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Sample records for seismic discrimination context

  1. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    for second-order Sturm - Liouville boundary-value problems, such a count of eigenvalues may be established in terms of the number of zero crossings of...will be operational during the next six months. Section 11 describes a series of activities in the development and imple- mentation of the seismic...element of seismic research. with emphasis on those areas directly related to tho operations of the SDC. Substantial progress has been made in the

  2. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    dyn-cm. It can be seen that there is a wide range of the potential con- tribution of different seismic zones to excitation of the Chandler wobble ...Correction to the Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Earthquakes," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 32, 203-217 (1973). 22. S. C. Solomon, N. H. Sleep

  3. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-31

    Determining Phase and Group Velocities of Surface Seismic Waves 21 B. Group-Velocity Measurements Across Eurasia from Mashad SRO 22 C. Group-Velocity...Albuquerque), MAIO ( Mashad ), GUMO (Guam), NWAO (Australia), SNZO (New Zealand), and TATO (Taiwan). Fairly extensive data are now a|ailable for the...include a new rapid algorithm for the determination of group and phase velocity, a series of observations of Rayleigh-wave dispersion at the Mashad

  4. Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, F.M.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

    1996-06-11

    To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

  5. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  6. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  7. Application of Neutral Networks to Seismic Signal Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-15

    seismic classifications include [26,27]: Table 1 Seismic Event Classifications Natural events: tectonic volcanic collapse earthquakes ocean...classification of seismic events. This classification involves discriminating between natural seismic events such as tectonic, volcanic and collapse...movement, volcanic activity, collapse earthquakes, and oceanic microseisms. Man made seismic events can be the result of a controlled event or that of an

  8. Logistic Regression Applied to Seismic Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    BG Amindan; DN Hagedorn

    1998-10-08

    The usefulness of logistic discrimination was examined in an effort to learn how it performs in a regional seismic setting. Logistic discrimination provides an easily understood method, works with user-defined models and few assumptions about the population distributions, and handles both continuous and discrete data. Seismic event measurements from a data set compiled by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) of Chinese events recorded at station WMQ were used in this demonstration study. PNNL applied logistic regression techniques to the data. All possible combinations of the Lg and Pg measurements were tried, and a best-fit logistic model was created. The best combination of Lg and Pg frequencies for predicting the source of a seismic event (earthquake or explosion) used Lg{sub 3.0-6.0} and Pg{sub 3.0-6.0} as the predictor variables. A cross-validation test was run, which showed that this model was able to correctly predict 99.7% earthquakes and 98.0% explosions for this given data set. Two other models were identified that used Pg and Lg measurements from the 1.5 to 3.0 Hz frequency range. Although these other models did a good job of correctly predicting the earthquakes, they were not as effective at predicting the explosions. Two possible biases were discovered which affect the predicted probabilities for each outcome. The first bias was due to this being a case-controlled study. The sampling fractions caused a bias in the probabilities that were calculated using the models. The second bias is caused by a change in the proportions for each event. If at a later date the proportions (a priori probabilities) of explosions versus earthquakes change, this would cause a bias in the predicted probability for an event. When using logistic regression, the user needs to be aware of the possible biases and what affect they will have on the predicted probabilities.

  9. DISE, an interactive discrimination program for seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonseggern, D.

    1981-12-01

    DISE (Discrimination and Identification of Seismic Events) is an interactive computer program with graphics support and currently runs on a VAX-11/780 computer at the SDAC. Using various commands which are available, the seismic analyst may employ location data or waveform measurements to identify unknown events. Groups of epicenters may be formed, and a lower level of subgroups is formed when particular stations or variables are selected for discrimination purposes. The program supports two basic approaches to event identification using waveform-derived data: multivariate discriminant functions of multivariate clustering.

  10. Application of pattern recognition to seismic event discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Shin'ya; Ohtake, Kazuo

    The hypocenter determination is one of the most basic analyses in seismology. In recent years, the ability of hypocenter determination has improved rapidly. The more we try to raise the ability of automatic hypocenter determination, the more essential the discrimination of the seismic signal from the background noise becomes. Even if the technique of automatic picking or calculation of hypocenter determination is upgraded in the automatic processing, the reliability of hypocenter determination worsens when there are a lot of misreading of the phase by the noise. We propose a new approach or “a method of seismic event discrimination with pattern recognition” that determines seismic events precisely, which may serve for increasing the reliability of automatic reading of seismogram and hypocenter determination. In the current method of seismic signal discrimination, the information of seismic wave arriving at the station is positively used. However we can not say that we have explicity used the information that the seismic wave still has not arrived at the station. We try to use this information effectively. Our method will be useful for the observation of the seismic wave-field on a real time. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A04BD016 00010

  11. Discrimination of Seismic Sources Using Israel Seismic Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    of Dynamic Theory of Propagation of Seismic Waves, 7:115-123 (in Russian). Gelchinsky, B., Landa , E. and Shtivelman, V., 1985. Algorithms of Phase... DIEGO , CA 92123 DOUGLAS BAUMGARDT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORY ENSCO INC. ATTN: TECHNICAL STAFF (PLS ROUTE) 5400 PORT ROYAL ROAD DEPT. 5791 SPRINGFIELD, VA...1212 ROOM HA372 RESTON, VA 22091 2001 WISCONSIN AVE. NW WASHINGTON, DC 20007 JONATHAN BERGER ROBERT BLANDFORD UNIVERSITY OF CA, SAN DIEGO AFTAC

  12. Robust discrimination of human footsteps using seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghfouri, Aram E.; Frish, Michael B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides a statistical analysis method for detecting and discriminating different seismic activity sources such as humans, animals, and vehicles using their seismic signals. A five-step process is employed for this purpose: (1) a set of signals with known seismic activities are utilized to verify the algorithms; (2) for each data file, the vibration signal is segmented by a sliding-window and its noise is reduced; (3) a set of features is extracted from each window of the signal which captures its statistical and spectral properties. This set is formed as an array and is called a feature array; (4) a portion of the labeled feature arrays are utilized to train a classifier for discriminating different types of signals; and (5) the rest of the labeled feature arrays are employed to test the performance of the developed classifier. The results indicate that the classifier achieves probability of detection (pd) above 95% and false alarm rate (pfa) less than 1%.

  13. Fractal Approach to the Regional Seismic Event Discrimination Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    some H > 0 and this formula might be modified as X(t) = r-HX(rt),t E R (2) where H is the Hurst exponent . Traditionally it is estimated by the...2 3 IogT Figure 2. Hurst exponent H curves for different seismic events: Pakl - nuclear explosion 30.05.98 (Pakistan), ind - nuclear explosion...seismic discrimination. Our findings are summarized in the conclusion section. 261 2 Hurst’s exponents of seismograms We started from the study of self

  14. Using group velocities of seismic phases for regional event discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Shapira, Avi; Gitterman, Yefim

    1999-06-01

    We examined over the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) the seismogram envelopes vs. group velocity V= R/ T, where R is the epicenter distance and T the travel time, and found out a persistent difference between quarry blasts and earthquakes. The data include 53 seismic events occurring in northern Israel with magnitudes of ML=1.0-2.6 and at distances of 15-310 km. Within the 1-4 km/s range we measured the velocity Vms at which the envelope reaches its maximum for each ISN station. A simple linear discrimination function c= b+0.33 a, based on an empirical relationship between the Vms and R: Vms= a+ b ln( R) provides effective separation between the regional earthquakes and explosions. These results are attributed to different excitation of regional surface waves from these two types of seismic events.

  15. Geofluid Discrimination Incorporating Poroelasticity and Seismic Reflection Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-09-01

    Geofluid discrimination plays an important role in the fields of hydrogeology, geothermics, and exploration geophysics. A geofluid discrimination approach incorporating linearized poroelasticity theory and pre-stack seismic reflection inversion with Bayesian inference is proposed in this study to identify the types of geofluid underground. Upon the review of the development of different geofluid indicators, the fluid modulus is defined as the geofluid indicator mainly affected by the fluid contained in reservoirs. A novel linearized P-wave reflectivity equation coupling the fluid modulus is derived to avoid the complicated nonlinear relationship between the fluid modulus and seismic data. Model examples illustrate the accuracy of the proposed linearized P-wave reflectivity equation comparing to the exact P-wave reflectivity equation even at moderate incident angle, which satisfies the requirements of the parameter estimations with P-wave pre-stack seismic data. Convoluting this linearized P-wave reflectivity equation with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a pragmatic pre-stack Bayesian seismic inversion method is presented to estimate the fluid modulus directly. Cauchy and Gaussian probability distributions are utilized for prior information of the model parameters and the likelihood function, respectively, to enhance the inversion resolution. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method is coupled in the optimization of the objective function to weaken the strong degree of correlation among the four model parameters and enhance the stability of those parameter estimations simultaneously. The synthetic examples demonstrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed novel seismic coefficient equation and inversion approach. The real data set illustrates the efficiency and success of the proposed approach in differentiating the geofluid filled reservoirs.

  16. Seismics-electrics Joint Interpretation in a gypsiferous context.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzan, Ignacio; Marti, David; Lobo, Agustin; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Carbonell, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to improve the geophysical characterization resulting from a shallow 3D high resolution travel-time tomography survey (500x500m). This survey was acquired in Villar de Cañas (Cuenca, Spain) in late 2013 and early 2014. Lithology down to 150 m depth in this site is characterized by endorheic sediments, mainly siltstone and gypsum. After processing the tomography data, the velocity model showed a good correlation with geology models and borehole data except for the siltstone-gypsum transition. The model involves two lithological limits: the "transition layer - massive gypsum layer" (well resolved by a relatively high velocity contrast) and the "siltstone layer - transition layer" (constrained only in the central part of the model by a relatively low velocity contrast). As electrical resistivity is able to characterize shale-gypsum transitions, we complemented the seismic data with results from a collection of 2D ERT surveys, for which we build a new 3D grid with 2 parameters by node: velocity and resistivity. In order to derive a geological interpretation, we apply a statistical classification method (Linear Discriminant Analysis) to the new bi-parametric grid, using reference classes from well logs. This process results on a final 3D lithological model with less ambiguity and thus with a better definition of the two limits under discussion. Our study shows that the integration of seismic and electric methods significantly improves geological characterization in a gypsiferous context.

  17. Discriminating Characteristics of Tectonic and Human-Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaliapin, I. V.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze statistical features of background and clustered subpopulations of earthquakes in different regions in an effort to distinguish between human-induced and natural seismicity. Analysis of "end-member" areas known to be dominated by human-induced earthquakes (the Geyser geothermal field in northern California and TauTona gold mine in South Africa) and regular tectonic activity (the San Jacinto fault zone in southern California and Coso region excluding the Coso geothermal field in eastern central California) reveals several distinguishing characteristics. Induced seismicity is shown to have (i) higher rate of background events (both absolute and relative to the total rate), (ii) faster temporal offspring decay, (iii) higher intensity of repeating events, (iv) larger proportion of small clusters, and (v) larger spatial separation between parent and offspring, compared to regular tectonic activity. These differences also successfully discriminate seismicity within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields in California before and after the expansion of geothermal production during the 1980s.

  18. The effects of extrinsic context on nicotine discrimination.

    PubMed

    Duka, T; Seiss, E; Tasker, R

    2002-02-01

    There is evidence from memory studies that context acquired in parallel with the encoded material will facilitate retrieval. However, relatively little is known of how context affects drug discrimination behaviour in humans. The present study employs conventional drug discrimination procedures to investigate the effects of music, as an external cue, on nicotine drug discrimination. Subjects were trained to discriminate a low dose of nicotine (1 mg) from placebo while listening to two different types of music [elated (EL) and depressant (DE): thought to induce happy and sad mood respectively]. Half of the subjects received EL music with nicotine and DE with placebo and the other half vice versa. At the end of training, subjects who reached the criterion (80% of trials identified correctly) entered the generalization phase and were required to discriminate different doses of nicotine (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg) by indicating how similar each sample was to the training dose. Generalization took place in the presence of either EL or DE music. Nicotine-appropriate responding during generalization was linearly related to dose, with subjects being able to distinguish 0.5mg of nicotine from placebo. Nicotine-appropriate responding at generalization was higher when the context (type of music) was the same as the one employed during discrimination training when nicotine was administered (i.e. a context-dependent generalization effect was present). In addition, it was shown that the context-dependent effect was due to the properties of the EL music. These data provide the first evidence that extrinsic context can facilitate nicotine discrimination in humans. In addition, the findings suggest that this facilitatory effect is not a general effect but is sensitive to specific attributes of the context.

  19. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  20. Effects of extended context discrimination training and context extinction on transfer of context dependency of conditioned flavor aversion.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid (a sodium chloride solution) was affected by two post-discrimination training treatments, an extended context discrimination training, and non-reinforced exposure to the conditioning context (context extinction). We found that the context-dependent flavor aversion that had been specific to sucrose transferred to the test fluid after the extensive training (Experiment 1). Context extinction eliminated the transfer effect that had been observed immediately after the context discrimination training (Experiment 2). In addition, an aversion acquired by sucrose through a simple conditioning of sucrose-LiCl pairings did not generalize to the test fluid (Experiment 3). These results emphasize the importance of a Pavlovian excitatory association between the conditioning context and nausea as a primary source of transfer of the context dependency, rather than a generalization of aversion acquired by the conditioned fluid to the test fluid.

  1. Application of Neural Networks to Seismic Signal Discrimination Research Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-11

    waveforms, and the training and testing of neural networks for seismic event classification. It was necessary to utilize seismic events that had a high...degree of reliability for accurate training of the neural networks . The seismic waveforms were obtained from the Center for Seismic Studies and were

  2. Discrimination of phoneme length differences in word and sentence contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Norimune; Carrell, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The ability of listeners to discriminate phoneme duration differences within word and sentence contexts was measured. This investigation was part of a series of studies examining the audibility and perceptual importance of speech modifications produced by stuttering intervention techniques. Just noticeable differences (jnd's) of phoneme lengths were measured via the parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) task, an adaptive tracking procedure. The target phonemes were digitally manipulated to vary from normal (130 m) to prolonged (210 m) duration in 2-m increments. In the first condition the phonemes were embedded in words. In the second condition the phonemes were embedded within words, which were further embedded in sentences. A four-interval forced-choice (4IAX) task was employed on each trial, and the PEST procedure determined the duration at which each listener correctly detected a difference between the normal duration and the test duration 71% of the time. The results revealed that listeners were able to reliably discriminate approximately 15-m differences in word context and 10-m differences in sentence context. An independent t-test showed a difference in discriminability between word and sentence contexts to be significant. These results indicate that duration differences were better perceived within a sentence context.

  3. Seismic signature analysis for discrimination of people from animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju; Mehmood, Asif; Sabatier, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Cadence analysis has been the main focus for discriminating between the seismic signatures of people and animals. However, cadence analysis fails when multiple targets are generating the signatures. We analyze the mechanism of human walking and the signature generated by a human walker, and compare it with the signature generated by a quadruped. We develop Fourier-based analysis to differentiate the human signatures from the animal signatures. We extract a set of basis vectors to represent the human and animal signatures using non-negative matrix factorization, and use them to separate and classify both the targets. Grazing animals such as deer, cows, etc., often produce sporadic signals as they move around from patch to patch of grass and one must characterize them so as to differentiate their signatures from signatures generated by a horse steadily walking along a path. These differences in the signatures are used in developing a robust algorithm to distinguish the signatures of animals from humans. The algorithm is tested on real data collected in a remote area.

  4. Context-dependent discrimination and the evolution of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2006-03-01

    Many mimetic organisms have evolved a close resemblance to their models, making it difficult to discriminate between them on the basis of appearance alone. However, if mimics and models differ slightly in their activity patterns, behavior, or use of microhabitats, the exact circumstances under which a signaler is encountered may provide additional clues to its identity. We employ an optimality model of mimetic discrimination in which signal receivers obtain information about the relative risk of encountering mimics and models by observing an external background cue and flexibly adjust their response thresholds. Although such flexibility on the part of signal receivers has been predicted by theory and is supported by empirical evidence in a range of biological settings, little is known about the effects it has on signalers. We show that the presence of external cues that partly reveal signaler identity may benefit models and harm mimics, harm both, or even benefit both, depending on ecological circumstances. Moreover, if mimetic traits are costly to express, or mimics are related to their neighbors, context-dependent discrimination can dramatically alter the outcome of mimetic evolution. We discuss context-dependent discrimination among signal receivers in relation to small-scale synchrony in model and mimic activity patterns.

  5. Sample discrimination of frequency differences with irrelevant context-revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Donna L.; Odgaard, Eric C.; Jesteadt, Walt

    2002-05-01

    This experiment replicated earlier work to provide additional data for post hoc analyses of perceptual weights for conditions with large effects of context on performance. The non-adaptive, 2AFC task was sample discrimination of frequency differences (SD-F) in quiet and with added context stimuli. Listeners were to select the interval in which a pair of target tones was drawn from the higher of two Gaussian frequency distributions (means of 2000 and 2150 Hz). Pairs of context stimuli were added at frequency regions above and below the targets, at distances of 600, 1000 and 1400 Hz. Context stimuli were fixed-frequency tones, noise bands, or random-frequency tones. All stimuli were 100 ms with 5-ms ramps, presented simultaneously. Conditions were tested with and without Gaussian level jitter (standard deviation=3 dB). Mean levels of target and context stimuli were equated or systematically varied across conditions. The results confirm earlier work, with little effect of fixed-frequency tones or noise-band context at any distance from the targets. Random-frequency context tones produced large detrimental effects even at remote distances, due predominantly to effects of the lower-frequency context tone. Level variation had little effect. Different approaches to calculating perceptual weights influences data interpretation. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  6. Discriminating Between Induced vs. Tectonic Seismicity From Long-Term History of Fault Behavior in Intraplate Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.; DeShon, H. R.; Hayward, C.; Blanpied, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009 there has been an increase in rate of seismicity in the Central US (CUS), a major fraction of which has been associated with shale gas production and related wastewater injection. Within this context it is important to discriminate between seismic activity that is anthropogenically induced from that arising from natural tectonic deformation. This discrimination is particularly challenging because tectonic strain rates and natural seismicity rates are low in this intraplate region, such that tectonically active faults may display periods of quiescence that are long (100's to 1000's of years) relative to the short (10's of years) instrumental record. In addition, causative faults are unknown with a poor surface expression, both types of seismicity occur on or reactivate ancient faults in the Precambrian basement, and the instrumental seismic record is sparse. While seismicity provides information about the short-term history of deformation on the involved faults, the long-term is missing. Seismic reflection data offer a means by which to interrogate the long-term history of these faults, which can be discriminatory. In this paper we present examples from two regions of the CUS. The first region shows examples of tectonically active faults within the northern Mississippi Embayment south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, which were imaged by a high-resolution seismic reflection survey along the Mississippi River. The faults deform Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Tertiary through Paleozoic, with increasing amount of deformation with formation age, suggesting a long history of activity. The second region shows examples from the North Texas basin, a region of ongoing shale gas exploitation. Here, industry seismic reflection data image basement faults showing deformation of the Precambrian and Paleozoic sequences, and little to no deformation of younger formations. Specifically, vertical offsets, if any, in the post

  7. SEISMIC SOURCE SCALING AND DISCRIMINATION IN DIVERSE TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R E; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Viegas, G M; Murphy, K

    2008-07-08

    The objectives of this study are to improve low-magnitude (concentrating on M2.5-5) regional seismic discrimination by performing a thorough investigation of earthquake source scaling using diverse, high-quality datasets from varied tectonic regions. Local-to-regional high-frequency discrimination requires an estimate of how earthquakes scale with size. Walter and Taylor (2002) developed the MDAC (Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Corrections) method to empirically account for these effects through regional calibration. The accuracy of these corrections has a direct impact on our ability to identify clandestine explosions in the broad regional areas characterized by low seismicity. Unfortunately our knowledge at small magnitudes (i.e., m{sub b} < {approx} 4.0) is poorly resolved, and source scaling remains a subject of on-going debate in the earthquake seismology community. Recently there have been a number of empirical studies suggesting scaling of micro-earthquakes is non-self-similar, yet there are an equal number of compelling studies that would suggest otherwise. It is not clear whether different studies obtain different results because they analyze different earthquakes, or because they use different methods. Even in regions that are well studied, such as test sites or areas of high seismicity, we still rely on empirical scaling relations derived from studies taken from half-way around the world at inter-plate regions. We investigate earthquake sources and scaling from different tectonic settings, comparing direct and coda wave analysis methods that both make use of empirical Green's function (EGF) earthquakes to remove path effects. Analysis of locally recorded, direct waves from events is intuitively the simplest way of obtaining accurate source parameters, as these waves have been least affected by travel through the earth. But finding well recorded earthquakes with 'perfect' EGF events for direct wave analysis is difficult, limits the number of earthquakes

  8. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    PubMed

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  9. SEISMIC SOURCE SCALING AND DISCRIMINATION IN DIVERSE TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R E; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Viegas, G M; Murphy, K

    2007-07-10

    The objectives of this study are to improve low-magnitude regional seismic discrimination by performing a thorough investigation of earthquake source scaling using diverse, high-quality datasets from varied tectonic regions. Local-to-regional high-frequency discrimination requires an estimate of how earthquakes scale with size. Walter and Taylor (2002) developed the MDAC (Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Corrections) method to empirically account for these effects through regional calibration. The accuracy of these corrections has a direct impact on our ability to identify clandestine explosions in the broad regional areas characterized by low seismicity. Unfortunately our knowledge of source scaling at small magnitudes (i.e., m{sub b} < {approx}4.0) is poorly resolved. It is not clear whether different studies obtain contradictory results because they analyze different earthquakes, or because they use different methods. Even in regions that are well studied, such as test sites or areas of high seismicity, we still rely on empirical scaling relations derived from studies taken from half-way around the world at inter-plate regions. We investigate earthquake sources and scaling from different tectonic settings, comparing direct and coda wave analysis methods. We begin by developing and improving the two different methods, and then in future years we will apply them both to each set of earthquakes. Analysis of locally recorded, direct waves from events is intuitively the simplest way of obtaining accurate source parameters, as these waves have been least affected by travel through the earth. But there are only a limited number of earthquakes that are recorded locally, by sufficient stations to give good azimuthal coverage, and have very closely located smaller earthquakes that can be used as an empirical Green's function (EGF) to remove path effects. In contrast, coda waves average radiation from all directions so single-station records should be adequate, and

  10. Discrimination of porosity and fluid saturation using seismic velocity analysis

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the invention is employed for determining the state of saturation in a subterranean formation using only seismic velocity measurements (e.g., shear and compressional wave velocity data). Seismic velocity data collected from a region of the formation of like solid material properties can provide relatively accurate partial saturation data derived from a well-defined triangle plotted in a (.rho./.mu., .lambda./.mu.)-plane. When the seismic velocity data are collected over a large region of a formation having both like and unlike materials, the method first distinguishes the like materials by initially plotting the seismic velocity data in a (.rho./.lambda., .mu./.lambda.)-plane to determine regions of the formation having like solid material properties and porosity.

  11. Seismic events discrimination by neuro-fuzzy-based data merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, S.; Legrand, J.-F.; Muller, J.-D.; Cansi, Y.; Crusem, R.; Garda, P.

    This article involves an original method to classify low magnitude seismic events recorded in France by a network of seismometers. This method is based on the merging of high-level data with possibly incomplete low-level data extracted from seismic signals. The merging is performed by a multi-layer neural network. A fuzzy coding is applied to the neural network's inputs to process efficiently incomplete data. The results reveal that the fuzzy coding coupled with the data merging increases the correct classification rate to more than 90% even when the database contains missing values.

  12. Seismic Detection and Discrimination Using Ocean-Bottom Seismographs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    58, 1193-1241. Johnson, S.H. and P.R. Jones (1978). Microearthquakes located on the Blanco fractura zone with sonobuoy arrays, J. Geophys. Res. 83...and F.K. Duennebier (1968). Seismic and bathy.ezric evidence of a fracture zone on Gorda ridge, Science 161, 66S-690. Raff, A.D. an-1 R.G. Mason (1961

  13. SEISMIC DISCRIMINATION OF THERMAL AND MAGNETIC ANOMALIES IN SUNSPOT UMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.; Cally, P. S.; Rempel, M.

    2010-08-20

    Efforts to model sunspots based on helioseismic signatures need to discriminate between the effects of (1) a strong magnetic field that introduces time-irreversible, vantage-dependent phase shifts, apparently connected to fast- and slow-mode coupling and wave absorption and (2) a thermal anomaly that includes cool gas extending an indefinite depth beneath the photosphere. Helioseismic observations of sunspots show travel times considerably reduced with respect to equivalent quiet-Sun signatures. Simulations by Moradi and Cally of waves skipping across sunspots with photospheric magnetic fields of order 3 kG show travel times that respond strongly to the magnetic field and relatively weakly to the thermal anomaly by itself. We note that waves propagating vertically in a vertical magnetic field are relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, while remaining highly responsive to the attendant thermal anomaly. Travel-time measurements for waves with large skip distances into the centers of axially symmetric sunspots are therefore a crucial resource for discrimination of the thermal anomaly beneath sunspot umbrae from the magnetic anomaly. One-dimensional models of sunspot umbrae based on compressible-radiative-magnetic-convective simulations such as by Rempel et al. can be fashioned to fit observed helioseismic travel-time spectra in the centers of sunspot umbrae. These models are based on cooling of the upper 2-4 Mm of the umbral subphotosphere with no significant anomaly beneath 4.5 Mm. The travel-time reductions characteristic of these models are primarily a consequence of a Wilson depression resulting from a strong downward buoyancy of the cooled umbral medium.

  14. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD in

  15. A Real-Time Discrimination System of Earthquakes and Explosions for the Mainland Spanish Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Vargas, Marta; Rueda, Juan; García Blanco, Rosa María; Mezcua, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Different waveform-based discrimination parameters were tested using multivariate statistical analysis to develop a real-time procedure for discriminating explosions from earthquakes at regional distances in the Iberian Peninsula. This work enabled a purge of the Spanish National Seismic Catalogue for the period 2003-2014. The training data consisted of waveform-based signal properties in the time and frequency domain for events (earthquakes and explosions) recorded during the selected time period by the Spanish Broadband National Network and Sonseca short-period Array of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). For each station and its associated training dataset, a discriminant function was defined as a linear combination of the measured variables. All station-specific discriminant functions were then combined with a weighting scheme to test the training events, revealing that 86 % of the events were consistent with the analysts' judgement. The application of this method to the whole of the IGN's seismic database for the studied period gave an 83 % success rate; however, a 91 % success rate is reached if events are classified using at least three stations and 100 % confidence levels.

  16. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  17. REGIONAL SEISMIC AMPLITUDE MODELING AND TOMOGRAPHY FOR EARTHQUAKE-EXPLOSION DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E; Gok, R; Sweeney, J; Ford, S R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-07-08

    We continue exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using regional amplitude ratios such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. Empirically we demonstrate that such ratios separate explosions from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are also examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling (e. g. Ford et al 2008). For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East. Monitoring the world for potential nuclear explosions requires characterizing seismic

  18. Seismic discrimination between earthquakes and explosions in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Harris, D.B.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-07-01

    The recently signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty provides for an international network of primary and auxiliary seismic monitoring stations (IMS) to verify its compliance. Calibration is required to confidently use these stations to identify and discriminate between earthquakes, mine-related events and clandestine nuclear explosions, particularly for small to moderate seismic events recorded regionally at only a few stations. Given the lack of regional recordings of underground nuclear tests in most of the world, we are making use of mining and industrial explosions to test discriminants. For example we use the Multimax compiled dataset of small earthquakes and quarry explosions in Israel to test regional discriminants at local distances with mixed results. Further complicating calibration is the fact that many INK sites have not yet been installed and others have very short operating histories. When IMS data is available, there is often a lack of independent information (ground truth ) on the seismic sources. Here we describe a procedure for calibrating stations with limited data and apply it to the IMS auxiliary station MDT in Morocco. Data was initially available for three months in 1990 when MDT was operated as part of MEDNET. An event detector was run over the continuous data and regional events identified and roughly located using S-P time and back azimuth. The procedure uses spatial and temporal clustering to identify ''known'' mine blasts. The spatial clustering is done using the waveform correlation technique of Harris (1991) to find events with similar sources and locations. Temporal clustering looks at the time of day and repetition in time of events with the mine blasts occurring during working hours and days repeatedly over a period of time. A set of ''known'' earthquakes is also determined using location, time of day, distribution in time and size criteria. With these independent libraries of identified seismic events, we evaluate promising regional

  19. Discrimination and Assessment of Induced Seismicity in Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study from Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Lindsey, N.; Foxall, W.; Robertson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes induced by human activity have become a matter of heightened public concern during recent years. Of particular concern is seismicity associated with wastewater injection, which has included events having magnitudes greater than 5. The causes of the induced events are primarily changes in pore-pressure, fluid volume and perhaps temperature due to injection. Recent research in the US has focused on mid-continental regions having low rates of naturally-occurring seismicity, where induced events can be identified by relatively straightforward spatial and temporal correlation of seismicity with high-volume injection activities. Recent examples include events correlated with injection of wastewater in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Ohio, and long-term brine injection in the Paradox Valley in Colorado. Even in some of the cases where there appears at first sight to be a clear spatial correlation between seismicity and injection, it has been difficult to establish causality definitively. Here, we discuss methods to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. We concentrate our study on Southern California, where large numbers of wastewater injection wells are located in oil-producing basins that experience moderate to high rates of naturally-occurring seismicity. Using the catalog of high-precision CISN relocations produced by Hauksson et al. (BSSA, 2012), we aim to discriminate induced from natural events based on spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity occurrence characteristics and their relationships to injection activities, known active faults and other faults favorably oriented for slip under the tectonic stress field. Since the vast majority of induced earthquakes are very small, it is crucial to include all events above the detection threshold of the CISN in each area studied. In addition to exploring the correlation of seismicity to injection activities in time and space, we analyze variations in frequency-magnitude distributions, which can

  20. Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity by means of nonlinear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuntaev, S. B.; Melchaeva, O. Yu.; Vorohobina, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Uch-Terek Rivers in Kyrgyzstan; (3) the seismicity in the region of the Geysers geothermal complex in California, US; (4) the seismicity in the region of Bishkek geophysical test site, Kyrgyzstan, recorded before and after strong electromagnetic discharges. The nonlinear analysis of the data sets on seismicity showed that technogeneous action on the geophysical medium increases the regularity of the seismic regime. It looks like the formation of stable states characterized by a finite fractal dimension of the attractor and reasonable small dimension of the embedding space. The presence of the stable states opens the possibility of forecasting the development of induced seismic activity. We also present the results of nonlinear analysis of the rate-and-state model, which allows us to describe the mechanics of the studied phenomenon. In this context, the model of motion in the fault zones that obey the two-parameters friction law suggests that if the external action causes the critical stresses to decrease e.g. due to the growth of the pore pressure or due to heating of the fault zone, we should expect the deterministic component of the seismic process to increase.

  1. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    Order 512 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Advanced Research Projects Agency 1400 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22209 12. REPORT DATE...31 December 1974 13. NliMRFR OF PAGES 45i 14. MONITORING AGENCf NAME & ADDRESS (if different from Controlling Office) Electronic Systems...scattered in a direct! )n controlled by the "grain" of the medium, rather than by the direction of the incident wave. A paper containing more details

  2. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-30

    M > 7.8 used to calculate the excitation of the S 21 Chandler wobble are taken from the catalog compiled by Duda and supplemented by informa...the pole in January 1901 and the frequency w0 and damping Q of the Chandler wobble . The synthetic wobble m(t)is computed from: m(t) = m(t0) exp[iw(t...t0)] + £ sfeH(t - tfc) • {l - (l + -^ ) exp [iw(t -tk)] where w is the complex circular frequency of the Chandler wobble : u = w0(l + i/2Q

  3. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    Seismol. Soc. Am. 66, 1873-1879 (1976), DDC AD-A040520/9. 159. R.J. O’Connell and A.M. Dziewonski, "Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Large Earthquakes...for the excitation of the Chandler motion of the Earth was compared with the calculated contribution due to large earthquakes. A good correlation was

  4. The evolutionary context for a Self-Nonself discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This essay was written to illustrate how one might think about the immune system. The formulation of valid theories is the basic component of how-to-think because the reduction of large and complex data sets by the use of logic into a succinct model with predictability and explanatory power, is the only way that we have to arrive at “understanding.” Whether it is to achieve effective manipulation of the system or for pure pleasure, “understanding” is a universally agreed upon goal. It is in the nature of science that theories are there to be disproven. An experimentally disproven theory is a successful one. As they fail experimental test one by one, we end up with a default theory, that is, one that has yet to fail. Here using the self-nonself discrimination as an example, how-to-think as I see it, will be illustrated. PMID:20585970

  5. Complimentary roles of the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex in behavioral context discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David M; Barredo, Jennifer; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2012-05-01

    Complex cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, arise from the interaction of multiple brain regions that comprise functional circuits and different components of these circuits make unique contributions to learning. The hippocampus and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are anatomically interconnected and both regions are involved in learning and memory. Previous studies indicate that the hippocampus exhibits unique firing patterns for different contexts and that RSC neurons selectively respond to cues that predict reinforcement or the need for a behavioral response, suggesting a hippocampal role in encoding contexts and an RSC role in encoding behaviorally significant cues. To test this, we simultaneously recorded hippocampal and RSC neuronal activity as rats learned to discriminate two behavioral contexts. The rats learned to approach the east arm of a plus maze for reward during the first half of each session and to approach the west arm during the second half. The "go east" and "go west" conditions constitute distinct behavioral contexts, which were cued by the reward location. Neurons in both regions developed highly context-specific responses as subjects learned to discriminate the contexts, but the response patterns differed in the two brain regions. Consistent with a context processing role, hippocampal neurons developed context-specific responses to a variety of task stimuli and events. In contrast, RSC neurons only developed context-specific responses to the reward location, which served as the context identifying cue. These results suggest that the hippocampus and RSC play distinct, but complimentary roles in mediating context appropriate memories and behaviors.

  6. A source discrimination study of a Chinese seismic event of May 4, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, S. K.; Basu, T. K.

    1984-11-01

    A weak seismic event that occurred on May 4, 1983, close to the Lop Nor underground test site in Southern Sinkiang province, China, has been studied for source discrimination. Digital waveforms, obtained at Gauribidanur array, India, of this event, of six known shallow-focus earthquakes from Southern Sinkiang and of two known underground nuclear explosions in Lop Nor, were processed for further analysis. The estimates of signal complexity and TMF (third moment of frequency) parameters of the May 4 event were found to be quite different from those of the known explosions whereas they were consistent with those of the known earthquakes. On this basis the event under investigation appeared to be a crustal-focus earthquake.

  7. Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Mostafa; Horton, Stephen P.; Langston, Charles A.; Samei, Borhan

    2016-10-01

    We develop an automated strategy for discriminating deep microseismic events from shallow ones on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers. Machine-learning techniques are employed to explore the relationship between event hypocentres and seismic features of the recorded signals in time, frequency and time-frequency domains. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes -1.7 < Mw < 1.29, induced by an underground cavern collapse in the Napoleonville Salt Dome in Bayou Corne, Louisiana. Forty different seismic attributes of whole seismograms including degree of polarization and spectral attributes were measured. A selected set of features was then used to train the system to discriminate between deep and shallow events based on the knowledge gained from existing patterns. The cross-validation test showed that events with depth shallower than 250 m can be discriminated from events with hypocentral depth between 1000 and 2000 m with 88 per cent and 90.7 per cent accuracy using logistic regression and artificial neural network models, respectively. Similar results were obtained using single station seismograms. The results show that the spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Spectral centroids and 2-D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain are two new seismic features used in this study that showed to be promising measures for seismic event classification. The used machine-learning techniques have application for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations.

  8. School context protective factors against peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan

    2012-03-01

    Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.

  9. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  10. Scrap the cable: Identification and discrimination of seismic phases by autonomous floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.; Bohenstiehl, D.

    2003-04-01

    Coverage, resolution and robustness of models of the wave speed distribution in the interior of the Earth, obtained by seismic tomographic inversions of travel times or waveforms, are inherently limited by the areal distribution of seismic stations. Two thirds of Earth's surface are virtually inaccessible to passive-source seismometry, save for expensive ocean-bottom seismometers or moored hydrophones. With the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Dr.~Jeff Babcock) we are developing a hydroacoustical recording device mounted on SOLO floats, which is able to maintain a constant depth below the sound channel, and will surface only to communicate teleseismic events by a satellite link. A few such instruments, deployed in the Southern Hemisphere and maintained for 1-2 years, will improve the resolution of deep Earth structure more dramatically than the addition of an equivalent number of three-component broadband seismic stations in already densely sampled continental areas. Our work focuses on the design of intelligent algorithms for the automatic identification and discrimination of seismic phases to be recorded by such autonomously floating hydrophones. We aim to recognize teleseismic arrivals in the presence of P, S, and T phases, ship and whale noise, and other contaminating factors such as airgunning. We present approaches in the time domain, by means of spectrogram analysis, and with wavelet methods. We discuss issues related to recording and triggering mechanisms, noise characterization, and methods for the analysis as well as representation of hydroacoustic data by the discrete wavelet transform. We pay special attention to the efficiency of our algorithms and their numerical implementation, and emphasize their impact on power consumption and hence the lifespan of the instrument. Until actual data become available, we test our algorithms on data from tethered hydrophones belonging to two arrays anchored to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise. We

  11. Discriminating work context factors in the working environment of Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, V; Brown-Mahoney, C; Van Dam, K; Van Zundert, A; Knape, J

    2008-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of patients and more demanding health care system it is important to keep nurse anesthetists as mentally and physically fit as possible. Especially with a shortage of nurse anesthetists it is important to know which work context factors are important for maintaining a healthy balance between the nurse anesthetist and his work environment. This study is the first to determine which work context factors of nurse anesthetists are most relevant for a healthy work environment. A questionnaire survey, containing work related items, was distributed among all nurse anesthetists working in Dutch hospitals. All together 882 questionnaires (response rate 44%) were completed and analyzed, including factor analysis for the discriminating work context factors. Four discriminating work context factors (career/rewards, relation with supervisor, task contents and social environment) were found to be relevant, explaining 48% of the variance in work context. All four work context factors are considered to be job resources, although not hospital related. Supervisors (head nurses) interpret these work context factors differently from nurse anesthetists, which can result in dissatisfaction of the latter group. Nurse anesthetists participate more in sub-functions and activities in larger peripheral and academic anesthesia departments. Smaller anesthesia departments require nurse anesthetists to be more flexible and perform many different functions within the anesthesia domain.

  12. Lack of generalization of object discrimination between spatial contexts by a bat.

    PubMed

    Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

    2006-12-01

    Discrimination and generalization are important elements of cognition in the daily lives of animals. Nectar-feeding bats detect flowers by olfaction and probably vision, but also use echolocation and echo-perception of flowers in immediate target surroundings. The echo received from an interference-rich flower corolla is a function of a bat's own relative position in space. This raises the question how easily a free-flying bat will generalize an echo stimulus from a learning situation to a new spatial context where differences in relative flight approach trajectories may lead to an unfamiliar spectral composition of the self-generated echoes. We trained free-flying Glossophaga soricina in echoacoustic discrimination in a two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) paradigm at location A. We then tested at location B for spontaneous transfer of discrimination ability. Bats did not spontaneously transfer the discrimination ability acquired at A to location B. This lack of spontaneous generalization may have been caused by factors of the underlying learning mechanisms. 2-AFC tasks may not be representative of the natural foraging behaviour of flower-visiting bats. In contrast to insect-eating bats that constantly evaluate the environment to detect unpredictable prey, the spatial stability of flowers may allow flower visitors to rely on spatial memory to guide foraging. The 2-AFC task requires the disregard (learned irrelevance) of salient spatial location cues that are different at each new location. In Glossophaga, a conjunction between spatial context and 2-AFC discrimination learning may have inhibited the transfer of learned irrelevance of spatial location in the 2-AFC task to new spatial locations. Alternatively, the bats may have learnt the second discrimination task completely anew, and were faster only because of an acquired learning set. We suggest a dissociation between 2-AFC task acquisition and novel object discrimination learning to resolve the issue.

  13. Full Moment Tensor Inversion as a Practical Tool in Case of Discrimination of Tectonic and Anthropogenic Seismicity in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Tectonic seismicity in Poland is sparse. The biggest event was located near Myślenice in 17th century of magnitude 5.6. On the other hand, the anthropogenic seismicity is one of the highest in Europe related, for example, to underground mining in Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Legnica Głogów Copper District (LGCD), open pit mining in "Bełchatów" brown coal mine and reservoir impoundment of Czorsztyn artificial lake. The level of seismic activity in these areas varies from tens to thousands of events per year. Focal mechanism and full moment tensor (MT) decomposition allow for deeper understanding of the seismogenic process leading to tectonic, induced, and triggered seismic events. The non-DC components of moment tensors are considered as an indicator of the induced seismicity. In this work, the MT inversion and decomposition is proved to be a robust tool for unveiling collapse-type events as well as the other induced events in Polish underground mining areas. The robustness and limitations of the presented method is exemplified by synthetic tests and by analyzing weak tectonic earthquakes. The spurious non-DC components of full MT solutions due to the noise and poor focal coverage are discussed. The results of the MT inversions of the human-related and tectonic earthquakes from Poland indicate this method as a useful part of the tectonic and anthropogenic seismicity discrimination workflow.

  14. The context of employment discrimination: interpreting the findings of a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2015-03-01

    Although field experiments have documented the contemporary relevance of discrimination in employment, theories developed to explain the dynamics of differential treatment cannot account for differences across organizational and institutional contexts. In this article, I address this shortcoming by presenting the main empirical findings from a multi-method research project, in which a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in the Norwegian labour market was complemented with forty-two in-depth interviews with employers who were observed in the first stage of the study. While the experimental data support earlier findings in documenting that ethnic discrimination indeed takes place, the qualitative material suggests that theorizing in the field experiment literature have been too concerned with individual and intra-psychic explanations. Discriminatory outcomes in employment processes seems to be more dependent on contextual factors such as the number of applications received, whether requirements are specified, and the degree to which recruitment procedures are formalized. I argue that different contexts of employment provide different opportunity structures for discrimination, a finding with important theoretical and methodological implications.

  15. Vowel formant discrimination II: Effects of stimulus uncertainty, consonantal context, and training.

    PubMed

    Kewley-Port, D

    2001-10-01

    This study is one in a series that has examined factors contributing to vowel perception in everyday listening. Four experimental variables have been manipulated to examine systematical differences between optimal laboratory testing conditions and those characterizing everyday listening. These include length of phonetic context, level of stimulus uncertainty, linguistic meaning, and amount of subject training. The present study investigated the effects of stimulus uncertainty from minimal to high uncertainty in two phonetic contexts, /V/ or /bVd/, when listeners had either little or extensive training. Thresholds for discriminating a small change in a formant for synthetic female vowels /I,E,ae,a,inverted v,o/ were obtained using adaptive tracking procedures. Experiment I optimized extensive training for five listeners by beginning under minimal uncertainty (only one formant tested per block) and then increasing uncertainty from 8-to-16-to-22 formants per block. Effects of higher uncertainty were less than expected; performance only decreased by about 30%. Thresholds for CVCs were 25% poorer than for isolated vowels. A previous study using similar stimuli [Kewley-Port and Zheng. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2945-2958 (1999)] determined that the ability to discriminate formants was degraded by longer phonetic context. A comparison of those results with the present ones indicates that longer phonetic context degrades formant frequency discrimination more than higher levels of stimulus uncertainty. In experiment 2, performance in the 22-formant condition was tracked over 1 h for 37 typical listeners without formal laboratory training. Performance for typical listeners was initially about 230% worse than for trained listeners. Individual listeners' performance ranged widely with some listeners occasionally achieving performance similar to that of the trained listeners in just one hour.

  16. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  17. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  18. Magnitude-based discrimination of man-made seismic events from naturally occurring earthquakes in Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Keith D.; Pechmann, James C.; Burlacu, Relu; Pankow, Kristine L.; Stein, Jared; Hale, J. Mark; Roberson, Paul; McCarter, Michael K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate using the difference between local (ML) and coda/duration (MC) magnitude to discriminate man-made seismic events from naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes in and around Utah. For 6846 well-located earthquakes in the Utah region, we find that ML-MC is on average 0.44 magnitude units smaller for mining-induced seismicity (MIS) than for tectonic seismicity (TS). Our interpretation of this observation is that MIS occurs within near-surface low-velocity layers that act as a waveguide and preferentially increase coda duration relative to peak amplitude, while the vast majority of TS occurs beneath the near-surface waveguide. A second data set of 3723 confirmed or probable explosions in the Utah region also has significantly lower ML-MC values than TS, likely for the same reason as the MIS. These observations suggest that ML-MC is useful as a depth indicator and could discriminate small explosions and mining-induced earthquakes from deeper, naturally occurring earthquakes at local-to-regional distances.

  19. EPSCoR Supplemental Grant for an Application of Neural Networks to Seismic Signal Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-11

    man made Natural seismic events include tectoaiic plate movement, volcanic activity, collapse earthquakes, and oceanic microseisms Man made seismic...10° Regional events 100 to 200 Teleseimic > 200 "Table 1 Types of Seismic Events Natural events: tectonic volcanic collapse earthquakes ocean...116.1750 C’CTA CHARTERS TOWERS - QUEENSLAND . AUSTRALIA 20.0880 146.2540 SESLA SONSECA ARRAY STATION - SPAIN 39.67(X) -3.96(X) GAP, GARM - GARM. USSR 39

  20. Immune to ageism? Men's perceptions of age-based discrimination in everyday contexts.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Hanna; Pietilä, Ilkka; Nikander, Pirjo

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term, conceptually and theoretically refined discussions, the phenomenon of ageism still remains empirically under-developed. To better understand the diversity of ageism, its contextual variations and gender-specific dynamics in people's daily lives, this study focuses on how different interactional contexts shape men's perceptions of ageism. Using data from 67 thematic personal interviews with 23 middle and working class men aged 50-70, this study contributes to the sorely lacking, empirically based and nuanced understanding of how ageism is experienced, and adds to the research on the internalization of ageism which to date has primarily focused on older women's experiences. Key findings are as follows: 1) men are not totally immune to ageism, but rather, 2) the experiences and interpretations of ageism are structured by the interactional context in question, 3) acts and expressions interpreted as discriminative in one context become defused in others, and that 4) in family contexts positive ageism represents a naturalized order of things within intergenerational relations. The study contributes to the existing body of work on age negotiations and on the ways in which chronological age as a cultural resource functions in interaction. It also underlines that adopting a gender and context sensitive approach into ageism opens up promising avenues for further conceptual development.

  1. Discrimination between NTS explosions, earthquakes and the non-proliferation experiment at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.

    1994-09-01

    As the United States moves into an atmosphere of concern about the spread of nuclear weapons to non-nuclear countries, the focus on monitoring nuclear explosions is changing from looking at specific test sites and yields to looking for tests of large and small yields from anywhere in the world. Discrimination of small events then becomes important and regional seismic monitoring the best method to detect and identify suspicious events. At the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility (PSRF) in Wyoming we have the opportunity to try different regional discriminants with nuclear tests from NTS, western US (W-US) earthquakes and the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Four discriminants that gave the best results in a study by Taylor et al. were tried: m{sub b}:M{sub s}, M{sub b}:M{sub s}{sup h}, log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}) and spectral ratios. The different discriminants were applied to the data (14 NTS explosions, the NPE, one Department of Defense (DOB) explosion and 34 NWS earthquakes) regardless of signal-to-noise. When the NTS explosions and NPE were only compared to four earthquakes located on or near the Test Site, all the discriminants except log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}) worked fairly well at PSRF. When the other WUS earthquakes and DOD explosion are included, only m{sub b}:M{sub s} shows any promise. Because of frequent physical variations in the earth`s crust, regional signals are complex and easily influenced by site and path characteristics. Looking at events from one specific area reduces the effects of the path, which is why three discriminants work well when the data set is restricted to events on or near NTS. The only discriminant not adversely affected from variations in path is m{sub b}:M{sub s}. This is probably because it is believed that source dimension, source time function and/or source mechanism is the cause for the differences between earthquakes and explosions with this discriminant, rather than any path effects.

  2. Distributed hippocampal patterns that discriminate reward context are associated with enhanced associative binding

    PubMed Central

    Wolosin, Sasha M.; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that reward-based motivation impacts medial temporal lobe (MTL) encoding processes, leading to enhanced memory for rewarded events. In particular, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of motivated learning have shown that MTL activation is greater for highly rewarded events, with the degree of reward-related activation enhancement tracking the corresponding behavioral memory advantage. These studies, however, do not directly address leading theoretical perspectives that propose such reward-based enhancements in MTL encoding activation reflect enhanced discrimination of the motivational context of specific events. In this study, a high-value or low-value monetary cue preceded a pair of objects, indicating the future reward for successfully remembering the pair. Using representational similarity analysis and high-resolution fMRI, we show that MTL activation patterns are more similar for encoding trials preceded by the same versus different reward cues, indicating a distributed code in this region that distinguishes between motivational contexts. Moreover, we show that activation patterns in hippocampus and PHc that differentiate reward conditions during anticipatory cues and object pairs relate to successful associative memory. Additionally, the degree to which patterns differentiate reward contexts in dentate gyrus/CA2,3 and PHc is related to individual differences in reward modulation of memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed activation patterns in the human hippocampus and PHc reflect the rewards associated with individual events. Furthermore, we show that these activation patterns—which discriminate between reward conditions—may influence memory through the incorporation of information about motivational contexts into stored memory representations. PMID:23834024

  3. Seismic Discrimination of Earthquakes and Explosions, with Application to the Southwestern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-22

    to seismic activity in north- ern New Mexico , appears to excite LQ to the same degree, that is, lower than at NTS. The low LQ amplitudes of RULISON and...been published, this study provides an appropriate forum from which to review it, to synthesize it, and to integrate it with any new results from this...the high seismicity of this region, the proximity of existing seismograph stations, and the addition of many new recording sites in the form of LRSM

  4. Sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs using seismic and well-logs data. A case study from the Worth basin in the Barnett shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    Here, we present a case study of sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs located in the Worth basin of the Barnett shale using seismic and well-logs data. Seismic attributes such the Chaos and the ANT-Tracking are used for natural fractures system identification from seismic data, the maps of the stress and the Poisson ratio obtained from the upscaling of well-logs data of a horizontal well are able to provide an information about the drilling direction which is usually in the minimum horizontal stress profile, the map of the Poisson ratio can provide an information hardness of the source rock. The set of well logs data is used for geo-mechanical and petrophysical discrimination of the sweet spots, after discrimination the identified zones are useful for reserves estimation from unconventional shale gas reservoir.

  5. Configurations of the interoceptive discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol and nicotine with two different exteroceptive contexts in rats: Extinction & recovery.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Joseph R; Craig, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-01

    Interoceptive states interact with exteroceptive contexts in modulating operant behavior, which is maintained by its consequences. Evaluating discriminative stimulus control by overlapping interoceptive and exteroceptive configurations (gestalts) and the contribution of each modality may be clinically important for understanding aspects of relapsing behavior (e.g., drug abuse). With rats, the current investigation used a completely counterbalanced one-manipulandum operant drug discrimination procedure that established discriminative stimulus control between nicotine (0.3mg/kg) in one exteroceptive context and EtOH (1.0g/kg) in a differing exteroceptive context. One combined interoceptive-exteroceptive condition occasioned sessions of food reinforcement (S(D)) and the other counterbalanced condition occasioned sessions of non-reinforcement (S(Δ)). Each stimulus modality contributed to discriminative control, but to lesser extents than the combined intero-exteroceptive compound configurations (Experiments 1 & 2). In Experiment 1, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive stimulus conditions alone in a neutral exteroceptive context, but then renewed by reconfiguring the drugs with the exteroceptive contexts, and reversed in the opposing exteroceptive contexts. In Experiment 2, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive and exteroceptive contexts separately. Reconfiguration of the full intero-exteroceptive compound configurations did not promote recovery. These results suggest that interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative control can be methodologically configured in modulating operant behavior during acquisition, extinction, and recovery of behavior; however, configuring interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative stimuli do not appear to function as unique cues that differ from each stimulus modality alone. Clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants.

  7. The influence of rock material models on seismic discrimination of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.

    1995-06-01

    We found that the spectral characteristics of the seismic signal from underground explosions were mainly determined by the rock material strength and the gas porosity. Both the unloading characteristics and the amplitude of the ``elastic toe`` are important parameters in the porous model.

  8. Spectral discrimination analysis of Eurasian nuclear tests and earthquakes recorded by the Israel Seismic Network and the NORESS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Pinsky, V.; Shapira, A.

    1999-06-01

    The energy spectral ratio and the innovative spectral semblance discriminants, successfully performed previously on a local Israeli events, were verified on teleseismic short-period recordings. The events tested include 29 nuclear explosions and 41 earthquakes ( mb=5.2-6.5), mainly from China and Kazakhstan, recorded by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) and the NORESS array. A 15-s window comprising P- and P-coda waves was selected for the analysis. The `semblance' statistic commonly used in seismic prospecting for phase correlation in the time domain was modified and utilized as a measure of coherency of the smoothed spectra across the network/array. The semblance and the average spectral ratio of low-to-high frequency energy were evaluated, using a subset of 7-10 stations for a given event. Semblance and spectral ratio values, calculated from ISN seismograms, were found to be higher for earthquakes, where the analyzed waves are richer in low-frequency energy and have more coherent spectral shapes than explosions. These observations are contrary to those observed for local events. The best performance is provided in the frequency bands (0.6-1 Hz)/(1-3 Hz) (for the ratio) and (0.6-2 Hz) (for the semblance). Joint application of the two discriminants showed almost full separation (95%) between the two populations. Some explosions exhibited pronounced minima (nulls) near 1 Hz which could be interpreted in terms of interference of P- and pP-waves from a source at the depth of several hundreds of meters. Nevertheless, this feature could not be utilized as a discriminant: many explosions revealed strong variability of this minimum across the ISN network and some earthquakes also distinctly exhibited this feature. The ISN and NORESS discrimination performances were compared. The latter records showed the same (as the ISN) relation between spectral ratio values for earthquakes and explosions, whereas the character of semblance was reversed. The ratios in the frequency

  9. Discriminant Context Information Analysis for Post-Ranking Person Re-Identification.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge; Martinel, Niki; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian

    2017-01-16

    Existing approaches for person re-identification are mainly based on creating distinctive representations or on learning optimal metrics. The achieved results are then provided in form of a list of ranked matching persons. It often happens that the true match is not ranked first but it is in the first positions. This is mostly due to the visual ambiguities shared between the true match and other "similar" persons. At the current state, there is a lack of a study of such visual ambiguities which limit the re-identification performance within the first ranks. We believe that an analysis of the similar appearances of the first ranks can be helpful in detecting, hence removing, such visual ambiguities. We propose to achieve such a goal by introducing an unsupervised post-ranking framework. Once the initial ranking is available, content and context sets are extracted. Then, these are exploited to remove the visual ambiguities and to obtain the discriminant feature space which is finally exploited to compute the new ranking. An in-depth analysis of the performance achieved on three public benchmark datasets support our believes. For every dataset, the proposed method remarkably improves the first ranks results and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. Discriminating between natural and anthropogenic earthquakes: insights from the Emilia Romagna (Italy) 2012 seismic sequence.

    PubMed

    Albano, Matteo; Barba, Salvatore; Tarabusi, Gabriele; Saroli, Michele; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2017-03-21

    The potential for oilfield activities to trigger earthquakes in seismogenic areas has been hotly debated. Our model compares the stress changes from remote water injection and a natural earthquake, both of which occurred in northern Italy in recent years, and their potential effects on a nearby Mw 5.9 earthquake that occurred in 2012. First, we calculate the Coulomb stress from 20 years of fluid injection in a nearby oilfield by using a poroelastic model. Then, we compute the stress changes for a 2011 Mw 4.5 earthquake that occurred close to the area of the 2012 mainshock. We found that anthropogenic activities produced an effect that was less than 10% of that generated by the Mw 4.5 earthquake. Therefore, the 2012 earthquake was likely associated with a natural stress increase. The probability of triggering depends on the magnitude of recent earthquakes, the amount of injected water, the distance from an event, and the proximity to the failure of the activated fault. Determining changes that are associated with seismic hazards requires poroelastic area-specific models that include both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. This comprehensive approach is particularly important when assessing the risk of triggered seismicity near densely populated areas.

  11. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  12. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  13. Discriminating induced seismicity from natural earthquakes using moment tensors and source spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Eaton, David W.; Li, Ge; Liu, Yajing; Harrington, Rebecca M.

    2016-02-01

    Earthquake source mechanisms and spectra can provide important clues to aid in discriminating between natural and induced events. In this study, we calculate moment tensors and stress drop values for eight recent induced earthquakes in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin with magnitudes between 3.2 and 4.4, as well as a nearby magnitude 5.3 event that is interpreted as a natural earthquake. We calculate full moment tensor solutions by performing a waveform-fitting procedure based on a 1-D transversely isotropic velocity model. In addition to a dominant double-couple (DC) signature that is common to nearly all events, most induced events exhibit significant non-double-couple components. A parameter sensitivity analysis indicates that spurious non-DC components are negligible if the signal to noise ratio (SNR) exceeds 10 and if the 1-D model differs from the true velocity structure by less than 5%. Estimated focal depths of induced events are significantly shallower than the typical range of focal depths for intraplate earthquakes in the Canadian Shield. Stress drops of the eight induced events were estimated using a generalized spectral-fitting method and fall within the typical range of 2 to 90 MPa for tectonic earthquakes. Elastic moduli changes due to the brittle damage production at the source, presence of multiple intersecting fractures, dilatant jogs created at the overlapping areas of multiple fractures, or non-planar pre-existing faults may explain the non-DC components for induced events.

  14. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  15. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  16. Speed Limits: Orientation and Semantic Context Interactions Constrain Natural Scene Discrimination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Jochem W.; Kochy, Nick; Schalk, Franziska; Gruschow, Marcus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The visual system rapidly extracts information about objects from the cluttered natural environment. In 5 experiments, the authors quantified the influence of orientation and semantics on the classification speed of objects in natural scenes, particularly with regard to object-context interactions. Natural scene photographs were presented in an…

  17. The hippocampus is required for visually cued contextual response selection, but not for visual discrimination of contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sehee; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Inah

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus is important for spatial navigation. Literature shows that allocentric visual contexts in the animal's background are critical for making conditional response selections during navigations. In a traditional maze task, however, it is difficult to identify exactly which subsets of visual contexts are critically used. In the current study, we tested in rats whether making conditional response selections required the hippocampus when using computer-generated visual contextual stimuli in the animal's background as in primate and human studies. We designed a new task, visual contextual response selection (VCRS) task, in which the rat ran along a linear track and encountered a touchscreen monitor at the end of the track. The rat was required to touch one of the adjacent rectangular box images depending on the visual contextual stimuli displayed in the two peripheral monitors positioned on both sides of the center touchscreen monitor. The rats with a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (MUS), infused bilaterally in the dorsal hippocampi showed severe performance deficits in the VCRS task and the impairment was completely reversible with vehicle injections. The impairment in contextual response selection with hippocampal inactivations occurred regardless of whether the visual context was presented in the side monitors or in the center touchscreen monitor. However, when the same visual contextual stimuli were pitted against each other between the two side monitors and as the rats simply ran toward the visual context associated with reward on a T-shaped track, hippocampal inactivations with MUS showed minimal disruptions, if any, in performance. Our results suggest that the hippocampus is critically involved in conditional response selection using visual stimuli in the background, but it is not required for the perceptual discrimination of those stimuli. PMID:23060765

  18. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  19. Pavlovian Extinction of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine and Ethanol in Rats Varies as a Function of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troisi, Joseph R., II

    2011-01-01

    Operant extinction contingencies can undermine the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. Here, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and ethanol (0.8 g/kg) first functioned as either an S[superscript D] or S[superscript Delta], in a counterbalanced one-lever go/no-go (across sessions) operant drug discrimination procedure. Pavlovian extinction in the training…

  20. How to combat the negative impact of discrimination in a collectivist context? The safeguarding function of peer-oriented hope.

    PubMed

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; Jose Mateo, Nino

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the moderating role of locus-of-hope on the relations between everyday discrimination and well-being outcomes in a collectivist setting. There were 444 Filipino undergraduate students who participated in the research. Findings showed that discrimination was negatively linked to subjective well-being and flourishing while loci-of-hope (internal, external-spiritual, external-family, and external-peers) were positively associated with well-being indices. Further, external-peer locus-of-hope moderated the relations between everyday discrimination and well-being outcomes such that for those who had higher external-peer locus-of-hope, everyday discrimination may still be linked to greater well-being. The theoretical and practical implications are elucidated.

  1. Regionalization and calibration of seismic discriminants, path effects and signal-to-noise for station ABKT (Alibek, Turkmenistan)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A.J.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-01

    We report measurements and analysis of regional seismic phase amplitude ratios and signal-to-noise for earthquakes observed at the International Monitoring System primary station ABKT (Alibek, Turkmenistan). We measured noise and phase amplitudes of the regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg in four frequency bands between 0.75-9.0 Hz. Measurements were made in both the time and frequency domains. The spatial variation of amplitude ratios (e.g., Pn/Lg, Pg/Lg, Pn/Sn, Pg/Sn) and signal-to-noise (phase/noise) reveal significant path effect differences between the Hindu Kush, Kazahk Platform, Iranian Plateau and Caspian Sea. In order to represent this behavior, we have investigated several techniques for characterizing the data. These techniques are: 1) correlation with along-path distance and waveguide properties; 2) sector analysis; and 3) spatial averaging. Along-path waveguide properties, such as mean elevation and rms topographic slope are found to be the strongest factors related to Pg/Lg amplitude ratios at the lowest frequencies (<3.0 Hz). Other path properties such as mean crustal thickness and basement depth are not strongly correlated with Pg/Lg ratios. For sector analysis we divided the data into four (4) azimuthal sectors and characterized the data within each sector by a distance trend. Sectors were chosen based on the behavior of Pn/Lg, Pg/Lg and Pn/Sn amplitude ratios as well as topographic and tectonic character. Results reveal significant reduction (up to a factor of two) in the scatter of the Pn/Lg and Pg/Lg amplitude ratios for the sectorized data compared to the entire data set from all azimuths. Spatial averaging involves smoothing and interpolation for the ratios projected at the event location. Methods such as cap averaging and kriging will be presented at the meeting. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus.

  3. Natural Mentors, Racial Pride, and Academic Engagement among Black Adolescents: Resilience in the Context of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrup, Audrey R.; Hussain, Saida B.; Albright, Jamie N.; Hurd, Noelle N.; Varner, Fatima A.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential of relational closeness in the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) of Black students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of school-based discrimination on academic engagement. The study sample included 663 Black students between the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.81 years), all…

  4. Revision of the geological context of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, metropolitan area: implications for seismic microzonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrier, M.; Bialkowski, A.; Nachbaur, A.; Prépetit, C.; Joseph, Y. F.

    2014-02-01

    A geological study has been conducted in the framework of the microzonation of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. It reveals the deposit of Miocene and Pliocene formations in a marine environment and the impact on these deposits of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden N80° E fault system and of N110° E faults. The tectonic and morphological analysis indicates motion during the Quaternary along several mapped reverse left-lateral N110° E faults affecting the capital. Assessing ground-movement hazards represents an integral component of seismic microzonation. The geological results have provided essential groundwork for this assessment. Seismic microzonation aims to take seismic risk more fully into account in the city's urbanization and development policies. To this end, assumptions are made as to risks induced by surface rupture and ground movement from active faults.

  5. Context-Dependent Modulation of Functional Connectivity: Secondary Somatosensory Cortex to Prefrontal Cortex Connections in Two-Stimulus-Interval Discrimination Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Romo, Ranulfo; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    In a complex world, a sensory cue may prompt different actions in different contexts. A laboratory example of context-dependent sensory processing is the two-stimulus-interval discrimination task. In each trial, a first stimulus (f1) must be stored in short-term memory and later compared with a second stimulus (f2), for the animal to come to a binary decision. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons need to interpret the f1 information in one way (perhaps with a positive weight) and the f2 information in an opposite way (perhaps with a negative weight), although they come from the very same secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) neurons; therefore, a functional sign inversion is required. This task thus provides a clear example of context-dependent processing. Here we develop a biologically plausible model of a context-dependent signal transformation of the stimulus encoding from S2 to PFC. To ground our model in experimental neurophysiology, we use neurophysiological data recorded by R. Romo’s laboratory from both cortical area S2 and PFC in monkeys performing the task. Our main goal is to use experimentally observed context-dependent modulations of firing rates in cortical area S2 as the basis for a model that achieves a context-dependent inversion of the sign of S2 to PFC connections. This is done without requiring any changes in connectivity (Salinas, 2004b). We (1) characterize the experimentally observed context-dependent firing rate modulation in area S2, (2) construct a model that results in the sign transformation, and (3) characterize the robustness and consequent biological plausibility of the model. PMID:19494146

  6. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    PubMed

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  7. A multiple receiver - multiple transmitter VLF high-order differential analysis evaluation network for near real-time detection and discrimination of seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Spatalas, Spyridon; Stratakis, Dimitrios; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Biagi, Pier francesco

    2016-04-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the application of high-order differential analysis on VLF signals on a multiple-receiver multiple-transmitter network. This application provides a method for near-real-time detection of disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and can discriminate disturbances that could be classified as false positives and thus should be attributed to other geomagnetic influences. VLF data acquired in Thessaloniki, Greece (40.59N, 22,78E) Herakleion, Greece (35.31N, 25.10E), Nicosia, Cyprus (35.17N, 33.35E), Italy (42.42N, 13.08E) and transmitted by the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station 40.923N, 9.731E) and the station in Keflavik, Iceland (ICE 64.02N, 22.57W) from January 2015 to January 2016 were used for the purpose of this paper. The receivers have been developed by Elettronika Srl and are part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). The process applied for this study has been further developed and is based on differential analysis. The signals undergo transformation using an enhanced version of the Hilbert Huang Transform, and relevant spectra are produced. On the product of this process, differential analysis is applied. Finally, the method produces the correlation coefficient of signals that are on the same path over an earthquake epicenter in order to highlight disturbances, and on the opposite can make comparisons with unrelated transmitted signals of different paths to eliminate disturbances that are not localized to the area of interest. This improvement provides a simple method of noise cancellation to signals that would otherwise be considered as false positives. A further evaluation of the method is provided with the presentation and discussion of sample results. The method seems to be a robust tool of analysis of VLF signals and also an automatic detection tool with built-in noise cancellation of outside disturbances.

  8. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Tina B.; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants, and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. Methods We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. Results We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS−) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Limitations Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. Conclusion The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS− responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine. PMID:26107163

  9. In silico discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms and pathological mutations in human gene promoter regions by means of local DNA sequence context and regularity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imtiaz A; Mort, Matthew; Buckland, Paul R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cooper, David N; Chuzhanova, Nadia A

    2006-01-01

    DNA sequence features were sought that could be used for the in silico ascertainment of the likely functional consequences of single nucleotide changes in human gene promoter regions. To identify relevant features of the local DNA sequence context, we transformed into consensus tables the nucleotide composition of sequences flanking 101 promoter SNPs of type C<-->T or A<-->G, defined empirically as being either 'functional' or 'non-functional' on the basis of a standardised reporter gene assay. The similarity of a given sequence to these consensus tables was then measured by means of the Shapiro-Senapathy score. A decision rule with the potential to discriminate between empirically ascertained functional and non-functional SNPs was proposed that potentiated discrimination between functional and non-functional SNPs with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 20%. Two further datasets (viz. disease-associated SNPs of types A<-->G and C<-->T (N = 75) and pathological promoter mutations (transitions, N = 114)) were retrieved from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD; http://www.hgmd.org/) and analyzed using consensus tables derived from the functional and non-functional promoter SNPs; approximately 70% were correctly recognized as being of probable functional significance. Complexity analysis was also used to quantify the regularity of the local DNA sequence environment. Functional SNPs/mutations of type C<-->T were found to occur in DNA regions characterized by lower average sequence complexity as measured with respect to symmetric elements; complexity values increased gradually from functional SNPs and pathological mutations to functional disease-associated SNPs and non-functional SNPs. This may reflect the internal axial symmetry that frequently characterizes transcription factor binding sites.

  10. Preventing HIV among Latino and African American Gay and Bisexual Men in a Context of HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination, and Homophobia: Perspectives of Providers

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario

    2005-01-01

    HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implementing HIV prevention services for Latino and African American gay and bisexual men, which include: 1) addressing social biases present in a community that can hinder, and even prohibit, utilization of effective HIV prevention programs; 2) recasting HIV prevention messages in a broader social or health context; 3) developing culturally appropriate HIV prevention messages; 4) exploring new modalities and venues for delivering HIV prevention messages that are appropriate for gay and bisexual men of color and the communities in which they live; and 5) broadening the target of HIV prevention services to include service providers, local institutions and agencies, and the community at-large. These strategies underscore the need to consider the social and contextual factors of a community when designing and implementing HIV prevention programs. PMID:16283834

  11. S 38093, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and improves context discrimination task in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Samuels, Benjamin A.; Mendez-David, Indira; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie; Faye, Charlène; Mekiri, Maryam; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Gardier, Alain M.; Hen, René; Sors, Aurore; David, Denis J.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies designed to increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) may have therapeutic potential for reversing memory impairments. H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists also may be useful for treating cognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether these ligands have effects on AHN. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 28-day treatment with S 38093, a novel brain-penetrant antagonist/inverse agonist of H3 receptors, on AHN (proliferation, maturation and survival) in 3-month-old and in aged 16-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of S 38093 treatment on 7-month-old APPSWE Tg2576 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer’s disease, were also assessed. In all tested models, chronic treatment with S 38093 stimulated all steps of AHN. In aged animals, S 38093 induced a reversal of age-dependent effects on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) BDNF-IX, BDNF-IV and BDNF-I transcripts and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Finally, the effects of chronic administration of S 38093 were assessed on a neurogenesis-dependent “context discrimination (CS) test” in aged mice. While ageing altered mouse CS, chronic S 38093 treatment significantly improved CS. Taken together, these results provide evidence that chronic S 38093 treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and may provide an innovative strategy to improve age-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:28218311

  12. Discrimination of Deletion and Duplication Subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia Gene Family in the Context of Frequent Interloci Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Vaszkó, Tibor; Papp, János; Krausz, Csilla; Casamonti, Elena; Géczi, Lajos; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Due to its palindromic setup, AZFc (Azoospermia Factor c) region of chromosome Y is one of the most unstable regions of the human genome. It contains eight gene families expressed mainly in the testes. Several types of rearrangement resulting in changes in the cumulative copy number of the gene families were reported to be associated with diseases such as male infertility and testicular germ cell tumors. The best studied AZFc rearrangement is gr/gr deletion. Its carriers show widespread phenotypic variation from azoospermia to normospermia. This phenomenon was initially attributed to different gr/gr subtypes that would eliminate distinct members of the affected gene families. However, studies conducted to confirm this hypothesis have brought controversial results, perhaps, in part, due to the shortcomings of the utilized subtyping methodology. This proof-of-concept paper is meant to introduce here a novel method aimed at subtyping AZFc rearrangements. It is able to differentiate the partial deletion and partial duplication subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family. The keystone of the method is the determination of the copy number of the gene family member-specific variant(s) in a series of sequence family variant (SFV) positions. Most importantly, we present a novel approach for the correct interpretation of the variant copy number data to determine the copy number of the individual DAZ family members in the context of frequent interloci gene conversion.Besides DAZ1/DAZ2 and DAZ3/DAZ4 deletions, not yet described rearrangements such as DAZ2/DAZ4 deletion and three duplication subtypes were also found by the utilization of the novel approach. A striking feature is the extremely high concordance among the individual data pointing to a certain type of rearrangement. In addition to being able to identify DAZ deletion subtypes more reliably than the methods used previously, this approach is the first that can discriminate DAZ duplication subtypes as well

  13. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  14. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  15. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  16. Analysis of the Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Multiple-Choice Questions According to Cognitive Levels in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koçdar, Serpil; Karadag, Nejdet; Sahin, Murat Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This is a descriptive study which intends to determine whether the difficulty and discrimination indices of the multiple-choice questions show differences according to cognitive levels of the Bloom's Taxonomy, which are used in the exams of the courses in a business administration bachelor's degree program offered through open and distance…

  17. Discrimination and Hate Crimes in the Context of Neighborhood Poverty and Stressors Among HIV-Positive African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Pantalone, David W; Klein, David J

    2016-06-01

    In a sample of HIV-positive African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined neighborhood factors that may contextualize perceived discrimination from three intersecting stigmatized characteristics: race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. HIV-positive African-American MSM (N = 162, mean age = 44, SD = 8) provided information on neighborhood-related stressors and discrimination experiences related to being Black, HIV-positive, or perceived as gay. Residential ZIP codes and US Census data were used to determine neighborhood poverty rates. Regressions, controlling for socio-demographics, indicated that (1) higher neighborhood poverty was significantly related to more frequent experiences with hate crimes (Gay-related: b = 1.15, SE = .43, p < .008); and (2) higher neighborhood-related stressors were significantly related to more frequent discrimination (Black-related: b = .91, SE = .28, p = .001; gay-related: b = .71, SE = .29, p = .01; and HIV-related: b = .65, SE = .28, p = .02) and hate crimes (Gay-related: b = .48, SE = .13, p = .001; and Black-related: b = .28, SE = .14, p = .04). For HIV-positive African-American MSM, higher neighborhood poverty and related stressors are associated with experiencing more discrimination and hate crimes. Interventions for this group should promote individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic empowerment and stigma reduction.

  18. Revision of the geological context of the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area, Haiti: implications for slope failures and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrier, M.; Bialkowski, A.; Nachbaur, A.; Prépetit, C.; Joseph, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    Following the earthquake of 12 January 2010 in the Port-au-Prince area, the Haitian government, in close cooperation with BRGM, the French geological Survey, decided to undertake a seismic microzonation study of the metropolitan area of the capital in order to take more fully into account the seismic risk in the urbanization and planning of the city under reconstruction. As the first step of the microzonation project, a geological study has been carried out. Deposits of Miocene and Pliocene formations in a marine environment have been identified. These deposits are affected by the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden N80° E fault system and N110° E faults. Tectonic observations and morphological analysis indicate Quaternary activity of several faults mapped in the area of Port-au-Prince. These faults have a N110° trend and show a reverse-sinistral strike-slip motion. Moreover, on the basis of these geological results and of new topographical data, a hazard assessment of ground movements has been made. Along with the map of active faults, the hazard map of ground movements is an integral component of the seismic microzonation study.

  19. ECHO Project: a series of tools for studying and characterizing seismic sequences evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Giuseppe; De Santis, Angelo; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Cianchini, Gianfranco; Murru, Maura; Calderoni, Giovanna; Lucente, Pio Francesco; De Gori, Pasquale; Frepoli, Alberto; Signanini, Patrizio; Rainone, Mario; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    One of the most ubiquitous problems in seismology is to discriminate between seismic sequences (a series of small-to-moderate earthquakes that culminate with a mainshock) and swarms (diffuse seismicity w/o mainshock), that can be easily done only after a certain class of earthquakes have occurred. We propose to put these phenomena under the same framework provided by the geosystemics (De Santis, 2009, 2014), where the planet Earth and its processes are seen from a holistic point of view, and the New Geophysics (Crampin et al., 2013), where fluid-saturated microcracks in almost all crustal rocks are so closely-spaced they verge on failure and hence are highly-compliant critical systems (Signanini and De Santis, 2012). In this context, nonlinear concepts typical of Chaos and Information theories are fundamental to study and characterize the various features of the series of seismic events, and, eventually, to discriminate between seismic sequences and swarms. The two theories imply the use of non-linear techniques which are innovative in seismology. The project ECHO ("Entropy and CHaOs: tools for studying and characterizing seismic sequences evolution"), a recent INGV-funded project, would aim at applying the above approaches in a more integrated way mainly to establish a suite of effective tools to disclose and characterise the principal features of the series of earthquakes which are of interest. In our view this will represent the very first step before to face the more challenging (but longer-term) problem of discriminating between the two kinds of series of seismic events. This poster will describe these kinds of preliminary activities and relative results in the framework of the project.

  20. Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, N.D.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

  1. Using epicenter location to differentiate events from natural background seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Walter, W R

    1999-07-26

    Efforts to more effectively monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (commonly referred to as the CTBT) include research into methods of seismic discrimination. The most common seismic discriminants exploit differences in seismic amplitude for differing source types. Amplitude discriminants are quite effective when wave-propagation (a.k.a. path) effects are properly accounted for. However, because path effects can be exceedingly complex, path calibration is often accomplished empirically by spatially interpolating amplitude characteristics for a set of calibration earthquakes with techniques like Bayesian kriging. As a result, amplitude discriminants can be highly effective when natural seismicity provides sufficient event coverage to characterize a region. However, amplitude discrimination can become less effective for events that are far from historical (path-calibration) events. It is intuitive that events occurring at a distance from historical seismicity patterns are inherently suspect. However, quantifying the degree to which a particular event is unexpected could be of great utility in CTBT monitoring. Epicenter location is commonly used as a qualitative discriminant. For instance, if a seismic event is located in the deep ocean, then the event is generally considered to be an earthquake. Such qualitative uses of seismic location have great utility; however, a quantitative method to differentiate events from the natural pattern of seismicity could significantly advance the applicability of location as a discriminant for source type. Clustering of earthquake epicenters is the underlying aspect of earthquake seismicity that allows for an epicenter-based discriminant, and we explore the use of fractal characterization of clustering to characterize seismicity patters. We then evaluate the likelihood that an event at any given location is drawn from the background population. The use of this technique can help to identifying events that are inconsistent

  2. Case Studies of Seismic Discrimination Problems and Regional Discriminant Transportability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-31

    91125 Arlington, VA 22209-2308 Prof. Keiiti Aki Mr Robert Cockerham Center for Earth Sciences Arms Control & Disarmament Agency University of Southern...74043-0008 Prof. Danny Harvey Prof. Thorne Lay University of Colorado, JSPC Institute of Tectonics Campus Box 583 Earth Science Board Boulder, CO...Prof. Robert B. Herrmann Dr. Gary McCartor Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences Department of Physics St. Louis University Southern Methodist

  3. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  4. The M w 5.0 Hammam Melouane Earthquake (North Central Algeria) of 17 July 2013 in the Context of the Tellian Atlas Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, A. K.; Haned, A.; Aidi, C.; Beldjoudi, H.; Kherroubi, A.; Semmane, F.; Benabdeloued, B. Y. N.; Larbes, Y.; Alili, A.; Khelif, M. F.; Belheouane, A.

    2017-02-01

    On 17 July 2013 (03:00 GMT) a new moderate earthquake of magnitude 5.0 happened in the Tell belts of northern Algeria, more precisely near the village of Hammam Melouane (Algeria), 30 km south of Algiers, the Capital of Algeria. The main shock parameters and aftershocks activity analysis, reveal that the earthquake occurred on a 5 km long dextral strike-slip fault oriented N114°E, a conjugate strike-slip fault of the major NE-SW reverse fault system of the neogene Mitidja basin. This event caused damage to houses and social infrastructures but no fatalities were reported. Onland the earthquake triggered rock falls and minor landslides along the Hammam Melouane river. The occurrence of the Hammam Melouane in the northern limit of the Tell belts is representative of the African-Eurasiatic interplate seismicity of northern Algeria where major seismic events could occurred as the previous Boumerdes event of May 21st, 2003 (M w 6.8).

  5. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, D.; Butler, R. W. H.; Purves, S.; McArdle, N.; De Freslon, N.

    2016-08-01

    Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic (10 s m) to seismic scale (100 s m). They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

  6. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic to seismic scale. They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data scale. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies, from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve structure within SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

  7. Radiate Nature of Modal Oscillation Energy Flow in the Context of the Doctrine of Dynamics Monism With Implication to Physics of Seismic Rupture, Crumbling, Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaurov, D.

    2011-12-01

    Processing seismograms by a technique of mutually complement Fourier (FFT) and Parametric Scan-Window (PSWT) transforms make it possible of adequate identification of modal characteristics over the time. Observed data of stochastic alternation of temporary-stationary mode states with discrete characteristics of their spectral distribution and dissipation parameter getting various positive and negative values forces us to infer an essential paradigm of energy radiance. Appearance of positive parameter of dissipation, or else radiation, characterizes intensity of emission of energy into a Universal coherent association of seismoids, but occurrence of negative radiation parameter is evidence for radiate energy absorption. Emission and absorption of indivisible quant of energy happen instantaneous. Spherical front of probable absorption of emitted quant expands in space with speed of light. Assessment of seismic stability of civil structures as well as geomorphologic consequences of earthquakes takes a new perspective with account of radiation phenomena. Energy balance of mode excitation significantly depends on concurrent contribution of earthquakes and radiation emission-absorption. Seismoid emitting energy became more stable, but absorption contributes to various outcomes: from moderate failure up to complete collapse. Even in periods of earthquake lull radiation can sustain free oscillation background and initiate single event failure, cliffs crumbling. Earth background incessant free oscillation, incontestably, are due to Universal energy exchange. Absorption of a large quant of energy can initiate through fission-fusion dynamics of the Globe a faulting, an earthquake. It is plausible to consider process of transformation of Earth internal heat energy, owing to phase-transition kind of earthquake initiation, into energy of Earth oscillation and then emission of a huge portion of that energy into respective coherent ensemble of celestial seismoids, which attenuate

  8. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of

  9. Regional tectonic context, timing, and intrusion mechanism of gneiss domes, eastern Papua New Guinea, from offshore seismic reflection and well data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz, G. G.; Mann, P.; Lavier, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    The D'Entrecasteaux Island (DEI) gneiss domes are fault-bounded topographic domes with ~2.5 km of relief exposing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic gneisses and migmatites that began to exhume ~8 Ma in a zone of continental extension 120 km west of the tip of the westward propagating Woodlark seafloor spreading. Two previous models for the origin and emplacement of the gneiss domes include: 1) the domes are metamorphic core complexes formed as footwall blocks on north-dipping, low-angle (<30 deg.) normal faults of Plio-Pleistocene age; and 2) the domes are diapirs of buoyant lower crustal material extruding vertically through narrow zones of extension (~30 km wide) in an overlying dense layer of ultramafic rock. To study the style of continental extension accompanying exhumation of the DEI gneiss domes, we interpreted a loose grid of 1,518 km of 2-D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data and well data from the offshore areas surrounding the DEI, including the Trobriand basin and the Goodenough basin. MCS and well data show the Trobriand basin initially formed as an asymmetrical Miocene forearc basin overlying the south-dipping Trobriand subduction zone that underwent a late Miocene (~11-9 Ma) inversion event that deformed and uplifted the basin's southern and northern margins. Since extension began 8 Ma, the Trobriand basin has evolved as a symmetrical sag basin with 1-3 km of subsidence and few normal faults deforming the upper crust. The Goodenough basin to the south of the Trobriand basin formed as an asymmetrical and southward-tilted half-graben whose master normal fault is the Owen-Stanley fault zone (OSFZ) along the southern edge of the basin. Reconstruction on this structure based on the geometry of faults in the hanging wall indicates a minimum slip on the order of 10 km along a listric fault plane shallowly dipping to the north. The western extension of the OSFZ dips 18 deg. to 24 deg. north along the northern edge of the

  10. The DTW-based representation space for seismic pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-Alzate, Mauricio; Castro-Cabrera, Paola Alexandra; Bicego, Manuele; Londoño-Bonilla, John Makario

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing among the different seismic volcanic patterns is still one of the most important and labor-intensive tasks for volcano monitoring. This task could be lightened and made free from subjective bias by using automatic classification techniques. In this context, a core but often overlooked issue is the choice of an appropriate representation of the data to be classified. Recently, it has been suggested that using a relative representation (i.e. proximities, namely dissimilarities on pairs of objects) instead of an absolute one (i.e. features, namely measurements on single objects) is advantageous to exploit the relational information contained in the dissimilarities to derive highly discriminant vector spaces, where any classifier can be used. According to that motivation, this paper investigates the suitability of a dynamic time warping (DTW) dissimilarity-based vector representation for the classification of seismic patterns. Results show the usefulness of such a representation in the seismic pattern classification scenario, including analyses of potential benefits from recent advances in the dissimilarity-based paradigm such as the proper selection of representation sets and the combination of different dissimilarity representations that might be available for the same data.

  11. Spectral Discrimination between Explosions and Earthquakes in Central Eurasia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Seismic Network (CDSN). This station is located at regional distances from both the Soviet test site in E. Kazakhstan and the seismically active Tien...appears that the spectral ratio discriminant remains effective for 2 earthquakes observed along paths close to the path from the test site to WMQ. In the...from a system of state-of-the-art seismic instruments installed in western China. The proximity of this station (WMQ) to the Soviet test sites in E

  12. Seismic seiches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  13. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  14. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  15. Rediscovering signal complexity as a teleseismic discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N; Taylor, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P-wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave ({beta}{sub CF}). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. Inclusion of secondary phases in the coda window can also degrade performance. However, performance improves markedly when two-station complexity discriminants are formed showing false alarm rates similar to those observed for network m{sub b} - M{sub s}. This suggests that multistation complexity discriminants may ameliorate some of the problems associated with m{sub b} - M{sub s} discrimination at lower magnitudes. Additionally, when complexity discriminants are combined with m{sub b} - M{sub s} there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Thus, complexity discriminants may follow a logic that is similar to m{sub b} - M{sub s} in terms of the separation of shallow earthquakes from nuclear explosions, although the underlying physics of the two discriminants is significantly different.

  16. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  17. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  18. Sensitivity of the long period seismic waves generated by a landslide on its characteristics and flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2012-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches or debris flows play a key role in erosion processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal or volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flow is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to the flow dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by landslides is a unique tool to get information on their dynamics. Indeed, when the landslide accelerates and decelerates on the complex topography, the spatio-temporal stress field that it applies on the ground generates seismic waves. These waves carry the memory of the flow history. As shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate the rheological parameters during the flow. Because global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, this new method will help gathering new data on landslide behavior. The purpose here is to identify scaling laws making it possible to extract landslide characteristics such as its volume, mass, geometry and location, from seismic observations (amplitude, duration, energy…). To address this issue, we performed a series of simulations of the landslide and generated seismic waves by varying the characteristics of the landslide such as the volume, topography, friction angle, or initial shape of the released mass and of the earth model such as seismic waves velocity, number of layers, etc. For 2D and 3D simple configurations and for real landslides, we systematically investigate how these parameters affect the generated long period seismic waves and the force at their origin, obtained by inversion of the recorded seismic signal. This study shows that the initial volume

  19. Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.

    1981-10-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research programs in seismic testing to improve earthquake design guidelines lowers the safety-design costs of nuclear power plants. Explosive tests that simulate earthquakes help to determine how structures respond to ground motion and how these are related to soil and geologic conditions at a specific site. Explosive tests develop data for simulation using several computer codes. Photographs illustrate testing techniques. 6 references. (DCK)

  20. Discriminating harmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gerald; Mason, Christine R.; Brughera, Andrew; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter

    2003-08-01

    Simultaneous tones that are harmonically related tend to be grouped perceptually to form a unitary auditory image. A partial that is mistuned stands out from the other tones, and harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies can readily be perceived as separate auditory objects. These phenomena are evidence for the strong role of harmonicity in perceptual grouping and segregation of sounds. This study measured the discriminability of harmonicity directly. In a two interval, two alternative forced-choice (2I2AFC) paradigm, the listener chose which of two sounds, signal or foil, was composed of tones that more closely matched an exact harmonic relationship. In one experiment, the signal was varied from perfectly harmonic to highly inharmonic by adding frequency perturbation to each component. The foil always had 100% perturbation. Group mean performance decreased from greater than 90% correct for 0% signal perturbation to near chance for 80% signal perturbation. In the second experiment, adding a masker presented simultaneously with the signals and foils disrupted harmonicity. Both monaural and dichotic conditions were tested. Signal level was varied relative to masker level to obtain psychometric functions from which slopes and midpoints were estimated. Dichotic presentation of these audible stimuli improved performance by 3-10 dB, due primarily to a release from ``informational masking'' by the perceptual segregation of the signal from the masker.

  1. How Forgetful are Seismic Waves ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.

    2005-05-01

    3D surface seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques can be employed to image crustal structures in complex geological settings. The effects of heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation can be described in terms of different propagation regimes (Wu, 1989): quasi-homogeneous for heterogeneities too small to be seen by seismic waves, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and small-angle scattering. These scattering regimes cause characteristic amplitude, phase and travel time fluctuation, which can be used to obtain estimates of scale length. Horizontal resolution of exploration seismic data is often discussed in terms of Fresnel zone. For surface and VSP data, the Fresnel radius increases with increasing depth of investigation. In addition, the lateral resolution is limited by the effective frequency content of the seismic signal. Based on strong contrast in petrophysical data, crustal exploration targets (such as gas-hydrates, permafrost or massive sulfide ores) should make strong P-wave, S-wave and converted wave reflectors against most background velocity models. In the context of realistic geological models, 3D numerical simulations are required to better assess elastic wave interactions with high acoustic impedance targets. In addition, it is important to study the influence of composition and shape of high acoustic impedance targets on the full scattered wavefield through a series of numerical modeling experiments based on the 3D elastic finite-difference (FD) method. Massive sulfide ores consisting of the end-member sulfide minerals pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, which span the full range of observed P- and S- wave velocities and densities in ore rocks, as well as gabbro inclusions, are investigated for different shapes which represent the complex morphologies often observed for ore deposits. 3D FD modeling reveals that large ore deposits lead to a strong and complex scattering response that is often dominated by shear-wave events (Bohlen et al

  2. Rediscovering Signal Complexity as a Teleseismic Discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steve R.; Anderson, Dale N.

    2009-02-20

    We re-examine the utility of teleseismic seismic complexity discriminants in a multivariate setting using United Kingdom array data. We measure a complexity discriminant taken on array beams by simply taking the logarithm of the ratio of the P wave coda signal to that of the first arriving direct P wave (βCF). The single station complexity discriminant shows marginal performance with shallow earthquakes having more complex signatures than those from explosions or deep earthquakes. However, when combined with the mb – Ms discriminant significant improvements are observed. In particular, signal complexity can be used to improve discrimination performance over mb – Ms alone as well improve differentiation between shallow and deep earthquakes. When complexity discriminants are combined with mb – Ms there is a tendency for explosions, shallow earthquakes and deep earthquakes to form three distinct populations. Importantly, multistation complexity discriminants have false alarm rates similar to those observed for network mb - Ms in support of predictions based on simulations of Bowers (1996).

  3. Study of iron deposit using seismic refraction and resistivity in Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Pedro Vencovsky; Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Silva, Adalene Moreira; Assis, Luciano Mozer de

    2016-10-01

    This work comprises the acquisition, processing and interpretation of 2D seismic shallow refraction (P-wave) and resistivity profiles located in the iron ore deposit of N4WS, Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil. The geophysical methods were used to identify the boundaries of the iron ore deposit. Another objective was to evaluate the potentiality of these geophysical methods in that geological context. In order to validate the results, the geophysical lines were located to match a geological borehole line. For the seismic refraction, we used 120 channels, spaced by 10 m, in a line of 1190 m, with seven shot points. The resistivity method used in the acquisition was the electrical resistivity imaging, with pole-pole array, in order to reach greater depths. The resistivity line had a length of 1430 m, with 10 m spacing between electrodes. The seismic results produced a model with two distinct layers. Based on the velocities values, the first layer was interpreted as altered rocks, and the second layer as more preserved rocks. It was not possible to discriminate different lithologies with the seismic method inside each layer. From the resistivity results, a zone of higher resistivity (> 3937 Ω·m) was interpreted as iron ore, and a region of intermediate resistivity (from 816 to 2330 Ω·m) as altered rocks. These two regions represent the first seismic layer. On the second seismic layer, an area with intermediated resistivity values (from 483 to 2330 Ω·m) was interpreted as mafic rocks, and the area with lower resistivity (< 483 Ω·m) as jaspilite. Our results were compared with geological boreholes and show reasonable correlation, suggesting that the geophysical anomalies correspond to the main variations in composition and physical properties of rocks.

  4. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  5. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  6. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  7. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  8. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  9. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-06-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context.

  10. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V

    2016-06-10

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a "seismic rainbow" effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context.

  11. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    PubMed Central

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context. PMID:27283587

  12. Spatial organization of seismicity and fracture pattern at the boundary between Alps and Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Gianni; Ponton, Maurizio; Rossi, Giuliana; Urban, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    The paper affords the study of the spatial organization of seismicity in the easternmost region of the Alps (Friuli, in NE Italy and W Slovenia), dominated by the interference between the Alpine and the Dinaric tectonic systems. Two non-conventional methods of spatial analysis are used: fractal analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The fractal analysis helps to discriminate the cases in which hypocentres clearly define a plane, from the ones in which hypocenter distribution tends to the planarity, without reaching it. The PCA analysis is used to infer the orientation of planes fitting through earthquake foci, or the direction of propagation of the hypocentres. Furthermore, we study the spatial seismicity pattern at the shallow depths in the context of a general damage model, through the crack density distribution. The results of the three methods concur to a complex and composite model of fracturing in the region. The hypocentre pattern fills only partially a plane, i.e. has a fractal dimension close to 2. The three exceptions regard planes with Dinaric trend, without interference with Alpine lineaments. The shallowest depth range (0-10 km depth) is characterized by the activation of planes with variable orientations, reflecting the interference between the Dinaric and the Alpine tectonic structures, and closely bound to the variation of the mechanical properties of the crust. The seismicity occurs mostly in areas characterized by a variation from low to moderate crack density, indicating the sharp transition from zones of low damage to zones of moderate damage. Low crack density indicates the presence of more competent rocks capable of sustaining high strain energy while high crack density areas pertain to highly fractured rocks that cannot store high strain energy. Brittle failure, i.e. seismic activity, is favoured within the sharp transitions from low to moderate crack density zones. The orientation of the planes depicting the seismic activity

  13. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  14. Contextual Control of Fluid Consumption: The Effects of Context Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M.; Skinner, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Rats were trained on a conditional discrimination task in which saccharin was paired with LiCl in one context but paired with saline in another context. Rats drank less saccharin in the danger context than in the safe context, and consumption in the home cage was intermediate to consumption in the two training contexts. Rats also avoided the…

  15. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  16. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  17. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  18. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  19. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  20. Further Examination of Discriminated Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Hausman, Nicole L.; Kahng, SungWoo; Becraft, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    One child with developmental disabilities was taught to mand for attention by saying "excuse me." Treatment effects were extended to multiple training contexts by teaching the participant to attend to naturally occurring discriminative stimuli through differential reinforcement of communication during periods of the experimenter's nonbusy…

  1. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  2. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  3. Acquisition of Social Referencing via Discrimination Training in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences…

  4. The discrimination of man-made explosions from earthquakes using seismo-acoustic analysis in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Jeon, Jeong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) operates an infrasound network consisting of seven seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea. Development of the arrays began in 1999, partially in collaboration with Southern Methodist University, with the goal of detecting distant infrasound signals from natural and anthropogenic phenomena in and around the Korean Peninsula. The main operational purpose of this network is to discriminate man-made seismic events from seismicity including thousands of seismic events per year in the region. The man-made seismic events are major cause of error in estimating the natural seismicity, especially where the seismic activity is weak or moderate such as in the Korean Peninsula. In order to discriminate the man-made explosions from earthquakes, we have applied the seismo-acoustic analysis associating seismic and infrasonic signals generated from surface explosion. The observations of infrasound at multiple arrays made it possible to discriminate surface explosion, because small or moderate size earthquake is not sufficient to generate infrasound. Till now we have annually discriminated hundreds of seismic events in seismological catalog as surface explosions by the seismo-acoustic analysis. Besides of the surface explosions, the network also detected infrasound signals from other sources, such as bolide, typhoons, rocket launches, and underground nuclear test occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula. In this study, ten years of seismo-acoustic data are reviewed with recent infrasonic detection algorithm and association method that finally linked to the seismic monitoring system of the KIGAM to increase the detection rate of surface explosions. We present the long-term results of seismo-acoustic analysis, the detection capability of the multiple arrays, and implications for seismic source location. Since the seismo-acoustic analysis is proved as a definite method to discriminate surface explosion, the analysis will be

  5. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  6. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web

  7. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  8. Comparison between seismic and domestic risk in moderate seismic hazard prone region: the Grenoble City (France) test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, F.; Gueguen, P.

    2012-02-01

    France has a moderate level of seismic activity, characterized by diffuse seismicity, sometimes experiencing earthquakes of a magnitude of more than 5 in the most active zones. In this seismicity context, Grenoble is a city of major economic and social importance. However, earthquakes being rare, public authorities and the decision makers are only vaguely committed to reducing seismic risk: return periods are long and local policy makers do not have much information available. Over the past 25 yr, a large number of studies have been conducted to improve our knowledge of seismic hazard in this region. One of the decision-making concerns of Grenoble's public authorities, as managers of a large number of public buildings, is to know not only the seismic-prone regions, the variability of seismic hazard due to site effects and the city's overall vulnerability, but also the level of seismic risk and exposure for the entire city, also compared to other natural or/and domestic hazards. Our seismic risk analysis uses a probabilistic approach for regional and local hazards and the vulnerability assessment of buildings. Its applicability to Grenoble offers the advantage of being based on knowledge acquired by previous projects conducted over the years. This paper aims to compare the level of seismic risk with that of other risks and to introduce the notion of risk acceptability in order to offer guidance in the management of seismic risk. This notion of acceptability, which is now part of seismic risk consideration for existing buildings in Switzerland, is relevant in moderately seismic-prone countries like France.

  9. Seismic Source Scaling and Discrimination in Diverse Tectonic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    scaling of micro-earthquakes is non-self-similar (e.g., Kanamori et al., 1993, Abercrombie, 1995, Mayeda and Walter, 1996, Mori et al., 2003, Stork and Ito...2004, Izutani and Kanamori , 2001, yet there are an equal number of compelling studies that would suggest otherwise (e.g., McGarr, 1999, Ide and...2004) v Venkataraman et al. (2006) * Ote et al. (2005) v Venkataraman and Kanamori (2004) e Yamada et al. (2007) * Mori, Abercrombie, & Kanamori

  10. Seismic Source Scaling and Discrimination in Diverse Tectonic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Distribution Unlimited. Boston Boston University’. Weston Geophysical Corporation2, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories 13. SUPPLEMENTARY...Corporation2, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories3 Sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory Award No. FA8718-06-C-0024. Proposal No...frequency content of the waveforms than do cosine and other tapers (e.g., Park et al., 1987). Unfortunately, until recently multitaper codes only

  11. Summary of Seismic Discrimination and Explosion Yield Determination Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    ANALYTIC CONTINUATION OF THE ELASTIC FIELD FROM A COMPLEX SOURCE IN A HALFSPACE . . . 44 IV. SMALL SCALE EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS...THEORY, INCORPORATED . 81 6.2 NEAR-FIELD INSTRUMENTATION TO DETERMINE THE EQUIVALENT ELASTIC SOURCE FOR UNDER- GROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS . ........ 85...difference simulation, and (B) the coordinate system for describing the radiated field . . . 43 14 Relative displacement on the fault for the elastic case

  12. Analysis and Testing of High-Frequency Regional Seismic Discriminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 NORESS elements as a means of testing the ANN sensitivity to SNR . Identification performance increased from 77% for 1 element...and signal processing attributes such as SNR as explicit input variables or as poten- tial corrections to other measured quantities. These include...total array estimate of the signal parameters over a single element or array subset, which basically confirms the increase in the SNR for increasing

  13. Seismic Characteristics of Rockbursts for Use in Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Antoinette K. Campanella John R. Murphy Maxwell Laboratories, Incorporated S-CUBED Division P.O. Box 1620 La Jolla, CA 92038-1620 January 1993 DTIC____...91-C-0186 PE 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR 2309 Theron J. Bennett, James F. Scheimer, Antoinette K. TA G2 Campanella and John R. Murphy WUBL 7. PERFORMING...Bochum University of Toronto P.O. Box 1102148 Ontario, CANADA 4360 Bochum 1, GERMANY Prof. Hans- Peter Harjes Trust & Verify Institute for Geophysic VERTIC

  14. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity.

  15. New Madrid Seismic Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

  16. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    We developed a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic system using acoustic metamaterials. The device is an attenuator of a seismic wave that reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide composed of many Helmholtz resonators that creates a stop-band for the seismic frequency range, we convert the seismic wave into an attenuated one without touching the building that we want to protect. It is a mechanical way to convert the seismic energy into sound and heat.

  17. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  18. Experimental illustrations of seismic-wave properties of interest for hydrogeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodet, L.; Pasquet, S.; Bergamo, P.; Martin, R.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.

    2015-12-01

    The joint study of pressure (P-) and shear (S-) wave velocities (VP and VS, respectively), as well as their ratio (VP/VS), has been used for many years at large scales (compared to near-surface applications) to study fluids in earth materials. Theoretical and experimental developments have been aimed at understanding the effect of saturation and pore fluids on body wave velocities, more particularly in consolidated media. In the field of hydrocarbon exploration for instance, the measurement of VP/VS ratio helps discriminating different pore fluids in reservoirs. But it is only until recently that this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of hydrosystems. We showed, thanks to controlled field experiments, the ability of VP/VS ratio in imaging spatial and/or temporal variations of water content at the critical zone scale. These promising results still lack quantitative links between water saturation and seismic properties in such materials and context. We consequently developed laboratory experiments to simulate seismic acquisitions on small-scale controlled granular media with varying water levels. The first results clearly showed the influence of the water level on first arrival times, dispersion and amplitude of the recorded wavefields, and how these measurements could be used as monitoring tools.

  19. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  20. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  1. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  2. Discrimination against Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  3. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  4. Discrimination in measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Was, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge monitoring predicts academic outcomes in many contexts. However, measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy are often incomplete. In the current study, a measure of students’ ability to discriminate known from unknown information as a component of knowledge monitoring was considered. Undergraduate students’ knowledge monitoring accuracy was assessed and used to predict final exam scores in a specific course. It was found that gamma, a measure commonly used as the measure of knowledge monitoring accuracy, accounted for a small, but significant amount of variance in academic performance whereas the discrimination and bias indexes combined to account for a greater amount of variance in academic performance. PMID:25339979

  5. Updating Hawaii Seismicity Catalogs with Systematic Relocations and Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, P.; Benz, H.; Matoza, R. S.; Thelen, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    We continue the systematic relocation of seismicity recorded in Hawai`i by the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), with interests in adding to the products derived from the relocated seismicity catalogs published by Matoza et al., (2013, 2014). Another goal of this effort is updating the systematically relocated HVO catalog since 2009, when earthquake cataloging at HVO was migrated to the USGS Advanced National Seismic System Quake Management Software (AQMS) systems. To complement the relocation analyses of the catalogs generated from traditional STA/LTA event-triggered and analyst-reviewed approaches, we are also experimenting with subspace detection of events at Kilauea as a means to augment AQMS procedures for cataloging seismicity to lower magnitudes and during episodes of elevated volcanic activity. Our earlier catalog relocations have demonstrated the ability to define correlated or repeating families of earthquakes and provide more detailed definition of seismogenic structures, as well as the capability for improved automatic identification of diverse volcanic seismic sources. Subspace detectors have been successfully applied to cataloging seismicity in situations of low seismic signal-to-noise and have significantly increased catalog sensitivity to lower magnitude thresholds. We anticipate similar improvements using event subspace detections and cataloging of volcanic seismicity that include improved discrimination among not only evolving earthquake sequences but also diverse volcanic seismic source processes. Matoza et al., 2013, Systematic relocation of seismicity on Hawai`i Island from 1992 to 2009 using waveform cross correlation and cluster analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2275-2288, doi:10.1002/jgrb.580189 Matoza et al., 2014, High-precision relocation of long-period events beneath the summit region of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, from 1986 to 2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3413-3421, doi:10.1002/2014GL059819

  6. Characterization of Intraplate Seismicity in the Mid-Atlantic US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Using data from the USArray TA and permanent seismic stations we explore the relationship between seismicity and lithospheric structure in the Mid-Atlantic US where previous studies suggest the clustering of seismicity within several seismic zones. Given low strain rates, creating a robust catalog of tectonic events with a low magnitude threshold is essential. Analysis of events in our study region with hypocenters determined by the Array Network Facility (ANF) during the last 2 years shows that 51% have a depth equal to zero. To assess whether the events are of natural or anthropogenic origin we apply a series of discriminants, such as, geographic correlation to known mining sites, temporal clustering and waveform characteristics. Using West Virginia as a test, we found 100% of events with zero depth are associated with mining operations. Interesting patterns emerge when comparing ANF locations of depths greater than zero with historic seismicity and events instrumentally recorded by permanent stations. Seismicity occurs in some regions where no seismic activity had been previously observed but events along the boundary between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain appear as a continuous band of seismicity making it more difficult to identify discrete seismic zones. Earthquake magnitude threshold is also examined in preparation for high-precision relocation of the events to better address the spatio-temporal nature of seismicity in the region. The ANF catalog shows a magnitude of completeness to 2.2 in the region. However, the ANSS catalog shows 58 events M≤2.2 in the last 2 years while the ANF catalog provides location for only 12 of those events (21%). Continued efforts to calibrate the detection and association algorithms will help lower the magnitude threshold and complete the catalog.

  7. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  8. Cross-correlation—an objective tool to indicate induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprsal, Ivo; Eisner, Leo

    2014-03-01

    Differentiation between natural and induced seismicity is crucial for the ability to safely and soundly carry out various underground experiments and operations. This paper defines an objective tool for one of the criteria used to discriminate between natural and induced seismicity. The qualitative correlation between earthquake rates and the injected volume has been an established tool for investigating the possibility of induced, or triggered, seismicity. We derive mathematically, and verify using numerical examples, that the definition of normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between positive random functions exhibits high values with a limit equal to one, if these functions (such as earthquake rates and injection volumes) have a large mean and low standard deviation. In such a case, the high NCC values do not necessarily imply temporal relationship between the phenomena. Instead of positive-value time histories, the functions with their running mean subtracted should be used for cross-correlation. The NCC of such functions (called here NCCEP) may be close to zero, or may oscillate between positive and negative values in cases where seismicity is not related to injection. We apply this method for case studies of seismicity in Colorado, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and south-central Oklahoma, and show that NCCEP reliably determines induced seismicity. Finally, we introduce a geomechanical model explaining the positive cross-correlation observed in the induced seismicity data sets.

  9. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  10. Perceptual learning: 12-month-olds' discrimination of monkey faces.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-11-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following 20 s of familiarization, and two 5-s visual-paired comparison test trials, 12-month-olds failed to show discrimination. However, following 40 s of familiarization and two 10-s test trials, 12-month-olds showed reliable discrimination of novel monkey faces. A final experiment was performed demonstrating 12-month-olds' discrimination of the monkey face was due to the increased familiarization rather than increased time of visual comparison. Results are discussed in the context of perceptual narrowing, in particular the flexible nature of perceptual narrowing.

  11. Seismic anisotropy of the crystalline crust: What does it tell us?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbel, W.; Mooney, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the directional dependence of seismic velocities (seismic anisotropy) promises more refined insight into mineral composition and physical properties of the crystalline crust than conventional deep seismic refraction or reflection profiles providing average values of P-and S-wave velocities. The alignment of specific minerals by ductile rock deformation, for instance, causes specific types of seismic anisotropy which can be identified by appropriate field measurements. Vice versa, the determination of anisotropy can help to discriminate between different rock candidates in the deep crust. Seismic field measurements at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB, S Germany) are shown as an example that anisotropy has to be considered in crustal studies. At the KTB, the dependence of seismic velocity on the direction of wave propagation in situ was found to be compatible with the texture, composition and fracture density of drilled crustal rocks.

  12. SOAR Telescope seismic performance II: seismic mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Jonathan H.; Muñoz, Freddy; Warner, Michael; Rivera, Rossano; Martínez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    We describe design modifications to the SOAR telescope intended to reduce the impact of future major earthquakes, based on the facility's experience during recent events, most notably the September 2015 Illapel earthquake. Specific modifications include a redesign of the encoder systems for both azimuth and elevation, seismic trigger for the emergency stop system, and additional protections for the telescope secondary mirror system. The secondary mirror protection may combine measures to reduce amplification of seismic vibration and "fail-safe" components within the assembly. The status of these upgrades is presented.

  13. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  14. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  15. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the new madrid seismic zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zoback, M D; Segall, P

    1992-09-18

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  16. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P. USGS, Menlo Park, CA )

    1992-09-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes greater than 8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time. 34 refs.

  17. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  18. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  19. Further examination of discriminated functional communication.

    PubMed

    Leon, Yanerys; Hausman, Nicole L; Kahng, SungWoo; Becraft, Jessica L

    2010-01-01

    One child with developmental disabilities was taught to mand for attention by saying "excuse me." Treatment effects were extended to multiple training contexts by teaching the participant to attend to naturally occurring discriminative stimuli through differential reinforcement of communication during periods of the experimenter's nonbusy activities (e.g., reading a magazine). Results are discussed in terms of future research on the generalization and maintenance of functional communication in the natural environment.

  20. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation. PMID:25197154

  1. Eurasian Seismic Surveillance - 2D FD Seismic Synthetics and Event Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-22

    for 2D finite difference (FD) synthetic seismogram experiments . The results here are encouraging in the sense that models incorporating small scale... ProMAX screendump of synthetic seismograms generated for the model shown in Fig. 2.4.1. The receivers were placed with 3 km intervals in the range x=13 to...our 2D FD synthetic seismogram experiments is that a simple lithosphere model, being moderately heterogeneous, gives rise to complex seismograms which

  2. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  3. Seismic attenuation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

  4. The seismic design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Naeim, F. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains papers on the planning, analysis, and design of earthquake resistant building structures. Theories and concepts of earthquake resistant design and their implementation in seismic design practice are presented.

  5. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  6. Deepwater seismic acquisition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although truly new technology is not required for successful acquisition of seismic data in deep Gulf of Mexico waters, it is helpful to review some basic aspects of these seismic surveys. Additionally, such surveys are likely to see early use of some emerging new technology which can improve data quality. Because such items as depth imaging, borehole seismic, 4-D and marine 3-component recording were mentioned in the May 1996 issue of World Oil, they are not discussed again here. However, these technologies will also play some role in the deepwater seismic activities. What is covered in this paper are some new considerations for: (1) longer data records needed in deeper water, (2) some pros and cons of very long steamer use, and (3) two new commercial systems for quantifying data quality.

  7. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Toolkit (HTK), a software package which has been developed in the realm of speech recognition research. The training procedure can be described as follows: First, we extract a valuable set of wave field parameters in a sliding window fashion from an unlabeled continuous data stream. Here, we use polarization and spectral attributes as those are well known to provide good discrimination between different seismic event classes. In the following these parameters are used to extract a fixed number of clusters in the feature space. Each cluster corresponds to a mixture component of the overall output distribution which is modeled by Gaussian mixture densities. Based on this general multivariate description of the overall data set we start building particular event classifiers from a single waveform example based on the cluster description learned before. For the classification task we use context dependent hidden Markov models which represent a stochastic description observations and hence are able to handle the great variabilities of volcano-seismic signal characteristics. To show the capabilities of this new approach tests were performed on two different datasets. Based on the results of the automatic classification process of seismic signals recorded at Soufrière Hills volcano and continuous data recorded at Mt. Erebus volcano we show that the system is able to provide a robust event classification without previously existing training events. For this reason we conclude that the suggested approach is a valuable tool for rapid response action.

  8. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  9. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  10. Mechanisms of contextual control when contexts are informative to solve the task.

    PubMed

    León, Samuel P; Matías Gámez, A; Rosas, Juan M

    2012-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using a human instrumental learning task with the goal of evaluating the mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of context-switching on responding to an unambiguous stimulus when contexts are informative to solve the task. Participants were trained in a context-based reversal discrimination in which two discriminative stimuli (X and Y) interchange their meaning across contexts A and B. In context A, discriminative stimulus Z consistently announced that the relationship between a specific instrumental response (RI) and a specific outcome (O1) was in effect. Performance in the presence of stimulus Z was equally deteriorated when the test was conducted outside the training context, regardless of whether the test context was familiar (context B) or new (context C). This result is consistent with the idea that participants code all the information presented in an informative context as context-specific with the context playing a role akin to an occasion setter.

  11. Discriminant learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Riedel, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a dimension reduction method is widely used in classification such as face recognition. However, it suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem when data dimensionality is greater than the sample size, as in images where features are high dimensional and correlated. In this paper, we propose to address the SSS problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute linear discriminants by regularized least squares regression, where the singularity problem is resolved. The resulting discriminants are complete in that they include both regular and irregular information. We show that our proposal and its nonlinear extension belong to the same framework where powerful classifiers such as support vector machines are formulated. In addition, our approach allows us to establish an error bound for LDA. Finally, our experiments validate our theoretical analysis results.

  12. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  13. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  14. Source and Propagation Characteristics of Explosive and Other Seismic Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, X; Chan, W; Wagner, R; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

    2005-07-14

    Understanding of the source and propagation characteristics of seismic events of different types including earthquakes, explosions and mining-induced events is essential for successful discrimination of nuclear explosions. We are compiling a data set of mining related seismic events in east Eurasia. Natural earthquake data in the same region are also collected for comparison study between mining related events and earthquakes. The ground-truth data set will provide a unique and valuable resource for monitoring research. We will utilize the data set to investigate the source and propagation characteristics of seismic sources of different types including mine blasts, tremors, collapses and earthquakes. We will use various seismological techniques including spectral analysis, and waveform modeling to conduct the investigation. The research will improve our understanding of the S-wave excitation and propagation characteristics of chemical explosions and other source types.

  15. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  16. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  17. Mechanisms of renewal after the extinction of discriminated operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-07-01

    Three experiments demonstrated, and examined the mechanisms that underlie, the renewal of extinguished discriminated operant behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to perform 1 response (lever press or chain pull) in the presence of one discriminative stimulus (S; light or tone) in Context A, and to perform the other response in the presence of the other S in Context B. Next, each of the original S/response combinations was extinguished in the alternate context. When the S/response combinations were tested back in the context in which they had been trained, responding in the presence of S returned (an ABA renewal effect was observed). This renewal could not be due to differential context-reinforcer associations, suggesting instead that the extinction context inhibits either the response and/or the effectiveness of the S. Consistent with the latter mechanism, in Experiment 2, ABA renewal was still observed when both the extinction and renewal contexts inhibited the same response. However, in Experiment 3, previous extinction of the response in the renewing context (occasioned by a different S) reduced AAB renewal more than did extinction of the different response. Taken together, the results suggest at least 2 mechanisms of renewal after instrumental extinction. First, extinction performance is at least partly controlled by a direct inhibitory association that is formed between the context and the response. Second, in the discriminated operant procedure, extinction performance can sometimes be partly controlled by a reduction in the effectiveness of the S in the extinction context. Renewal of discriminated operant behavior can be produced by a release from either of these forms of inhibition.

  18. Seismic reflection evidence against a shallow detachment beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Hunter, W. Clay

    1996-01-01

    Intermediate-depth seismic reflection profile across Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain is obtained. The aim of the seismic profiling are discrimination the subsurface geometry of faults and imaging of the boundary between the pre-Tertiary sedimentary strata and the Miocene volcanic rocks of Yucca Mountain. Of major interest is the existence and geometry of a postulated west-dipping detachment fault beneath Yucca Mountain. These reflection profiles provide critical input to efforts to evaluate tectonic models, probabilistic seismic hazards, and potential volcanic hazards near Yucca Mountain, site of investigations for a potential permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  19. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  20. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  1. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  2. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  3. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  4. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  5. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  6. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  7. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  8. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  9. The role of seismicity models in probabilistic seismic hazard estimation: comparison of a zoning and a smoothing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauval, Céline; Scotti, Oona; Bonilla, Fabian

    2006-05-01

    Seismic hazard estimations are compared using two approaches based on two different seismicity models: one which models earthquake recurrence by applying the truncated Gutenberg-Richter law and a second one which smoothes the epicentre location of past events according to the fractal distribution of earthquakes in space (Woo 1996). The first method requires the definition of homogeneous source zones and the determination of maximum possible magnitudes whereas the second method requires the definition of a smoothing function. Our results show that the two approaches lead to similar hazard estimates in low seismicity regions. In regions of increased seismic activity, on the other hand, the smoothing approach yields systematically lower estimates than the zoning method. This epicentre-smoothing approach can thus be considered as a lower bound estimator for seismic hazard and can help in decision making in moderate seismicity regions where source zone definition and estimation of maximum possible magnitudes can lead to a wide variety of estimates due to lack of knowledge. The two approaches lead, however, to very different earthquake scenarios. Disaggregation studies at a representative number of sites show that if the distributions of contributions according to source-site distance are comparable between the two approaches, the distributions of contributions according to magnitude differ, reflecting the very different seismicity models used. The epicentre-smoothing method leads to scenarios with predominantly intermediate magnitudes events (5 <=M<= 5.5) while the zoning method leads to scenarios with magnitudes that increase with the return period from the minimum to the maximum magnitudes considered. These trends demonstrate that the seismicity model used plays a fundamental role in the determination of the controlling scenarios and ways to discriminate between the most appropriate models remains an important issue.

  10. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  11. A Method Of Evaluating A Subsurface Region Using Gather Sensitive Data Discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    2000-01-11

    A method of evaluating a subsurface region by separating/enhancing a certain type of seismic event data of interest from an overall set of seismic event data which includes other, different types of seismic event data is disclosed herein. In accordance with one feature, a particular type of gather is generated from the seismic event data such that the gather includes at least a portion of the data which is of interest and at least a portion of the other data. A series of data discrimination lines are incorporated into the gather at positions and directions which are established in the gather in a predetermined way. Using the data discrimination lines, the data of interest which is present in the gather is separated/enhanced with respect to the other data within the gather. The separated data may be used for example in producing a map of the particular subterranean region. In accordance with another feature, the gather is selected such that the incorporated discrimination lines approach a near parallel relationship with one another. Thereby, the data is transformed in a way which causes the discrimination lines to be parallel with one another, resulting in reduced frequency distortion accompanied by improved accuracy in the separation/enhancement of data. In accordance with still another feature, the disclosed data separation/enhancement method is compatible with an iterative approach.

  12. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  13. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  14. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  15. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-11-10

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions.

  16. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  17. Context vector approach to image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Clara Z.; Means, Robert W.

    1998-04-01

    HNC developed a unique context vector approach to image retrieval in Image Contrast Addressable Retrieval System. The basis for this approach is the context vector approach to image representation. A context vector is a high dimensional vector of real numbers, derived from a set of features that are useful in discriminating between images in a particular domain. The image features are trained based upon the constrained 2D self-organizing learning law. The image context vector encodes both intra-image features and inter-image relationship. The similarity in the directions of the context vectors of a pair of images indicates their similarity of content. The context vector approach to image representation simplifies the image and retrieval indexing problem because simple Euclidean distance measurements between sets of context vectors are used as a measure of similarity.

  18. Stress within a Bicultural Context for Adolescents of Mexican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Folkman and Lazarus's theory of stress and coping was used to develop a measure assessing the perceived stress within a bicultural context. Middle school students of Mexican descent (N=881) reported their perceived stress from intergenerational acculturation gaps, within-group discrimination, out-group discrimination, and monolingual stress.…

  19. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  20. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  1. Unraveling Megathrust Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; van Dinther, Ylona; Heuret, Arnauld

    2013-12-01

    The majority of global seismicity originates at subduction zones, either within the converging plates or along the plate interface. In particular, events with Mw ≥ 8.0 usually occur at the subduction megathrust, which is the frictional interface between subducting and overriding plates. Consequently, seismicity at subduction megathrusts is responsible for most of the seismic energy globally released during the last century [Pacheco and Sykes, 1992]. What's more, during the last decade giant megathrust earthquakes occurred at an increased rate with respect to the last century [Ammon et al., 2010], often revealing unexpected characteristics and resulting in catastrophic effects. Determining the controlling factors of these events would have fundamental implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment.

  2. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  3. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  4. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  5. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  6. Towards Exascale Seismic Imaging and Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Smith, J. A.; Lei, W.; Ruan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Post-petascale supercomputers are now available to solve complex scientific problems that were thought unreachable a few decades ago. They also bring a cohort of concerns tied to obtaining optimum performance. Several issues are currently being investigated by the HPC community. These include energy consumption, fault resilience, scalability of the current parallel paradigms, workflow management, I/O performance and feature extraction with large datasets. In this presentation, we focus on the last three issues. In the context of seismic imaging and inversion, in particular for simulations based on adjoint methods, workflows are well defined.They consist of a few collective steps (e.g., mesh generation or model updates) and of a large number of independent steps (e.g., forward and adjoint simulations of each seismic event, pre- and postprocessing of seismic traces). The greater goal is to reduce the time to solution, that is, obtaining a more precise representation of the subsurface as fast as possible. This brings us to consider both the workflow in its entirety and the parts comprising it. The usual approach is to speedup the purely computational parts based on code optimization in order to reach higher FLOPS and better memory management. This still remains an important concern, but larger scale experiments show that the imaging workflow suffers from severe I/O bottlenecks. Such limitations occur both for purely computational data and seismic time series. The latter are dealt with by the introduction of a new Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF). Parallel I/O libraries, namely HDF5 and ADIOS, are used to drastically reduce the cost of disk access. Parallel visualization tools, such as VisIt, are able to take advantage of ADIOS metadata to extract features and display massive datasets. Because large parts of the workflow are embarrassingly parallel, we are investigating the possibility of automating the imaging process with the integration of scientific workflow

  7. Interpolation of aliased seismic traces

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, D.J.; McBeath, R.G.; Wason, C.B.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of interpolating seismic traces comprising the steps of: (a) processing seismic data to produce input seismic traces; (b) transforming the input seismic traces from the x, y, and time domain into the x-slope, y-slope and time domain (domains) by using a two dimensional power diversity slant stack; and (c) transforming the product of step (b) back into the x, y, and time domain using an inverse slant stack.

  8. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  9. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  10. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  11. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  12. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  13. Contextual Effects in Fine Spatial Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Olzak, Lynn A.; Laurinen, Pentti I.

    2006-01-01

    The context in which a pattern is viewed can greatly affect its apparent contrast, a phenomenon commonly attributed to pooled contrast gain control processes. A low-contrast surround may slightly enhance apparent contrast, whereas increasing the contrast of the surround leads to a monotonic decline in contrast appearance. We ask here how the presence of a patterned surround affects the ability to perform fine, suprathreshold orientation, contrast, and spatial frequency discriminations as a function of surround contrast and phase. Our results revealed an unexpected dip in performance when center and surround were in-phase and similar in contrast. These results suggest that additional processes, perhaps those involved in scene segregation, play a role in contextual effects on discrimination. PMID:16277291

  14. Latest development in seismic texture analysis for subsurface structure, facies, and reservoir characterization: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Dengliang

    2011-03-01

    In exploration geology and geophysics, seismic texture is still a developing concept that has not been sufficiently known, although quite a number of different algorithms have been published in the literature. This paper provides a review of the seismic texture concepts and methodologies, focusing on latest developments in seismic amplitude texture analysis, with particular reference to the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the texture model regression (TMR) methods. The GLCM method evaluates spatial arrangements of amplitude samples within an analysis window using a matrix (a two-dimensional histogram) of amplitude co-occurrence. The matrix is then transformed into a suite of texture attributes, such as homogeneity, contrast, and randomness, which provide the basis for seismic facies classification. The TMR method uses a texture model as reference to discriminate among seismic features based on a linear, least-squares regression analysis between the model and the data within an analysis window. By implementing customized texture model schemes, the TMR algorithm has the flexibility to characterize subsurface geology for different purposes. A texture model with a constant phase is effective at enhancing the visibility of seismic structural fabrics, a texture model with a variable phase is helpful for visualizing seismic facies, and a texture model with variable amplitude, frequency, and size is instrumental in calibrating seismic to reservoir properties. Preliminary test case studies in the very recent past have indicated that the latest developments in seismic texture analysis have added to the existing amplitude interpretation theories and methodologies. These and future developments in seismic texture theory and methodologies will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the geologic implications of the seismic texture concept and to an improved geologic interpretation of reflection seismic amplitude

  15. A comparison of active seismic source data to seismic excitations from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Arthur; Kennedy, Ben; Keys, Harry; Lokmer, Ivan; Proctor, Jon; Lyons, John; Jolly, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption jets, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~7x105 m3) that propagated ~2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption chronology must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity starting at 11:52:18 UTC that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the timing of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the eruptive sequence. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9x106 joules producing seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four 3-component stations. From these, we obtained a distribution of amplitudes across the network for each drop position which varied systematically from the eruption vent and avalanche scar to the debris avalanche toe. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross-correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we found evidence for the debris avalanche a few minutes prior to the eruption in both the broad spectrum and narrow frequency (5-10 Hz) analysis. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~8x1011 joules, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The inferred seismic energy release for the

  16. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  17. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  18. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  19. Automatic classification of endogenous landslide seismicity using the Random Forest supervised classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, F.; Hibert, C.; Malet, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    The deformation of slow-moving landslides developed in clays induces endogenous seismicity of mostly low-magnitude events (ML<1). Long seismic records and complete catalogs are needed to identify the type of seismic sources and understand their mechanisms. Manual classification of long records is time-consuming and may be highly subjective. We propose an automatic classification method based on the computation of 71 seismic attributes and the use of a supervised classifier. No attribute was selected a priori in order to create a generic multi-class classification method applicable to many landslide contexts. The method can be applied directly on the results of a simple detector. We developed the approach on the seismic network of eight sensors of the Super-Sauze clay-rich landslide (South French Alps) for the detection of four types of seismic sources. The automatic algorithm retrieves 93% of sensitivity in comparison to a manually interpreted catalog considered as reference.

  20. FET Frequency Discriminator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    conversion . characteristic of the frequency discriminator is significant and :ending upon the specific system - may be the limiting factor in the accu of...the results obtained did not .-" allow for the accurate determinat ion of the change in impedance, addit ional 14 -~ 12V - - Figure 7. Impedance plot...44*. -. 7 ’I -- -..- ,. -, 4., /-.,’ .3 8 V ............... ... .. .$, L- 12v - Figure 9. Impedance plot tor five diodes inl parallel. A circuit was

  1. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  2. Discrimination in lexical decision

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  3. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  4. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  5. A new source discriminant based on frequency dispersion for hydroacoustic phases recorded by T-phase stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talandier, Jacques; Okal, Emile A.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty in the marine environment, we present a new discriminant based on the empirical observation that hydroacoustic phases recorded at T-phase stations from explosive sources in the water column feature a systematic inverse dispersion, with lower frequencies traveling slower, which is absent from signals emanating from earthquake sources. This difference is present even in the case of the so-called `hotspot earthquakes' occurring inside volcanic edifices featuring steep slopes leading to efficient seismic-acoustic conversions, which can lead to misidentification of such events as explosions when using more classical duration-amplitude discriminants. We propose an algorithm for the compensation of the effect of dispersion over the hydroacoustic path based on a correction to the spectral phase of the ground velocity recorded by the T-phase station, computed individually from the dispersion observed on each record. We show that the application of a standard amplitude-duration algorithm to the resulting compensated time-series satisfactorily identifies records from hotspot earthquakes as generated by dislocation sources, and present a full algorithm, lending itself to automation, for the discrimination of explosive and earthquake sources of hydroacoustic signals at T-phase stations. The only sources not readily identifiable consist of a handful of complex explosions which occurred in the 1970s, believed to involve the testing of advanced weaponry, and which should be independently identifiable through routine vetting by analysts. While we presently cannot provide a theoretical justification to the observation that only explosive sources generate dispersed T phases, we hint that this probably reflects a simpler, and more coherent distribution of acoustic energy among the various modes constituting the wave train, than in the case of dislocation sources embedded in the solid Earth.

  6. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  7. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  8. Mobile seismic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Cao, X.; Polom, U.; Pätzold, F.; Zeller, T.; Hecker, P.; Seyfried, V.; Rembe, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  9. Hanford Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

  10. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  11. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  12. Discrimination of Secondary Microseism Origins Using Ocean Tide Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Schimmel, M.; Chevrot, S.; Vergne, J.; Sylvander, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ocean activity produces continuous and ubiquitous seismic energy mostly in the 2-20 s period band, also known as microseismic noise. The secondary microseisms (2-10 s period) are generated by swell reflections close to the shores and/or by opposing swells in the deep ocean. However, unique conditions are required in order for surface waves, generated by deep-ocean microseisms, to be observed on land. Since both type of secondary microseisms (coastal or deep-ocean) can occur simultaneously at different places and are continuously evolving in terms of frequency, it is very difficult to discriminate them usgin seismic stations on land. By comparing short-duration power spectral densities at both Atlantic shoreline and inland seismic stations, we show that ocean tides strongly modulate the seismic energy in a wide period band except between 2.5 and 5 s. This tidal proxy reveals the existence of an ex situ short-period contribution of the secondary microseismic peak. Comparison with swell spectra at surrounding buoys suggests that the largest part of this extra energy comes from deep-ocean-generated microseisms. Focusing on two different storms which occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean, we show that both deep-ocean and coastal microseisms coexist.

  13. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  14. Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.

    PubMed

    Trobalon, J B; Sansa, J; Chamizo, V D; Mackintosh, N J

    1991-11-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination between rubber- and sandpaper-covered arms of a maze after one group had been pre-exposed to these intra-maze cues. Pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made easier by adding further discriminative stimuli, when it now significantly retarded learning. In Experiment 2, rats were trained on an extra-maze spatial discrimination, again after one group, but not another, had been pre-exposed to the extra-maze landmarks. Here too, pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made substantially easier by arranging that the two arms between which rats had to choose were always separated by 135 degrees. The results of both experiments can be explained by supposing that perceptual learning depends on the presence of features common to S+ and S-.

  15. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  16. Bullying and discrimination experiences among Korean-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Y; D'Antonio, Emily; Son, Haein; Kim, Seung-A; Kim, Seong-A; Park, Yeddi

    2011-10-01

    The bullying experiences of Korean-American adolescents (N = 295) were explored in relation to discrimination and mental health outcomes. Bullying experiences were assessed by the Bully Survey (Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination Scale (Way, 1997) and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who reported being bullied (31.5%) as well as those who reported both being bullied and bullying others (15.9%) experienced a higher level of depression, which was elevated beyond the clinically significant level of CES-D. The results of a LISREL model suggest that the experiences of bullying among Korean/Asian-American adolescents and their related mental health issues need to be addressed in a comprehensive context of their discrimination experiences, acculturation, family and school environments.

  17. Acquisition of social referencing via discrimination training in infants.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences followed infants' reaching toward an unfamiliar object depending on the particular maternal facial expression. During the training phases, a joyful facial expression signaled positive reinforcement for the infant reaching for an ambiguous object, whereas a fearful expression signaled aversive stimulation for the same response. Baseline and extinction conditions were implemented as controls. Mothers' expressions acquired control over infants' approach behavior for all participants. All participants ceased to show discriminated responding during the extinction phase. The results suggest that 4- and 5-month-old infants can learn social referencing via discrimination training.

  18. Active seismic sources as a proxy for seismic surface processes: An example from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A. D.; Lokmer, I.; Kennedy, B.; Keys, H. J. R.; Proctor, J.; Lyons, J. J.; Jolly, G. E.

    2014-10-01

    The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption pulses, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~ 7 × 105 m3) that propagated ~ 2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption timing must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the evolution of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the seismic sequence in a new cross correlation source location approach. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9 × 106 Nm producing observable seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four stations. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we obtain a best matched source position in the near vent region for the eruption period and significant down channel excitations during both the pre and post eruption periods. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~ 8 × 1011 Nm, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The new energy estimate may be more robust than those calculated from standard seismic radiation equations, which may include uncertainties about the path and site effects. The

  19. Extinction and Renewal of Pavlovian Modulation in Human Sequential Feature Positive Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Frank; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Kerkhof, Ineke; De Ceulaer, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated extinction and renewal of Pavlovian modulation in human sequential Feature Positive (FP) discrimination learning. In Experiment 1, in context a participants were first trained on two FP discriminations, X[right arrow]A+/A- and Y[right arrow]B+/B-. Extinction treatment was administered in the…

  20. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  1. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  2. A Study of Musical Loudness Discrimination of Three- to Five-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Darhyl S.; Ramsey, Jonny H.

    An investigation was made of the effects of age and sex on preschool children's discrimination of intensity in musical contexts. Subjects included 92 children ranging in age from 37 to 70 months. A total of 47 females and 45 males participated in the study. To determine preschoolers' loudness discrimination abilities, a new test was designed: The…

  3. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  4. Future directions in research on institutional and interpersonal discrimination and children's health.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Rosenfeld, Lindsay E; Hardy, Erin; McArdle, Nancy; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-10-01

    Research evidence indicates that 2 forms of racial discrimination-perceived interpersonal discrimination and racial/ethnic residential segregation (a form of institutional discrimination)-may influence children's health and disparities. Although research on these 2 forms of discrimination and health has primarily focused on adults, smaller bodies of work have documented that perceived interpersonal discrimination and segregation have a negative effect on infants' health, and that perceived interpersonal discrimination may negatively affect children's mental health. Three directions for research are (1) incorporating a life-course perspective into studies of discrimination and children's health, (2) linking residential segregation with geography-of-opportunity conceptual frameworks and measures, and (3) considering residential segregation along with segregation in other contexts that influence children's health (e.g., schools).

  5. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning.

  6. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  7. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  8. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    During the period of this report, the contract resources were spent on operation and maintenance of the Eastern Canada Telemetred Network (ECTN), development of special purpose local network systems, servicing and maintenance of the strong-motion seismograph network in eastern Canada, operation of the Ottawa data lab and earthquake monitoring and reporting. Of special note in this period was the final completion of the Sudbury (SLTN) and Charlevoix (CLTN) local networks and the integration of their data processing and analysis requirements in the regular analysis stream for ECTN data. These networks now acquire high quality digital data for detailed analysis of seismic activity and source properties from these two areas, thus effectively doubling the amount of seismic data being received by the Ottawa data lab. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Hartse, H.E.

    1996-09-24

    The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  11. Discrimination and Chinese fertility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Trovato, F

    1998-01-01

    The study examines Chinese fertility in Canada in the context of minority-status and fertility. Chinese-Canadians are compared with British-Canadians, who are considered in this analysis as the majority group. The study is unique in three ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings a minority group not only psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which can be measured by Chinese husbands' economic status relative to the British. Second, we analyze the relationship between discrimination against the Chinese at the social class level and Chinese fertility behavior at the individual level, which has been ignored by most previous studies. Third, we describe "insecurities" effects to explain the fertility behavior of the Chinese across social classes, including the lower classes to which many researchers believe the minority status hypothesis is not applicable. We conclude that discrimination variations over social classes combined with normative influence are a major factor in causing class fertility differentials between the Chinese and the British in Canada.

  12. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  13. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  14. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  15. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  16. Interpreting past religious discrimination today.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-10-01

    Much of modern western law now presupposes opposition to discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other factors. However, ancient religious Scriptures may have sanctioned certain types of discrimination. Whether those who are inclined to accept literal interpretations of their Scriptures will condone certain forms of discrimination could be evaluated to contrast the effects of modernization versus religious indoctrination on various kinds of prejudice.

  17. Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A

    1997-06-01

    Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities.

  18. The perceptual magnet effect reflects phonetic context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Sarah; Barrett Jones, Sarah

    2004-05-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that the perceptual magnet effect is context sensitive. In experiment 1a, 24 participants rated goodness of synthetic /u/ in isolation (ooh) and in two consonantal contexts, /lu/, /ju/ (Lou, you), with nine versions per word, varying in F2 frequency. Their most (prototypical) and least (nonprototypical) preferred choices reflected expected differences between words, and individual differences within words. Experiment 1b demonstrated standard perceptual magnet effects for prototype and nonprototype /u/ in the three words. Unlike previous work, each participant discriminated his/her own prototype and nonprototype from experiment 1a, rather than the group mean. Experiment 2a replicated 1a with 40 new participants. Experiment 2b compared discrimination around participants' prototypical F2 frequency for /u/ in one word (original) with discrimination around that same frequency in another word (transferred). Different original/transferred sets were heard by four groups (ten participants each): /u/ and /lu/; /lu/ and /u/; /ju/ and /u/; /ju/ and /lu/. Discrimination (d') near the prototype was poorer for original than transferred contexts [for the four comparisons, t(9) ranged between 2.43-3.49, p<0.025-0.005]. Thus, the perceptual magnet effect is syllable specific: the vowel prototype for one word need not generalize to another. Implications for perceptual coherence and phonological representation are discussed.

  19. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  20. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  1. Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Els; Horstman, Klasien; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about the origins and backgrounds of fears of discrimination and how it affects decisions for uptake of genetic testing. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of these fears and its possible impact on the uptake of testing by studying the case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In a qualitative study, we followed six Dutch extended families involved in genetic testing for HCM for three-and-a-half years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 members of these families. Based on the narratives of the families, we suggest that fears of discrimination have to be situated in the broader social and life-course context of family and kin. We describe the processes in which families developed meaningful interpretations of genetic discrimination and how these interpretations affected family members' decisions to undergo genetic testing. Our findings show that fears of genetic discrimination do not so much stem from the opportunity of genetic testing but much more from earlier experiences of discrimination of diseased family members. These results help identify the possible limitations of genetic non-discrimination regulations and provide direction to clinicians supporting their clients as they confront issues of genetic testing and genetic discrimination.

  2. Modelling of NW Himalayan Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, A. R.; Dimri, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The northwest Himalaya is seismicity active region due to the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates and experienced many large earthquakes in past. A systematic analysis of seismicity is useful for seismic hazard estimation of the region. We analyzed the seismicity of northwestern Himalaya since 1980. The magnitude of completeness of the catalogue is carried out using different methods and found as 3.0. A large difference in magnitude of completeness is found using different methods and a reliable value is obtained after testing the distribution of magnitudes with time. The region is prone to large earthquake and many studied have shown that seismic activation or quiescence takes place before large earthquakes. We studied such behavior of seismicity based on Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model and found that a stationary ETAS model is more suitable for modelling the seismicity of this region. The earthquake catalogue is de-clustered using stochasting approach to study behavior of background and triggered seismicity. The triggered seismicity is found to have shallower depths as compared to the background events.

  3. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

  4. Seismic hazard estimation of northern Iran using smoothed seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Cramer, Chris H.

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a seismic hazard assessment for northern Iran, where a smoothed seismicity approach has been used in combination with an updated seismic catalog and a ground motion prediction equation recently found to yield good fit with data. We evaluate the hazard over a geographical area including the seismic zones of Azerbaijan, the Alborz Mountain Range, and Kopeh-Dagh, as well as parts of other neighboring seismic zones that fall within our region of interest. In the chosen approach, seismic events are not assigned to specific faults but assumed to be potential seismogenic sources distributed within regular grid cells. After performing the corresponding magnitude conversions, we decluster both historical and instrumental seismicity catalogs to obtain earthquake rates based on the number of events within each cell, and smooth the results to account for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of future earthquakes. Seismicity parameters are computed for each seismic zone separately, and for the entire region of interest as a single uniform seismotectonic region. In the analysis, we consider uncertainties in the ground motion prediction equation, the seismicity parameters, and combine the resulting models using a logic tree. The results are presented in terms of expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps and hazard curves at selected locations, considering exceedance probabilities of 2 and 10% in 50 years for rock site conditions. According to our results, the highest levels of hazard are observed west of the North Tabriz and east of the North Alborz faults, where expected PGA values are between about 0.5 and 1 g for 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, respectively. We analyze our results in light of similar estimates available in the literature and offer our perspective on the differences observed. We find our results to be helpful in understanding seismic hazard for northern Iran, but recognize that additional efforts are necessary to

  5. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  6. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  7. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  8. Validating induced seismicity forecast models—Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király-Proag, Eszter; Zechar, J. Douglas; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SaSS forecasts the spatial distribution better and gives better seismicity rate estimates before shut-in. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in.

  9. Passive Seismic Monitoring for Rockfall at Yucca Mountain: Concept Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J; Twilley, K; Murvosh, H; Tu, Y; Luke, B; Yfantis, A; Harris, D B

    2003-03-03

    For the purpose of proof-testing a system intended to remotely monitor rockfall inside a potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, a system of seismic sub-arrays will be deployed and tested on the surface of the mountain. The goal is to identify and locate rockfall events remotely using automated data collecting and processing techniques. We install seismometers on the ground surface, generate seismic energy to simulate rockfall in underground space beneath the array, and interpret the surface response to discriminate and locate the event. Data will be analyzed using matched-field processing, a generalized beam forming method for localizing discrete signals. Software is being developed to facilitate the processing. To date, a three-component sub-array has been installed and successfully tested.

  10. New methods for interpreting seismic waves in stratified media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, B. N.

    1985-06-01

    In order to ensure the most complete exploitation of petroleum deposits it is essential to develop new methods for the study of faults and the steep slopes of salt domes. The author describes a method for achieving this goal. This involves interpretation of reflections directly from fault zones: direct waves from the boundaries of fault zones and doubly reflected waves (those forming first by reflection from a subvertical boundary and then from the subhorizontal boundaries adjacent to them). It is shown that the formation of such duplex waves does not require that the entire subvertical boundary be continuously reflecting; it is only required that its individual elements in the neighborhood of the contacts with the subhorizontal boundaries have reflecting properties. The discrimination and interpretation of such waves is possible in virtually the entire range of studied depths for seismic prospecting and petroleum exploration and also in deep seismic soundings. Each of these possibilities is illustrated in examples.

  11. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Latina/o Adolescents of Immigrant Parents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William D; LeBrón, Alana M W; Graham, Louis F; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is associated with negative mental health outcomes for Latina/o adolescents. While Latino/a adolescents experience discrimination from a number of sources and across contexts, little research considers how the source of discrimination and the context in which it occurs affect mental health outcomes among Latina/o children of immigrants. We examined the association between source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source, and school ethnic context with depressive symptoms for Latina/o adolescents of immigrant parents. Using multilevel linear regression with time-varying covariates, we regressed depressive symptoms on source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source of discrimination, and school percent Latina/o. Discrimination from teachers (β = 0.06, p < .05), students (β = 0.05, p < .05), Cubans (β = 0.19, p < .001), and Latinas/os (β = 0.19, p < .001) were positively associated with depressive symptoms. These associations were not moderated by school percent Latina/o. The findings indicate a need to reduce discrimination to improve Latina/o adolescents' mental health.

  12. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  13. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  14. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  15. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  16. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  17. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  20. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  1. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  2. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  3. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  4. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  5. Graphical methods for the sensitivity analysis in discriminant analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngil; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Dae-Heung, Jang

    2015-09-30

    Similar to regression, many measures to detect influential data points in discriminant analysis have been developed. Many follow similar principles as the diagnostic measures used in linear regression in the context of discriminant analysis. Here we focus on the impact on the predicted classification posterior probability when a data point is omitted. The new method is intuitive and easily interpretative compared to existing methods. We also propose a graphical display to show the individual movement of the posterior probability of other data points when a specific data point is omitted. This enables the summaries to capture the overall pattern ofmore » the change.« less

  6. Graphical methods for the sensitivity analysis in discriminant analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Dae-Heung, Jang

    2015-09-30

    Similar to regression, many measures to detect influential data points in discriminant analysis have been developed. Many follow similar principles as the diagnostic measures used in linear regression in the context of discriminant analysis. Here we focus on the impact on the predicted classification posterior probability when a data point is omitted. The new method is intuitive and easily interpretative compared to existing methods. We also propose a graphical display to show the individual movement of the posterior probability of other data points when a specific data point is omitted. This enables the summaries to capture the overall pattern of the change.

  7. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  8. Critical behaviour of the seismic precursors of a cliff collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, J.; Amitrano, D.; Senfaute, G.

    2004-12-01

    We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. About 500 seismic events, in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, have been recorded during the six months before the collapse, and more than 200 during the two hours preceding the collapse. The collapse occurred within a seismic network of five microseismic stations, in such a manner that the central station was located at few meters of the failure surface. This allows us to investigate the properties of the seismicity emitted by the damage process leading to the cliff collapse. The study focused on the statistical properties of the seismic events. The event size distribution displays a power law distribution (N(E)∝ E-b) on more than 3 magnitude orders with an exponent of 0.55. Such a distribution can be compared to the Gutenberg-Richter law observed for crustal earthquakes. During the last hour before the collapse, we observed a continuous decrease of b-value until the collapse occurred, indicating that the proportion of large events increases toward the time to failure. We show that, contemporary to this exponent decrease, a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy is defined on 3 order of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. We discuss these results, in the context of brittle failure and tertiary creep models. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for brittle rupture may apply for this cliff collapse. We suggest that the case study presented here is one of the first (even the first) case showing a power law acceleration before a cliff collapse. It open new routes both to monitor and to understand the physics rock slope and landslide instabilities.

  9. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands.

  10. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  11. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  12. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  13. Relations of pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals not formally trained as musicians.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert E; Estis, Julie M; Zhang, Fawen; Watts, Christopher; Marble, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    Research has yielded a relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Good pitch matchers tend to be good pitch discriminators and are often judged to be vocally talented. Otoacoustic emission suppression measures the function of the efferent auditory system which may affect accuracy for pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Formally trained musicians show pitch matching and pitch discrimination superior to those of nonmusicians and have greater efferent otoacoustic emission suppression than nonmusicians. This study investigated the relationship among pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals with no formal musical training and who showed varied pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Analysis suggested a significant relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination but not between otoacoustic emission suppression and pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Findings are presented in the context of previous research indicating a significant relationship between otoacoustic emission suppression and musical talent in trained musicians.

  14. Can humans discriminate between dogs on the base of the acoustic parameters of barks?

    PubMed

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám

    2006-07-01

    In this study we tested the often suggested claim that people are able to recognize their dogs by their barks. Earlier studies in other species indicated that reliable discrimination between individuals cannot be made by listening to chaotically noisy vocalizations. As barking is typically such a chaotic noisy vocalization, we have hypothesized that reliable discrimination between individuals is not possible by listening to barks. In this study, playback experiments were conducted to explore (1) how accurately humans discriminate between dogs by hearing only their barks, (2) the impact of the eliciting context of calls on these discrimination performances, and (3) how much such discrimination depends on acoustic parameters (tonality and frequency of barks, and the intervals between the individual barks). Our findings were consistent with the previous studies: human performances did not pass the empirical threshold of reliable discrimination in most cases. But a significant effect of tonality was found: discrimination between individuals was more successful when listeners were listening to low harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) barks. The contexts in which barks were recorded affected significantly the listeners' performances: if the dog barked at a stranger, listeners were able to discriminate the vocalizations better than if they were listening to sounds recorded when the dog was separated from its owner. It is rendered probable that the bark might be a more efficient communication system between humans and dogs for communicating the motivational state of an animal than for discrimination among strange individuals.

  15. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  16. Weak localization of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

    2004-07-23

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.

  17. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  18. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Robert

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  19. Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are

  20. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Chiappetta, F.; Heuze, F.; Walter, W.; Hopler, R.; Hsu, V.; Martin, B.; Pearson, C.; Stump, B.; Zipf, K.

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  1. Technological Advancements: Seismic Refraction on the Pajarito Plateau, Northern New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Nisengard, J. E.; Ferguson, J. F.; Hinz, E.; Isaacson, J.; Gauthier, Rory P.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical techniques can be used for non-invasive surveys at archaeological sites. Seismic refraction is one such technology that has many potential applications, although it has been under-utilized. It is an inexpensive, efficient way to characterize subsurface deposits, especially at sites in shallow contexts over bedrock. Archaeologists and geophysicists participating in the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE), from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Bandelier National Monument are working together to characterize Ancestral Pueblo (A.D. 1200 to 1600) sites. We present the results from three seismic refraction surveys and provide an overview of how seismic refraction works.

  2. Micromachined silicon seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Armour, D.L.; Fleming, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of CTBT monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily depolyable sensor arrays. Although our goal is to fabricate seismic sensors that provide the same performance level as the current state-of-the-art ``macro`` systems, if necessary one could deploy a larger number of these small sensors at closer proximity to the location being monitored in order to compensate for lower performance. We have chosen a modified pendulum design and are manufacturing prototypes in two different silicon micromachining fabrication technologies. The first set of prototypes, fabricated in our advanced surface- micromachining technology, are currently being packaged for testing in servo circuits -- we anticipate that these devices, which have masses in the 1--10 {mu}g range, will resolve sub-mG signals. Concurrently, we are developing a novel ``mold`` micromachining technology that promises to make proof masses in the 1--10 mg range possible -- our calculations indicate that devices made in this new technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach to 10{sup {minus}10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  3. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.

    2010-12-01

    In collaboration with computer science and earthquake engineering, we are developing a dense network of low-cost accelerometers that send their data via the Internet to a cloud-based center. The goal is to make block-by-block measurements of ground shaking in urban areas, which will provide emergency response information in the case of large earthquakes, and an unprecedented high-frequency seismic array to study structure and the earthquake process with moderate shaking. When deployed in high-rise buildings they can be used to monitor the state of health of the structure. The sensors are capable of a resolution of approximately 80 micro-g, connect via USB ports to desktop computers, and cost about $100 each. The network will adapt to its environment by using network-wide machine learning to adjust the picking sensitivity. We are also looking into using other motion sensing devices such as cell phones. For a pilot project, we plan to deploy more than 1000 sensors in the greater Pasadena area. The system is easily adaptable to other seismically vulnerable urban areas.

  4. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  5. Seismic moulin tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeoesli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Kissling, Edi

    2016-08-01

    Through glacial moulins, meltwater is routed from the glacier surface to its base. Moulins are a main feature feeding subglacial drainage systems and thus influencing basal motion and ice dynamics, but their geometry remains poorly known. Here we show that analysis of the seismic wavefield generated by water falling into a moulin can help constrain its geometry. We present modeling results of hour-long seimic tremors emitted from a vertical moulin shaft, observed with a seismometer array installed at the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The tremor was triggered when the moulin water level exceeded a certain height, which we associate with the threshold for the waterfall to hit directly the surface of the moulin water column. The amplitude of the tremor signal changed over each tremor episode, in close relation to the amount of inflowing water. The tremor spectrum features multiple prominent peaks, whose characteristic frequencies are distributed like the resonant modes of a semiopen organ pipe and were found to depend on the moulin water level, consistent with a source composed of resonant tube waves (water pressure waves coupled to elastic deformation of the moulin walls) along the water-filled moulin pipe. Analysis of surface particle motions lends further support to this interpretation. The seismic wavefield was modeled as a superposition of sustained wave radiation by pressure sources on the side walls and at the bottom of the moulin. The former was found to dominate the wave field at close distance and the latter at large distance to the moulin.

  6. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  7. One hundred years of discrimination research in the Journal of Applied Psychology: A sobering synopsis.

    PubMed

    Colella, Adrienne; Hebl, Mikki; King, Eden

    2017-03-01

    Employment discrimination-a legal, social, moral, and practical problem-has been a persistent focus of narrow scholarship in the Journal of Applied Psychology since its inception. Indeed, this article identifies the environmental characteristics, conceptual underpinnings, dominant methodologies, research questions and findings across 508 articles published on discrimination in the journal over the last 100 years. Emergent themes document signs of stability and change in 3 eras: an era wherein discrimination research was itself discriminatory (1917-1969), the heyday of discrimination research (1970-1989), and an era of unsteady progress (1990-2014). This synthesis suggests that, although increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches have been applied to this topic, the targets of focus and theories driving research have largely been static. Additionally, research published on discrimination in the Journal of Applied Psychology has often trailed too far behind the times. Specific recommendations for advancing the psychological study of employment discrimination in applied contexts are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Kinematic multistation discriminator between local quarry blasts and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Shapira, Avi

    1998-12-01

    It has long been known that S waves on seismograms of local explosions are often accompanied by strong low-frequency, low-velocity, Rg surface wave trains, often significantly diminished for earthquakes. We utilize this fact to construct a new formal discriminator between earthquakes and explosions by measuring the S-surface-wave group velocity. The method is based on analysing the velogram; that is, the display of the envelope of ground motion versus group velocity V= R/T , where R is the epicentral distance and T the traveltime. We examine the distribution of seismic energy in time and space using envelopes of records from the Israel Seismic Network (ISN), from which we compute the velograms and observe differences in the velograms of quarry blasts and earthquakes. The data include 143 seismic events occurring in three areas (Galilee, Dead Sea, and Gilad) monitored by the ISN; the magnitude range is ML = 1.0-2.8 at distances of 15-310 km. From the velograms we measure the group velocity, Vms , within the 1-4 km s-1 range at which the velogram reaches its maximum for each available station. The resulting Vms (R) function is closely fitted by the empirical relationship a + b ln R, with a and b coefficients varying from event to event. A simple linear function c = b + 0.33a at a threshold C = 0.69 completely separates (a,b) pairs for the 67 Galilee events, and, for the 76 remaining events, one earthquake and four explosions are wrongly classified. After data validation and application of the Fisher linear discriminator, adapted to the events from Galilee, only two misidentified events remain for the whole data set.

  9. Dynamic cortical lateralization during olfactory discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yaniv; Putrino, David; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Odour discrimination and memory involve changes in the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. The results obtained in the present study suggest that there is an asymmetry in piriform cortical change, with learning-related changes in cortical oscillations emerging with different time courses over the course of multiday training in the left and right piriform cortices in rats. There is an initial decrease in coherence between the left and right piriform cortices during the early stages of the odour discrimination task, which recovers as the animals approach criterion performance. This decreased coherence is expressed when the animals are performing the task relative to when they are in their home cage. The results suggest a transient cortical asymmetry during learning and raise new questions about the functions and mechanisms of cerebral lateralization. Abstract Bilateral cortical circuits are not necessarily symmetrical. Asymmetry, or cerebral lateralization, allows functional specialization of bilateral brain regions and has been described in humans for such diverse functions as perception, memory and emotion. There is also evidence for asymmetry in the human olfactory system, although evidence in non-human animal models is lacking. In the present study, we took advantage of the known changes in olfactory cortical local field potentials that occur over the course of odour discrimination training to test for functional asymmetry in piriform cortical activity during learning. Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context

  10. Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

  11. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  12. Preliminary assessment of seismic CTBT/NPT monitoring capability

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1994-11-30

    Our recent work focuses on assessing seismic event identification performance using a method we developed for outlier detection. This is motivated by the lack of seismic calibration data for underground nuclear explosions in most regions and the difficulty associated with transporting regional discriminants. The procedure may be fully automated to flag events warranting special attention and to test all appropriate assumptions to ensure validity. The method also allows control of false alarm rates and a natural way to rank events. The procedure is applied to nuclear explosions, earthquakes, mining blasts and mine tremors in diverse geological regions, recorded by the ARCESS and GERESS arrays, CDSN station WMQ, and LNN stations KNB and MNV. Discriminants used include Pn/Lg and Pn/Sn in several frequency bands from 3 to 8 Hz, as well as Lg spectral ratios. Identification and false alarm ratios were estimated for each region using a standard set of discriminants. At 0.01 significance level, between 92-100% of the explosions and quarry blasts were detected as outliers of the earthquake groups in the various regions, except at KNB where the outlier detection rate was 80%. There were 3 false alarms out of 158 earthquakes, slightly higher than the target rate of 1%. Effects of contaminated training data were also studied by intentionally including quarry blasts or rock bursts in earthquake training sets to determine if the outlier test can detect them and to assess potential impacts on monitoring performance. Pn/Lg transportability was also examined to assess how precisely a discrimination threshold must be transported in order to be effective. Last, identification analysis of the 31 December 1992 Novaya Zemlya event was repeated after first applying distance corrections.

  13. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  14. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  15. 'Fracking', Induced Seismicity and the Critical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, P.; Malin, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    and ore body distributions can be managed by operating in a context which affords many small failures for a few large successes. In reverse view, 'fracking' and induced seismicity could be rationally managed in a context in which many small successes can afford a few large failures. However, just as there is every incentive to acquire information leading to higher rates of productive well drilling and ore body exploration, there are equal incentives for acquiring information leading to lower rates of 'fracking'-induced seismicity. Current industry practice of using an effective medium approach to reservoir rock creates an uncritical sense that property distributions in rock are essentially uniform. Well-log data show that the reverse is true: the larger the length scale the greater the deviation from uniformity. Applying the effective medium approach to large-scale rock formations thus appears to be unnecessarily hazardous. It promotes the notion that large scale fluid pressurization acts against weakly cohesive but essentially uniform rock to produce large-scale quasi-uniform tensile discontinuities. Indiscriminate hydrofacturing appears to be vastly more problematic in reality than as pictured by the effective medium hypothesis. The spatial complexity of rock, especially at large scales, provides ample reason to find more controlled pressurization strategies for enhancing in situ flow.

  16. Regional Multi-station Discriminants: Magnitude, Distance and Amplitude Corrections and Sources of Error

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D N; Walter, W R; Fagan, D K; Mercier, T M; Taylor, S R

    2008-10-06

    Magnitude, distance and amplitude corrections (MDAC) made to observed regional amplitudes are necessary so that what remains in the corrected amplitude is mostly information about the seismic source-type. Corrected amplitudes can be used in ratios to discriminate between earthquakes and explosions. However, there remain source effects such as those due to depth, focal mechanism, local material property and apparent stress variability that cannot easily be determined and applied as amplitude corrections. We develop a mathematical model to capture these near source effects as random (unknown) giving an error partition of three sources: model inadequacy, station noise and amplitude correlations. This mathematical model is the basis for a general multi-station regional discriminant formulation. The standard error of the discriminant includes these three sources of error in its formulation. The developed methods are demonstrated with a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) events observed at regional stations. Importantly, the proposed formulation includes all corrected amplitude information through the construction of multi-station discriminants. In contrast, previous studies have only computed discriminants from single stations having both P and S amplitudes. The proposed multi-station approach has similarities to the well established m{sub b} versus M{sub s} discriminant and represents a new paradigm for the regional discrimination problem.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

    2016-08-25

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other race/ethnicity), the present study examined the moderating role of cross-ethnic friendships and close friends' experiences of discrimination in the link between adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and well-being. Cross-ethnic friendships and friends' experiences of discrimination generally served a protective role, buffering the negative effects of discrimination on both socioemotional well-being and school outcomes. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering racial/ethnic-related aspects of adolescents' friendships when studying interpersonal processes closely tied to race/ethnicity.

  18. Discriminative Fear Learners are Resilient to Temporal Distortions during Threat Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jessica I.; Meck, Warren H.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Discriminative fear conditioning requires learning to dissociate between safety cues and cues that predict negative outcomes yet little is known about what processes contribute to discriminative fear learning. According to attentional models of time perception, processes that distract from timing result in temporal underestimation. If discriminative fear learning only requires learning what cues predict what outcomes, and threatening stimuli distract attention from timing, then better discriminative fear learning should predict greater temporal distortion on threat trials. Alternatively, if discriminative fear learning also reflects a more accurate perceptual experience of time in threatening contexts, discriminative fear learning scores would predict less temporal distortion on threat trials, as time is perceived more veridically. Healthy young adults completed discriminative fear conditioning in which they learned to associate one stimulus (CS+) with aversive electrical stimulation and another stimulus (CS-) with non-aversive tactile stimulation and then an ordinal comparison timing task during which CSs were presented as task-irrelevant distractors Consistent with predictions, we found an overall temporal underestimation bias on CS+ relative to CS- trials. Differential skin conductance responses to the CS+ versus the CS- during conditioning served as a physiological index of discriminative fear conditioning and this measure predicted the magnitude of the underestimation bias, such that individuals exhibiting greater discriminative fear conditioning showed less underestimation on CS+ versus CS- trials. These results are discussed with respect to the nature of discriminative fear learning and the relationship between temporal distortions and maladaptive threat processing in anxiety. PMID:27347480

  19. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  20. Communication during an evolving seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camassi, R.

    2012-04-01

    Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, southern Italy. At the abstract submission date the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area was hit by a magnitude 5.7 event in 1998 that caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. The population main fear is that a large event could follow the seismic swarm as it occurred at L'Aquila in 2009. Among the initiatives taken by Civil Protection at national and regional level, it was decided to try to implement at local scale two communication projects that were thought for "peace time" and not for dissemination during a seismic crisis: the "Terremoto-Io non rischio" project for general public and the "EDURISK" project for school children. The main lesson learned during the first months of the activity are: 1) it is possible to take advantage of the increased awareness and risk perception from the population to attract more citizen toward topics that could go unnoticed otherwise; 2) the Civil Protection volunteers could be a very effective mean to reach a large amount of the population, provided they are carefully trained especially when children are involved; 3) the expectations about earthquake prediction raised from media without any scientific support proved to be the most difficult to be tackled: to overcome this bias risk education in "peace time" is absolutely essential; 4) door-to-door communication is perceived much better than official press release on newspapers; 5) training of volunteers must be limited to a few basic information, with special attention to the local context.

  1. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    SciTech Connect

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  2. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  3. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  4. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  5. Perceived Context of Reception among Recent Hispanic Immigrants: Conceptualization, Instrument Development, and Preliminary Validation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables – suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms six months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination – suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct. PMID:24099485

  6. SEISMIC-REFLECTOR DATABASE SOFTWARE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Hosom, John-Paul; ,

    1986-01-01

    The seismic data analysis (SDA) software system facilitates generation of marine seismic reflector databases composed of reflector depths, travel times, root-mean-square and interval velocities, geographic coordinates, and identifying information. System processes include digitizing of seismic profiles and velocity semblance curves, merging of velocity and navigation data with profile travel-time data, calculation of reflector depths in meters, profile and map graphic displays, data editing and smoothing, and entry of finalized data into a comprehensive database. An overview of concepts, file structures, and programs is presented.

  7. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-07-01

    The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

  8. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  9. Fractal features of seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, A.; Consolini, G.; Michelis, P. De

    2003-04-01

    We present experimental observations and data analysis concerning the fractal features of seismic noise in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 Hz. In detail, we investigate the 3D average squared soil displacement and the distribution function of its fluctuations for different near-surface geological structures. We found that the seismic noise is consistent with a persistent fractal brownian motion characterized by a Hurst exponent grather than 1/2. Moreover, a clear dependence of the fractal nature of the seismic noise on the near-surface local geology has been found.

  10. The seismic traffic footprint: Tracking trains, aircraft, and cars seismically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Nima; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to probe the subsurface, the vibrations caused by traffic have not been explored much. Such data, however, are less sensitive to weather and low visibility compared to some common out-of-road traffic sensing systems. We study traffic-generated seismic noise measured by an array of 5200 geophones that covered a 7 × 10 km area in Long Beach (California, USA) with a receiver spacing of 100 m. This allows us to look into urban vibrations below the resolution of a typical city block. The spatiotemporal structure of the anthropogenic seismic noise intensity reveals the Blue Line Metro train activity, departing and landing aircraft in Long Beach Airport and their acceleration, and gives clues about traffic movement along the I-405 highway at night. As low-cost, stand-alone seismic sensors are becoming more common, these findings indicate that seismic data may be useful for traffic monitoring.

  11. A global earthquake discrimination scheme to optimize ground-motion prediction equation selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Daniel; Wald, David J.; Hearne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present a new automatic earthquake discrimination procedure to determine in near-real time the tectonic regime and seismotectonic domain of an earthquake, its most likely source type, and the corresponding ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) class to be used in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global ShakeMap system. This method makes use of the Flinn–Engdahl regionalization scheme, seismotectonic information (plate boundaries, global geology, seismicity catalogs, and regional and local studies), and the source parameters available from the USGS National Earthquake Information Center in the minutes following an earthquake to give the best estimation of the setting and mechanism of the event. Depending on the tectonic setting, additional criteria based on hypocentral depth, style of faulting, and regional seismicity may be applied. For subduction zones, these criteria include the use of focal mechanism information and detailed interface models to discriminate among outer-rise, upper-plate, interface, and intraslab seismicity. The scheme is validated against a large database of recent historical earthquakes. Though developed to assess GMPE selection in Global ShakeMap operations, we anticipate a variety of uses for this strategy, from real-time processing systems to any analysis involving tectonic classification of sources from seismic catalogs.

  12. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  13. Horses discriminate between facial expressions of conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, J.; Proops, L.; Grounds, K.; McComb, K.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, facial expressions are rich sources of social information and have an important role in regulating social interactions. However, the extent to which this is true in non-human animals, and particularly in non-primates, remains largely unknown. Therefore we tested whether domestic horses (Equus caballus) could discriminate between facial expressions of their conspecifics captured in different contexts, and whether viewing these expressions elicited functionally relevant reactions. Horses were more likely to approach photographic stimuli displaying facial expressions associated with positive attention and relaxation, and to avoid stimuli displaying an expression associated with aggression. Moreover, differing patterns of heart rate changes were observed in response to viewing the positive anticipation and agonistic facial expressions. These results indicate that horses spontaneously discriminate between photographs of unknown conspecifics portraying different facial expressions, showing appropriate behavioural and physiological responses. Thus horses, an animal far-removed from the primate lineage, also have the ability to use facial expressions as a means of gaining social information and potentially regulating social interactions. PMID:27995958

  14. Crop/weed discrimination in simulated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.; Gée, C.; Truchetet, F.

    2007-02-01

    In the context of site-specific weed management by vision systems, an efficient image processing for a crop/weed discrimination is required in order to quantify the Weed Infestation Rate (WIR) in an image. This paper presents a modeling of crop field in presence of different Weed Infestation Rates and a set of simulated agronomic images is used to test and validate the effectiveness of a crop/weed discrimination algorithm. For instance, an algorithm has been implemented to firstly detect the crop rows in the field by the use of a Hough Transform and secondly to detect plant areas by a region based-segmentation on binary images. This image processing has been tested on virtual cereal fields of a large field of view with perspective effects. The vegetation in the virtual field is modeled by a sowing pattern for crop plants and the weed spatial distribution is modeled by either a Poisson process or a Neyman-Scott cluster process. For each simulated image, a comparison between the initial and the detected weed infestation rate allows us to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. This comparison demonstrates an accuracy of better than 80% is possible, despite that intrarow weeds can not be detected from this spatial method.

  15. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Rhea, Susan; Benz, Harley M.

    2010-01-01

    This map illustrates more than one century of global seismicity in the context of global plate tectonics and the Earth's physiography. Primarily designed for use by earth scientists and engineers interested in earthquake hazards of the 20th and early 21st centuries, this map provides a comprehensive overview of strong earthquakes since 1900. The map clearly identifies the location of the 'great' earthquakes (M8.0 and larger) and the rupture area, if known, of the M8.3 or larger earthquakes. The earthquake symbols are scaled proportional to the moment magnitude and therefore to the area of faulting, thus providing a better understanding of the relative sizes and distribution of earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.5 to 9.5. Plotting the known rupture area of the largest earthquakes also provides a better appreciation of the extent of some of the most famous and damaging earthquakes in modern history. All earthquakes shown on the map were carefully relocated using a standard earth reference model and standardized location procedures, thereby eliminating gross errors and biases in locations of historically important earthquakes that are often found in numerous seismicity catalogs.

  16. Historical seismicity in oceans from sailors' testimonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouland, Daniel; Legrand, Denis; Cisternas, Armando; Streng, Daniel; Gir, Roopa; Souriau, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Before seismological catalogs were routinely produced, seafarers experienced major seismic events at sea that were documented in their logs. This article analyzes some of these old records—mostly from eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—in the context of plate tectonics. Large shocks that were felt on ships are related either to earthquakes, sub-marine volcanic eruptions, or to sub-marine sliding of rocks and/or sediments. We analyze various related parameters such as the location and size of the shaking, the duration of the shock, and the associated noise. A total of 396 observations have been retained for this study, mostly located in the Atlantic Ocean, reflecting its intense maritime traffic during the period of interest. Some of the detailed accounts allow us to clearly identify the nature of the shocks, including a possible interpretation in terms of focal mechanism. Our results, when compared to historical catalogs, reveal many previously undetected large events. Macroseismic results for a few large historical events occurring near the coasts confirm the validity of our approach, but also reveal its limitations. The good locations of most of the events allow us to relate them to plate boundaries. The Romanche transform zone has deserved particular interest due to the large number of related testimonies. This study particularly illustrates that historical seismicity may be applied to oceans. The collected testimonies also show how impressive and dangerous these large earthquakes at sea are, despite the absence of S-waves.

  17. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  18. Analysis of the induced seismicity of the Lacq gas field (Southwestern France) and model of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardainne, T.; Dubos-Sallée, N.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaillot, P.; Perroud, H.

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a model of deformation pattern for the Lacq gas field (southwest of France), considering the temporal and spatial evolution of the observed induced seismicity. This model of deformation has been determined from an updating of the earthquake locations and considering theoretical and analogue models usually accepted for hydrocarbon field deformation. The Lacq seismicity is clearly not linked to the natural seismicity of the Pyrenean range recorded 30km farther to the south since the first event was felt in 1969, after the beginning of the hydrocarbon recovery. From 1974 to 1997, more than 2000 local events (ML < 4.2) have been recorded by two permanent local seismic networks. Unlike previously published results focusing on limited time lapse studies, our analysis relies on the data from 1974 to 1997. Greater accuracy of the absolute locations have been obtained using a well adapted algorithm of 3-D location, after improvement of the 3-D P-wave velocity model and determination of specific station corrections for different clusters of events. This updated catalogue of seismicity has been interpreted taking into account the structural context of the gas field. The Lacq gas field is an anticlinal reservoir where 3-D seismic and borehole data reveal a pattern of high density of fracturing, mainly oriented WNW-ESE. Seismicity map and vertical cross-sections show that majority of the seismic events (70 per cent) occurred above the gas reservoir. Correlation is also observed between the orientation of the pre-existent faults and the location of the seismic activity. Strong and organized seismicity occurred where fault orientation is consistent with the poroelastic stress perturbation due to the gas recovery. On the contrary, the seismicity is quiescient where isobaths of the reservoir roof are closed to be perpendicular to the faults. These quiescient areas as well as the central seismic part are characterized by a surface subsidence

  19. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Ethnic Identity Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Saenz, Delia S.; Choi, Myunghan; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine ethnic identity and sociodemographic factors in minority patients' perceptions of healthcare discrimination in breast cancer care. Design Mixed methods. Setting Participants' homes in the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson, AZ. Sample 39 women treated for breast cancer in the past six years: 15 monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas, 15 English-speaking Latinas, and 9 African Americans. Methods Two questionnaires were administered. Individual interviews with participants were conducted by nurse researchers. Quantitative, qualitative, and matrix analytic methods were used. Main Research Variables Ethnic identity and perceptions of discrimination. Findings Eighteen women (46%) believed race and spoken language affected the quality of health care. Perceived disrespect from providers was attributed to participant's skin color, income level, citizenship status, and ability to speak English. Discrimination was more likely to be described in a primary care context, rather than cancer care. Ethnic identity and early-stage breast cancer diagnosis were the only study variables significantly associated with perceived healthcare discrimination. Conclusions This article describes the first investigation examining ethnic identity and perceived discrimination in cancer care delivery. Replication of this study with larger samples is needed to better understand the role of ethnic identity and cancer stage in perceptions of cancer care delivery. Implications for Nursing Identification of ethnic-specific factors that influence patient's perspectives and healthcare needs will facilitate development of more effective strategies for the delivery of cross-cultural patient-centered cancer care. PMID:22374505

  1. Object recognition testing: methodological considerations on exploration and discrimination measures.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Reneerkens, Olga; van Goethem, Nick P; Bollen, Eva; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Lieben, Cindy K J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Prickaerts, Jos

    2012-07-01

    The object recognition task (ORT) is a popular one-trial learning test for animals. In the current study, we investigated several methodological issues concerning the task. Data was pooled from 28 ORT studies, containing 731 male Wistar rats. We investigated the relationship between 3 common absolute- and relative discrimination measures, as well as their relation to exploratory activity. In this context, the effects of pre-experimental habituation, object familiarity, trial duration, retention interval and the amnesic drugs MK-801 and scopolamine were investigated. Our analyses showed that the ORT is very sensitive, capable of detecting subtle differences in memory (discrimination) and exploratory performance. As a consequence, it is susceptible to potential biases due to (injection) stress and side effects of drugs. Our data indicated that a minimum amount of exploration is required in the sample and test trial for stable significant discrimination performance. However, there was no relationship between the level of exploration in the sample trial and discrimination performance. In addition, the level of exploration in the test trial was positively related to the absolute discrimination measure, whereas this was not the case for relative discrimination measures, which correct for exploratory differences, making them more resistant to exploration biases. Animals appeared to remember object information over multiple test sessions. Therefore, when animals have encountered both objects in prior test sessions, the object preference observed in the test trial of 1h retention intervals is probably due to a relative difference in familiarity between the objects in the test trial, rather than true novelty per se. Taken together, our findings suggest to take into consideration pre-experimental exposure (familiarization) to objects, habituation to treatment procedures, and the use of relative discrimination measures when using the ORT.

  2. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  3. Bringing moveable seismic arrays to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, G.; Ogé, A.; Hello, Y.; Sukhovich, A.; Simons, F. J.; Argentino, J.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a floating underwater robot that can detect seismic P waves from earthquakes at large distances and transmit these data by the Iridium satellite network in Rudics mode. Such P ways are used to image heterogeneities inside the planet (much as X-rays in medical imaging). The robot is named MERMAID for `Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers'. So far, our only means of obtaining seismic data from water-covered regions is to install seismometers on the ocean floor or mount moored hydrophones and recuperate them and their data every year, which is very expensive. `Floats' have traditionally been developed for oceanographers to measure temperature and salinity and to track ocean currents, but their use in seismology is new. Because the robots change position as they drift with deep ocean currents at a speed of one to several km per day, this provides a means to provide seismic data over large surface areas without the need for costly recuperation and redeployment. Test and early experiments were conducted in the Mediterraen Sea with two prototypes and have already shown the feasibility of recording waves from strong earthquakes such a surface-reflected PP wave at a distance of 119 , and a P wave at a distance of 85 degrees - the latter from a magnitude 7.4 earthquake at a distance of 85 degrees with a signal/noise ratio better than 50. The second phase of this project - currently in progress - consists of the integration of the instrumentation and the intelligent electronic board in commercially available vehicles, such as the Apex (TWR) and Provor (NKE) floats, in order to detect and recognize P waves from teleseismic events. A buffer memory is used to store up to 10 events during continuous monitoring while the float drifts at a predetermined depth, typically between 1 and 2 km, if possible below the noisy SOFAR channel. The float surfaces for geolocation per GPS and Iridium signal transmission whenever a very strong P wave

  4. Investigation of - and Post-Seismic Signals in GRACE Satellite Gravity Data Using Mcmc Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. O.; Hayn, M.; Pollitz, F. F.; Panet, I.; Holschneider, M.; Diament, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes cause mass shifts and stress-dependent density changes. The corresponding gravity field variations can be measured by the GRACE satellites what was demonstrated for recent Andaman-Sumatra (2004), Maule, Chili (2010) and Tohoku-Oki (2011) earthquakes. In contrast to other data, satellite gravity regularly covers continental and oceanic areas, providing important information about the seismic cycle, especially in subduction zones. We make use of the characteristic temporal behavior and spatial scale of the earthquake signals, in order to separate them from other contributions to the gravity field. This is realized by wavelet transform and application of a time evolution model. The later consists of a step function followed by an exponential decay, representing co- and post-seismic variations. As the problem is nonlinear, parameters were fitted by determining their posterior distribution by means of a Markov-Chain Metropolis-Hasting sampling. As a result, we clearly separate the co- and post-seismic gravity variations for all three abovementioned earthquakes. We also apply the method to separate post-seismic signals from the Andaman-Sumatra and Nias-Sumatra events. The later occurred 3 months later to the south of the main megathrust event. These results are compared with other geophysical data and models. This allows to discriminate between candidate models for the co-seismic gravity variations using GPS data and seismology, and to better understand the physical processes involved in the post-seismic deformation.

  5. Representing regional P/S discriminants for event indentification: a comparison of distance corrections, path parameter regressions, cap-averaging and kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Rodgers, A J; Schultz, C A; Walter, W R

    1998-06-18

    Short-period regional P/S amplitude ratios hold much promise for discriminating low magnitude explosions from earthquakes in a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring context. However, propagation effects lead to variability in regional phase amplitudes that if not accounted for can reduce or eliminate the ability of P/S ratios to discriminate the seismic source. lo this study, several representations of short-period regional P/S amplitude ratios are compared in order to determine which methodology best accounts for the effect of heterogeneous structure on P/S amplitudes. These methodologies are: I) distance corrections, including azimuthal subdivision of the data; 2) path specific crustal waveguide parameter regressions; 3) cap-averaging (running mean smoothing); and 4) kriging. The "predictability" of each method is established by cross-validation (leave-one-out) analysis. We apply these techniques to represent Pn/Lg, Pg/Lg and Pn/Sn observations in three frequency bands (0.75-6.0 Hz) at station ABKT (Alibek, Turkmenistan), site of a primary seismic station of the It~temational Monitoring System (IMS). Paths to ABKT sample diverse crustal stmctores (e.g. various topographic, sedimentary and geologic structures), leading to great variability in the observed P/S amplitude ratios. Subdivision of the data be back-azimuth leads to stronger distance trends than that for the entire data set. This observation alone indicates that path propagation effects due to laterally varying shucture are important for the P/S ratios recorded at ABKT. For these data to be useful for isolating source characteristics, the scatter needs to be reduced by accounting for the path effects and the resulting P/S ratio distribution needs to Gaussian for spatial interpolation and discrimination strategies to be most effective. Each method reduces the scatter of the P/S ratios with varying degrees of success, however kriging has the distinct advantages of providing the greatest variance

  6. Ethnic Discrimination against Mapuche Students in Urban High Schools in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra; Merino, María Eugenia; Mellor, David

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic or racial discrimination towards children and adolescents at schools is of concern in many contexts around the world because it is associated with diverse psychosocial, behavioural, emotional, and identity problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethnic discrimination experienced by indigenous Mapuche adolescents in…

  7. Southern Africa seismic structure and source studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    1998-09-01

    The upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern Africa is investigated using travel time and waveform data. Waveform and travel time data used in this study come mainly from a large mine tremor in South Africa (msb{b} 5.6) recorded on stations of the southern Africa and the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment. Auxiliary data along similar profiles are obtained from other moderate events within eastern and southern Africa. The waveform data from the large tremor show upper mantle triplications for both the 400 and 670-km discontinuities between 18sp° and 27sp° distance. The most notable feature of the data is a large, late P phase that propagates to at least 27sp°. This phase is striking because of its late arrival time (as much as 15 seconds after direct P at 27sp°) and high amplitude relative to the first arrival. Travel times from all available stations are used to invert for the P wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth and S wave velocity structure down to 200 km using the Wiechert-Herglotz (W-H) inversion technique. The P wave velocities from the uppermost mantle down to 300 km are as much as 3% higher than the global average and are slightly slower than the global average between 300 and 400 km depths. The velocity gradient between 300 and 400 km is 0.0015 1/s. The S wave travel time data yield fast velocities above 200-km depth. The S wave velocity structure appears inconsistent with the P wave structure model indicating varying Poisson's ratio in the upper mantle. Little evidence is found for a pronounced upper mantle low velocity zone. Both sharp and gradual-change 400-km discontinuities are favored by the waveform data. The 670-km discontinuity appears as a gradual-change zone. The source mechanism of the mb 5.6 mining tremor itself is important for seismic discrimination and insight into mining tremor sources. Source parameters for this event as well as some other large mining tremors from the South African gold mines are studied

  8. Social Support as a Buffer Between Discrimination and Cigarette Use in Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age = 16.24, SD = 2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR = −0.10, p = 0.005) and peer discrimination (OR = −0.11, p = 0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b = −0.09, p = 0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. PMID:27010849

  9. Seismicity And Accretion Process Along The North Mid-Atlantic Ridge From The SIRENA Autonomous Hydrophone Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, J.; Goslin, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Maia, M. A.; Tisseau, C.; Royer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic Ocean was recorded by the SIRENA array of 6 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed north of the Azores Plateau between 40° and 50°N from June 2002 to September 2003. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction to a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~2.8, to be compared to a Mc~4.7 for MAR events recorded by land-based seismic networks. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed over the 1696 events localized inside the SIRENA array. For hydrophone-derived catalogs, the acoustic magnitude, or Source Level (SL), is used as a measure of earthquake size. The ''source level completeness'', above which the data set is complete, is SLc=208 dB. The SIRENA catalog was searched for swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN distribution. A minimum SL of 210 dB was chosen to detect a possible mainshock, and all subsequent events within 40 days following the possible mainshock, located within a radius of 15 km from the mainshock were considered as events of the swarm. 15 km correspond to the maximum fault length in a slow-ridge context. 11 swarms with more than 15 events were detected along the MAR between 40°et 50°N during the SIRENA deployment. The maximum number of earthquakes in a swarm is 40 events. The SL vs. time distribution within each swarm allowed a first discrimination between the swarms occurring in a tectonic context and those which can be attributed to volcanic processes, the latter showing a more constant SL vs. time distribution. Moreover, the swarms occurring in a tectonic context show a "mainshock-afterschock" distribution of the cumulative number of events vs. time, fitting a Modified Omori Law. The location of tectonic and volcanic swarms correlates well with regions where a positive and negative Mantle Bouguer

  10. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

  11. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  12. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  13. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  15. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  16. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  17. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  18. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  19. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  20. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  1. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  2. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  3. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  4. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  5. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  6. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  7. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  8. Quantifying the seismicity on Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2013-07-01

    We quantify the seismicity on the island of Taiwan using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our Taiwan study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ≈ 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ≥ 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ≈ 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on Taiwan is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ≈ 9 earthquake north or south of Taiwan cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of Taiwan.

  9. Seismic stratigraphy of the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.W.; Sheridan, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Straits of Florida, Northwest Providence Channel, Tongue of the Ocean, and Exuma Sound reveal a seismic stratigraphy characterized by a series of prograding Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary seismic sequences with seismic velocities generally less than 4 km/sec overlying a Lower Cretaceous section of low-amplitude reflections which are more nearly horizontal than the overlying prograding clinoforms and have seismic velocities greater than 5 km/sec. The prograding units are detrital shallow-water carbonates shed from nearby carbonate banks into deep intrabank basins that were established in the Late Cretaceous. The Lower Cretaceous units are probably shallow-water carbonate banks that were drowned in the middle Cretaceous but which, during the Early Cretaceous, extended from Florida throughout the Bahamas region. The seismic reflection profiles reveal a sharp angular unconformity at 5-sec two-way traveltime in northwest Tongue of the Ocean, suggesting a rift-drift unconformity and deposition on thinned continental crust. No such unconformity is seen in central and southeast Tongue of the Ocean or in Exuma Sound, suggesting that these areas are built on oceanic crust.

  10. Seismic tracking of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Very weak, narrow band seismic signals excited by Hurricane Sandy are detected in cross-correlations of continuous waveforms recorded by stations in eastern United States, at the end of October 2012. We analyze propagational properties of the signal and track the source locations using travel-time difference residual projection, from 26 October to 1 November 2012. We find that (1) the seismic signals driven by Hurricane Sandy are azimuthal dependent. Signals are correlated only within close azimuths from the source, (2) seismic signals propagate as Rayleigh surface wave with an average velocity of about 3.3 km/s, and (3) the inferred seismic source locations follow the path of Sandy before UTC 2012.10.30 12:00:00(about half a day after its landfall in New Jersey), but then deviate from the hurricane center and stay in the coastal area near New England for another 12 hours after the hurricane dissipated. Our research discovers the properties of seismic source excited by Hurricane Sandy and demonstrates the capability of using seismic data to real-time track a hurricane and estimate its direct impacts and the subsequent disasters after it dissipates.

  11. Loss of nondrug reinforcement in one context produces alcohol seeking in another context.

    PubMed

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.

  12. Discrimination Analysis of Earthquakes and Man-Made Events Using ARMA Coefficients Determination by Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    AllamehZadeh, Mostafa

    2011-12-15

    A Quadratic Neural Networks (QNNs) model has been developed for identifying seismic source classification problem at regional distances using ARMA coefficients determination by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). We have devised a supervised neural system to discriminate between earthquakes and chemical explosions with filter coefficients obtained by windowed P-wave phase spectra (15 s). First, we preprocess the recording's signals to cancel out instrumental and attenuation site effects and obtain a compact representation of seismic records. Second, we use a QNNs system to obtain ARMA coefficients for feature extraction in the discrimination problem. The derived coefficients are then applied to the neural system to train and classification. In this study, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori-known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. The results have shown that this feature extraction gives the best classifier for seismic signals and performs significantly better than other classification methods. The events have been tested, which include 36 chemical explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan and 61 earthquakes (mb = 5.0-6.5) recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN). The 100% correct decisions were obtained between site explosions and some of non-site events. The above approach to event discrimination is very flexible as we can combine several 3C stations.

  13. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  14. Shape and size discrimination compared.

    PubMed

    Nachmias, Jacob

    2011-02-23

    Observers presented with pairs of figures differing in area (SIZE) or aspect ratio (SHAPE) spontaneously make use of both height and width differences. whether or not they are forced to do so by between-interval jittering or even instructed to do so. SHAPE discrimination is considerably better than SIZE discrimination. The superiority of SHAPE discrimination is probably due to partial correlation between the encoding noise of height and width of a figure. Discrimination of height differences is seemingly increased (decreased) by negatively (positively) correlated width differences, relative to leaving width unchanged. This is true whether the different types of trials are presented in separate blocks or intermixed. Perhaps SIZE and SHAPE comparisons are always made and their decision variables are optimally combined. The difference between SIZE and SHAPE discrimination is reduced, if not reversed, when figures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. This interaction between type of task and mode of presentation, may be due to the increased amount of correlation between test and standard figures of the encoding noise common to the two dimensions of each figure.

  15. Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    2013-08-01

    We developed a new method of earthquake-proof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipating the seismic energy. This is a mechanical method of converting the seismic energy into sound and heat. We estimated the sound level generated from a seismic wave. This method of area protection differs from the point protection of conventional seismic design, including the traditional cloaking method. The artificial seismic shadow zone is tested by computer simulation and compared with a normal barrier.

  16. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  17. Status report on new whole waveform discriminants and preliminary results (Deliverable {number_sign}12)

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Treaty Verification Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has made good progress during fiscal year 1995 on devising and testing whole seismic waveform modeling methods to identify seismic events using only a few stations. This research is carried out under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research and Development Program (CTBTR and D) under task S4.3.4. For regions where the path is calibrated, this modeling can potentially identify and discriminate between clandestine underground nuclear events and other sources of seismic waves such as earthquakes and mine collapses. In regions where the path is not calibrated but is seismically active, the author is investigating the use of moderate to large earthquakes to obtain the necessary path calibration. Research has focused on improving whole waveform techniques for determining the source mechanism of moderate (magnitude greater than about 3.5) seismic events from a few three-component broadband sensors in regions where the paths are calibrated. Presently the author is also using these waveform techniques in new regions to test and improve path calibrations as well as to identify events. As part of this work, he has applied these waveform techniques to events of high monitoring interest with excellent results. In this report he discusses fitting three main types of events, explosions, earthquakes and mine collapses.

  18. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  19. High-frequency observations of signals and noise near RSON: implications for the discrimination of ripple-fired mining blasts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Grose, R.D.

    1987-04-27

    Discrimination of large chemical explosions from possible clandestine nuclear tests is a significant issue for seismic verification. Unless discrimination is possible, the numerous mining blasts within the USSR would give ample opportunity for concealing a clandestine test. Evernden et al. (1986) advocate high frequencies as a means to detect these clandestine tests; however, mining blasts must still give a unique signature for their discrimination. Specific conditions are also necessary for high-frequency verification: low attenuation and quiet seismic stations are among the most important. In this study we address these problems under conditions representing a best case scenerio. During the summer of 1985, LLNL deployed a regional array and high-frequency station near RSON (Red Lake, Ontario, Canada) to study regional seismic signals at a low-noise site with excellent propagation characteristics, the continental shield. One objective was to evaluate the performance of regional seismic arrays and high-frequency stations in this geological environment. Using high-frequency data from mining blasts within the Masabi Iron Range in northern Minnesota (distance of 400 km), we observed the high-frequency P/sub n/ phase of ripple-fired blasts, modelled their source properties, and evaluated a possible discriminant for chemical explosions. This study suggests the existence of a distinctive signature for large chemical explosions: strong, high-frequency spectral peaks in the P spectra introduced by delay shooting or ripple-firing. Its application depends, however, on a frequency band extending to at least 35 Hz at regional distances and predictably quiet seismic sites.

  20. Seismic signals from underground cavity collapses and other mining-related failures

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Heuze, F.; Dodge, D.

    1997-07-01

    The sudden collapse of man-made underground cavities have generated seismic signals as large as magnitude 5.4. Collapses are just one of the many types of mining associated seismicity including coalbumps and rockbursts which need to be identified and distinguished from potential clandestine nuclear explosions under the recently signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Collapses, coalbumps and rockbursts are of concern for seismically monitoring a CTBT for a number of reasons. First, they can look like explosions when using some seismic discriminant measures, such M{sub s}:m{sub b}, M{sub o}: m{sub b}, regional P/S ratios and depth. Second, underground nuclear explosions themselves produce cavities that might collapse, possibly aiding in the detection of a clandestine event. Finally, because all mine-related events occur in the vicinity of underground cavities, they may come under special scrutiny because of the concern that very large, specially constructed cavities could be used to evasively decouple a clandestine test. For these reasons mine-related seismicity in both active and former mining regions have the potential to be false alarms under a CTBT. We are investigating techniques to identify collapses, either directly via waveform modeling, or indirectly by combining several seismic discriminants. We are also investigating the source mechanisms of coalbumps and collapses to better understand the performance of seismic discriminants for these events. In particular we have found similarities in point source models of some longwall coalbumps, room- and-pillar mine collapses and NTS nuclear explosion cavity collapses. In order to understand coalbumps we are analyzing events from central Utah recorded at regional distances in Utah and Nevada including at the auxiliary station ELK. Some of these have anomalous, explosion- like high frequency P/S ratios. We are combining this new study with results from previous field work done in 1995 at a Colorado long

  1. Monitoring seismic wave speed by an active seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Okubo, M.; Saiga, A.

    2012-12-01

    Decreases in elastic wave speed around cracked zones prior to faulting in rock fracture experiments have been reported (e.g., Yukutake, 1989; Yoshimitsu et al., 2009). These decreases in wave speed have been considered to be associated with crack and fault growth based on non-destructive observation using X-ray CT scan (Kawakata et al., 1999). Meanwhile, there were some reports on the decreases in seismic wave speed along paths that cross the hypocentral area in periods including some large earthquakes. Uchida et al. (2002) analyzed seismic waveform with explosive sources before and after the 1998 northern Iwate prefecture earthquake, and they showed that the decrease in seismic wave speed approximately 0.1-0.9 % by the earthquake occurrence. Justin et al. (2007) reported the reduction in seismic wave speed accompanied with the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake around the rupture area by using the four repeating earthquakes that occurred before and after the 2003 Tokachi oki earthquake. However, seismograms of explosive sources or repeating earthquakes are hard to be frequently recorded, which makes the time intervals of estimated seismic wave speed be too long to distinguish preseismic changes from coseismic and post seismic changes. In order to monitor crustal structures and detecting the variation of rock properties in the crust, a kind of active seismic source systems ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) has been developed(e.g., Kunitomo and Kumazawa, 2004). We used the controlled seismic source ACROSS, which installed at the Tono mine, Gifu prefecture, central Japan and has been routinely operated by Tono Geoscience center of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), automatically. Frequency modulated seismic waves are continuously radiated from approximately 10-20 Hz by eccentric rotation of the source. In order to investigate the stability of ACROSS signals, we used seismograms recorded at the 110m depth of Shobasama observing site, which is

  2. Nonlinear seismo-acoustic land mine detection and discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donskoy, Dimitri; Ekimov, Alexander; Sedunov, Nikolay; Tsionskiy, Mikhail

    2002-06-01

    A novel technique for detection and discrimination of artificial objects, such as land mines, pipes, containers, etc., buried in the ground, has been developed and tested. The developed approach utilizes vibration (using seismic or airborne acoustic waves) of buried objects, remote measurements of soil surface vibration (using laser or microwave vibrometers), and processing of the measured vibration to extract mine's "vibration signatures." The technique does not depend upon the material from which the mine is fabricated whether it be metal, plastic, wood, or any other material. It depends upon the fact that a mine is a "container" whose purpose is to contain explosive materials and associated detonation apparatus. The mine container is in contact with the soil in which it is buried. The container is an acoustically compliant article, whose compliance is notably different from the compliance of the surrounding soil. Dynamic interaction of the compliant container and soil on top of it leads to specific linear and nonlinear effects used for mine detection and discrimination. The mass of the soil on top of a compliant container creates a classical mass-spring system with a well-defined resonance response. Besides, the connection between mass (soil) and spring (mine) is not elastic (linear) but rather nonlinear, due to the separation of the soil/mine interface in the tensile phase of applied dynamic stress. These two effects, constituting the mine's vibration signature have been measured in numerous laboratory and field tests, which proved that the resonance and nonlinear responses of a mine/soil system can be used for detection and discrimination of buried mines. Thus, the fact that the mine is buried is turned into a detection advantage. Because the seismo-acoustic technique intrinsically detects buried containers, it can discriminate mines from noncompliant false targets such as rocks, tree roots, chunks of metal, bricks, etc. This was also confirmed experimentally

  3. Study of enhancing a hadronic search for supersymmetry with quark/gluon discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penafiel, Louis

    2017-01-01

    We present studies of applying quark/gluon discrimination in the context of searches for supersymmetry in all hadronic final states with data from the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We compare the sensitivity of an established search with a search that utilizes the additional information from quark/gluon discrimination. Results are shown for several simplified model signal topologies. With support from the Chancellor's Research Fellowship of University of California, Riverside.

  4. Midget Seismic in Sandbox Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Buddensiek, M. L.; Philipp, J.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.

    2008-12-01

    Analog sandbox simulation has been applied to study geological processes to provide qualitative and quantitative insights into specific geological problems. In nature, the structures, which are simulated in those sandbox models, are often inferred from seismic data. With the study introduced here, we want to combine the analog sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modeling of those sandbox models. The long-term objectives of this approach are (1) imaging of seismic and seismological events of actively deforming and static 3D analogue models, and (2) assessment of the transferability of the model data to field data in order to improve field data acquisition and interpretation according to the addressed geological problem. To achieve this objective, a new midget-seismic facility for laboratory use was designed and developed, comprising a seismic tank, a PC control unit including piezo-electric transducers, and a positioning system. The first experiments are aimed at studying the wave field properties of the piezo- transducers in order to investigate their feasibility for seismic profiling. The properties investigated are their directionality and the change of waveform due to their size (5-12 mm) compared to the wavelengths (< 1.5 mm). The best quality signals and least directionality and waveform change are achieved when the center source frequency is between 350-500 kHz, and the offset is less than 8 cm for a reflector depth of 10 cm. With respect to the technical hardware reflection processing on such a small scale is feasible as long as the offset does not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the reflector depth and frequency. The next steps will include a study of material properties and the effects of wave propagation in an-/isotropic media by physical studies, before we finally start using different seismic imaging and processing techniques on static and actively deforming 3D analog models.

  5. The Recent Seismicity Near Tabouk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldamegh, K. S.; Aljurayed, I. M.; Mostafa, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Tabouk is a very populated historic city that was jolted by a 5.2 earthquake in June of 2004. Fortunately no damage has been reported. The seismic activity attracted the attention of residence as well as scientists and authorities in the region. The earthquake is located in a neogene/Quaternary volcanic region named Harat ar Raha about 140 km south west of Tabouk. Not far from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, Tabouk is at the north western edge of the Arabian Shield. The main shock was followed by small magnitude (less than 4) aftershocks. Moreover the region remained active (many events with a magnitudes less than 2 has been recorded) every now and then until now. According to historic reports the city and the region surrounding it has been affected by a large magnitude earthquake in March of 1068 that caused about 20000 deaths in the region. The goal of this study is to map the seismicity and understand the source of the activity. The results would hopefully have an impact on hazard mitigation in the region. Realizing that more seismic stations were needed to better monitor the activities and locate the small events, we deployed 5 temporary short period and broadband seismic stations to the region. We have also collected waveform data from 23 broadband stations that are part of the National Seismic Network previously run by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Our early results show that the historic event location does not match with the current seismicity. In addition we have been able to present a new and more accurate seismicity map for the study region. This project has been fully funded by KACST and is planned to last until the end of 2008.

  6. An interdisciplinary perspective on social and physical determinants of seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.-H. E.; Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, G.-Y.; Chan, C.-H.; Lin, T.-H.; Yeh, C.-H.

    2015-10-01

    While disaster studies researchers usually view risk as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, few studies have systematically examined the relationships among the various physical and socioeconomic determinants underlying disasters, and fewer have done so through seismic risk analysis. In the context of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, this study constructs three statistical models to test different determinants that affect disaster fatality at the village level, including seismic hazard, exposure of population and fragile buildings, and demographic and socioeconomic vulnerability. The Poisson regression model is used to estimate the impact of these factors on fatalities. Research results indicate that although all of the determinants have an impact on seismic fatality, some indicators of vulnerability, such as gender ratio, percentages of young and aged population, income and its standard deviation, are the important determinants deteriorating seismic risk. These findings have strong social implications for policy interventions to mitigate such disasters.

  7. Model discrimination using data collaboration.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Ryan; Frenklach, Michael; Onsum, Matt; Russi, Trent; Arkin, Adam; Packard, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a practical data-driven method to discriminate among large-scale kinetic reaction models. The approach centers around a computable measure of model/data mismatch. We introduce two provably convergent algorithms that were developed to accommodate large ranges of uncertainty in the model parameters. The algorithms are demonstrated on a simple toy example and a methane combustion model with more than 100 uncertain parameters. They are subsequently used to discriminate between two models for a contemporarily studied biological signaling network.

  8. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  9. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  10. Socioeconomic Status Discrimination is Associated with Poor Sleep in African-Americans, but not Whites

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Miriam E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Lewis, Tené T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Research on self-reported experiences of discrimination and health has grown in recent decades, but has largely focused on racial discrimination or overall mistreatment. Less is known about reports of discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), despite the fact that SES is one of the most powerful social determinants of health. Objective We sought to examine the cross-sectional association between self-reported SES discrimination and subjective sleep quality, an emerging risk factor for disease. We further examined whether associations differed by race or SES. Methods We used logistic and linear regression to analyze data from a population-based cohort of 425 African-American and White middle-aged adults (67.5% female) in the Southeastern United States. SES discrimination was assessed with a modified Experiences of Discrimination Scale and poor subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and education, reports of SES discrimination were associated with poor sleep quality among African-Americans (OR=2.39, 95% CI =1.35, 4.24), but not Whites (OR=1.03, 95% CI= 0.57, 1.87), and the race × SES discrimination interaction was significant at p=0.04. After additional adjustments for reports of racial and gender discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, body mass index and depressive symptoms, SES discrimination remained a significant predictor of poor sleep among African-Americans, but not Whites. In contrast to findings by race, SES discrimination and sleep associations did not significantly differ by SES. Conclusion Findings suggest that reports of SES discrimination may be an important risk factor for subjective sleep quality among African-Americans and support the need to consider the health impact of SES-related stressors in the context of race. PMID:26896878

  11. Notes on some experiments on the application of subtractive compensation to USGS seismic magnetic tape recording and playback systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to lay the groundwork for the implementation of subtractive compensation of the USGS seismic network tape playbacks utilizing the Develco model 6203 discriminators at a x1 playback speed. Although the Develco discriminators were designed for this application and a matching Develco compensation discriminator was purchased, effective use of this system for subtractive compensation has been blocked by the inadequate (frequency dependent) matching of the phase of the compensation signal to that of the data signal at the point compensation is carried out in the data discriminators. John Van Schaack has ameliorated the phase mismatch problem by an empirical alteration of the compensation discriminator input bandpass filter. We have selected a set (of eight) Develco discriminators and adjusted their compensation signal input levels to minimize spurious signals (noise) originating from tape speed irregularities. The sensitivity of the data discriminators was adjusted so that deviations of +125 Hz and -125 Hz produced output signals of +2.00 volts and -2.00 volts, respectively. The eight data discriminators are driven by a multiplex signal on a single tape track (subcarriers 680, 1020, 1360, 1700, 2040, 2380, 2720, and 3060 Hz). The Develco-supplied compensation discriminator requires an unmodulated 3125 Hz signal on a separate tape track.

  12. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  13. April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. Multisensor approach for the seismic rehabilitation of monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Cifani, Giandomenico; Gabellone, Francesco; Geraldi, Edoardo; Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Domenico; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Pignatti, Stefano; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The widespread presence of movable and immoveable high cultural value assets make crucial the necessity of their protection, especially in order to mitigate the vulnerability to extreme environmental events, such as the seismic one. The latter represents the environmental risk factor which affect more than other environmental events the cultural heritage because of the big concentration of monuments and archaeological resources in several seismogenetic areas of the Mediterranean Basin, Middle East, South and Central America. Protecting monumental heritage, historical centres and archaeological sites from the effects of devastating earthquakes has been the focus of scientific and engineering endeavour for more than 50 years. Each earthquake not only provides additional information from the seismological point of view but it also stimulates effort to develop new and more advanced operative intervention strategies for the ready protection and restoration of damaged artefacts and structures of cultural value. Focusing our attention of Italian earthquakes, if the 1993 Umbria and Marche earthquake favoured a re-thinking of some repairing and rehabilitation techniques based on the use of reinforced concrete, the last earthquake occurred in Abruzzo on april 2009 allowed to improve the techniques for ready intervention and the procedures of evaluation of the seismic damage of churches and palaces. In such context, a significant effort has been undertaken in the experiencing of integrated approaches based on the use of different sensors and methods for the imaging of subsurface geological structures, the characterization of the mechanical behaviour of structures and the analysis of the state of decay of stone materials and frescoes. This papers deals with the results obtained by means of a multisensor approach performed to support effective and compatible interventions of restoration on a medieval architectural complex near L'Aquila. In particular, the following diagnostic

  14. 2015 USGS Seismic Hazard Model for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, the seismicity rate has increased markedly in multiple areas of the central U.S. Studies have tied the majority of this increased activity to wastewater injection in deep wells and hydrocarbon production. These earthquakes are induced by human activities that change rapidly based on economic and policy decisions, making them difficult to forecast. Our 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model and previous models are intended to provide the long-term hazard (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) and are based on seismicity rates and patterns observed mostly from tectonic earthquakes. However, potentially induced earthquakes were identified in 14 regions that were not included in the earthquake catalog used for constructing the 2014 model. We recognized the importance of considering these induced earthquakes in a separate hazard analysis, and as a result in April 2015 we released preliminary models that explored the impact of this induced seismicity on the hazard. Several factors are important in determining the hazard from induced seismicity: period of the catalog that optimally forecasts the next year's activity, earthquake magnitude-rate distribution, earthquake location statistics, maximum magnitude, ground motion models, and industrial drivers such as injection rates. The industrial drivers are not currently available in a form that we can implement in a 1-year model. Hazard model inputs have been evaluated by a broad group of scientists and engineers to assess the range of acceptable models. Results indicate that next year's hazard is significantly higher by more than a factor of three in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado compared to the long-term 2014 hazard model. These results have raised concern about the impacts of induced earthquakes on the built environment and have led to many engineering and policy discussions about how to mitigate these effects for the more than 7 million people that live near areas of induced seismicity.

  15. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  16. Generalized seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1993-09-01

    There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

  17. Generalized seismic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

  18. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults.

  19. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  20. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

    2011-12-01

    The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

  1. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  2. An Integrated Study of Lithospheric Structure, Regional Seismic Wave Propagation, and Seismic Discrimination Capability in the Middle East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    geochemical analysis of garnet peridotite nodules from kimberlites on the Kaapvaal Craton, implying that the estimates from kimberlites are representative of a wider region of the Archaean core of southern Africa.

  3. An Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography Focused on the New Madrid Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The ambient seismic field has emerged as a viable tool for imaging Earth structure through the estimation of surface-wave Green's functions. The seismotectonic context of the New Madrid Fault Zone is puzzling, and we aim to better understand the structure using surface waves. The signature of an active fault zone should translate into relatively high attenuation and clear velocity variations. We use the Spatial AutoCorrelation Method to extract phase velocity and attenuation measurements from USArray mobile seismic network data in the central and eastern United States. We produce images of spatial variation in phase velocity and attenuation, sampling the crust and upper mantle at various depths. We investigate the lithospheric context within which the New Madrid fault zone resides, to help shed light on its likelihood for future seismic hazard.

  4. Estimating mixing rates from seismic images of oceanic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, K. L.; White, N. J.; Hobbs, R. W.

    2009-09-01

    An improved understanding of the spatial distribution of diapycnal mixing in the oceans is the key to elucidating how meridional overturning circulation is closed. The challenge is to develop techniques which can be used to determine the variation of diapycnal mixing as a function of space and time throughout the oceanic volume. One promising approach exploits seismic reflection imaging of thermohaline structure. We have applied spectral analysis techniques to fine-structure undulations observed on a seismic transect close to the Subantarctic Front in the South Atlantic Ocean. 91 horizontal spectra were fitted using a linear combination of a Garrett-Munk tow spectrum for internal waves and a Batchelor model for turbulence. The fit between theory and observation is excellent and enables us to deduce the spatial variability and context of diapycnal mixing rates, which range from 10-5 to 10-3.5m2s-1.

  5. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  6. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  7. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  8. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  9. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  10. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  11. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  12. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  13. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  14. Improving nuclear explosion detection using seismic and geomorphic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, Cleat Philip

    The ability to detect and locate nuclear explosions relies on the collection of seismic data, picking seismic phases, comparing amplitudes of seismic phases, and using velocity models to invert for location. The current monitoring system provides reliable results for large-yield sources detected at regional to teleseismic distances and at known test sites. With the increased availability of local datasets and the possibility of evasion scenarios that mask the yield, we improve the current methods of nuclear explosion detection by understanding local phase phenomena. The first chapter of this dissertation addresses the characterization of local/regional phase phenomena and source discrimination associated with near surface testing. I develop a local source discrimination technique and characterize the phases produced by near-surface explosions. We use the Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) broadband data set collected across the Colorado Plateau during the summer of 2003, which recorded explosions in hard and soft rock mines. We optimized a local surface wave magnitude scale derived from a stable, regional surface wave magnitude (Russell, 2006) for the explosions in each lithology. Magnitude scales for the local phases (Pg, Lg/Sg and Rg) were also tested and compared. The regional and teleseismic discrimination techniques employed were optimized for local distances to distinguish between source and rock type. We found that the magnitude and amplitude ratios were able to discriminate between small earthquakes and explosions at local distances, with each performing the best in the hardrock lithology. However, we believe that the ratio techniques would perform equally in both lithologies if multiple stations were used to establish the ratio values. We also determine that the source lithology and large-scale geologic features control most of the variability in the amplitude measurements. While several misclassifications are noted in the model, we designed the model

  15. SEG Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Bob

    2016-10-17

    Significant advancements in the development of sensors to enable rotational seismic measurements have been achieved. Prototypes are available now to support experiments that help validate the utility of rotational seismic measurements.

  16. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  17. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  18. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Cara A; Fiske, Susan T; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-09-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed.

  19. Seismicity of the Adriatic microplate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Console, R.; Di, Giovambattista R.; Favali, P.; Presgrave, B.W.; Smriglio, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Adriatic microplate was previously considered to be a unique block, tectonically active only along its margins. The seismic sequences that took place in the basin from 1986 to 1990 give new information about the geodynamics of this area. Three subsets of well recorded events were relocated by the joint hypocentre determination technique. On the whole, this seismic activity was concentrated in a belt crossing the southern Adriatic sea around latitude 42??, in connection with regional E-W fault systems. Some features of this seismicity, similar to those observed in other well known active margins of the Adriatic plate, support a model of a southern Adriatic lithospheric block, detached from the Northern one. Other geophysical information provides evidence of a transitional zone at the same latitude. ?? 1993.

  20. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  1. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  2. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  3. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thaysa B. F.; Osório, Flávia L.; Loureiro, Sonia R.

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6–12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems

  4. Teaching age and discrimination: a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste

    2014-08-01

    Age discrimination in health and social care is a universal issue with significant potential ramifications for practice, and one which should be explicitly addressed in health and social care pre-registration education. However, developing teaching and learning strategies to effectively address this subject is complex given that implicit/indirect discrimination based upon tacit beliefs and assumptions, is problematic and difficult to tackle. This paper discusses the importance of teaching age and discrimination to student nurses in the context of the development of a novel approach to this aspect of education from a life course perspective. This discussion is based personal and professional reflections of the authors on the delivery of the teaching session over a number of years with approximately 500 student mental health nurses to date. The emerging themes of this are reported here and their implications for education and practice discussed. Exploring age and discrimination in relation to children and young people and older people in particular has enabled student nurses to explore the concept as one which requires critical reflection. This promotes awareness of usually unexamined personal attitudes in relation to age in order to enhance the potential for good experiences of health services for all people in need of them.

  5. Motion words selectively modulate direction discrimination sensitivity for threshold motion

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Skujevskis, Māris; Baggio, Giosuè

    2013-01-01

    Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (threshold motion). Participants had to judge whether the dots were moving upward or downward. Results show a double dissociation between discrimination sensitivity (d′) and reaction times depending on whether vertical motion was above or at threshold. With suprathreshold motion, responses were faster for congruent directions of words and dots, but sensitivity was equal across conditions. With threshold motion, sensitivity was higher for congruent directions of words and dots, but responses were equally fast across conditions. The observed differences in sensitivity and response times were largest when the dots appeared 450 ms after word onset, that is, consistently with electrophysiology, at the time the up/down semantics of the word had become available. These data suggest that word meanings can alter the balance between signal and noise within the visual system and affect the perception of low-level sensory features. PMID:23596407

  6. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  7. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  8. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  9. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  10. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  11. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  12. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  13. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  14. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  15. Seismic Mitigation Strategies for Existing School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattis, D. B.; Krimgold, F.; Green, M.

    California provides the paradigm for lessening devastating earthquake damage in U.S. buildings. This document examines specific examples of the seismic mitigation process, a process showing that seismic retrofit in existing schools in other parts of the country are possible and could lead to more general seismic rehabilitation in other buildings.…

  16. Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

    2014-08-01

    The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

  17. On the distribution of seismic reflection coefficients and seismic amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, S.; Paterson, L.; Beresford, G.

    1995-07-01

    Reflection coefficient sequences from 14 wells in Australia have a statistical character consistent with a non-Gaussian scaling noise model based on the Levy-stable family of probability distributions. Experimental histograms of reflection coefficients are accurately approximated by symmetric Levy-stable probability density functions with Levy index between 0.99 and 1.43. These distributions have the same canonical role in mathematical statistics as the Gaussian distribution, but they have slowly decaying tails and infinite moments. The distribution of reflection coefficients is independent of the spatial scale (statistically self-similar), and the reflection coefficient sequences have long-range dependence. These results suggest that the logarithm of seismic impedance can be modeled accurately using fractional Levy motion, which is a generalization of fractional Brownian motion. Synthetic seismograms produced from the authors` model for the reflection coefficients also have Levy-stable distributions. These isolations include transmission losses, the effects of reverberations, and the loss of resolution caused by band-limited wavelets, and suggest that actual seismic amplitudes with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio should also have a Levy-stable distribution. This prediction is verified using post-stack seismic data acquired in the Timor Sea and in the continental USA. However, prestack seismic amplitudes from the Timor Sea are nearly Gaussian. They attribute the difference between prestack and poststack data to the high level of measurement noise in the prestack data.

  18. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  19. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  20. Expanding Conventional Seismic Stratigrphy into the Multicomponent Seismic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Innocent Aluka

    2008-08-31

    Multicomponent seismic data are composed of three independent vector-based seismic wave modes. These wave modes are, compressional mode (P), and shear modes SV and SH. The three modes are generated using three orthogonal source-displacement vectors and then recorded using three orthogonal vector sensors. The components travel through the earth at differing velocities and directions. The velocities of SH and SV as they travel through the subsurface differ by only a few percent, but the velocities of SV and SH (Vs) are appreciably lower than the P-wave velocity (Vp). The velocity ratio Vp/Vs varies by an order of magnitude in the earth from a value of 15 to 1.5 depending on the degree of sedimentary lithification. The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence more

  1. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the

  2. Initial Seismic Characterization of a Fault Controlled Hydrothermal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, B.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Paul, C.

    2002-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project that aims to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and the biota that occupy those systems, we have begun a detailed geophysical characterization of the Borax Lake hydrothermal area located near the center of Alvord Valley in the basin and range province of southeast Oregon. Basement rock is comprised of Miocene volcanic deposits overlain by up to 700 m of unconsolidated alluvium. Previous workers, based on gravity data and surface mapping, suggest that the Borax Lake hydrothermal area lies directly over a north/south trending fault. We are conducting seismic investigations on both a basin scale, to place the hydrothermal system in a larger geologic context, and a local high resolution scale for detailed imaging of fault architecture and hydrothermal flow paths. In this initial investigation, our primary objectives are to verify that a fault zone is present beneath the Borax Lake hot springs and to conduct tests to constrain acquisition parameters for detailed 3D seismic investigation. Initial seismic source tests indicate that the area is well suited to high resolution seismic investigation with clear reflections as deep as 300 ms and frequency content up to 500 Hz. Walk-away gathers show that the fluid distribution near the hot springs is complex with sharp gradients in the piezometric surface. To test the fault zone interpretation, and begin to build a large scale image of basin geometry, we acquired a 3.5 km seismic reflection profile perpendicular to the suspected fault zone. The profile consists of 30-fold CMP data acquired using a trailer mounted, 400 lb accelerated weight drop. Reflections are evident to depths of at least 500 m. Additionally, we acquired parallel magnetic profiles to constrain interpretation of the seismic data. Evidence for faulting is clear with the seismic image showing a complex normal fault zone bounded to the west by a structural high. Refraction analysis

  3. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  4. Large-N Seismic Deployment at the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary project that consists of a series of chemical explosion experiments at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand the complicated effect of earth structures on source energy partitioning and seismic wave propagation, develop and validate physics-based monitoring, and ultimately better discriminate low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity. Deployment of a large number of seismic sensors is planned for SPE to image the full 3-D wavefield with about 500 three-component sensors and 500 vertical component sensors. This large-N seismic deployment will operate near the site of SPE-5 shot for about one month, recording the SPE-5 shot, ambient noise, and additional controlled-sources. This presentation focuses on the design of the large-N seismic deployment. We show how we optimized the sensor layout based on the geological structure and experiment goals with a limited number of sensors. In addition, we will also show some preliminary record sections from deployment. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  6. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  7. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  8. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  9. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  10. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  11. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  12. The relationship between perceived discrimination and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among African Americans, Afro Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Soto, José A; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; BeLue, Rhonda

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3570 African Americans, 1438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African Americans, but not other groups. We did not expect non-race based discrimination to predict GAD. Results showed that while more frequent experiences of non-race based discrimination predicted GAD for all groups, experiencing race based discrimination was associated with significantly higher odds of endorsing lifetime GAD for African Americans only. Results are interpreted in light of the different contexts that these three ethnic groups represent relative to their history within the United States as well as their present day circumstances.

  13. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.

  14. Treatment discrimination among assistant coaches of women's teams.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B; Sagas, Michael

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine organizational treatment discrimination (i.e., when members of a group receive fewer rewards, opportunities, or resources than they legitimately deserve based on job-related criteria) in the context of women's athletics. Data were collected from 170 assistant coaches of women's teams (i.e., women's basketball, softball, track, volleyball, soccer, and tennis). Results indicate that women's perceived work experiences and outcomes were comparable, and sometimes better, than those of men. We present competing explanations for this finding. First, it is possible that these women were not subjected to treatment discrimination. Alternatively, it is possible that this demonstrates the existence of the "paradox of the contented working woman." Additional analyses indicate that work experiences explained a large portion of the variance in organizational commitment and turnover intentions, thereby demonstrating their importance in the workplace.

  15. Contribution to the study of historical seismicity in the Maghrebian region, Catalogue of historiacal seismicity of the Maghreb region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmrabet, T.

    2009-04-01

    The seismic risk assessment in countries with moderate seismic activity is a very delicate action as well as a high priority one in land use management and urban rehabilitation. The credibility of this assessment is based mainly on the effects of destructive earthquakes whose maximum intensities become a reference for determining the level of protection. This knowledge requires a detailed study of the damage caused by major earthquakes over a long period of time. In this context, a broad scale research about past earthquakes started in the Geophysics Laboratory, now called the National Geophysics Institute (ING) within the National Center for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat, Morocco. It supported a thorough study which included critical historical texts scattered in various local and foreign archives. The pursuit of this study, under the project called PAMERAR, which was launched in the early 80's aimed at reducing of earthquake risk in the Arab region, led us to investigate the origin of these texts according to various public and private libraries, as in Spain and France. The scientific interest in the historical seismicity in Morocco was highlighted at the beginning of the twentieth century in several reports and catalogs but with several gaps in time and space, further research was thus necessary especially to explore documents in particular from origin sources. This interest in historical archives is within the scope of understanding the natural hazards over long period to evaluate the recurrence of earthquakes. This study leads to significant results covering 11 centuries, from AD 846 to the present. We continued to study the effects of recent earthquakes on humans and buildings heritage, this work has led to a study in the footsteps of local seismic culture. Since earthquakes do not recognize the limits of political geography, since 1993 we have undertaken to extend the research to include the entire Maghreb region. We then used the database

  16. Kernel Optimization in Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Hamsici, Onur C.; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2011-01-01

    Kernel mapping is one of the most used approaches to intrinsically derive nonlinear classifiers. The idea is to use a kernel function which maps the original nonlinearly separable problem to a space of intrinsically larger dimensionality where the classes are linearly separable. A major problem in the design of kernel methods is to find the kernel parameters that make the problem linear in the mapped representation. This paper derives the first criterion that specifically aims to find a kernel representation where the Bayes classifier becomes linear. We illustrate how this result can be successfully applied in several kernel discriminant analysis algorithms. Experimental results using a large number of databases and classifiers demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach. The paper also shows (theoretically and experimentally) that a kernel version of Subclass Discriminant Analysis yields the highest recognition rates. PMID:20820072

  17. Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A.M.; Blejwas, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues.

  18. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  19. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  20. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  1. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  2. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  3. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  4. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  5. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  6. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  7. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  8. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  9. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  10. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  11. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  12. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  13. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  14. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  15. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  16. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  17. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  18. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  19. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  20. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...