, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant’s approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes. PMID:27893844

  6. Mineral nutrient stoichiometric variability in Hedera helix (Araliaceae) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Obeso, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of variability in mineral allocation to seeds has rarely been considered in relation to allometric patterns and deviations from the allometric trajectory. Here, I examine the scaling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) with seed mass in field-collected seeds of Hedera helix, taking into account that brood size might influence the allocation patterns. Methods C, N and S contents of 56 individual seeds of different sizes were analysed by combustion using a standard automated CNHS procedure. P content was determined for 200 individual seeds using spectrophotometry after acid digestion of ashed samples. This sample included seeds from different brood sizes. Key Results C and N content both varied isometrically with seed mass and this variable explained most of the variation in their content in seeds. P and S, however, varied allometrically with seed mass. Additionally, seed mass only explained 37·3 % and 37·6 % of the total variance in P and S content, respectively. Seeds with higher mass contained proportionately more P and, furthermore, the seeds from small broods contained proportionally more P than those from large broods. Conclusions Although seed mass in this species can be used as a surrogate of investment in C and N, it does not account for variability in allocation of nutrients such as P and S. The fact that larger seeds increased their P concentration when found in smaller broods might be a consequence of intense competition for this nutrient among developing seeds. Then, brood size may influence the mineral nutrient concentration of seeds. PMID:22184619

  7. Spatial and temporal effects on seed dispersal and seed predation of Musa acuminata in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzeng; Gao, Xiuxia; Chen, Jin; Martin, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Wild bananas are abundant in tropical areas and many ecologists have observed that the succession process is quicker following increased disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze animal-seed interactions and their effects on the seed fate of a wild banana species (Musa acuminata) in tropical southern Yunnan (China) through experiments considering spatial (site and habitat) and temporal (seasons) variation. The largest proportion of fruits (81%) was removed by frugivorous seed dispersers, especially by bats at nighttime. Only 13% of the fruits were removed by climbing seed predators (different species of rats). In the exclosure treatment, rodents accounted for a significantly higher total artificially exposed seed removal number than ants, but with spatial and temporal differences. The highest seed predation rate by rodents (70%) was found in forest with wild banana stands, corresponding with the highest rodent diversity (species numbers and abundance) among the habitat types. In contrast, the seed removal number by ants (57%) was highest in the open land habitats, but there was no close correlation with ant diversity. Seed removal numbers by ants were significantly higher in the dry compared to the rainy season, but rodent activity showed no differences between seasons. The overall results suggest that the largest proportion of seeds produced by wild banana are primarily dispersed by bats. Primary seed dispersal by bats at nighttime is essential for wild banana seeds to escape seed predation.

  8. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Rohollah; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation. Accordingly, eight adult cloned Bakhtiari bucks were divided randomly into four groups. Bucks were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate. The concentrate was enriched with flax seed oil, 30 gr/kg body weight/day (OIL), Vitamin E (VIT), 3 gr/kg body weight/day, or combined flax seed oil and the vitamin E (OIL-VIT). The concentrate with no supplements was considered as control group (CONT). Both flax seed oil and Vitamin E supplements were added to the total diet. The bucks were fed with their corresponding diets for a total of 9 weeks while sperm collection was carried out within 10-14 weeks. Ejaculates were diluted with Andromed(®) and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were evaluated following freezing/thawing. According to the results of our study, dietary supplementation with flax seed oil, or/and Vitamin E can improve sperm motility, vitality and number of sperm with intact plasma membrane following freezing-thawing. But the degree of improvement in these parameters was significantly higher when Flax seed oil and vitamin E were co-supplemented.

  9. Evaluation of the impacts of different nuclear DNA content in the hull, endosperm, and embryo of rice seeds on GM rice quantification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donger; Shen, Jie; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-04-28

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a main staple food in the world, and several genetically modified (GM) rice events have been approved for commercialization. To accurately quantify GM contents in rice derived products, we have evaluated the variation of seed DNA density and nuclear DNA content in the hull, endosperm, and embryo of rice seeds from 19 cultivars, as well as their impacts on GM rice quantification. Rice endosperm DNA accounts for 73.71% of total seed DNA, whereas the hull and embryo DNAs account for 3.98% and 22.31%, respectively. Two formulas were established to describe the relationship between GM content on the basis of weight ratio (GM(wt)%) and that on the basis of haploid genome copy number ratio (GM(hg)%) for the samples containing heterozygous GM rice seeds. These two equations were well confirmed in quantification of the heterozygous GM rice TT51-1 seeds containing the GM allele from a female parent or that from a male parent. This work is useful for accurate quantification of GM rice using reference materials containing the heterozygous GM rice seed powder.

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  11. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  12. NEWER SDHI FUNGICIDES AND GRASSES: EFFECTS ON SEED YIELD AND DISEASE CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Rijckaert, G; Vanden Nest, T

    2015-01-01

    Grass seed crops (ryegrass), a minor crop in Belgium, should be managed more intensively and in an arable way, comparable with the intensive wheat culture. Even more important than higher seed yields are stable, higher yields over time, Integrated pest management (IPM) forms the framework around this intensification. Two similar seed production field trials--one with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.)--were conducted in 2014, dealing with 4 SDHI fungicides (bixafen, boscalid, fluxapyroxad and isopyrazam) that were compared with an untreated control and some reference treatments. There were four application times (stages): i.e. early stem elongation--BBCH 33 (T1), ear tips visible--BBCH 51 (T2), full ear, begin of flowering--BBCH 61 (T3) and end of flowering--BBCH 69 (T4). Except for the Italian ryegrass trial, only the last three stages were used. In the Italian ryegrass trial, which had only sporadic incidence of disease, all T3 treatments clearly increased seed yield compared with the untreated control, by 13% on average. For the T2 treatments only Fandango and Adexar clearly out yielded the control. The curative T4 treatment (Tilt + Corbel) tended to increase seed yield, but this was not significant. Seed yield differences could not be explained by variations in thousand seed weight (TSW), leaf withering and NDVI scores (crop reflectance). The disease pressure (crown rust) was very low before flowering, but stem rust developed strongly during the last 2 weeks before harvest of the perennial ryegrass trial. Yield responses were mostly pronounced at the T3 treatment. Except for Fandango and Horizon, all T3 treatments clearly increased yield in comparison with the untreated control, by 18.4% on average. The T4 treatment (Tilt + Corbel) could not repair the crop damage. Further seed yield data are discussed in relation to yield components, TSW, leaf withering and vegetation index (NDVI). An integrated

  13. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and spatial pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at spatial scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three spatial scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context dependence and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at

  14. Cloning of the rice seed alpha-globulin-encoding gene: sequence similarity of the 5'-flanking region to those of the genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin and barley D hordein.

    PubMed

    Nakase, M; Hotta, H; Adachi, T; Aoki, N; Nakamura, R; Masumura, T; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, T

    1996-05-08

    A genomic clone encoding the rice endosperm major globulin (alpha-globulin) with an apparent molecular mass of 26 kDa was isolated, and its nucleotide (nt) sequence and transcription start point (tsp) were determined. The tsp was identical to that of the gene encoding the wheat high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunit. The consensus '-300 element' and an A + T-rich sequence exist upstream from the TATA box in the 5'-flanking region. A nt sequence of about 130 bp in the 5'-flanking region was found to be markedly homologous to those of the genes encoding the wheat HMW glutenin subunit and barley D hordein.

  15. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  16. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  17. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  18. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  19. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  20. A detailed survey of seed coat flavonoids in developing seeds of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Auger, Bathilde; Marnet, Nathalie; Gautier, Véronique; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Leprince, Françoise; Renard, Michel; Guyot, Sylvain; Nesi, Nathalie; Routaboul, Jean-Marc

    2010-05-26

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are seed coat flavonoids that impair the digestibility of Brassica napus meal. Development of low-PA lines is associated with a high-quality meal and with increased contents in oil and proteins, but requires better knowledge of seed flavonoids. Flavonoids in Brassica mature seed are mostly insoluble so that very few qualitative and quantitative data are available yet. In the present study, the profiling of seed coat flavonoids was established in eight black-seeded B. napus genotypes, during seed development when soluble flavonoids were present and predominated over the insoluble forms. Thirteen different flavonoids including (-)-epicatechin, five procyanidins (PCs which are PAs composed of epicatechin oligomers only) and seven flavonols (quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate, isorhamnetin-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-sinapoyl-trihexoside and kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside) were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(n)). These flavonol derivatives were characterized for the first time in the seed coat of B. napus, and isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate and isorhamnetin-sinapoyl-trihexoside were newly identified in Brassica spp. High amounts of PCs accumulated in the seed coat, with solvent-soluble polymers of (-)-epicatechin reaching up to 10% of the seed coat weight during seed maturation. In addition, variability for both PC and flavonol contents was observed within the panel of eight black-seeded genotypes. Our results provide new insights into breeding for low-PC B. napus genotypes.

  1. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  2. Seed traits and taxonomic relationships determine the occurrence of mutualisms versus seed predation in a tropical forest rodent and seed dispersal system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Cao, Lin; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-06-01

    Although many studies have been carried out on plant-animal mutualistic assemblages, the roles of functional traits and taxonomy in determining both whether interactions involve mutualisms or predation and the structure of such assemblages are unclear. We used semi-natural enclosures to quantitatively assess the interaction strengths between seeds of 8 sympatric tree species and 4 rodent species in a tropical forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Southwest China. We found 2 clusters of species in the seed-rodent network represented by 2 genera in the Fagaceae (Castanopsis, Lithocarpus). Compared to seeds of 3 Castanopsis species, seeds with heavy weight, hard coat or caloric content (including 3 Lithocarpus species) were eaten less and more frequently hoarded by rodents. In turn, hoarded seeds showed less predation and more mutualism with rodents. Our results suggest that seed traits significantly affected the hoarding behavior of rodents, and, consequently, the occurrence of mutualisms and predation as well as assemblage structure in the plant-animal seed dispersal system. Taxonomically-related species with similar seed traits as functional groups belong to the same substructures in the assemblage. Our results indicate that both seed traits and taxonomic relationships may simplify thinking about seed dispersal systems by helping to elucidate whether interactions are likely to be dominated by predation or mutualism.

  3. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, M; Møller, I S; Schjoerring, J K

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter-green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis.

  4. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, M.; Møller, I. S.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter–green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

  5. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  6. Genecology for seed zones: Problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed zones are needed to guide the choice of genetic resources used in restoration. Their development using genecology is ongoing in numerous grass and forb species cooperative among the ARS, BLM, US Forest Service and the University of Nevada-Reno. The interaction of genetic variation and long-t...

  7. Growth characteristics of maize seeds exposed to magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Ananta; Joshi, Devendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Standardization of magnetic field was done for maximum enhancement in germination characteristics of maize seeds. Seeds of maize were exposed to static magnetic fields of strength 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h for all field strengths. Results indicate that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of percentage germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 200 mT for 1 h exposure gave best results. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced cellular leakage and, consequently, electrical conductivity. Experiments conducted at a research farm as well as farmer's field showed that plants raised from seeds exposed to 200 mT for 1 h had higher values of leaf area index, shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, shoot/root dry weight, and root characteristics as compared to corresponding values in untreated control. From the studies, it may be concluded that exposure of dry seeds to static magnetic field of 200 mT for 1 h improved shoot and root growth. Improved root system and biomass led to increased seed yield. Improved functional root parameters suggested that magnetically treated maize seeds could be used under moisture stress conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:151-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  9. Riparian seed dispersal: transport and depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnings, A.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian tree population dynamics are linked to the physical processes controlled by the hydrogeomorphic setting. In particular, fluvial seed dispersal is influenced by a combination of factors including the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and seed dispersal traits. This study examines the influence of stream flow patterns on the transportation and deposition of buoyant seeds by applying a one dimensional transport model. Conceptually, the model separates the stream into two components: the main channel and transient storage /deposition zones. The hydrologic processes are governed by an advection-dispersion equation and numerically solved using the Crank-Nicolson method. Additional terms in the equation allow for model variation in the flow regime (lateral inflow and outflow) and the incorporation of a transient storage/deposition component where seeds may be detained. The model parameters are based on a bedrock-gravel bed river with pool-riffle morphology where we conducted field experimentation in Coastal Northern California. The riparian zone of the study reach is inhabited by White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia) which disperses buoyant seeds in late winter/early spring coinciding with the latter part of the wet, Mediterranean climate. Artificial seeds with similar characteristic traits of buoyancy, density and Bond Number to White Alder seeds were used to quantify transport times and identify storage areas. The model output captures a greater number of seeds during a receding hydrograph due to the increase in transient storage. Typically, this is found in shallow stream margins where the flow is divergent such as areas with back-eddies. In the field, this is associated with the ends of gravel bars or riffles where flow expansion causes secondary flows. The results demonstrate the importance of transient storage for seed transport and depositional processes and emphasize the need for improved measurement techniques, in lieu of empirical coefficients, to advance the

  10. Internal dispersal of seeds by waterfowl: effect of seed size on gut passage time and germination patterns.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Jordi; Charalambidou, Iris; Santamaria, Luis; Green, Andy J

    2010-06-01

    Long distance dispersal may have important consequences for gene flow and community structure. The dispersal of many plants depends on transport by vertebrate seed dispersers. The shapes of seed shadows produced by vertebrates depend both on movement patterns of the dispersers and on the dynamics and effects of passage through the disperser's gut (i.e. the retention time, survival and germination of ingested seeds). A combination of experiments with captive waterbirds and aquatic plant seeds was used to analyse the following: (a) the effects of inter- and intra-specific variation in seed size and duck species on seed retention time in the gut and (b) the relationship between retention time and the percent germination and germination rates of seeds. Among the three Scirpus species used, those with smaller seeds showed higher survival after ingestion by birds and longer retention times inside their guts than those with larger seeds. For Potamogeton pectinatus, only seeds from the smaller size class (<8 mg) survived ingestion. Retention time affected the percent germination and germination rate of Scirpus seeds but in a manner that varied for the different plant and bird species studied. We recorded both linear and non-linear effects of retention time on percent germination. In addition, germination rate was positively correlated with retention time in Scirpus litoralis but negatively correlated in Scirpus lacustris. Small seed size can favour dispersal over larger distances. However, the effects of retention time on percent germination can modify the seed shadows produced by birds due to higher percent germination of seeds retained for short or intermediate periods. The changes in dispersal quality associated with dispersal distance (which is expected to be positively related to retention time) will affect the probability of seedling establishment over longer distances and, thus, the spatial characteristics of the effective seed shadow.

  11. A herbivory-induced increase in the proportion of floating seeds in an invasive plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Yuya; Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    It is important to determine the factors prompting seed dispersal because for plant species seed dispersal is the only opportunity to disperse into a new habitat. Previous studies showed that the maternal stress, such as high density and low nutrient levels, induces the adaptive plastic increase of the dispersal ability in seed heteromorphic plants. In this study, we examined whether herbivory can change the relative proportion of dispersal-related seed heteromorphism (floating or non floating seeds) in an invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Because A. artemisiifolia often distributes in the riparian habitat, floating seeds might contribute to the long distance dispersal by hydrochory. Floating ability and seed weight were compared between plants damaged by a specialist herbivore Ophraella communa and undamaged plants. The damaged plants produced lighter and more likely floating seeds than the undamaged plants. However, multi-regression analysis revealed that the probability of floating was affected by seed weight but was not affected by herbivore treatment (damaged vs. undamaged plants). These results suggest that the increased proportion of floating seeds was not a direct response to the herbivore signal but an indirect response through the herbivore's effect on the reduction of seed weight. Plants damaged by herbivores might not only decrease seed production and quality but also increase the dispersal ability. These responses in dispersal ability against the herbivores might contribute to the spread of invasive plants.

  12. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  13. Stability in and correlation between factors influencing genetic quality of seed lots in seed orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-year span.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoru; Li, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pine seed orchard with 49 clones is investigated for stability, variation and correlation analysis of factors which influence genetic quality of the seed lots from initial seed harvest to the stable seed production over a 12 years span. Results indicated that the reproductive synchrony index of pollen shedding has shown to be higher than that of the strobili receptivity, and both can be drastically influenced by the ambient climate factors. Reproductive synchrony index of the clones has certain relative stability and it could be used as an indication of the seed orchard status during maturity stage; clones in the studied orchard have shown extreme differences in terms of the gametic and genetic contribution to the seed crop at the orchard's early production phase specifically when they severe as either female or male parents. Those differences are closely related to clonal sex tendency at the time of orchard's initial reproduction. Clonal gamete contribution as male and female parent often has a negative correlation. Clone utilization as pollen, seed or both pollen and seed donors should consider the role it would play in the seed crop; due to numerous factors influencing on the mating system in seed orchards, clonal genetic contribution as male parent is uncertain, and it has major influence on the genetic composition in the seed orchard during the initial reproductive and seed production phase.

  14. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  15. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  16. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation.

  17. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  18. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  19. Germination of Styrax camporum Pohl. seeds in response to substrate types, moisture contents and the seed morphology.

    PubMed

    Simão, Edson; Nakamura, Adriana T; Takaki, Massanori

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the contributions of Styrax camporum seed morphology (size of seeds, presence or absence of endocarp attached to the seed), different substrates (filter paper, vermiculite, sand and the soils of cerrado s. str., cerradão and a riparian forest), different water potentials (0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4 and -0.5 MPa), light and temperature to seed germination. Seed size did not affect the germination percentage when seeds were sown on vermiculite. Seeds were affected by small variations in the moisture content of the tested substrates, showing a significant decrease in germination under water potentials lower than -0.1 MPa, close to the field capacity of cerrado s. str. soils. At the temperatures of 15 and 20°C, a significant decrease in germination was observed. Thus, the availability of water in cerrado soils associated to temperature modulate the distribution of germination in this species. Seed morphology contributes to the maintenance of seeds in the soil, and the lack of synchrony in seed germination spreads the distribution of germination in time. These peculiarities allow the emergency of seedlings at different time periods and establishment conditions, an adaptative response of S. camporum to the cerrado environment.

  20. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-10-22

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners.

  1. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  2. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  3. Overexpression of sinapine esterase BnSCE3 in oilseed rape seeds triggers global changes in seed metabolism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism.

  4. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  5. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years.

  6. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Erofeeva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010–2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana populations show clinal variation in a climatic gradient associated with altitude.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Wig, Jennifer; Pico, F Xavier; Tonsor, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    • Understanding the adaptive basis of life history variation is a central goal in evolutionary ecology. The use of model species enables the combination of molecular mechanistic knowledge with ecological and evolutionary questions, but the study of life history variation in natural environments is required to merge these disciplines. • Here, we tested for clinal variation in life history and associated traits along an environmental and altitudinal gradient in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Seventeen natural populations of A. thaliana were geo-referenced in north-eastern Spain on a gradient in which precipitation increases but maximum spring temperature and minimum winter temperature decrease with altitude. • One hundred and eighty-nine genotypes from the 17 populations were grown under uniform controlled conditions. Variations in traits related to biomass allocation, fecundity, phenology and vegetative growth were tested for relationships with the altitude and climatic variables associated with the home sites. Above-ground mass, number of rosette leaves at bolting, developmental time and seed weight increased with the home site's altitude. Root allocation, vegetative growth during winter and number of seeds decreased with altitude. • We suggest that the differences among home sites provide clues to the variation in adaptive strategies associated with the climatic gradient. We compared these results with adaptations and clinal relationships reported for other species and with molecular mechanisms described in Arabidopsis.

  8. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  9. Relative seed and fruit toxicity of the Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica: further evidence for a megafaunal seed dispersal syndrome in cycads, and its possible antiquity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Walter, G H

    2014-08-01

    An apparent contradiction in the ecology of cycad plants is that their seeds are known to be highly poisonous, and yet they seem well adapted for seed dispersal by animals, as shown by their visually conspicuous seed cones and large seeds presented within a brightly colored fleshy "fruit" of sarcotesta. We tested if this sarcotesta could function as a reward for cycad seed dispersal fauna, by establishing if the toxic compound cycasin, known from the seeds, is absent from the sarcotesta. The Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica were tested (N = 10 individuals per species) using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Cycasin was detected at 0.34 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of M. miquelii and 0.28 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of C. ophiolitica. Cycasin was absent from the sarcotesta of the same propagules (none detected in the case of M. miquelii, and trace quantities detected in sarcotesta of only four of the ten C. ophiolitica propagules). This laboratory finding was supported by field observations of native animals eating the sarcotesta of these cycads but discarding the toxic seed intact. These results suggest cycads are adapted for dispersal fauna capable of swallowing the large, heavy propagules whole, digesting the non-toxic sarcotesta flesh internally, and then voiding the toxic seed intact. Megafauna species such as extant emus or cassowaries, or extinct Pleistocene megafauna such as Genyornis, are plausible candidates for such dispersal. Cycads are an ancient lineage, and the possible antiquity of their megafaunal seed dispersal adaptations are discussed.

  10. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  11. The contents of the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid), and other free and protein amino acids in the seeds of different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Korbu, Lijalem; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2008-09-15

    The free and protein amino acids of nine different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds were analysed by HPLC with pre-column PITC (phenyl isothiocyanate) derivatisation. Among the free amino acids, homoarginine was quantitatively the most important (up to 0.8% seed weight) and stable while the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) showed highest variation (0.02-0.54%) in the nine genotypes examined. Among protein amino acids, glutamic acid was quantitatively most significant, followed by aspartic acid, arginine, leucine, lysine and proline. The sulphur amino acid, methionine, showed the lowest concentration in all the L. sativus genotypes, and also in lentil (Lens culinaris) and in soybean (Glycine max) seeds analysed at the same time.

  12. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  13. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Growth Charts ... Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) Managing Your Weight Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Who ...

  14. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  15. Seed germination and vigor.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  16. The earliest seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed.

  18. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  19. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  20. Anthropogenic fire drives the evolution of seed traits

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-González, Susana; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Bustos-Schindler, Carlos; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance affecting ecosystems worldwide. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the evolution of seed persistence (fire resistance) is associated with fire frequency or severity. However, the existence of specific seed traits resulting from natural selection mediated by fire remains a key question in plant evolution. We evaluated the role of fire in the evolution of seed traits from a microevolutionary perspective, using as a study system a native forb from the Chilean matorral, where fire is a novel, anthropogenic disturbance. We show that anthropogenic fires are shaping the evolution of seed traits such as pubescence and shape. Among-population variation in seed pubescence, shape, and pericarp thickness was strongly associated with fire frequency, and within a population, fire selected those plants with more pubescent seeds, thicker pericarps, and less rounded seeds. Seed pubescence and shape were shown to be heritable traits. Our findings provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of seed traits in fire-prone environments and demonstrate that human-made fires can be driving evolutionary changes in plant species from ecosystems where fires do not occur naturally. PMID:22065739

  1. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, George A.; Taylor, J. Edward

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of local germplasm through artificial selection is regarded as the main force behind maize evolution and diversity in Mexico, the crop's center of origin. This perspective neglects the larger social context of maize evolution. Using a theoretical approach and Mexico-wide data, we show that farmer-led evolution of maize is largely driven by a technological diffusion and appropriation process that selectively integrates nonlocal germplasm into local seed stocks. Our approach construes farmer practices as events in the life history of seed to build a demographic model. The model shows how random and systematic differences in management combine to structure maize seed populations into subpopulations that can spread or become extinct, in some cases independently of visible agronomic advantages. The process involves continuous population bottlenecks that can lead to diversity loss. Nonlocal germplasm thus might play a critical role in maintaining diversity in individual localities. Empirical estimates show that introduction of nonlocal seed in Central and Southeastern Mexico is rarer than previously thought; prompt replacement further prevents new seed from spreading. Yet introduced seed perceived as valuable diffuses rapidly, contributing variation in the form of type diversity or through introgression into local seed. Maize seed dynamics and evolution are thus part of a complex social process driven by farmers' desire to appropriate the value in maize farming, not always achieved by preserving or improving local seed stocks. PMID:18184814

  2. Pulp-seed attachment is a dominant variable explaining legitimate seed dispersal: a case study on woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Pablo R

    2011-07-01

    Seed dispersal is a mutualistic interaction in which frugivores gain nutrients and plants gain when seeds are transported to adequate places for establishment. However, this relationship is prone to deceit, for example, when frugivores spit-out seeds in the proximity of parental trees. Still, few hypotheses have offered explanations on why deceiving strategies are not widespread. In this study, I explore the importance of how difficult it is to mechanically separate the nutritious pulp from the seeds, as a factor that can explain the chance a seed has of being dispersed by woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha). I completed 1,440 h of focal animal follows during 2 years in order to quantify the chances plant species have of being dispersed. To do so, I evaluated the residuals from the relationship between the number of seeds manipulated and seeds dispersed by a population of woolly monkeys in Tinigua Park (Colombia). For 74 fruit species, I estimated how difficult it is to separate pulp from seeds as the time needed to separate the parts. An exponential model showed that this variable was able to predict 38% of the variation on dispersal probability, demonstrating that, when it is difficult to separate the pulp from the seeds, the probability of legitimate dispersal increases. However, when fruit parts were easy to separate, there was more variation in the outcome. My results suggest that many plants have evolved mechanisms (e.g., small seeds embedded in pulp, strong attachment, irregular seed surface, and thin pulp layer) that preclude deceit by frugivores.

  3. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  4. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments.

  5. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  6. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  7. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2016-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  8. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  9. Transcriptome characterization of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods from two genotypes with contrasting seed zinc concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two c...

  10. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  11. Protein Changes during the Stratification of Malus domestica Borkh. Seed.

    PubMed

    Eichholtz, D A; Robitaille, H A; Herrmann, K M

    1983-07-01

    Apple seeds (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) were stratified at 5 and 15 degrees C for various lengths, weighed, and soluble protein of axis and cotyledon tissue was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only seeds treated at 5 degrees C germinated; seeds treated at 15 degrees C did not germinate. Optimal germination required 63 days of stratification. Excised embryos required less stratification time for germination than intact seeds. When stratification was less than 35 days, the resulting seedlings from 5 degrees C stratified embryos were dwarfed and epinastic. After 63 days of stratification, axes from 5 and 15 degrees C treated intact seeds had increased in fresh weight by 72 and 28% (w/w), respectively. The dry weights of the axes did not change significantly and both fresh and dry weights of cotyledons remained unchanged during stratification. Total soluble protein in axes and cotyledons changed very little during stratification. However, axis polypeptide profiles changed. Most obvious was the occurrence of a new polypeptide and the increase of four other clearly identifiable polypeptides during 5 degrees C treatment. The levels of the five most predominant axis proteins decreased at the same time. We observed no changes in the profiles of soluble cotyledon proteins. Control seeds kept at -10 degrees C showed none of the reported changes.

  12. Seed dispersal and germination traits of 70 plant species inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

    2014-01-01

    Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5-8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces.

  13. Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

    2014-01-01

    Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces. PMID:25485296

  14. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  15. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-31

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  16. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  17. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  18. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  19. Community-wide spatial and temporal discordances of seed-seedling shadows in a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004-2005 and 2007-2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment.

  20. Community-Wide Spatial and Temporal Discordances of Seed-Seedling Shadows in a Tropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004–2005 and 2007–2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  1. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran--A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Seed reserve composition in 19 tree species of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico and its relationship to seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Diana; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Kitajima, Kaoru; Gamboa-de Buen, Alicia; Huante, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The size and composition of seed reserves may reflect the ecological strategy and evolutionary history of a species and also temporal variation in resource availability. The seed mass and composition of seed reserves of 19 co-existing tree species were studied, and we examined how they varied among species in relation to germination and seedling growth rates, as well as between two years with contrasting precipitation (652 and 384 mm). Methods Seeds were collected from a tropical deciduous forest in the northwest of Mexico (Chamela Biological Station). The seed dry mass, with and without the seed coat, and the concentrations of lipids, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates for the seed minus seed coat were determined. The anatomical localization of these reserves was examined using histochemical analysis. The germination capacity, rate and lag time were determined. The correlations among these variables, and their relationship to previously reported seedling relative growth rates, were evaluated with and without phylogenetic consideration. Key Results There were interannual differences in seed mass and reserve composition. Seed was significantly heavier after the drier year in five species. Nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with seed coat fraction, and was significantly higher after the drier year in 12 species. The rate and lag time of germination were negatively correlated with each other. These trait correlations were also supported for phylogenetic independent contrasts. Principal component analysis supported these correlations, and indicated a negative association of seedling relative growth rate with seed size, and a positive association of germination rate with nitrogen and lipid concentrations. Conclusions Nitrogen concentration tended to be higher after the drier year and, while interannual variations in seed size and reserve composition were not sufficient to affect interspecific correlations among seed and seedling

  3. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. A seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

    PubMed

    El-Mezawy, Aliaa; Wu, Limin; Shah, Saleh

    2009-12-01

    The canola industry generates more than $11 billion of yearly income to the Canadian economy. One problem of meal quality is the dark polyphenolic pigments that accumulate in the seed coat. Seed coat-specific promoters are a pre-requisite to regulate the genes involved in seed coat development and metabolism. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to test an Arabidopsis promoter in developing and mature seeds of canola (Brassica napus). The promoter tested is the regulatory region of the laccase gene (AtLAC15) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The AtLAC15 promoter::GUS construct was inserted into canola double haploid line DH12075 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analysis using a 536 bp GUS probe showed variation among the transformed plants in the T-DNA copy numbers and the position of the insertion in their genomes. Histochemical assay of the GUS enzyme in different tissues (roots, leaves, stem, pollen grains, flowers, siliques, embryos and seed coats) showed ascending GUS activity only in the seed coat from 10 days after pollination (DAP) to the fully mature stage (35 DAP). GUS stain was observed in the mucilage cell layer, in the outer integument layer of the seed coat but not in the inner integument. The AtLAC15 promoter exhibited a specificity and expression level that is useful as a seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

  5. Inheritance of seed desiccation sensitivity in a coffee interspecific cross: evidence for polygenic determinism.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Engelmann, Florent; Louarn, Jacques; Noirot, Michel

    2004-07-01

    The genetic determinism of seed desiccation sensitivity was studied using a cross between two coffee species exhibiting a large difference for this trait, Coffea pseudozanguebariae (tolerant) and C. liberica (sensitive). Throughout the whole study, seed desiccation tolerance was quantified both in terms of water content and water activity. Whatever the parameter used, the level of seed desiccation tolerance in F1 hybrids corresponded to that of the mid-parent, thus indicating an additive inheritance of seed desiccation tolerance at the F1 level. A broad variation was observed among hybrids backcrossed to C. liberica (BCs) for seed desiccation tolerance, independent of the parameter used to quantify it. This variation was continuous and BCs showed transgression in the direction of the most desiccation sensitive parent, indicating (i) that desiccation tolerance is a polygenic trait in coffee species, and (ii) that C. pseudozanguebariae does not present the most favourable alleles for all the genes involved in seed desiccation tolerance. No significant difference was observed between the two reciprocal backcrosses, F1xC. liberica and C. libericaxF1, for the level of desiccation tolerance of their seeds, showing the absence of a maternal effect on this trait. There was no significant effect of the number of seeds harvested from each BC on the level of desiccation tolerance of its seeds. Moreover, there was no significant correlation within BCs between seed size, seed viability, and water content before desiccation and desiccation tolerance.

  6. Seed Size, Fecundity and Postfire Regeneration Strategy Are Interdependent in Hakea

    PubMed Central

    El-ahmir, Sh-hoob Mohamed; Lim, Sim Lin; Lamont, Byron B.; He, Tianhua

    2015-01-01

    Seed size is a key functional trait that affects plant fitness at the seedling stage and may vary greatly with species fruit size, growth form and fecundity. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlated trait evolution analysis, we investigated the interaction network between seed size and fecundity, postfire regeneration strategy, fruit size, plant height and serotiny (on-plant seed storage) among 82 species of the woody shrub genus, Hakea, with a wide spectrum of seed sizes (2–500 mg). Seed size is negatively correlated with fecundity, while fire-killed species (nonsprouters) produce more seeds than resprouters though they are of similar size. Seed size is unrelated to plant height and level of serotiny while it scales allometrically with fruit size. A strong phylogenetic signal in seed size revealed phylogenetic constraints on seed size variation in Hakea. Our analyses suggest a causal relationship between seed size, fecundity and postfire regeneration strategy in Hakea. These results demonstrate that fruit size, fecundity and evolutionary history have had most control over seed size variation among Hakea species. PMID:26035821

  7. Identification of a major gene and RAPD markers for yellow seed coat colour in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Somers, D J; Rakow, G; Prabhu, V K; Friesen, K R

    2001-12-01

    The development of yellow-seeded Brassica napus for improving the canola-meal quality characteristics of lower fibre content and higher protein content has been restricted because no yellow-seeded forms of B. napus exist, and their conventional development requires interspecific introgression of yellow seed coat colour genes from related species. A doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from the F1 generation of the cross 'Apollo' (black-seeded) x YN90-1016 (yellow-seeded) B. napus was analysed via bulked segregant analysis to identify molecular markers associated with the yellow-seed trait in B. napus for future implementation in marker-assisted breeding. A single major gene (pigment 1) flanked by eight RAPD markers was identified co-segregating with the yellow seed coat colour trait in the population. This gene explained over 72% of the phenotypic variation in seed coat colour. Further analysis of the yellow-seeded portion of this DH population revealed two additional genes favouring 'Apollo' alleles, explaining 11 and 8.5%, respectively, of the yellow seed coat colour variation. The data suggested that there is a dominant, epistatic interaction between the pigment I locus and the two additional genes. The potential of the markers to be implemented in plant breeding for the yellow-seed trait in B. napus is discussed.

  8. [Grain filling dynamics and germination characteristics of Bupleurum chinense seeds].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Ren, Bing; Cao, Ai-Nong; Jin, Xiao-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Bupleurum chinense used in the study were cultivated in the experimental fields of Gansu agricultural University for three years. The seeds of B. chinense were collected every 3 days 10 d after the blossom. The result showed that the 1 000-grain fresh weight reached the maximum 43 d after the blossom and then decreased rapidly, at the mature period the fresh weight of seeds were falling to the same level of the dry weight. The dynamic change of the grain dry matter accumulation showed as an S-shape curve, the rapid increase stage was 25-34 d following the flower, and the grain filling was ended 46 d after blossom. Grain filling rate was under the law "fast-slow-fast-slow". And there were two peaks of grain filling rate appeared, after reached the second peak 28 d after the flower the filling rate decreased rapidly and stayed steadily 43 d after flowering. The dehydration rate was also measured at its maximum 43 d following flower. The indexes of seeds all reached the top 52 days following the blossom, when the germination rate reached the peak (34.33%) and water content of seeds was near 10%. The rate of germination and the 1 000-graid weight of seed showed significant positive correlation, while the water content of seeds was found significant negatively correlation with germination percentage. So the best time for harvest should be 52 d after flowering (9 month), the seeds collected at that time showed both high quality and germination rate.

  9. Comparing Measured Bullet Weight with Manufacturer Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Remington . Figure 3: Bullet weights for 62 grain Berger Flat Base Varmint. Berger 115 grain VLD (0.257) The weight tolerance claimed by Berger...the smallest variation among the .257 inch bullets considered here, and is the most accurate bullet ever tested in the 25-06 Remington 700 Sendero

  10. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  11. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  12. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  13. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-11-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  14. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  15. Heat shock, mass-dependent germination, and seed yield as related components of fitness in Cistus ladanifer.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J A.; Serrano, J M.; López, F; Acosta, F J.

    2001-08-01

    The different weight-number strategies of seed production displayed by individuals of a Mediterranean fire-prone plant species (Cistus ladanifer) were investigated in relation to seed germination responses to pre-germination heating. A control (no heating), a high temperature during a short exposure time (100 degrees C during 5 min) and a high temperature during a long exposure time (100 degrees C during 15 min) were applied to seeds from different individual plants with different mean seed weight. These pre-germination treatments resemble natural germination scenarios for the studied species, absence of fire, typical Mediterranean shrub fire, and severe fire with high fuel load. Seed germination was related to heat treatments and seed mass. Seed heating increased the proportion of seeds germinating compared with the control treatment. Mean seed weight was positively correlated to the proportion of germinated seeds but only within heat treatments. These results suggest that in periods without fire, the relative contributions to the population dynamics are equal for all seeds, regardless of their mass, whereas heavier seeds would be the main contribution after wildfire events. Since lighter seeds can be produced in higher quantities than heavier ones within a given fruit, the number of seedlings produced per fruit depended strongly on the germination conditions. In the absence of wildfire, fruits producing lighter seeds gave rise to more seedlings; nevertheless, they were numerically exceeded by those producing heavy seeds after a wildfire. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to their consequences on the population dynamics of this species, considering also additional information on stand flammability and changes in seed mass with plant age.

  16. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm: correlations of crude protein and mineral content to seed traits.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Aysen; Gücer, Seref; Acikgoz, Esvet

    2011-09-01

    In order to increase knowledge of seed nutritive value and to demonstrate its relationship in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm, 388 common vetch accessions were grown under field conditions in 2008-2009 growing season in Bursa province of Turkey. Seeds were analyzed for seed minerals (Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, P, S, Zn and K) and crude protein (CP) content. The accessions were grouped according to testa and cotyledon color and seed size, and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance to determine relationships between minerals and CP content, testa and cotyledon colors, and seed weight. In general, there was no significant difference between testa colors or cotyledon colors in minerals and CP content. However, seed weight was closely associated with minerals and CP contents in this study. Analysis of variance and correlation analysis showed that seed weight was closely associated with some minerals and CP content. The small seeds had significantly higher Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, S, Zn and CP contents than medium and large seeds.

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Hypothetical explanations of the negative apparent effects of cloud seeding in the whitetop experiment.

    PubMed

    Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1971-11-01

    In order to explain the apparent losses of rain ascribable to seeding at the Whitetop trial, particularly large and highly significant in the stratum E (but not in the opposite stratum W) of experimental days, it has been hypothesized that seeding causes widespread cloudiness and subsequent lowering of ground temperatures. This hypothesis is flatly contradicted by the observations: the seeded E-days (but not W-days) were uniformly less cloudy and hotter than those without seeding. Curiously, these differences prevailed not only from the scheduled time of seeding but also for several hours beforehand. The average rainfall for the 10 hr that preceded the time of seeding was investigated in eight "cells", defined by the day's wind direction to be downwind, upwind, and to the sides and "far" and "near" the center of seeding. Highly significant decreases were found in the far-upwind and far-left cells, indicating an earlymorning disparity between those E-days that later were declared as experimental to be seeded and those E-days that were declared as experimental not to be seeded. This disparity, difficult to explain by chance variation, suggests that particular caution be used in treating differences in the rainfall between seeded and not-seeded days in the Whitetop trial as having been caused by seeding.

  19. Evidence for maternal control of seed size in maize from phenotypic and transcriptional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Hirsch, Candice N.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Seed size is an important component of grain yield and a key determinant trait for crop domestication. The Krug Yellow Dent long-term selection experiment for large and small seed provides a valuable resource to dissect genetic and phenotypic changes affecting seed size within a common genetic background. In this study, inbred lines derived from Krug Large Seed (KLS) and Krug Small Seed (KSS) populations and reciprocal F1 crosses were used to investigate developmental and molecular mechanisms governing seed size. Seed morphological characteristics showed striking differences between KLS and KSS inbred lines, and the reciprocal cross experiment revealed a strong maternal influence on both seed weight and seed size. Quantification of endosperm area, starchy endosperm cell size, and kernel dry mass accumulation indicated a positive correlation between seed size, endosperm cell number, and grain filling rate, and patterns of grain filling in reciprocal crosses mirrored that of the maternal parent. Consistent with the maternal contribution to seed weight, transcriptome profiling of reciprocal F1 hybrids showed substantial similarities to the maternal parent. A set of differentially expressed genes between KLS and KSS inbreds were found, which fell into a broad number of functional categories including DNA methylation, nucleosome assembly, and heat stress response. In addition, gene co-expression network analysis of parental inbreds and reciprocal F1 hybrids identified co-expression modules enriched in ovule development and DNA methylation, implicating these two processes in seed size determination. These results expand our understanding of seed size regulation and help to uncover the developmental and molecular basis underlying maternal control of seed size in maize. PMID:26826570

  20. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  1. Physical properties of fruit and seeds ingested by primate seed predators with emphasis on sakis and bearded sakis.

    PubMed

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Veres, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Several primate radiations exhibit dental adaptations that enable them to gain access to seeds embedded in well-protected fruit. To a database drawn from published sources in which hardness of fruit and seeds were tested in the field, we added an additional 100+ species of plants used as resources by pitheciin primates (specifically, South American white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes spp.). This sample allowed us to compare hardness of fruit and seeds and deduce the relative incisive and masticatory capability of several primate taxa (New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, prosimians and chimpanzees). Pitheciins have very well developed and highly modified anterior dentition that they use in gaining access to mechanically-protected fruit. In addition, their molars bear thin, but decussated enamel that protects the tooth enamel from crack proliferation. The ability of sakis (Chiropotes spp. and Pithecia pithecia) to open fruit orally was comparable to larger-bodied Old World seed predators-Lophocebus and Cercocebus. But, baboons and chimpanzees masticate seeds that are two to three orders of magnitude harder than sakis or mangabeys. In spite of their puncture abilities, ∼40% of foods ingested by pitheciins were in the range of a ripe fruit eater (Ateles paniscus). This raises the possibility that pitheciins exemplify Liem's paradox, that is, "that phenotypic specialization [is] not accompanied by ecological specialization" (Robinson and Wilson, 1998:224). Last, we examined the possibility that seeds may serve as fallback resources for primate seed predators. While pericarp hardness may vary seasonally for some seed predators (e.g., mangabeys), our data on bearded sakis and white-faced sakis suggest that seeds are their primary resources year round and pericarp hardness is unrelated to seasonal variation in rainfall. Pitheciins evolved specialized dentition that affords them access to relatively abundant and high-quality resources, a

  2. Involvement of nitric oxide in enhanced germination and seedling growth of magnetoprimed maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinke; Kadur Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad; Kataria, Sunita; Baghel, Lokesh

    2017-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive gaseous free radical, which in plants was found to stimulate seed germination and ending of dormancy. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of NO inhibitors sodium tungstate (ST) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on untreated and magnetoprimed maize (Zea mays var: GSF-2) seeds. Treatment of maize seeds with these inhibitors inhibited germination related parameters like seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigour indices and α-amylase activity of maize seeds under laboratory conditions, whereas NO donor (SNP) promoted all these parameters. Among three different inhibitors used ST was most effective and showed an inhibition in seedling length of 67% and 71% at 1 mM concentration for untreated (UT) and magnetically treated (MT) seeds respectively. Data presented here indicate the involvement of nitric oxide in enhanced germination and seedling growth of magnetoprimed maize seeds. ROS are continuosly produced by the cell of germinating seeds and play a positive role in germination of magnetoprimed maize seeds. ROS inhibitor (DPI) inhibited seedling length by 34% and 40% for control and MT seeds respectively. α-amylase activity was also inhibited by all the three inhibitors used. It is concluded that NO inhibitors and ROS inhibitor inhibited magnetic field induced promotion of seedling parameters and α- amylase activity of maize seeds.

  3. Genetic analysis of seed yield, oil content and their components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Ramachandram, M; Goud, J V

    1981-05-01

    The genetic architecture of seed yield, oil content and their components was studied in a diallel cross of F1 and F2: eleven parents, representing an adequate diversity for all considered characters in safflower were used. Combining ability analysis revealed the predominance of gca variance for plant height, total capitula, seed weight, seed number and seed yield in F1 and F2 generations and for days to flowering and oil content in F1. The analysis of components of variance indicated that the non-additive factor was the major influence on total capitula and seed yield in F1s, and F2s, and on plant height, seed weight and seed number in the F2 alone. The heterogeneity of the dominance component over generations has been attributed to coupling phase linkage. All four Indian parents, namely S 144, A1, MS 49 and 6 spl, together with G 1157 and US 104 in the exotic group, were the best combiners for seed yield and/or for one of its components while the remainder of the exotic parents were characterized by high gca effects for oil content. VFstp 1 and Frio were the only parents approximating both properties of oil content and seed yield. Breeding methods, such as biparental mating followed by reciprocal recurrent selection, were suggested for the simultaneous improvement of seed yield and oil content.

  4. Effects of frugivorous birds on seed retention time and germination in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    SHI, Ting-Ting; WANG, Bo; QUAN, Rui-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The dispersal of many plants depends on transportation by birds as seed dispersers. The birds play an important role in long distance seed dispersal and may also affect seed germination. However, for plants who have many bird dispersers, the influence of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on retention time (dispersal distance) and germination remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed experiments with captive frugivorous birds and fruiting plant species to study the effects of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on seed retention time (SRT) and germination (seed germination percentage and germination speed). Our study showed a great interspecific variation in the effects of frugivorous birds on both SRT and germination. Some birds enhance the germination of a given plant species, but others do not. Generally, the dominant visitors improved the seed germination and performed longer seed retention time. PMID:26228475

  5. Effects of frugivorous birds on seed retention time and germination in Xishuangbanna, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting-Ting; Wang, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2015-07-18

    The dispersal of many plants depends on transportation by birds as seed dispersers. The birds play an important role in long distance seed dispersal and may also affect seed germination. However, for plants who have many bird dispersers, the influence of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on retention time (dispersal distance) and germination remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed experiments with captive frugivorous birds and fruiting plant species to study the effects of dominant and non-dominant dispersers on seed retention time (SRT) and germination (seed germination percentage and germination speed). Our study showed a great interspecific variation in the effects of frugivorous birds on both SRT and germination. Some birds enhance the germination of a given plant species, but others do not. Generally, the dominant visitors improved the seed germination and performed longer seed retention time.

  6. Measurement of single soybean seed attributes by near infrared technologies. A comparative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near infrared spectrophotometers, and their associated spectral collection methods, were tested and compared for measuring three soybean single seed attributes: weight (g), protein (%), and oil (%). Using partial least squares (PLS) and 4 preprocessing methods, the attribute which was significa...

  7. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  8. How detrimental are seed galls to their hosts? Plant performance, germination, developmental instability and tolerance to herbivory in Inga laurina, a leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Santos, J C; de Araujo, N A V; Venâncio, H; Andrade, J F; Alves-Silva, E; Almeida, W R; Carmo-Oliveira, R

    2016-11-01

    Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity. We measured the influence of such galls on the secondary compounds, fruit and seed parameters, seed viability and germination and seedling performance. Inga laurina has indehiscent legumes with polyembryonic seeds surrounded by a fleshy sarcotesta rich in sugars. The galls formed inside the seed coat and galled tissues presented higher phenol concentrations, around 7-fold that of ungalled tissues. Galls caused a significant reduction in parameters such as fruit and seed size, seed weight and the number of embryos. Fluctuating asymmetry (a stress indicator) was 31% higher in leaves of galled seed plants in comparison to ungalled seed plants. However, the negative effects on fruit and seed parameters were not sufficient to reduce seed germination (except the synchronization index) or seedling performance (except leaf area and chlorophyll content). We attributed these results to the ability of I. laurina to tolerate gall attack on seeds without a marked influence on seedling performance. Moreover, because of the intensity of seed galling on host plant, we suggest that polyembryony may play a role in I. laurina reproduction increasing tolerance to seed damage.

  9. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer {sup 14}C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds.

  10. Environmental regulation of dormancy loss in seeds of Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Melissa; Donahue, Jacklyn; Shaw, Nancy L.; Serpe, Marcelo D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant of wide distribution in Western North America. At the time of dispersal, L. dissectum seeds are dormant and have under-developed embryos. The aims of this work were to determine the requirements for dormancy break and germination, to characterize the type of seed dormancy, and to determine the effect of dehydration after embryo growth on seed viability and secondary dormancy. Methods The temperature requirements for embryo growth and germination were investigated under growth chamber and field conditions. The effect of GA3 on embryo growth was also analysed to determine the specific type of seed dormancy. The effect of dehydration on seed viability and induction of secondary dormancy were tested in seeds where embryos had elongated about 4-fold their initial length. Most experiments examining the nature of seed dormancy were conducted with seeds collected at one site in two different years. To characterize the degree of variation in dormancy-breaking requirements among seed populations, the stratification requirements of seeds collected at eight different sites were compared. Key Results Embryo growth prior to and during germination occurred at temperatures between 3 and 6 °C and was negligible at stratification temperatures of 0·5 and 9·1 °C. Seeds buried in the field and exposed to natural winter conditions showed similar trends. Interruption of the cold stratification period by 8 weeks of dehydration decreased seed viability by about 30 % and induced secondary dormancy in the remaining viable seeds. Comparison of the cold stratification requirements of different seed populations indicates that seeds collected from moist habitats have longer cold stratification requirements that those from semiarid environments. Conclusions Seeds of L. dissectum have deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. The requirements for dormancy break and germination reflect an adaptation to trigger

  11. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  12. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  13. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  14. High tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in Pinus pinea L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Tlili, Nizar; Ben Ammar, Kamel; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Fady, Bruno; Triki, Saida

    2009-01-01

    Oleaginous seeds are among the functional foods most recognized for their tocopherols and triacylglycerols because of their role in lipid metabolism. In this paper, the tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in seeds of several Pinus pinea L. populations around the Mediterranean Basin were investigated. Lipids were extracted from fully ripen seeds with petroleum ether. The tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 15.34+/-3.75 ppm, 1,681.75+/-404.03 ppm and 41.87+/-9.79 ppm. Lipids (mainly triacylglycerols) in P. pinea seeds averaged 48% on a dry weight basis. Triacylglycerols with an equivalent carbon number of 44 (32.27%) and of 46 (30.91%) were dominant. The major triacylglycerol was LLO (24.06%). Tocopherols and triacylglycerols were present at remarkably high levels, thus making P. pinea oil a valuable source of antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids with varying levels across the geographical range of P. pinea.

  15. Starch Synthesis in Shriveled and Plump Triticale Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Poklemba, Chris J.; Metzger, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Seven lines of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) with either shriveled or plump seed characteristics were planted in the field, and seed developmental changes in weight, starch content, the activity of starch biosynthetic and degradative enzymes, and ATP content were studied in three consecutive years in Oregon. Experimental results varied among genotypes and with growing environment, but overall indicated that: (a) amylase activity was higher in shriveled lines, but was not directly synchronized with the occurrence of shriveling at later stages of seed formation; (b) ADP-glucose starch synthase contributed to starch accumulation in triticale, but it appeared not to be associated with shriveledness as no stage-related changes were observed; and (c) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity was 2- to 3-fold higher in plump lines than that of shriveled lines, indicating that this enzyme may play an important role in the degree of plumpness or stach accumulation of triticale seeds. PMID:16663276

  16. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts “upstream” of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  18. Dynamics of a freely-falling maple seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-11-01

    We conduct numerical simulations of a freely-falling maple seed using an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame. A three-dimensional seed model is obtained by scanning a maple seed. The seed reaches a steady autorotation after a transient period, and a stable leading-edge vortex is attached on the surface of the rotating seed, which increases the drag force during autorotation. In addition, two different approaches are considered to obtain scaling laws describing the relation among the seed weight and geometry, and descending and rotating velocities. The first uses the conservations of mass, linear and angular momentum, and energy. In this approach, a model constant to be determined, called axial induction factor, is obtained from the result of present simulation. The second approach employs a classical steady wing theory in which the vortical strength is scaled with the circulation around a wing and the lift force is modeled by the time derivative of vortical impulse. Available data on various seeds well fall on these scaling laws. Supported by NRF-2014M3C1B1033848.

  19. Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Horii, A; McCue, P; Shetty, K

    2007-02-01

    Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  1. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  2. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage.

  3. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  4. Thermal Changes of Maize Seed by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this research, the thermal evolution in maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) was studied when low-intensity laser irradiation was applied during 60 s. The seeds were irradiated in three different conditions: suspended in air, placed on an aluminum surface, and finally placed on a cardboard; the evolution of the seed temperature was measured by an infrared camera. Photoacoustic spectroscopy and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient (β ) of the seeds. The results indicate that using 650 nm laser light and 27.4 mW, it is possible to produce temperature changes (up to 9.06°C after 1 min) on the seeds. Comparing the mean temperature of the seeds, during and after the incidence of light from a laser, it was found that there were statistically significant differences (P≤ 0.05) from time t1 to time t_{16} (t1 to t_{16}) and t3 to t_{16}, for the laser turned on and off, respectively. The seed condition that had the highest temperature variation, relative to the initial temperature (during the irradiation laser exposure), involved the seeds suspended in air. With regard to the stage of decay of the temperature, it was found that the seed condition that decays more slowly was the seed placed on the cardboard. It was also found that black-dyed maize seeds are optically opaque in the 300 nm to 700 nm range Also, the thermal diffusion length is smaller than the optical penetration length. In the present investigation, it was shown that there is a thermal component associated with the mechanisms of laser biostimulation, which is also a function of the container materials of the seed. In this way, the effects of laser treatment on maize seeds involve at least a temperature effect. It is important to know the temperature changes in the seeds that have been irradiated with a laser beam since they could have substantial practical and theoretical importance.

  5. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production.

  7. Breaking dormancy in freshly matured seeds of Elymus sibiricus, an important forage grass in the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Q; Wang, Y R

    2015-09-22

    Elymus sibiricus L. is an important forage grass widely distributed in Asia and is usually a dominant species on Tibetan Plateau alpine grasslands. Here, we used the seed development indices of 1000 seed weight, seed moisture content, and seed viability to compare the seed characteristics at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after anthesis (DAA) in five populations of E. sibiricus growing in Gannan, China. Additionally, seeds collected at 60 DAA were air-dried for one month, and the primary germination percentage (GP) was determined in the laboratory. Treatment of seeds with 0.2% KNO3, 100 mg/L cytokinin, and 500 mg/L GA3 were tested for their effects on dormancy. A primary GP of 16% was found after 12 d of 15/25°C incubation, with no differences among the five populations. The 1000 seed weight and seed viability steadily increased and moisture content continuously fell with DAA. The optimal harvest time for E. sibiricus in an alpine pasture was 50 DAA. No effect on dormancy was found after treating seeds with 0.2% KNO3 or 100 mg/L cytokinin; however, a low concentration of GA3 induced a prompt and synchronized germination. Freshly matured E. sibiricus seeds were classified to be in non-deep physiologically dormant. Treatment of seeds with GA3 before sowing enhanced the emergence speed and seedling uniformity in E. sibiricus.

  8. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C.

  9. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data Sy