Science.gov

Sample records for seika hokokusho seibutsu

  1. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591

  2. Computed tomography (CT) observation of pulmonary emboli caused by long-term administration of ivermectin in dogs experimentally infected with heartworms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuto; Yamada, Kazutaka; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Maeda, Ryuichiro

    2008-08-17

    Some studies have reported the adulticidal effect of long-term ivermectin (IVM) administration on adult heartworms in canines; however, there are no detailed reports on the course of the pulmonary artery embolism caused by the bodies of dead heartworms during the administration period. In this study, the pulmonary embolism caused over time by the dead worms was observed using computed tomography (CT). We subcutaneously inoculated 2 beagles with 100 infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. The dogs were orally administered a formulation containing 272 microg of IVM and 652 mg of pyrantel pamoate (Panamectin Chewables P272; Meiji Seika, Tokyo, Japan) at monthly intervals, beginning from 10 months after the subcutaneous inoculation. Along with IVM administration, periodic CT examination of the chest was performed. At 15 months after the initiation of IVM administration, the dogs were euthanized, the living heartworms were collected, and histopathological examination was performed. Starting from 1 month after the IVM administration, peripheral dilation of the pulmonary artery (suspected to be pulmonary embolism) and pneumonia were observed in the CT images; however, these findings improved over time. The appearance and disappearance of these lesions were observed in all the lobes during the IVM administration period. During this period, the clinical symptoms of pulmonary embolism were not recognized. After 1 month of IVM administration, chest radiographic examination revealed radiopaque lesions in 1 dog. Only some of the lesions detected by CT could be detected by radiography. Using echocardiography, heartworms were observed in the pulmonary arteries of both dogs from 6 months after subcutaneous inoculation to the end of the study period. Microfilaria disappeared from the peripheral blood at 1 month after IVM administration in 1 dog, and at 7 months in the other dog. The adult heartworm antigen test yielded positive results starting from 6 months after