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Sample records for seizure therapy mst

  1. Comparable seizure characteristics in magnetic seizure therapy and electroconvulsive therapy for major depression.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Hurlemann, René; Soehle, Martin; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly effective for treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, its use for less severe forms of depression is somewhat limited by a lack of control over current spreading to medial temporal lobe memory structures, resulting in various cognitive side effects. In contrast, magnetic seizure therapy (MST), which uses high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for local seizure induction, has been associated with reduced cognitive side effects. To assess whether different characteristics of seizures induced by both methods are responsible for the differences in neuropsychological side-effect profile, we studied seven TRD-patients undergoing both MST and ECT in an open-label, within subject, controlled crossover pilot study. Comparison parameters included seizure-related ictal characteristics, including motor activity, electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and postictal recovery and reorientation times.Our results showed no differences in motor activity or EMG and EEG characteristics, thus implicating similar electrophysiological processes in seizure induction with MST and ECT. In line with previous studies, we observed shorter postictal recovery and reorientation times following MST.The ictal characteristics of induced seizures were found similar with ECT and MST suggesting that the more focal seizure induction associated with MST may account for the more beneficial neuropsychological side effect profile of MST.

  2. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: A finite element simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced maximum electric field in the brain of 2.1–2.5 V/cm and 1.1–2.2 V/cm, corresponding to 6.2–7.2 times and 1.2–2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much higher with ECT (up to 100%) than MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double cone coil was the most focal and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800–900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects. PMID:21248385

  3. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  4. Magnetic Seizure Therapy for Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cretaz, Eric; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel, experimental therapeutic intervention, which combines therapeutic aspects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, in order to achieve the efficacy of the former with the safety of the latter. MST might prove to be a valuable tool in the treatment of mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Our aim is to review current literature on MST. Methods. OVID and MEDLINE databases were used to systematically search for clinical studies on MST. The terms “magnetic seizure therapy,” “depression,” and “bipolar” were employed. Results. Out of 74 studies, 8 met eligibility criteria. There was considerable variability in the methods employed and samples sizes were small, limiting the generalization of the results. All studies focused on depressive episodes, but few included patients with bipolar disorder. The studies found reported significant antidepressant effects, with remission rates ranging from 30% to 40%. No significant cognitive side effects related to MST were found, with a better cognitive profile when compared to ECT. Conclusion. MST was effective in reducing depressive symptoms in mood disorders, with generally less side effects than ECT. No study focused on comparing MST to ECT on bipolar depression specifically. PMID:26075100

  5. Transportability of Multisystemic Therapy to Community Settings: Can a Program Sustain Outcomes without MST Services Oversight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Boydston, Julianne M.; Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multisystemic therapy (MST) has been shown to be effective in treating delinquent behavior in youth. However, some community agencies with MST programs are unable to afford the ongoing costs of licensure and quality assurance oversight provided by MST services. Objective: The present study utilized retrospective archival analyses of…

  6. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric fields due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in

  7. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... two or more seizures may be diagnosed with epilepsy , also known as seizure disorder. Seizure Basics Under ... over and over might indicate the ongoing condition epilepsy . Febrile seizures can happen in children younger than ...

  8. Applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic seizure therapy in the study and treatment of disorders related to cerebral aging.

    PubMed

    Luber, Bruce; McClintock, Shawn M; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to probe cortical function and treat neuropsychiatric illnesses. TMS has demonstrated neuroplastic effects akin to long-term potentiation and long-term depression, and therapeutic applications are in development for post-stroke recovery, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in seniors. Here, we discuss two new directions of TMS research relevant to cerebral aging and cognition. First, we introduce a paradigm for enhancing cognitive reserve, based on our research in sleep deprivation. Second, we discuss the use of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) to spare cognitive functions relative to conventional electroconvulsive therapy, and as a means of providing a more potent antidepressant treatment when subconvulsive TMS has shown modest efficacy in seniors. Whether in the enhancement of cognition as a treatment goal, or in the reduction of amnesia as a side effect, these approaches to the use of TMS and MST merit further exploration regarding their clinical potential.

  9. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Seizures KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Seizures Print A A A Text Size en ... Seizures Febrile Seizures Brain and Nervous System Epilepsy First Aid: Febrile Seizures Word! Seizure Epilepsy Epilepsy Contact Us ...

  10. Risk factors for oxygen toxicity seizures in hyperbaric oxygen therapy: case reports from multiple institutions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Ruthanna; Carroll, Christopher; Thompson, Debra; Diem, Rena G; Yeboah, Kwabena; Hayes, A J; Hall, Brett; Whelan, Harry T

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity seizures are a rare but recognized complication of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. Many patients undergoing HBO2 therapy have medical conditions or are taking medications that could contribute to seizures. Previous literature has not extensively reported on these factors in patients experiencing oxygen toxicity seizures. We conducted a chart review at several hyperbaric oxygen centers in the Milwaukee, Wisc., area to explore whether the patients who experienced seizures in the hyperbaric chamber had other medical comorbidities or were on medications which lowered their seizure threshold, thereby contributing to oxygen toxicity seizures. There were a total of seven cases of seizures in five patients. Each patient had risk factors for seizures, including hypercapnia secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, narcotic withdrawal, alcohol dependence, and antidepressant, tramadol or cephalosporin/ceftriaxone use. We hypothesize that patients who experience oxygen toxicity seizures may have other factors which contribute to the development of these seizures.

  11. Neonatal seizures: controversies and challenges in translating new therapies from the lab to the isolette.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kevin E; Raol, Yogendra H; Brooks-Kayal, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Neonatal seizures have unique properties that have proved challenging for both clinicians and basic science researchers. Clinical therapies aimed at neonatal seizures have proven only partially effective and new therapies are slow to develop. This article will discuss neonatal seizures within the framework of the barriers that exist to the development of new therapies, and the challenges inherent in bringing new therapies from the bench to the bedside. With the European Union and USA creating national collaborative project infrastructure, improved collaborative resources should advance clinical research on urgently needed new therapies for this disorder.

  12. Neonatal seizures: controversies and challenges in translating new therapies from the lab to the isolette

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kevin E.; Raol, Yogendra H.; Brooks-Kayal, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal seizures have unique properties that have proved challenging for both clinicians and basic science researchers. Clinical therapies aimed at neonatal seizures have proven only partially effective and new therapies are slow to develop. This article will discuss neonatal seizures within the framework of the barriers that exist to the development of new therapies and the challenges inherent in bringing new therapies from the bench to the bedside. With the European Union and United States creating national collaborative project infrastructure, improved collaborative resources should advance clinical research on urgently needed new therapies for this disorder. PMID:22708596

  13. IS A GRANDMAL SEIZURE NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR THE EFFICACY OF ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Abraham

    2000-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent research findings which suggest that the old teaching that a grandma! seizure is both necessary and sufficient for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not correct. It is necessary; but not sufficient. The stimulus intensity should be adjusted so that it is far above the seizure threshold in order to get maximum efficacy of ECT. PMID:21407909

  14. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.

  15. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%. PMID:25959039

  16. Seizure Duration and Hemodynamic State during Electroconvulsive Therapy: Sodium Thiopental versus Propofol

    PubMed Central

    Jarineshin, Hashem; Kashani, Saeed; Fekrat, Fereydoon; Vatankhah, Majid; Golmirzaei, Javad; Alimolaee, Esmaeel; Zafarpour, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: General anesthesia is required for Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and it is usually provided by a hypnotic agent. The seizure duration is important for the treatment, and it is usually accompanied by severe hemodynamic changes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sodium thiopental versus Propofol on seizure duration and hemodynamic variables during ECT. Methods: A number of 100 patient-sessions of ECT were included in this randomized clinical trial. The initial hemodynamic state of each patient was recorded. Anesthesia was induced by Sodium thiopental in the 1st group and with Propofol in 2nd group. All the patients received the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. The hemodynamic variables after seizure and seizure duration were recorded. The data were analyzed through SPSS 20 and independent t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean duration of seizure in the sodium thiopental group was significantly longer than the Propofol group (40.3±16.6 sec versus 32±11.3 sec) (P=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean energy level applied in the two groups (20.5±3.81 joules in the sodium thiopental versus 20.2±3.49 joules in the Propofol group). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at all times after seizure and mean heart rate at 3 and 5 minutes after seizure were significantly lower in Propofol than sodium thiopental groups. Discussion and Conclusion: Propofol provides a more stable hemodynamic state for the ECT procedures, and its use is highly preferred over sodium thiopental in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26383207

  17. Adjunctive therapy for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures: focus on oncedaily lamotrigine

    PubMed Central

    Steinbaugh, Linda; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies are frequently encountered by neurologists, and providing an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment(s) are the necessary components of successful patient care. With the introduction of new antiepileptic medications, physicians are better equipped for this goal. The immediate-release formulation of lamotrigine (LTG-IR) has been approved for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures since 2006. The extended-release formulation of lamotrigine (LTG-XR) was approved for adjunctive therapy in patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 2010. Although its exact mechanism of action is not yet fully elucidated, studies have demonstrated multiple possible pathways. Although both the LTG-IR and LTG-XR formulations have similar side effects and are generally well tolerated, LTG-XR may be preferable for its ease of use, which may increase patient compliance and decrease fluctuations in serum drug levels. The ease of conversion between the formulations also makes lamotrigine an attractive treatment option for patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. LTG-IR has demonstrated efficacy in treatment-resistant idiopathic generalized epilepsies in both adults and children. Although there are still some questions regarding all possible applications of LTG-XR, as further research is being done, it is clear that LTG-XR may hold some advantages when compared with other anticonvulsants. PMID:21151621

  18. The effects of vagus nerve stimulation therapy on patients with intractable seizures and either Landau-Kleffner syndrome or autism.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong D

    2003-06-01

    Acquired and developmental comorbid conditions, including language and behavioral disorders, are often associated with epilepsy. Although the relationship between these disorders is not fully understood, their close association may indicate that they share common features, suggesting that these conditions may respond to the same therapies. Not only has vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy been proven to reduce the frequency of pharmacoresistant seizures in epilepsy patients, but preliminary studies also indicate that VNS therapy may improve neurocognitive performance. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that VNS therapy would improve the quality of life of patients with either Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) or autism, independent of its effects on seizures. Data were retrospectively queried from the VNS therapy patient outcome registry (Cyberonics, Inc; Houston, TX, USA). A constant cohort of 6 LKS patients and 59 autistic patients were identified. Among the LKS patients, 3 patients at 6 months experienced at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency as compared with baseline. Physicians reported quality-of-life improvements in all areas assessed for at least 3 of the 6 children. More than half of the patients with autism (58%) experienced at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency at 12 months. Improvements in all areas of quality of life monitored were reported for most patients, particularly for alertness (76% at 12 months). Although these preliminary findings are encouraging, a prospective study using standardized measurement tools specific to these disorders and a longer-term follow-up are necessary to better gauge the efficacy of VNS therapy among these patient populations.

  19. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  20. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prolonged seizures are a risk factor for epilepsy but most children who experience febrile seizures do ... develop the reoccurring seizures that re characteristic of epilepsy. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an ...

  1. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... febrile seizure does not mean a child has epilepsy, since that disorder is characterized by reoccurring seizures ... outcome but carry an increased risk of developing epilepsy. How common are febrile seizures? Febrile seizures are ...

  2. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  3. Caramiphen edisylate as adjunct to standard therapy attenuates soman-induced seizures and cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M K; Wright, L K M; de Araujo Furtado, M; Stone, M F; Moffett, M C; Kelley, N R; Bourne, A R; Lumeh, W Z; Schultz, C R; Schwartz, J E; Lumley, L A

    2014-01-01

    The progression of epileptiform activity following soman (GD) exposure is characterized by a period of excessive cholinergic activity followed by excessive glutamatergic activity resulting in status epilepticus, which may lead to neuropathological damage and behavioral deficits. Caramiphen edisylate is an anticholinergic drug with antiglutamatergic properties, which conceptually may be a beneficial therapeutic approach to the treatment of nerve agent exposure. In the present study, rats were exposed to 1.2 LD50 GD or saline, treated with atropine sulfate (2mg/kg, im) and HI-6 (93.6mg/kg, im) 1min after GD exposure, and monitored for seizure activity. Rats were treated with diazepam (10mg/kg, sc) and caramiphen (0, 20 or 100mg/kg, im) 30min after seizure onset. Following GD exposure, performance was evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests to assess motor coordination and function, sensorimotor gating, and cognitive function. Caramiphen as adjunct to diazepam treatment attenuated GD-induced seizure activity, neuropathological damage, and cognitive deficits compared to diazepam alone, but did not attenuate the GD-induced sensorimotor gating impairment. These findings show that physiological, behavioral, and neuropathological effects of GD exposure can be attenuated by treatment with caramiphen as an adjunct to therapy, even if administration is delayed to 30min after seizure onset.

  4. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  5. Decoders for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

  6. Premedication effect of dexmedetomidine and alfentanil on seizure time, recovery duration, and hemodynamic responses in electroconvulsive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Esmail; Modir, Hesameddin; Bagheri, Niknam; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Jamilian, Hamidreza; Eshrati, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for many mental disorders, especially severe and persistent depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine and alfentanil on agitation, satisfaction, seizure duration, and patients hemodynamic after ECT. Materials and Methods: In a three phase crossover randomized clinical trial, 75 patients aged between 18 and 50 years and candidate for ECT were enrolled and assigned into three groups (25 patients in each group). All patients, respectively, took premedication of dexmedetomidine, alfentanil, or saline in three consecutive phases. Patients received 0.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, 10 μg/kg alfentanil or normal saline intravenously, 10 min before induction. Finally, seizure and recovery duration, satisfaction and agitation score, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference about seizure duration, agitation score, and hemodynamic parameters between groups but recovery duration was significantly lower in the control group than dexmedetomidine (P = 0.016) and alfentanil group (P = 0.0001). Patients’ satisfaction was significantly higher in intervention groups (alfentanil and dexmedetomidine groups) (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Given the equal effects of alfentanil and dexmedetomidine, it seems that choosing one of these two drugs for premedication of patients undergoing ECT is appropriate. Drug choice is influenced by numerous factors such as accessibility of each drug and the dominance of anesthesiologist and psychiatrist. PMID:27052067

  7. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not have a history of seizure disorders (epilepsy). A tonic-clonic seizure involves the entire body. ... no evidence that they cause death, brain damage, epilepsy, or learning problems. Most children outgrow febrile seizures ...

  8. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  9. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  10. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  11. [Ecstatic seizures].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Astapenko, A V; Osos, E L; Zmachynskaya, O L; Gvishch, T G

    2015-01-01

    Ecstatic seizures is a rare manifestation of epilepsy. They were described for the first time by F.M. Dostoevsky. Currently, the description of ecstatic seizures is possible to find in the scientific literature. The description of the own observation of a patient with emotional-affective seizures is presented. A role of the anterior insular cortex in the ecstatic seizures origin is discussed. The similarities between the feelings reported during ecstatic seizures and the feelings experienced under the effect of stimulant addictive drugs are described. The possible reasons of the low frequency of emotional-affective seizures are considered. PMID:26356170

  12. Equatorial MST radars: Further consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    The results presented give additional support to the need of equatorial MST radars in order to obtain more information on the nature of equatorial waves in the MST region. Radar deduced winds such as obtained at Jicamarca for periods of months indicate that with these data the full range of equatorial waves, with time scales of seconds to years, can be studied.

  13. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  14. Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The MST Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.

    Traditional mental health approaches for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders often fail to yield successful results. However, one method, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), which represents a departure from traditional treatment strategies, is described. MST was designed to provide communities with affordable and effective remedies for…

  15. Combined Diazepam and MK-801 Therapy Provides Synergistic Protection from Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Ali, Mahil S.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Heck, Diane E.; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl− channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 hour lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  16. Brivaracetam: review of its pharmacology and potential use as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial onset seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Gasparini, Sara; Citraro, Rita; Labate, Angelo; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gambardella, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV), a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand, reported to be 10–30-fold more potent than levetiracetam (LEV), is highly effective in a wide range of experimental models of focal and generalized seizures. BRV and LEV similarly bind to synaptic vesicle protein 2A, while differentiating for other pharmacological effects; in fact, BRV does not inhibit high voltage Ca2+ channels and AMPA receptors as LEV. Furthermore, BRV apparently exhibits inhibitory activity on neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels playing a role as a partial antagonist. BRV is currently waiting for approval both in the United States and the European Union as adjunctive therapy for patients with partial seizures. In patients with photosensitive epilepsy, BRV showed a dose-dependent effect in suppressing or attenuating the photoparoxysmal response. In well-controlled trials conducted to date, adjunctive BRV demonstrated efficacy and good tolerability in patients with focal epilepsy. BRV has a linear pharmacokinetic profile. BRV is extensively metabolized and excreted by urine (only 8%–11% unchanged). The metabolites of BRV are inactive, and hydrolysis of the acetamide group is the mainly involved metabolic pathway; hepatic impairment probably requires dose adjustment. BRV does not seem to influence other antiepileptic drug plasma levels. Six clinical trials have so far been completed indicating that BRV is effective in controlling seizures when used at doses between 50 and 200 mg/d. The drug is generally well-tolerated with only mild-to-moderate side effects; this is confirmed by the low discontinuation rate observed in these clinical studies. The most common side effects are related to central nervous system and include fatigue, dizziness, and somnolence; these apparently disappear during treatment. In this review, we analyzed BRV, focusing on the current evidences from experimental animal models to clinical studies with particular interest on potential use in clinical

  17. Dopey's seizure.

    PubMed

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

  18. Musicogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, Giuliano

    2003-11-01

    Eighty-seven reports of patients with seizures induced by listening and/or playing music and one personal observation are reviewed. Music-induced (or musicogenic) seizures are currently classified among the reflex seizures precipitated by complex stimuli. According to the available information, they are defined as focal seizures due to a discharge involving lateral and mesial temporal and orbitofrontal areas. The specific musical component responsible for seizure precipitation is still undetermined. An important role is attributed to the emotional aspect of music. The existence of this rare disorder should be borne in mind by neurologists, who should also be aware of the existing musical test batteries that may help in understanding better the nature of triggering mechanisms responsible for this unique pathological condition. The implementations of the results of ongoing investigations on brain processing of musical information will advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from interictal to ictal phases of epilepsy. PMID:14681120

  19. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  20. Dopey's seizure.

    PubMed

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

  1. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizure - grand mal; Grand mal seizure; Seizure - generalized; Epilepsy - generalized seizure ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

  2. Changes in Maternal Depression Are Associated with MST Outcomes for Adolescents with Co-Occurring Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimbos, Teresa; Granic, Isabela

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive subtypes with different risk factors, developmental prognoses and treatment needs.…

  3. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  4. MST-80B microcomputer trainer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.D.; Fisher, E.R.; Spann, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    The microcomputer revolution in electronics is spreading so rapidly that it is difficult to educate enough people quickly and thoroughly in the new technology. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's MST-80B was developed as a way to speed learning in in-house training courses, and it is now being widely used outside LLL. The MST-80B trainer is a complete, self-contained, microcomputer system housed in a briefcase. The trainer uses the Intel 8080A 8-Bit Microprocessor (CPU), and it has its own solid-state memory, a built-in keyboard, input and output ports, and a display for visual output. The trainer is furnished with a permanent Monitor Program (in Read-Only Memory) that allows users to enter, debug, modify, and run programs of their own easily. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  6. Ranolazine overdose-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Akil, Nour; Bottei, Edward; Kamath, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Ranolazine is a new anti-anginal medication that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006 for patients with symptomatic chronic angina despite optimized therapy. This paper presents a case report of a fifteen year old male patient admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after ranolazine overdose ingestion. He had recurrent new onset seizures that are most likely due to ranolazine overdose. Seizures have never been reported with ranolazine use or abuse. PMID:26072257

  7. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  8. Jet stream related observations by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  9. AWIWPCA STATES HELPING STATES CLL ON MST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several Microbial Source Tracking (MST) tools are now being applied in the development of TMDL plans and in the evaluation of best management practices. However, due to the relatively recent development of MST most environmental managers and scientists have little training and ...

  10. Molecular analysis and anticonvulsant therapy in two patients with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome: a successful use of zonisamide for controlling the seizures.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoru; Ohinata, Junko; Suzuki, Nao; Amamiya, Satoshi; Kajihama, Aya; Sugai, Rika; Araki, Akiko; Fujieda, Kenji; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-07-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by a deficit in glucose transport to the brain during the pre- and postnatal periods. Here, we report two cases of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, reduced GLUT1 activities, and mutations in the GLUT1 gene. Patient 1 had a novel heterozygous 1bp insertion in exon 7 that resulted in a shift of the reading frame and the introduction of a premature stop codon at amino acid position 380. His clinical phenotype appeared to be more severe than that of Patient 2 who had a missense mutation in exon 8 resulting in an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at amino acid position 333. Patient 1 had no meaningful words and could not walk unassisted, while Patient 2 could speak and walk unassisted. Both the patients developed seizures of various types that have been successfully treated with zonisamide. Although several antiepileptic drugs, including barbiturates, diazepam, chloralhydrate, and valproic acid, have been shown to inhibit GLUT1 function, the present study demonstrated no inhibitory effect of zonisamide on GLUT1-mediated glucose transport. Our data suggested that zonisamide might be preferable if add-on anticonvulsant therapy is required to control the seizures in patients with this disorder.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups 2–2.5 h prior to hyperthermic seizures (HT) induced by hair dryer or heat lamp. To determine whether simulation of infection enhances neuronal excitability, latency to seizure onset, threshold temperature and total number of seizures were quantified. Behavioral seizures were correlated with electroencephalographic changes in rat pups. Seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was assessed in blood samples at various time points after HT. Seizure-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus was quantified using Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. Results Lipopolysaccharide priming increased susceptibility of rats and mice to hyperthemic seizures and enhanced seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. Conclusions Peripheral inflammation appears to work synergistically with hyperthermia to potentiate seizures and to exacerbate seizure-induced immune responses. By simulating fever, a regulated increase in body temperature from an immune challenge, we developed a more clinically relevant animal model of prolonged FS. PMID:26357586

  12. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  13. MST1 is a novel regulator of apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Ardestani, Amin; Khobragade, Vrushali; Yuan, Ting; Frogne, Thomas; Tao, Wufan; Oberholzer, Jose; Pattou, Francois; Conte, Julie Kerr; Maedler, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is a hallmark of the loss of insulin producing beta-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. Current treatment fails to halt the decline in functional beta-cell mass. Strategies to prevent beta-cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed. Here, we identified Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta-cell death and function. MST1 was strongly activated in beta-cells under diabetogenic conditions and correlated with beta-cell apoptosis. MST1 specifically induced the mitochondrial-dependent pathway of apoptosis in beta-cells through up-regulation of the BH3-only protein Bim. MST1 directly phosphorylated PDX1 at Thr11, resulting in its ubiquitination, degradation and impaired insulin secretion. Mst1 deficiency completely restored normoglycemia, beta-cell function and survival in vitro and in vivo. We show MST1 as novel pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling and beta-cell dysfunction, which may serve as target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:24633305

  14. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizures that cause a loss of consciousness and violent, jerking movements, called grand mal seizures , are especially ... of seizure that causes loss of consciousness and violent, jerking movements. Intrauterine Device: A small device that ...

  15. Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D

    2006-04-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the previous monosodium titanate (MST) purchase specifications for particle size and strontium decontamination factor. Based on the measured particle size and filtration performance characteristics of several MST samples with simulated waste solutions and various filter membranes we recommend changing the particle size specification as follows. The recommended specification varies with the size and manufacturer of the filter membrane as shown below. We recommend that future batches of MST received at SRS be tested for particle size and filtration performance. This will increase the available database and provide increased confidence that particle size parameters are an accurate prediction of filtration performance. Testing demonstrated the feasibility of a non-radiochemical method for evaluating strontium removal performance of MST samples. Using this analytical methodology we recommend that the purchase specification include the requirement that the MST exhibits a strontium DF factor of >1.79 upon contact with a simulated waste solution with composition as reported for simulated waste solution SWS-7-2005-1 in Table 1 and containing 5.2 to 5.7 mg L{sup -1} strontium with 0.1 g L{sup -1} of the MST. We also recommend performing additional tests with these simulants and MST samples and, if available, new MST samples, to determine the reproducibility and increase the available database for the measurements by the ICP-ES instrument. These measurements will provide increased confidence that the non-radiological method provides a reliable method for evaluating the strontium and actinide removal performance for MST samples.

  17. A long-term noninterventional safety study of adjunctive lacosamide therapy in patients with epilepsy and uncontrolled partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Eckhardt, Klaus; Doty, Pamela; De Backer, Marc; Brunnert, Marcus; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    This noninterventional, observational, postauthorization safety study (SP0942, NCT00771927) evaluated the incidence of predefined cardiovascular- (CV) and psychiatric-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), in patients with epilepsy and uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, when initiating adjunctive therapy with lacosamide or another approved antiepileptic drug (AED) according to standard medical practice. Active recording of predefined TEAEs of interest took place at three-monthly recommended visits for up to 12months. Of 1004 patients who received at least one dose of adjunctive AEDs, 511 initially added lacosamide therapy, 493 added another AED, 69 were ≥65years of age, and 72 took concomitant antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients in the lacosamide cohort had a higher median frequency of partial-onset seizures (6.0 versus 3.5 per 28days) despite taking more concomitant AEDs (84.9% versus 66.9% took ≥2) at baseline. Patients who added lacosamide took a modal dose of 200mg/day over the treatment period (n=501), and 50.1% (256/511) completed 12months of treatment. Fifty-one point nine percent (256/493) of patients who added another AED completed the study, with the most commonly added AED being levetiracetam (28.4%). Four patients (0.8%) in each cohort, all <65years of age, reported predefined CV-related TEAEs. None were considered serious or led to discontinuation. One event each of sinus bradycardia (lacosamide), atrioventricular block first degree (lacosamide), and syncope (other AED) were judged to be treatment-related. Another patient in the other AED cohort reported bradycardia while taking concomitant antiarrhythmic drugs. Predefined psychiatric-related TEAEs were reported by 21 patients (4.1%) in the lacosamide cohort and 27 patients (5.5%) in the other AED cohort. Depression was the most common to be treatment-related (7/11 and 12/18 of patients reporting treatment-related psychiatric TEAEs, respectively). Serious psychiatric-related TEAEs were

  18. The kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocyte ROS induction and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jing; Sun, Xiufeng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Shihao; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Hongtan; Hong, Lixin; Xie, Changchuan; Li, Xun; Zhao, Hao; Liu, Qingxu; Jiang, Mingting; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jinjia; Li, Yang; Song, Siyang; Wang, Hong-Rui; Zhou, Rongbin; Johnson, Randy L.; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Han, Jiahuai; Avruch, Joseph; Chen, Lanfen; Zhou, Dawang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria need to be juxtaposted to phagosomes to synergistically produce ample reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes for pathogens killing. However, how phagosomes transmit signal to recruit mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 function to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome juxtaposition. Mst1 and Mst2 activate Rac GTPase to promote Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered assembly of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex that is required for mitochondrial recruitment to phagosomes. Inactive forms of Rac, including the human Rac2D57N mutant, disrupt the TRAF6-ECSIT complex by sequestering TRAF6, and severely dampen ROS production and greatly increase susceptibility to bacterial infection. These findings demonstrate the TLR-Mst1-Mst2-Rac signalling axis to be critical for effective phagosome-mitochondrion function and bactericidal activity. PMID:26414765

  19. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  20. Mst1 and Mst2 Are Essential Regulators of Trophoblast Differentiation and Placenta Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xingrong; Dong, Yongli; Shi, Hao; Li, Jiang; Kong, Shanshan; Shi, Donghua; Sun, Ling V.; Xu, Tian; Deng, Kejing; Tao, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential for survival and growth of the fetus because it promotes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen from the maternal circulation as well as fetal waste disposal. Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2), key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases and play important roles in the prevention of tumorigenesis and autoimmunity, control of T cell development and trafficking, and embryonic development. However, their functions in placental development are not fully understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functions of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development using both conventional and conditional (endothelial) Mst1/2 double knockout mice. We found that the number of trophoblast giant cells dramatically increased while spongiotrophoblast cells almost completely disappeared in Mst1/2 deficient placentas. We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial-specific deletion of Mst1/2 led to impaired placental labyrinthine vasculature and embryonic lethality at E11.5, but neither affected vasculature in yolk sac and embryo proper nor endocardium development. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mst1/2 regulate placental development by control of trophoblast cell differentiation and labyrinthine vasculature at midgestation and Mst1/2 control labyrinth morphogenesis in trophoblast- and fetal endothelial-dependent manners. Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. PMID:24595170

  1. Transcriptome profiling of hippocampal CA1 after early-life seizure-induced preconditioning may elucidate new genetic therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Friedman, L K; Mancuso, J; Patel, A; Kudur, V; Leheste, J R; Iacobas, S; Botta, J; Iacobas, D A; Spray, D C

    2013-07-01

    Injury of the CA1 subregion induced by a single injection of kainic acid (1 × KA) in juvenile animals (P20) is attenuated in animals with two prior sustained neonatal seizures on P6 and P9. To identify gene candidates involved in the spatially protective effects produced by early-life conditioning seizures we profiled and compared the transcriptomes of CA1 subregions from control, 1 × KA- and 3 × KA-treated animals. More genes were regulated following 3 × KA (9.6%) than after 1 × KA (7.1%). Following 1 × KA, genes supporting oxidative stress, growth, development, inflammation and neurotransmission were upregulated (e.g. Cacng1, Nadsyn1, Kcng1, Aven, S100a4, GFAP, Vim, Hrsp12 and Grik1). After 3 × KA, protective genes were differentially over-expressed [e.g. Cat, Gpx7, Gad1, Hspa12A, Foxn1, adenosine A1 receptor, Ca(2+) adaptor and homeostasis proteins, Cacnb4, Atp2b2, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene members, intracellular trafficking protein, Grasp and suppressor of cytokine signaling (Socs3)]. Distinct anti-inflammatory interleukins (ILs) not observed in adult tissues [e.g. IL-6 transducer, IL-23 and IL-33 or their receptors (IL-F2 )] were also over-expressed. Several transcripts were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and immunohistochemistry. QPCR showed that casp 6 was increased after 1 × KA but reduced after 3 × KA; the pro-inflammatory gene Cox1 was either upregulated or unchanged after 1 × KA but reduced by ~70% after 3 × KA. Enhanced GFAP immunostaining following 1 × KA was selectively attenuated in the CA1 subregion after 3 × KA. The observed differential transcriptional responses may contribute to early-life seizure-induced pre-conditioning and neuroprotection by reducing glutamate receptor-mediated Ca(2+) permeability of the hippocampus and redirecting inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. These changes could lead to new genetic therapies for epilepsy. PMID:23551718

  2. MST radar data-base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  3. Progress in existing and planned MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Radar systems are described which use two different wind measuring techniques: the partial-reflection drift technique and the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) or Doppler beam-swing radar technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  4. The Telomerase Inhibitor MST-312 Interferes with Multiple Steps in the Herpes Simplex Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Haberichter, Jarod; Roberts, Scott; Abbasi, Imran; Dedthanou, Phonphanh; Pradhan, Prajakta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has the potential to be further manipulated to yield novel, more effective therapeutic treatments. Recent research has demonstrated that HSV-1 can increase telomerase activity and that expression of the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), alters sensitivity to HSV-dependent apoptosis. Telomerase is a cellular enzyme that synthesizes nucleotide repeats at the ends of chromosomes (telomeres), which prevents shortening of the 3′ ends of DNA with each cell division. Once telomeres reach a critical length, cells undergo senescence and apoptosis. Here, we used a cell-permeable, reversible inhibitor of the telomerase enzyme, MST-312, to investigate telomerase activity during HSV infection. Human mammary epithelial cells immortalized through TERT expression and human carcinoma HEp-2 cells were infected with the KOS1.1 strain of HSV-1 in the presence of MST-312. MST-312 treatment reduced the number of cells displaying a cytopathic effect and the accumulation of immediate early and late viral proteins. Moreover, the presence of 20 μM to 100 μM MST-312 during infection led to a 2.5- to 5.5-log10 decrease in viral titers. MST-312 also inhibited the replication of HSV-2 and a recent clinical isolate of HSV-1. Additionally, we determined that MST-312 has the largest impact on viral events that take place prior to 5 h postinfection (hpi). Furthermore, MST-312 treatment inhibited virus replication, as measured by adsorption assays and quantification of genome replication. Together, these findings demonstrate that MST-312 interferes with the HSV life cycle. Further investigation into the mechanism for MST-312 is warranted and may provide novel targets for HSV therapies. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can lead to cold sores, blindness, and brain damage. Identification of host factors that are important for the virus life cycle may provide novel targets for HSV

  5. Early protective role of MST1 knockdown in response to experimental diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Zhang, Maoping; Ou, Santao; Liu, Xing; Xue, Ling; Liu, Jian; Wu, Yuke; Li, Ying; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by the damage of capillaries in kidney’s glomeruli. Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) has been reported to play an important role in many disease, such as diabetes, cardiac disease and ect. However, the potential role of MST1 pathway in DN has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we hypothesized that MST1 could be involved in DN, and MST1 knockdown would attenuate the DN injury in experimental diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The sieving method was used to generate primary cultures of rat podocytes, and cultured according to the previous reports. The clinical data were analyzed for vein specimens from ESRD. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine the mRNA levels. Immuno-fluorescence assay was used for primary podocyte in vitro. Lectrophoretic mobility shift assay was used for DNA binding activity of NF-κB. HE staining for histological examination and western blot assay for protein expression were employed. The average GBM thickness (GBMT) was measured By using the electron microscopy. In vitro, MST1 level increased significantly in primary rat podocyte cultured in hyperglycemia condition. In vivo experiment, diabetes induced by a single STZ injection (50 mg/kg) in SD rats. Knockdown of MST1 expression by lentiviral mediated gene transfer partly reduced the proteinuria and the level of FASL, and improved the pathological changes of the diabetic kidney. In conclusion, the MST1 could be involved in DN pathogenesis and may serve as the target for development of new therapies for DN. PMID:27186267

  6. Seizure characteristics in Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Candee, Meghan S; Carey, John C; Krantz, Ian D; Filloux, Francis M

    2012-12-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a congenital disorder attributed to supernumerary isochromosome 12p mosaicism. Craniofacial dysmorphism, learning impairment and seizures are considered cardinal features. However, little is known regarding the seizure and epilepsy patterns in PKS. To better define the prevalence and spectrum of seizures in PKS, we studied 51 patients (39 male, 12 female; median age 4 years and 9 months; age range 7 months to 31 years) with confirmed 12p tetrasomy. Using a parent-based structured questionnaire, we collected data regarding seizure onset, frequency, timing, semiology, and medication therapy. Patients were recruited through our practice, at PKS Kids family events, and via the PKS Kids website. Epilepsy occurred in 27 (53%) with 23 (85%) of those with seizures having seizure onset prior to 3.5 years of age. Mean age at seizure onset was 2 years and 4 months. The most common seizure types were myoclonic (15/27, 56%), generalized convulsions (13/27, 48%), and clustered tonic spasms (similar to infantile spasms; 8/27, 30%). Thirteen of 27 patients with seizures (48%) had more than one seizure type with 26 out of 27 (96%) ever having taken antiepileptic medications. Nineteen of 27 (70%) continued to have seizures and 17/27 (63%) remained on antiepileptic medication. The most commonly used medications were: levetiracetam (10/27, 37%), valproic acid (10/27, 37%), and topiramate (9/27, 33%) with levetiracetam felt to be "most helpful" by parents (6/27, 22%). Further exploration of seizure timing, in-depth analysis of EEG recordings, and collection of MRI data to rule out confounding factors is warranted. PMID:23169688

  7. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  8. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  9. Common and Specific Factors Approaches to Home-Based Treatment: I-FAST and MST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mo Yee; Greene, Gilbert J.; Fraser, J. Scott; Edwards, Shivani G.; Grove, David; Solovey, Andrew D.; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the treatment outcomes of integrated families and systems treatment (I-FAST), a moderated common factors approach, in reference to multisystemic therapy (MST), an established specific factor approach, for treating at risk children and adolescents and their families in an intensive community-based setting. Method:…

  10. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  11. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  12. Multisystemic Therapy: An Empirically Supported, Home-Based Family Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Woodford, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is a well-validated, evidenced-based treatment for serious clinical problems presented by adolescents and their families. This article is an introduction to the MST approach and outlines key clinical features, describes the theoretical underpinnings, and discusses the empirical support for MST's effectiveness with a…

  13. The Future of Seizure Prediction and Intervention: Closing the loop

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro; Netoff, Theoden

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss 1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, 2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and 3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy while minimizing side-effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672

  14. Future of seizure prediction and intervention: closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven T; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Netoff, Theoden I

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews the progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss (1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, (2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and (3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy, whereas minimizing side effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672

  15. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described.

  17. Observation of meteors by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William; Kingsley, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    The observation of meteor trails by a vertical mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST) radar beam has the advantage of good height resolution and an approximate knowledge of the zenith angle since the trails are horizontal or near-horizontal. An extension of the ablation theory of meteors was developed for near horizontal trails which takes into account the curvature of the earth. Observations of the Geminid meteor shower by MST radar reveal the 'diffusion heights' to be in fair agreement with the true height, but with some discrepancies that can amount to 4 km. The true heights are almost entirely confined to the range 87-91 km, although the upper limit is attributed to the coherent integration time of the existing MST radar processing.

  18. Dreaming of seizures.

    PubMed

    Vercueil, Laurent

    2005-08-01

    Could some dreams and temporal lobe seizures share an intrinsic neuronal network? At the interplay of emotion, memory, dream, and temporal lobe seizure, we report on a patient with a left dysplastic amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy who presented with a typical seizure while dreaming. Neuronal networks subserving affective states are suggested to be involved in emotional dream, memory recall, and amygdalo-hippocampal seizures.

  19. Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kenneth T.

    This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

  20. Spectral moment estimation in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing techniques used in Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radars are reviewed. Techniques which produce good estimates of the total power, frequency shift, and spectral width of the radar power spectra are considered. Non-linear curve fitting, autocovariance, autocorrelation, covariance, and maximum likelihood estimators are discussed.

  1. Advances in management of neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Mathur, Amit M

    2014-06-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants, continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  2. [Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: overview and implications for practice].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Hidasi, Zoltán

    2016-05-15

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are enigmatic disorders at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Seizures resemble epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrical discharges in the brain. Symptoms typically start in early adulthood and women are far more affected than men. Video-EEG is widely considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Still psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are often misdiagnosed and treated as epilepsy for years that is burdensome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Patients having psychogenic nonepileptic seizures show a high prevalence of traumatic life events, therefore, psychosocial factors are thought to play an important role in the etiology. Neurobiological factors may also contribute to the development of seizures as a subgroup of patients are characterized by cognitive impairment and subtle structural and functional brain abnormalities. Treatment includes psychotherapeutic procedures, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy and additional pharmacological interventions. This article presents an overview of the clinical context, diagnosis, etiology and treatment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. PMID:27156524

  3. [Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: overview and implications for practice].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Hidasi, Zoltán

    2016-05-15

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are enigmatic disorders at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Seizures resemble epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrical discharges in the brain. Symptoms typically start in early adulthood and women are far more affected than men. Video-EEG is widely considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Still psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are often misdiagnosed and treated as epilepsy for years that is burdensome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Patients having psychogenic nonepileptic seizures show a high prevalence of traumatic life events, therefore, psychosocial factors are thought to play an important role in the etiology. Neurobiological factors may also contribute to the development of seizures as a subgroup of patients are characterized by cognitive impairment and subtle structural and functional brain abnormalities. Treatment includes psychotherapeutic procedures, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy and additional pharmacological interventions. This article presents an overview of the clinical context, diagnosis, etiology and treatment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

  4. Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

  5. Video game induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, C D; De Marco, P; Grünewald, R A; Giannakodimos, S; Panayiotopoulos, C P

    1994-08-01

    Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but some had typical absence seizures and myoclonic jerks while playing video games. In this series, 30% with idiopathic generalised epilepsy had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Overall, 70% of patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were photosensitive to intermittent photic stimulation and the mechanism of seizure provocation was probably similar to that of television induced seizures, although sensitivity to specific patterns was sometimes important. Two children had self induced video game seizures. Non-photic factors such as excitement, fatigue, sleep deprivation, cognitive processing, and diurnal variation in susceptibility seemed to be important seizure precipitants, particularly in non-photo-sensitive patients. Twenty nine per cent of patients had partial (mainly occipital) video game associated seizures. Occipital spikes were common in the EEG of these patients. Photosensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation may have been important in two patients but in the others, who all played arcade video games, other mechanisms need to be considered. Video game associated seizures are a feature of several epileptic syndromes and differ in precipitants and appropriate management.

  6. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  7. Pharmacological targeting of kinases MST1 and MST2 augments tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fuqin; He, Zhixiang; Kong, Lu-Lu; Chen, Qinghua; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Shihao; Ye, Jinjin; Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiufeng; Geng, Jing; Yuan, Lunzhi; Hong, Lixin; Xiao, Chen; Zhang, Weiji; Sun, Xihuan; Li, Yunzhan; Wang, Ping; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Xinrui; Ji, Zhiliang; Wu, Qiao; Xia, Ning-Shao; Gray, Nathanael S; Chen, Lanfen; Yun, Cai-Hong; Deng, Xianming; Zhou, Dawang

    2016-08-17

    Tissue repair and regenerative medicine address the important medical needs to replace damaged tissue with functional tissue. Most regenerative medicine strategies have focused on delivering biomaterials and cells, yet there is the untapped potential for drug-induced regeneration with good specificity and safety profiles. The Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and regeneration by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Kinases MST1 and MST2 (MST1/2), the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are central components of this pathway and are, therefore, strong target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration. We report the discovery of a reversible and selective MST1/2 inhibitor, 4-((5,10-dimethyl-6-oxo-6,10-dihydro-5H-pyrimido[5,4-b]thieno[3,2-e][1,4]diazepin-2-yl)amino)benzenesulfonamide (XMU-MP-1), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based high-throughput biochemical assay. The cocrystal structure and the structure-activity relationship confirmed that XMU-MP-1 is on-target to MST1/2. XMU-MP-1 blocked MST1/2 kinase activities, thereby activating the downstream effector Yes-associated protein and promoting cell growth. XMU-MP-1 displayed excellent in vivo pharmacokinetics and was able to augment mouse intestinal repair, as well as liver repair and regeneration, in both acute and chronic liver injury mouse models at a dose of 1 to 3 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection. XMU-MP-1 treatment exhibited substantially greater repopulation rate of human hepatocytes in the Fah-deficient mouse model than in the vehicle-treated control, indicating that XMU-MP-1 treatment might facilitate human liver regeneration. Thus, the pharmacological modulation of MST1/2 kinase activities provides a novel approach to potentiate tissue repair and regeneration, with XMU-MP-1 as the first lead for the development of targeted regenerative therapeutics. PMID:27535619

  8. Seizures induced by music.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, A O; Breen, H

    1993-01-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  9. Combination treatment with flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 reduces cancer stem cell traits by targeting STAT3 and telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seyung S.; Oliva, Bryant; Dwabe, Sami; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The malignant CRC that undergoes metastasis in the advanced stage is usually refractory to existing chemotherapy and shows a poor prognosis. However, to date, efficient targeted-therapy for metastatic CRC is ill-defined. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment of flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 may reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. To characterize CSC phenotype, we performed the CD133/CD44 subpopulation profiling, tumorsphere formation assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We have examined the augmenting effects of the combined treatment of morin and MST-312 for 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) efficacy in human colorectal cancer. Morin and MST-312 combined treatment reduced CD133 (+) and CD44 (+) subpopulations in human colorectal and breast cancer cells, respectively. Tumorsphere formation and cell invasiveness were decreased with the morin and MST-312 combination treatment. Consistent with these data, morin and MST-312 treatment decreased the wound healing capacity of human breast cancer cells. Stress and apoptosis antibody arrays revealed that there were specific upregulated and downregulated proteins resulting from different treatments. Phosphorylation levels of BAD, p53 and Chk1 were enhanced upon morin/MST-312 treatments in HT-29 cells, whereas caspase-3 cleavage level and expression of IκBα were down-regulated by combined morin/MST-312 treatment in SW620 cells. Finally, morin and MST-312 co-treatment further augmented the 5-FU efficacy, chemosensitizing the 5-FU resistant human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests that novel targeted-therapy can be implemented by using flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 for improved cancer prognosis. PMID:27279256

  10. DE-FG02-05ER64001 Overcoming the hurdles of multi-step targeting (MST) for effective radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    P.I. Steven M. Larson MD Co P.I. Nai-Kong Cheung MD, Ph.D.

    2009-09-21

    The 4 specific aims of this project are: (1) Optimization of MST to increase tumor uptake; (2) Antigen heterogeneity; (3) Characterization and reduction of renal uptake; and (4) Validation in vivo of optimized MST targeted therapy. This proposal focussed upon optimizing multistep immune targeting strategies for the treatment of cancer. Two multi-step targeting constructs were explored during this funding period: (1) anti-Tag-72 and (2) anti-GD2.

  11. Effect of age and anticonvulsants on seizure threshold during bilateral electroconvulsive therapy with brief-pulse stimulus: A chart-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitturkar, Abhishek R.; Sinha, Preeti; Bagewadi, Virupakshappa I.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacy and adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) depend on the extent to which the electrical stimulus exceeds patients' seizure thresholds (STs). Titration method of estimating ST is recommended. Age and co-prescribed anticonvulsants (ACs) are known to affect ST. Literature on ST in bilateral ECT (BLECT) is sparse. Objective: To explore the clinical and demographic determinants of ST in a clinically representative sample of patients prescribed with BLECT. Materials and Methods: ECT records of 640 patients who received BLECT in 2011 in an academic psychiatric setting were studied. Demographic, clinical, pharmacological, and ECT details were analyzed. As per the standard practice, during the 1st ECT session, ST was determined by titration method, starting with 30 milli-Coulombs (mC) and increasing by 30 mC and thence in steps of 60 mC. Increase in ST over up to 6th session of ECT was noted. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find age cut-off with high specificity for ST ≥120 mC. The associations of ST and increase in ST with the age cut-off and other clinical factors were assessed using Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 30.98 years (+11.23 years) and mean ST at 1st ECT session was 130.36 mC (+51.96 mC). There was significantly high positive correlation (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) between age and ST. Cut-off age of 45 years had high specificity: Only 4.6% of those older than 45 years had ST <120 mC. Higher proportion of patients on AC had ST ≥120 mC. These associations were seen even after controlling for potential confounds of each other using logistic regression analysis. The results were similar for increase in ST over the course of ECT. Sex, diagnosis, use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, and benzodiazepines (BZPs) had no effect on ST or its increase. Conclusions: For BLECT using brief-pulse stimulus, ST depends on age and use of AC. For patients above the age of 45

  12. Binary Pulse Compression Techniques for MST Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    In most mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capability. Short pulses are required for good range resolution but the problem of range biguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a echnique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without scarificing range resolution. Binary phase coding methods for pulse compression are discussed. Many aspects of codes and decoding and their applications to MST experiments are addressed; this includes Barker codes and longer individual codes, and then complementary codes and other code sets. Software decoding, hardware decoders, and coherent integrators are also discussed.

  13. The MST technique - A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1981-06-01

    A review of the MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar technique for remote atmospheric observations in the height range 1-100 km is presented, with examples given which were obtained mainly from observatories located within the tropics, the Jicamarca Radar Observatory in Peru, the Arecibo Radar Observatory in Puerto Rico, and the Altair Radar facility on the Marshall Islands. Parameters for some coherent pulsed radar systems involved in clear air studies are presented. Restrictions in the use of MST techniques include (1) the need to transmit at high power levels and to have large physical aperture antennas and (2) the requirement that the operating frequency, i.e., only the lowest frequencies in the VHF range, be capable of 'seeing' turbulence above 50 km. Data presentation is discussed, and a sample of Doppler spectra and a comparison of zonal velocities by the Jicamarca radar and rockets at Ascension Island is used as an illustration. Some of the current MST capabilities are demonstrated, but the necessity of having additional equatorial-region observatories is stressed. An example of a reasonably economical system is discussed.

  14. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  15. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated

  16. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

  17. Randomized Trial of MST and ARC in a Two-Level Evidence-Based Treatment Implementation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Dukes, Denzel; Armstrong, Kevin S.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A randomized trial assessed the effectiveness of a 2-level strategy for implementing evidence-based mental health treatments for delinquent youth. Method: A 2 x 2 design encompassing 14 rural Appalachian counties included 2 factors: (a) the random assignment of delinquent youth within each county to a multisystemic therapy (MST) program…

  18. Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Social Work Practice: Practitioners' Perspectives on an MST Trial in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustle, Lars-Henry; Hansson, Kjell; Sundell, Knut; Andree-Lofholm, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of new treatment methods in social work practice is warranted. Moreover, little is known about professionals' attitudes toward the introduction of evidence-based practices into their communities. Therefore, this article reports on the implementation of a Swedish research project that evaluated Multisystemic Therapy (MST). All…

  19. Intranasal midazolam for seizure cessation in the community setting

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Question There are times when parents arrive to my clinic after their child has had a seizure and a second seizure takes place in the clinic. While waiting for transport to the hospital, are there ways to stop the seizures without the need to obtain intravenous access in the clinic? Answer Intravenous diazepam has been a first-line therapy to stop seizures in children for many years. Other routes of drug administration such as intramuscular, rectal, and buccal are available but have several limitations. More evidence suggests that the intranasal route to administer drugs is quick and effective in children, and the use of midazolam has been continuing to show promise in seizure cessation. With its good safety profile, intranasal midazolam can be used in the clinic and prehospital setting for seizure cessation in children. PMID:27412207

  20. Seizures in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Born, H A

    2015-02-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk for late-onset seizures and neuronal network abnormalities. An elevated co-occurrence of AD and seizures has been established in the more prevalent sporadic form of AD. Recent evidence suggests that nonconvulsive network abnormalities, including seizures and other electroencephalographic abnormalities, may be more commonly found in patients than previously thought. Patients with familial AD are at an even greater risk for seizures, which have been found in patients with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, as well as with APP duplication. This review also provides an overview of seizure and electroencephalography studies in AD mouse models. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been identified as a possible link between AD and seizures, and while Aβ is known to affect neuronal activity, the full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and other APP cleavage products may be important for the development and maintenance of cortical network hyperexcitability. Nonconvulsive epileptiform activity, such as seizures or network abnormalities that are shorter in duration but may occur with higher frequency, may contribute to cognitive impairments characteristic of AD, such as amnestic wandering. Finally, the review discusses recent studies using antiepileptic drugs to rescue cognitive deficits in AD mouse models and human patients. Understanding the mechanistic link between epileptiform activity and AD is a research area of growing interest. Further understanding of the connection between neuronal hyperexcitability and Alzheimer's as well as the potential role of epileptiform activity in the progression of AD will be beneficial for improving treatment strategies.

  1. Aspartame and seizures.

    PubMed

    Jobe, P C; Dailey, J W

    1993-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that the dietary sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) might promote seizures and this hypothesis has been argued in the published literature. The current manuscript reviews the biochemical, neurochemical and behavioral experiments that have been carried out in order to assess the hypothesis linking aspartame with seizure promotion. We conclude that convulsive seizures are not caused by orally administered aspartame in rodents or in primates, including humans. Early reports of seizure facilitation by aspartame in several rodent models were not confirmed by later and more careful experimentation. Proconvulsive effects were absent in humans and other mammals with epilepsy and those without epilepsy. Lack of convulsive liability was evident, even when doses many fold higher than those consumed in the human diet, were used in experimental paradigms. Studies of aspartame in absence seizures are not as complete as those in convulsive seizures, but available evidence in humans does not document an association between absence seizure incidence and aspartame usage.

  2. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies

    PubMed Central

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate antidepressant monotherapy, the majority of depressed patients do not achieve remission. Even optimal and aggressive therapy leads to a substantial number of patients who show minimal and often only transient improvement. In order to address this substantial problem of treatment-resistant depression, a number of novel targets for antidepressant therapy have emerged as a consequence of major advances in the neurobiology of depression. Three major approaches to uncover novel therapeutic interventions are: first, optimizing the modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission; second, developing medications that act upon neurotransmitter systems other than monoaminergic circuits; and third, using focal brain stimulation to directly modulate neuronal activity. We review the most recent data on novel therapeutic compounds and their antidepressant potential. These include triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotic augmentation, and dopamine receptor agonists. Compounds affecting extra-monoamine neurotransmitter systems include CRF1 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, substance P receptor antagonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, nemifitide, omega-3 fatty acids, and melatonin receptor agonists. Focal brain stimulation therapies include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:19501541

  3. 73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; NITROGEN EXCHANGERS ON RIGHT. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF MST VISIBLE; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AND PLATFORM EXTENDED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). CABLE TRAY SHED IN FOREGROUND. MICROWAVE ANTENNAS AND AIR-CONDITIONING PORCH ON EAST SIDE OF MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Effect of MST on Crystallinity of CST/Sludge Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.K.

    1998-11-18

    In support of the Salt Disposition team, the effects of monosodium titanate (MST) on two glass formulations were investigated. These glass formulations combined a blend-type sludge with Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and glass formers (or frit). The objective of the testing was to determine if the MST would lead to crystal formation in the glasses.

  6. 16. DETAIL OF MST 'DRIVE HOUSE' AND MOTOR ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF MST 'DRIVE HOUSE' AND MOTOR ON WEST SIDE OF NORTH FACE. MST IN PARKED POSITION AND RESTING AGAINST STOP AT THE NORTHERN END OF THE RAILS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  9. 14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN FROM NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: SOUTH TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER, SOUTHWEST PHOTO TOWER, LAUNCHER, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND OXIDIZER APRON. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, NORTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST IN PARKED POSITION, NORTH OF THE FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. SLC-3E MST IN PARKED POSITION IN BACKGROUND (LEFT). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 61. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING MST RAIL, FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING MST RAIL, FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT (LEFT OF RAIL), MST ANCHORING GROMETS (IN LIGHT SQUARE NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO AND IN BACKGROUND NEAR TERMINUS OF RAIL). NORTHWEST CORNER OF LAUNCHER IN LEFT BACKGROUND. BACK OF MAST CONTROL PANEL ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD LOOKING UP INTO MST. NOTE: LOWER PLATFORMS FOLDED UP. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... You should still plan ahead for the possible dangers of a certain activity. DO NOT do any ... seizure would put you or someone else in danger. Wear a medical alert bracelet. Tell family members, ...

  16. Pellet Injection into MST RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Craig, D.; Ennis, D. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reardon, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2002-11-01

    A four-barrel cryogenic pellet injector, designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been installed on MST. The injector is a pipe gun utilizing high-pressure hydrogen gas for acceleration of pellets. Presently, the two barrels in use accommodate deuterium pellets with diameters of 1.0 mm and 1.8 mm and lengths ranging from 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm which are injected radially into MST. Pellet speeds of 1300 m/s have been achieved in initial experiments, and many pellets cross the plasma diameter without completely ablating. The pellets rapidly increase the central density and peak the density profile, something not possible with gas puffing alone. Pellet injection into improved-confinement plasmas has allowed the achievement of line-averaged densities 10-20% larger than the usual limit, above which edge-resonant MHD instability is triggered, and confinement is degraded. Mechanical punches will soon be installed to allow slower pellet speeds. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E.

  17. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Nonn, Paul; Thomas, Mark; Almagri, Abdulgader; Chapman, Brett; Dubois, Ami; Goetz, John; McCollam, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    The RFP plasma is inaccessible to ECRH, requiring the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) for edge localized heating and current drive. MST is capable of generating RFPs or overdense tokamaks with Bt(0) ~ 0.08-0.14T in which a 5.55 GHz RF source (450kW, 2ms pulse) can heat at fundamental and harmonic EC resonances. The design of a suitable antenna is challenging in the RFP due to a magnetic field geometry that requires a low-field-side launch. The small vacuum gap between the close-fitting conducting shell and plasma leads to substantial antenna-plasma interaction. A minimized port hole size is required to limit error fields. Even so the port hole induced magnetic field perturbation in the antenna near-field that affects the mode conversion process and introduces EC resonances. A 5cm diameter cylindrical antenna centered in 5cm and 11cm diameter portholes is used. A multi-chord time-resolved x-ray detector and GENRAY ray tracing verifies EBW heating at higher harmonics in an MST tokamak with 10-40keV detected x-ray energies. Evidence of RF-induced emission from absorption at higher harmonics (4th / 5th) in low current RFP discharges has been observed. Simultaneous reflected power changes correspond to termination of x-ray emission indicating power limits. Work supported by USDOE.

  18. Psychogenic (nonepileptic) seizures.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Allan; Hopp, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Psychogenic (nonepileptic) seizures are among the most common and serious of all psychogenic neurological disorders. They account for approximately 20% of all intractable seizure disorders referred to comprehensive epilepsy centers and present with a reported annual incidence of approximately 4% that of true epilepsy. These events are serious and disabling. Indeed, compared with patients with true epilepsy, patients with psychogenic seizures exhibit more frequent, severe, and disabling seizures as well as a poorer quality of life. The diagnosis and management of psychogenic seizures remain challenging, although advances in video electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring have improved the ability of physicians to identify these disorders accurately. The prognosis of these patients is still relatively poor, and a good outcome seems dependent on a young age at diagnosis, early diagnosis, less severe psychological comorbidities, and continued follow-up and management by the diagnosing neurologist or clinician. Additional psychological or psychiatric assessment may be beneficial, particularly in elucidating the etiology of the disorder as well as identifying comorbid disorders, and may help in the long-term management of these patients. This review presents the history, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and management of psychogenic seizures, with particular attention to the use of diagnostic testing, including video EEG monitoring.

  19. Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eseigbe, E. E.; Adama, S. J.; Eseigbe, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7%) fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1). Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6%) were in the upper social classes (I-III). Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4%) of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4%) of the cases. Eleven (64.7%) had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4%) consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7%) received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures. PMID:23293414

  20. Consciousness of seizures and consciousness during seizures: are they related?

    PubMed

    Detyniecki, Kamil; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the network mechanisms underlying impairment of consciousness during seizures. However, less is known about patient awareness of their own seizures. Studying patient reports or documentation of their seizures is currently the most commonly utilized mechanism to scientifically measure patient awareness of seizures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the accuracy of patient seizure counts and identify the variables that may influence unreliable seizure reporting. Several groups looking at patient documentation of seizures during continuous EEG monitoring show that patients do not report as many as 50% of their seizures. These studies also suggest that seizures accompanied by loss of consciousness, arising from the left hemisphere or the temporal lobe, or occurring during sleep are associated with significantly reduced reporting. Baseline memory performance does not appear to have a major influence on the accuracy of seizure report. Further prospective studies using validated ictal behavioral testing as well as using correlation with newer electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques for seizure localization are needed to more fully understand the mechanisms of underreporting of seizures. Better methods to alert caregivers about unrecognized seizures and to improve seizure documentation are under investigation.

  1. Two-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Effectiveness Trial Evaluating MST for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; McCart, Michael R.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; Armstrong, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Building on prior efficacy trials (i.e., university based, graduate students as therapists), the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether favorable 12-month outcomes obtained in a randomized effectiveness trial (i.e., implemented by practitioners in a community mental health center) of multisystemic therapy (MST) with juveniles who had sexually offended (JSO) were sustained through a second year of follow-up. Method JSO (n = 124 male youth) and their families were randomly assigned to MST, which was family based and delivered by community-based practitioners, or to treatment as usual (TAU), which was primarily group-based cognitive-behavioral interventions delivered by professionals within the juvenile justice system. Youth averaged 14.7 (SD = 1.7) years of age at referral, were primarily African American (54%), and 30% were Hispanic. All youth had been diverted or adjudicated for a sexual offense. Analyses examined whether MST effects reported previously at 1-year follow-up for problem sexual behaviors, delinquency, substance use, and out-of-home placement were sustained through a second year of follow-up. In addition, arrest records were examined from baseline through 2-year follow-up. Results During the second year of follow-up, MST treatment effects were sustained for three of four measures of youth problem sexual behavior, self-reported delinquency, and out-of-home placements. The base rate for sexual offense rearrests was too low to conduct statistical analyses, and a between-groups difference did not emerge for other criminal arrests. Conclusions For the most part, the 2-year follow-up findings from this effectiveness study are consistent with favorable MST long-term results with JSO in efficacy research. In contrast with many MST trials, however, decreases in rearrests were not observed. PMID:24188082

  2. Febrile and other occasional seizures.

    PubMed

    Bast, T; Carmant, L

    2013-01-01

    Seizures with fever that result from encephalitis or meningitis usually occur late in the course of febrile illness, and are focal and prolonged. Febrile seizures are by far the most common affecting 5% of the population, followed by posttraumatic seizures and those observed in the setting of a toxic, infectious, or metabolic encephalopathy. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation of the three most common forms, due to fever, trauma, and intoxication. Febrile seizures carry no cognitive or mortality risk. Recurrence risk is increased by young age, namely before 1 year of age. Febrile seizures that persist after the age of 6 years are usually part of the syndrome of Generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus. These febrile seizures have a strong link with epilepsy since non-febrile seizures may occur later in the same patient and in other members of the same family with an autosomal dominant transmission. Complex febrile seizures, i.e., with focal or prolonged manifestations or followed by focal defect, are related to later mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis; risk factors are seizure duration and brain malformation. Prophylactic treatment is usually not required in febrile seizures. Early onset of complex seizures is the main indication for AED prophylaxis. Early posttraumatic seizures, i.e., within the first week, are often focal and indicate brain trauma: contusion, hematoma, 24 hours amnesia, and depressed skull fracture are major factors of posttraumatic epilepsy. Prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is not effective. Various psychotropic drugs, including antiepileptics, may cause seizures.

  3. Seizure-induced neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, K M; Howell, G J

    1980-01-01

    A man with intermittent right parieto-occipital seizures was monitored by electroencephalography while he received 60 trials of being touched on the right, left, or both hands. Half of the trials were given during a focal seizure, and half were given interictally. While the patient was having seizures, he appropriately responded to all 10 stimuli delivered to the right hand, but four of 10 responses were incorrect (allaesthetic) when he was stimulated on the left. With bilateral simultaneous stimulation he neglected the left hand in all 10 trials. His interictal performance was flawless. When given a line-bisection task on two occasions during a seizure, the patient attempted to make a mark to the left of the entire sheet of paper. Immediately postictally he made a mark at the right end of the line. The case illustrates that focal seizures may induce elements of the neglect syndrome and that attention (to contralateral stimuli) and intention to perform (in the contralateral hemispatial field) may be dissociable phenomena. PMID:6777464

  4. Spectral characteristics of the MST radar returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The salient features of the spectra of atmospheric returns due to random refractivity fluctuations in the Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere MST region are reviewed. The nonhomogeneous layered structure of turbulence is often evident as multiple peaks in the spectra. The time evolution of the spectra observed with a fine Doppler resolution provides evidence for thin regions of turbulence associated with gravity waves and shear instabilities. Embedded in these regions are horizontally extended refractivity structures that produce enhanced returns due to specular reflections. It is conceivable that some enhanced returns arise due to anisotropy of small scale refractivity structures. Observed correlations of the strength of the returns with their Doppler spread, wind shears, and winds provide insights into the physical mechanisms that produce turbulence.

  5. Archival of Poker Flat MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, A. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Gage, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Poker Flat MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar has operated from early 1979 to 1985. The data recorded during that time resides on some 1100 magnetic tapes. A second set containing only the derived parameters of velocity, width and signal to noise of the primary echo at each height, plus the noise spectra, occupies another 250 tapes. While processing to generate the compressed data set does correct some known errors, no attempt has been made to identify or remove spurious echoes. Because the Poker Flat data set is such a unique and valuable resource, a proposal is made to archive the data in forms more useful for analysis. The archived data set would contain only the parameters for significant echoes with contamination from airplanes, unwanted ionospheric returns, frequently aliased Doppler signals and other sources removed. The archived set should be as good or better than the example shown and may occupy only 25 to 50 tapes.

  6. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  7. The Urbana MST radar, capabilities and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royrvik, O.; Goss, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The 41-MHz coherent-scatter radar located northeast of the University of Illinois at Urbana is being used for studies of the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere regions. The antenna consists of 1008 halfwave dipoles with a physical aperture of 11000 sq m. Transmitted peak power is about 750 kW. Clear-air returns may be received from 6 km to 90 km altitude. Autocorrelation functions of the scattered signal are calculated on-line. From the autocorrelation functions the scattered power, line-of-sight velocity and signal correlation time are calculated. Some aspects of the troposphere/stratosphere and the mesosphere observations are discussed. Capabilities and limitations of the Urbana MST radar are pointed out, and recent and planned improvements to the radar are described.

  8. Tuberculoma-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Salway, R. James; Sangani, Shruti; Parekh, Samira; Bhatt, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Seizures in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients can be caused by a wide variety of opportunistic infections, and, especially in developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) should be high on the differential. In India, TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV and it can have several different central nervous system manifestations, including intracranial tuberculomas. In this case, an HIV patient presenting with new-onset seizure and fever was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and multiple intracranial tuberculomas. The patient received standard TB medications, steroids, and anticonvulsants in the emergency department and was admitted for further care. PMID:26587082

  9. SEIZURE AND EPILEPSY: STUDIES OF SEIZURE DISORDERS IN DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Louise; Howlett, Iris C.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the frequency of seizure disorders in the human population, the genetic and physiological basis for these defects has been difficult to resolve. Although many genetic contributions to seizure susceptibility have been identified, these involve disparate biological processes, many of which are not neural specific. The large number and heterogeneous nature of the genes involved makes it difficult to understand the complex factors underlying the etiology of seizure disorders. Examining the effect known genetic mutations have on seizure susceptibility is one approach that may prove fruitful. This approach may be helpful in both understanding how different physiological processes affect seizure susceptibility and identifying novel therapeutic treatments. We review here factors contributing to seizure susceptibility in Drosophila, a genetically tractable system that provides a model for human seizure disorders. Seizure-like neuronal activities and behaviors in the fruit fly are described, as well as a set of mutations that exhibit features resembling some human epilepsies and render the fly sensitive to seizures. Especially interesting are descriptions of a novel class of mutations that are second-site mutations that act as seizure suppressors. These mutations revert epilepsy phenotypes back to the wild-type range of seizure susceptibility. The genes responsible for seizure suppression are cloned with the goal of identifying targets for lead compounds that may be developed into new antiepileptic drugs. PMID:21906534

  10. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  11. Does aspirin use make it harder to collect seizures during elective video-EEG telemetry?

    PubMed

    Godfred, Rachel M; Parikh, Mihir S; Haltiner, Alan M; Caylor, Lisa M; Sepkuty, Jehuda P; Doherty, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Aspirin has shown promise as an anticonvulsant drug in animal models. Whether aspirin alters seizure frequency in humans remains unstudied. We retrospectively looked at adults with focal onset epilepsy who took aspirin daily while undergoing elective video-EEG monitoring and compared them with similar age- and sex-matched controls to see if seizure frequencies were different between those two populations. Significantly fewer seizures were seen on day two of monitoring for patients on aspirin therapies. Higher aspirin doses were correlated with fewer seizures collected during the monitoring stay. Further prospective study is needed to determine whether aspirin affects more robust seizure control. PMID:23399946

  12. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST, LAUNCHER, AND FLAME BUCKET - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Rates and Predictors of Seizure Freedom With Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Wright, Clinton W.; Hassnain, Kevin H.; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuromodulation-based treatments have become increasingly important in epilepsy treatment. Most patients with epilepsy treated with neuromodulation do not achieve complete seizure freedom, and, therefore, previous studies of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy have focused instead on reduction of seizure frequency as a measure of treatment response. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate rates and predictors of seizure freedom with VNS. METHODS: We examined 5554 patients from the VNS therapy Patient Outcome Registry, and also performed a systematic review of the literature including 2869 patients across 78 studies. RESULTS: Registry data revealed a progressive increase over time in seizure freedom after VNS therapy. Overall, 49% of patients responded to VNS therapy 0 to 4 months after implantation (≥50% reduction seizure frequency), with 5.1% of patients becoming seizure-free, while 63% of patients were responders at 24 to 48 months, with 8.2% achieving seizure freedom. On multivariate analysis, seizure freedom was predicted by age of epilepsy onset >12 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.58), and predominantly generalized seizure type (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82), while overall response to VNS was predicted by nonlesional epilepsy (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.81). Systematic literature review results were consistent with the registry analysis: At 0 to 4 months, 40.0% of patients had responded to VNS, with 2.6% becoming seizure-free, while at last follow-up, 60.1% of individuals were responders, with 8.0% achieving seizure freedom. CONCLUSION: Response and seizure freedom rates increase over time with VNS therapy, although complete seizure freedom is achieved in a small percentage of patients. ABBREVIATIONS: AED, antiepileptic drug VNS, vagus nerve stimulation PMID:26645965

  14. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  15. SARAH Domain-Mediated MST2-RASSF Dimeric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Matallanas, David; Romano, David; Nguyen, Lan K.; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Rosta, Edina; Kolch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    RASSF enzymes act as key apoptosis activators and tumor suppressors, being downregulated in many human cancers, although their exact regulatory roles remain unknown. A key downstream event in the RASSF pathway is the regulation of MST kinases, which are main effectors of RASSF-induced apoptosis. The regulation of MST1/2 includes both homo- and heterodimerization, mediated by helical SARAH domains, though the underlying molecular interaction mechanism is unclear. Here, we study the interactions between RASSF1A, RASSF5, and MST2 SARAH domains by using both atomistic molecular simulation techniques and experiments. We construct and study models of MST2 homodimers and MST2-RASSF SARAH heterodimers, and we identify the factors that control their high molecular stability. In addition, we also analyze both computationally and experimentally the interactions of MST2 SARAH domains with a series of synthetic peptides particularly designed to bind to it, and hope that our approach can be used to address some of the challenging problems in designing new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27716844

  16. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  17. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series.

  18. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  19. Estradiol facilitates the release of NPY to suppress hippocampus-dependent seizures

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Veronica A.; Smejkalova, Tereza; May, Renee M.; Cooke, Bradley M.; Woolley, Catherine S.

    2009-01-01

    About one-third of women with epilepsy have a catamenial seizure pattern, in which seizures fluctuate with the menstrual cycle. Catamenial seizures occur more frequently when the ratio of circulating estradiol to progesterone is high, suggesting that estradiol is proconvulsant. We used adult female rats to test how estradiol-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus affects behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid. As expected, estradiol decreased the latency to initiate seizures, indicating increased seizure susceptibility. At the same time, however, estradiol also shortened the duration of late-stage seizures, indicating decreased seizure severity. Further analyses showed that the decrease in seizure severity was due to greater release of the anticonvulsant neuropeptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY). First, blocking hippocampal NPY during seizures eliminated the estradiol-induced decrease in seizure duration. Second, light and electron microscopic studies indicated that estradiol increases the potentially releasable pool of NPY in inhibitory presynaptic boutons and facilitates the release of NPY from inhibitory boutons during seizures. Finally, the presence of estrogen receptor-α on large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in the hippocampus suggests that estradiol could facilitate neuropeptide release by acting directly on LDCVs themselves. Understanding how estradiol regulates NPY-containing LDCVs could point to molecular targets for novel anticonvulsant therapies. PMID:19193892

  20. Optimum coding techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The optimum coding technique for MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radars is that which gives the lowest possible sidelobes in practice and can be implemented without too much computing power. Coding techniques are described in Farley (1985). A technique mentioned briefly there but not fully developed and not in general use is discussed here. This is decoding by means of a filter which is not matched to the transmitted waveform, in order to reduce sidelobes below the level obtained with a matched filter. This is the first part of the technique discussed here; the second part consists of measuring the transmitted waveform and using it as the basis for the decoding filter, thus reducing errors due to imperfections in the transmitter. There are two limitations to this technique. The first is a small loss in signal to noise ratio (SNR), which usually is not significant. The second problem is related to incomplete information received at the lowest ranges. An appendix shows a technique for handling this problem. Finally, it is shown that the use of complementary codes on transmission and nonmatched decoding gives the lowest possible sidelobe level and the minimum loss in SNR due to mismatch.

  1. Upgrades to the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, S. Z.; Borchardt, M. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; Morton, L. A.; Young, W. C.

    2015-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST records both equilibrium and fluctuating electron temperature with a range capability of 10 eV to 5 keV. Standard operation with two modified commercial Nd:YAG lasers allows measurements at rates of 1-25 kHz. A new laser system is being commissioned to enable measurements up to 250 kHz. Other subsystems of the diagnostic are also being improved. The power supplies for the avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs) that record the scattered light are being updated to improve safety, reliability, and maintainablity. Each of the 144 APDs will have an individual rack-mounted switched supply with bias voltage adjustable to match the APD. Long-wavelength filters (1140 nm center, 80 nm bandwidth) are being added to the polychromators to improve capability to resolve non-Maxwellian distributions and to enable electron-velocity measurement. A supercontinuum pulsed white-light source is being implemented to improve spectral calibration of the polychromators. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  2. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Nonn, Paul; Kauffold, Jason; O'Conner, Allan; Diem, Stephanie

    2011-10-01

    The overdense plasma in an RFP prevents electromagnetic waves from propagating past the edge. However use of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has the potential to heat and drive current in the plasma. MHD simulations have demonstrated that resistive tearing mode stability is very sensitive to gradients in the edge current density profile, allowing EBW current drive to be potentially stabilizing. The development of the new equipment includes a 5.5GHz klystron driven by a novel switchmode power supply. In preparation for the commissioning of a 1MW heating system which will evaluate the potential use of EBW for current profile control, several experiments of EBW coupling to the MST plasma have been performed. Due to the steep edge density gradient in the RFP, it is possible to efficiently couple to the EBW. The EBW is strongly damped at the electron cyclotron resonance where it couples to the electron gyromotion and alters the electron distribution. Either Fisch-Boozer or Ohkawa current drive mechanisms can be activated to drive off axis current in the plasma. Preliminary experiments will be performed to verify high power coupling and understand heating via observed x-ray emission when compared to Fokker-Plank modeling in CQL3D. Work supported by USDOE.

  3. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, A.; Anderson, J.; Forest, C.; Nonn, P.; Kauffold, J.; Diem, S.

    2010-11-01

    The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has potential to stabilize resistive tearing modes with off-axis current drive for further improvement of RFP confinement. Hardware upgrades to the MST-EBW experiment include a 5.5GHz radar klystron tube capable of 1MW power output driven by a novel resonant switchmode power supply and directed toward the RFP plasma edge through a cylindrical molybdenum wave guide antenna. By utilizing XB conversion, the X-mode evanescently decays in the narrow region between the R and UH layers and couples to the Bernstein mode at the UH layer. The Bernstein wave is strongly damped at the electron cyclotron resonance where it coupled to the electron gyromotion, thereby altering the electron distribution. By external control of magnetic field, either Fisch-Boozer or Ohkawa current drive mechanisms can be activated to drive off axis current in the plasma. Current profile may then be optimized experimentally to reduce particle transport. Initial experiments are presented to verify high power coupling and understand heating via observed x-ray emission and compared to Fokker-Plank modeling.

  4. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew H.; Anderson, Jay K.; Nonn, Paul D.; Kauffold, Jason X.; Diem, Stephanie. J.; Forest, Cary B.

    2011-12-01

    The overdense plasma in an RFP prevents electromagnetic waves from propagating past the edge, however use of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has the potential to heat and drive current in the plasma. MHD simulations have demonstrated that resistive tearing mode stability is very sensitive to gradients in the edge current density profile allowing EBW to potentially be a stabilizing influence. A new MW level experiment is being commissioned on MST to evaluate the potential use of the EBW for current profile control on the RFP. The development of new equipment includes a 5.5 GHz klystron driven by a novel switchmode power supply. A quartz window has been constructed and coupling with a cylindrical molybdenum wave guide antenna has been studied. Due to the steep edge density gradient in the RFP, it is possible to efficiently couple to the EBW with O or X mode launch. The EBW is strongly damped at the electron cyclotron resonance where it couples to the electron gyromotion and alters the electron distribution. Either Fisch-Boozer or Ohkawa current drive mechanisms can be activated to drive off axis current in the plasma. Preliminary experiments have been performed to verify high power coupling and understand heating via observed x-ray emission when compared to Fokker-Plank modeling in CQL3D.

  5. LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

  6. Ion dynamics during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Burman, Richard J.; Katz, Arieh A.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialized transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus—a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord—is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, H+and HCO3−) is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena. PMID:26539081

  7. Evidence for consolidation of neuronal assemblies after seizures in humans.

    PubMed

    Bower, Mark R; Stead, Matt; Bower, Regina S; Kucewicz, Michal T; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cimbalnik, Jan; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Vasoli, Vincent M; St Louis, Erik K; Meyer, Fredric B; Marsh, W Richard; Worrell, Gregory A

    2015-01-21

    The establishment of memories involves reactivation of waking neuronal activity patterns and strengthening of associated neural circuits during slow-wave sleep (SWS), a process known as "cellular consolidation" (Dudai and Morris, 2013). Reactivation of neural activity patterns during waking behaviors that occurs on a timescale of seconds to minutes is thought to constitute memory recall (O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978), whereas consolidation of memory traces may be revealed and served by correlated firing (reactivation) that appears during sleep under conditions suitable for synaptic modification (Buhry et al., 2011). Although reactivation has been observed in human neuronal recordings (Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2013), reactivation during sleep has not, likely because data are difficult to obtain and the effect is subtle. Seizures, however, provide intense and synchronous, yet sparse activation (Bower et al., 2012) that could produce a stronger consolidation effect if seizures activate learning-related mechanisms similar to those activated by learned tasks. Continuous wide-bandwidth recordings from patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for drug-resistant epilepsy revealed reactivation of seizure-related neuronal activity during subsequent SWS, but not wakefulness. Those neuronal assemblies that were most strongly activated during seizures showed the largest correlation changes, suggesting that consolidation selectively strengthened neuronal circuits activated by seizures. These results suggest that seizures "hijack" physiological learning mechanisms and also suggest a novel epilepsy therapy targeting neuronal dynamics during post-seizure sleep.

  8. Zinc ion acts as a cofactor for serine/threonine kinase MST3 and has a distinct role in autophosphorylation of MST3.

    PubMed

    Lu, Te-Jung; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lee, Yuan-Chii; Leu, Tzeng-Horng; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lu, Te-Ling; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2005-06-01

    We examined the metal ion cofactor preference for MST3 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 3) of the Ste20 serine/threonine kinase family. Four metal ions (Mg(+2), Mn(+2), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) activate endogenous, exogenous, and baculovirus-expressed recombinant MST3 within the physiological concentration range. In contrast, Fe(+2) and Ca(+2) do not function as MST3 cofactors. Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Mg(2+)-dependent autophosphorylation of MST3 is mainly on threonine residue while Zn(2+)-stimulated MST3 autophosphorylation is on both serine and threonine residues. The distinct autophosphorylation pattern on MST3 suggests that MST3 may exert various types of kinase reactions depending on the type of metal ion cofactor used. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing Zn(2+) as the metal ion cofactor of a recombinant serine/threonine kinase.

  9. Nonepileptic seizures: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies. Epidemiology and healthcare utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid in the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES; these should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control, and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders.

  10. Nonepileptic seizures: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies. Epidemiology and healthcare utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid in the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES; these should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control, and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600

  11. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. PMID:26930359

  12. The approach to patients with "non-epileptic seizures"

    PubMed Central

    Mellers, J

    2005-01-01

    Up to one fifth of patients who present to specialist clinics with seizures do not have epilepsy. The majority of such patients suffer from psychologically mediated episodes; dissociative seizures, often referred to as "non-epileptic seizures". This paper describes the diagnostic evaluation of seizure disorders, including clinical assessment and the role of special investigations. The organic and psychiatric imitators of epilepsy are outlined and findings on psychiatric assessment are reviewed. This group of patients often proves difficult to engage in appropriate treatment and an approach to explaining the diagnosis is described. As yet there are no controlled trials of treatment in this disorder but preliminary evidence suggests cognitive behavioural therapy is both a rational and promising way forward. PMID:16085740

  13. Seizures Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dennis

    This guide provides information on seizures in students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and offers guidelines for classroom management. First, a classification system for seizures is presented with specific types of seizures explained. Post-traumatic seizures are specifically addressed as is the importance of seizure prevention when possible.…

  14. Properties of echo spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakasugi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent scatter and Fresnel reflection are the fundamental echoing mechanisms to interpret the signals observed by Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars. Turbulent scattered echoes provide information about the turbulence structure and mean flow of the atmosphere. Observational results with VHF MST radars, however, show the importance of Fresnel reflection due to the infinite gradient of reflectivity at the edges of a scattering layer. This condition is excluded for the weak fluctuation models but it is still possible to include the observed aspect sensitivity by assuming an anisotropic structure of fluctuations. Another explanation of the aspect sensitivity observed by MST radars is advanced. Spectral estimates by the widely used periodogram were related to a four-dimensional spectrum of atmospheric fluctuations with anisotropic structure. Effects of the radar system such as antenna beam width, beam direction and Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) data length were discussed for the anisotropic turbulent atmosphere. Echo parameters were also estimated.

  15. Seizure activity post organophosphate exposure.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, John

    2009-01-01

    Electrographic seizures are a feature of organophosphate anticholinesterase intoxication. Clinical studies of pesticide poisonings suggest that seizures are more common in children than in adults. Since flaccid paralysis, a characteristic sign of organophosphate poisoning, can mask convulsions, the most reliable indicator of seizures is the electroencephalogram, but this has not been widely used in clinical studies. Seizures can rapidly progress to status epilepticus, contributing to mortality and, in survivors, to neuronal damage and neurological impairment. Anticonvulsant drugs can significantly reduce the lethal and toxic effects of these compounds. A benzodiazepine, usually diazepam, is the treatment currently indicated for control of seizures. Animal studies have indicated that the early phase of seizure activity (0-5 min after seizure onset) is purely cholinergic, predominantly involving muscarinic mechanisms. Seizure activity subsequently progresses through mixed cholinergic and noncholinergic modulation (5-40 min) into a final noncholinergic phase. Neuropathology caused by seizures is most likely associated with glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Future prospects for improved treatments include new benzodiazepines, glutamate receptor antagonists, antimuscarinics with additional antiglutamatergic activity and adenosine receptor antagonists.

  16. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  17. System aspects of the Indian MST radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program is to investigate the motions of the middle atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales and the interaction between the three height regions of the middle atmosphere. Realizing the fact that radar technique has proven to be a very powerful tool for the study of Earth atmosphere, the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program has recommended establishing a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar as a national facility for atmospheric research. The major landmarks in this attempt to setup the MST radar as a national facility are described.

  18. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  19. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST. SLC3E ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST. SLC-3E MST VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. NOTE MST RAILS AND STOPS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Mst1 inhibits CMECs autophagy and participates in the development of diabetic coronary microvascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Mingming; Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Tingting; Duan, Yu; Man, Wanrong; Wu, Bin; Feng, Jiaxu; Sun, Lei; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications account for a substantial proportion of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Abnormalities of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) lead to impaired cardiac microvascular vessel integrity and subsequent cardiac dysfunction, underlining the importance of coronary microvascular dysfunction. In this study, experimental diabetes models were constructed using Mst1 transgenic, Mst1 knockout and sirt1 knockout mice. Diabetic Mst1 transgenic mice exhibited impaired cardiac microvessel integrity and decreased cardiac function. Mst1 overexpression deceased CMECs autophagy as evidenced by decreased LC3 expression and enhanced protein aggregation when subjected to high glucose culture. Mst1 knockout improved cardiac microvessel integrity and enhanced cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mst1 knockdown up-regulated autophagy as indicated by more typical autophagosomes and increased LC3 expression in CMECs subjected to high glucose cultures. Mst1 knockdown also promoted autophagic flux in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Mst1 overexpression increased CMECs apoptosis, whereas Mst1 knockout decreased CMECs apoptosis. Sirt1 knockout abolished the effects of Mst1 overexpression in cardiac microvascular injury and cardiac dysfunction. In conclusion, Mst1 knockout preserved cardiac microvessel integrity and improved cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mst1 decreased sirt1 activity, inhibited autophagy and enhanced apoptosis in CMECs, thus participating in the pathogenesis of diabetic coronary microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27680548

  1. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  2. Mianserin and convulsive seizures

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Guy; Glen-Bott, Mary

    1983-01-01

    1 Forty patients have been reported to the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) because of convulsions occurring during treatment with mianserin, suggesting that this drug is more epileptogenic than tricyclic antidepressants. 2 Details concerning 83% of these cases were obtained in a questionnaire study carried out in collaboration with the CSM and compared with those of a control group. 3 Ratings of the relationship between drug and effect carried out by neurologists and J.G.E. showed considerable variations and confidence of a causal connection in only a minority of patients. 4 As the CSM data do not allow for a reliable assessment of the relative epileptogenic effects of antidepressants, a comparison has been made between unpublished work on seizures occurring during treatment with imipramine and amitriptyline and published research on mianserin. This suggests that mianserin is no more epileptogenic than tricyclic antidepressants. 5 Factors that might predispose to seizures include relevant family and past medical history, starting treatment, a change in dose, benzodiazepine withdrawal and concomitant treatment with other drugs that have epileptogenic properties. PMID:6824561

  3. Inside Multisystemic Therapy: Therapist, Supervisory, and Program Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Brown, Tamara L.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights key features of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), a treatment designed to empower caregivers with the skills and resources needed to address behavioral problems and to teach coping skills to youth. The supervisory, consultation, and program practices that support therapist implementation of MST in community-based settings are…

  4. Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children and Adolescents: Multisystemic Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Originally developed to treat antisocial behavior, multisystemic therapy (MST) has emerged as a leading evidence-based treatment for serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents. This manual presents the MST approach to working with this challenging population. Delineated are ways to develop and implement collaborative interventions…

  5. MST3 promotes proliferation and tumorigenicity through the VAV2/Rac1 signal axis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chien-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Hau-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lai, Ming-Zong; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    MST3 (mammalian STE20-like kinase 3) belongs to the Ste20 serine/threonine protein kinase family. The role of MST3 in tumor growth is less studied; therefore, we investigates the function of MST3 in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that MST3 is overexpressed in human breast tumors. Online Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis reveals that overexpression of MST3 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of MST3 with shRNA inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Downregulation of MST3 in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells decreases tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice. MST3 interacts with VAV2, but not VAV3, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. By domain mapping of MST3, we determine that the proline-rich region of MST3 (353KDIPKRP359) interacts with the SH3 domain of VAV2. Mutation of the two proline residues in this domain significantly attenuates the interaction between MST3 and VAV2. Overexpression of wild-type MST3 (WT-MST3), but not proline-rich-deleted MST3 (ΔP-MST3), enhances the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of MST3 increases VAV2 phosphorylation and GTP-Rac1, whereas downregulation of MST3 or delivery of ΔP-MST3 results in a reduction of VAV2 and Rac1 activation. Knockdown of MST3 inhibits cyclin D1 protein expression. The Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016 attenuates cell proliferation induced by WT-MST3. Finally, Knockdown of MST3 or Rac1 inhibitor decreases cyclin D protein expression, which is important for tumor growth. These results indicate that MST3 interacts with VAV2 to activate Rac1 and promote the tumorigenicity of breast cancer. PMID:26910843

  6. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  7. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  8. [Faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Semiologic diagnosis in limbic encephalitis].

    PubMed

    González Otárula, Karina A; Ugarnes, Gabriela; Fernández Suárez, Marcos; D'Giano, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with positive potassium channel complex antibodies often manifests with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). We retrospectively analyze two cases, admitted to our video-EEG unit between 2006 and 2014. Both patients were males, aged 66 and 76 years respectively, presenting with brief, but very frequent uni/bilateral dystonic brachial movements, hand posturing and ipsilateral facial grimacing. Severe hyponatremia was found in both patients who went on to develop cognitive impairment. Immunosuppressive therapy improved both seizures and cognitive dysfunction. Serology testing confirmed anti VGKC antibody presence. FBDS are often the first manifestation of LE associated to positive anti VGKC antibodies, and are refractory to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Early diagnosis and treatment of FBDS with immunosuppressive therapy is important, not only because of seizure suppression, but also because it may help limit the extent of the cognitive damage.

  9. Mst1 participates in the atherosclerosis progression through macrophage autophagy inhibition and macrophage apoptosis enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Jianqiang; Duan, Yu; Zhang, Mingming; Lin, Jie; Man, Wanrong; Pan, Xietian; Jiang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guoyong; Gao, Beilei; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence favors the notion that macrophage autophagy plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of vulnerable plaque, suggesting the therapeutic potential of targeting autophagy in atherosclerosis. Here ApoE(-/-) mice were crossed with Mst1 knockout or Mst1 Tg mice to generate ApoE(-/-):Mst1(-/-) and ApoE(-/-):Mst1Tg mice. All animals were fed high-fat-diet for 4months to induce arterial atherosclerosis. Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were subjected to ox-LDL (50μg/mL) in an effort to examine the cellular mechanisms. A significant increase in the levels of Mst1 and p-Mst1 was observed in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice. Mst1 knockout significantly reduced atherosclerotic area, decreased lipid core area and macrophage accumulation as compared with ApoE(-/-) mice. Along the same line, Mst1 overexpression increased plaque area, lipid core and macrophage accumulation as compared with ApoE(-/-) mice. Mst1 deficiency significantly increased levels of Beclin1 and LC3II, while decreased that of p62 in aortic atherosclerosis. Moreover, in vitro data indicated that Mst1 knockdown prompted more typical autophagosomes upon ox-LDL challenge. Mst1 knockdown also enhanced autophagic flux as evidenced by GFP-mRFP-LC3 staining, increased LC3-II expression and decreased p62 expression in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Mst1 knockdown decreased, while Mst1 overexpression increased macrophage apoptosis upon ox-LDL exposure. In conclusion, Mst1 deficiency diminishes atherosclerosis and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) mice. Mst1 may participate in atherosclerosis progression through inhibition of macrophage autophagy and promotion of macrophage apoptosis. PMID:27496379

  10. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  11. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  12. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Wang, Wei-ping; Jia, Li-jing; Mao, Zhuo-feng; Qu, Zhen-zhen; Luan, Shao-qun; Kan, Min-chen

    2012-08-27

    Maternal seizure has adverse effects on brain histology as well as on learning and memory ability in progeny. An enriched environment (EE) is known to promote structural changes in the brain and improve cognitive and motor deficits following a variety of brain injuries. Whether EE treatment in early postnatal periods could restore cognitive impairment induced by prenatal maternal seizure is unknown. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and were injected intraperitoneally either saline or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) for 30 days. Then the fully kindled rats and control animals were allowed to mate. PTZ administration was continued until delivery, while the control group received saline at the same time. After weaning at postnatal day 22, one-half of the male offspring in the control and in the prenatal maternal group were given the environmental enrichment treatment through all the experiments until they were tested. Morris water maze testing was performed at 8 weeks of age. Western blot and synaptic ultrastructure analysis were then performed. We found that EE treatment reversed spatial learning deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure. An EE also reversed the changes in synaptic ultrastructure following prenatal maternal seizure. In addition, prenatal maternal seizure significantly decreased phosphorylation states of cAMP response element binding (CREB) in the hippocampus, whereas EE reversed this reduced expression. These findings suggest that EE treatment on early postnatal periods could be a potential therapy for improving cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

  13. Antisense Reduction of Tau in Adult Mice Protects against Seizures

    PubMed Central

    DeVos, Sarah L.; Goncharoff, Dustin K.; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S.; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C. Frank; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS—brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF—while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:23904623

  14. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  15. Identification of Neutral Particle Sources in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Munaretto, Stefano; Goetz, John; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The plasma wall interaction (PWI) in the MST RFP has yet to be studied systematically to determine the effects of the edge plasma on overall plasma performance. Two imaging views of the MST plasma currently exist. The first views the outboard toroidal and poloidal belt limiters at the main poloidal gap limiter. The second views the inboard poloidal limiter, as well as a section of the outboard toroidal limiter away from the man gap limiter. Data from viewing outboard limiters reveals PWI structures correlate with the plasma conditions. In standard RFP plasmas at lower plasma currents the PWI is dominated by non-axisymmetric radiation belts. As the RFP plasma current rises, increasing axisymmetry is seen from the edge. When in the 3D equilibria of the quasi-single helicity (QSH) state the PWI correlates with the main magnetic mode of the plasma. The dominant source of light observed from the MST edge is from hydrogen recycling. This will be used to inform neutral particle sourcing in the EIRENE neutral transport code. EIRENE will be used to compare how variations in fueling could affect the neutral profile in MST. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. MST's Programmable Power Supplies: Bt Update, Bp Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holly, D. J.; Chapman, B. E.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Thomas, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    MST's toroidal field programmable power supply (Bt PPS) has now been in operation for several years and has provided important new capabilities. One of the primary goals for the Bt PPS is the partial optimization of inductive current profile control, involving control of the poloidal electric field. The Bt PPS has achieved fluctuation reduction over MST's entire range of Ip. At the largest Ip, the Bt PPS achieves fluctuation reduction with a smaller poloidal electric field than the previous passive system, implying that substantially longer periods of current profile control may be possible. The Bt PPS has also been used to produce Ohmic tokamak plasmas in MST. With an applied toroidal field of 0.135 T, and q(a) > 2, the estimated energy confinement time is roughly consistent with neo-Alcator scaling. Driving q(a) < 2 with larger Ip, the confinement time degrades, but the discharge duration does not terminate prematurely. To fully optimize current profile control and to test MST operational limits, a PPS is also needed for the Bp circuit. Currently in prototype stage, the Bp PPS will feature a number of innovations to increase its flexibility and performance. Isolated charging, control, and monitor systems will eliminate charging relays, reduce coupling between modules, and minimize capacitor heating. Seven-level pulse width modulation will reduce output ripple and switching losses. Solid state shorting bars will eliminate shorting relays and minimize wiring. A balanced switching algorithm will minimize capacitive noise generation. Work supported by U. S. D. o. E.

  17. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.

  18. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. NORTH CAMERA TOWER IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR SHED AT STATION 3; PLATFORM AT STATION 12; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AT STATION 21. ELECTRICAL HOOKUPS ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION 111 INTO SERVICE AREA SHOWING SECURITY LOCK ON DOOR AND CONTROLS FOR WEST PLATFORMS IMMEDIATELY SOUTH (RIGHT) OF DOOR - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  4. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  5. Evaluating an etiologically relevant platform for therapy development for temporal lobe epilepsy: effects of carbamazepine and valproic acid on acute seizures and chronic behavioral comorbidities in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus mouse model.

    PubMed

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Dahle, E Jill; Heck, Taylor D; Pruess, Timothy H; Vanegas, Fabiola; Wilcox, Karen S; White, H Steve

    2015-05-01

    Central nervous system infections can underlie the development of epilepsy, and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in C57BL/6J mice provides a novel model of infection-induced epilepsy. Approximately 50-65% of infected mice develop acute, handling-induced seizures during the infection. Brains display acute neuropathology, and a high number of mice develop spontaneous, recurrent seizures and behavioral comorbidities weeks later. This study characterized the utility of this model for drug testing by assessing whether antiseizure drug treatment during the acute infection period attenuates handling-induced seizures, and whether such treatment modifies associated comorbidities. Male C57BL/6J mice infected with TMEV received twice-daily valproic acid (VPA; 200 mg/kg), carbamazepine (CBZ; 20 mg/kg), or vehicle during the infection (days 0-7). Mice were assessed twice daily during the infection period for handling-induced seizures. Relative to vehicle-treated mice, more CBZ-treated mice presented with acute seizures; VPA conferred no change. In mice displaying seizures, VPA, but not CBZ, reduced seizure burden. Animals were then randomly assigned to acute and long-term follow-up. VPA was associated with significant elevations in acute (day 8) glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes) immunoreactivity, but did not affect NeuN (neurons) immunoreactivity. Additionally, VPA-treated mice showed improved motor performance 15 days postinfection (DPI). At 36 DPI, CBZ-treated mice traveled significantly less distance through the center of an open field, indicative of anxiety-like behavior. CBZ-treated mice also presented with significant astrogliosis 36 DPI. Neither CBZ nor VPA prevented long-term reductions in NeuN immunoreactivity. The TMEV model thus provides an etiologically relevant platform to evaluate potential treatments for acute seizures and disease modification.

  6. Treating acute seizures with benzodiazepines: does seizure duration matter?

    PubMed

    Naylor, David E

    2014-10-01

    Several clinical trials have shown improved seizure control and outcome by early initiation of treatment with benzodiazepines, before arrival in the emergency department and before intravenous access can be established. Here, evidence is provided and reviewed for rapid treatment of acute seizures in order to avoid the development of benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the emergence of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Alterations in the physiology, pharmacology, and postsynaptic level of GABA-A receptors can develop within minutes to an hour and hinder the ability of synaptic inhibition to stop seizures while also impairing the efficacy of GABAergic agents, such as benzodiazepines, to boost impaired inhibition. In addition, heightened excitatory transmission further exacerbates the inhibitory/excitatory balance and makes seizure control even more resistant to treatment. The acute increase in the surface expression of NMDA receptors during prolonged seizures also may cause excitotoxic injury, cell death, and other pathological expressions and re-arrangements of receptor subunits that all contribute to long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment and chronic epilepsy. In conclusion, a short window of opportunity exists when seizures are maximally controlled by first-line benzodiazepine treatment. After that, multiple pathological mechanisms quickly become engaged that make seizures increasingly more difficult to control with high risk for long-term harm.

  7. Modern management of seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Markus; Seeck, Margitta

    2016-01-01

    Complete seizure control is achieved in 40-50% of all epileptic patients with drug treatment, as reported in most epidemiological studies. Many effective antiepileptic drugs with a favourable profile are available in Switzerland, allowing treatment tailored to the patient's needs. Unfortunately, up to 40-50% of all patients will eventually relapse (pharmacoresistant epilepsy). These patients run a high risk of additional morbidity and mortality. Possible pharmacoresistant epilepsy should be considered early in the disease, when there is a lack of response to the first antiepileptic drug, since only 14% of those will respond to a second drug, and only 2% to a third drug if the second fails too. Epilepsy surgery is a viable option for these patients. It requires in-depth evaluation in specialized centres, and is related to complete seizure control in 50-90% of the patients, depending on the lesion type and site. Only for patients in whom surgery cannot be offered should neuromodulation treatments be considered. Today, two different approaches are approved, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation in the anterior thalamic nuclei (DBS-ANT). Although only a minority of patients become totally seizure-free. Both VNS and DBS-ANT represent an important adjunct in the therapeutic armamentarium. In the present review, we outline a practical approach for the different steps in therapeutic decisions and we summarise the profiles of modern antiepileptic drugs as well outcome of surgical and neuromodulatory therapies. The goal of any approach should be to obtain complete seizure control. In general, if two antiepileptic drugs are not successful, in-depth evaluation of the patient in a specialised center is strongly recommended. PMID:27322347

  8. Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Lavely, James A

    2014-03-01

    Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient.

  9. Enhanced cytotoxic T-cell function and inhibition of tumor progression by Mst1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaneki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Madoka; Matsuda, Tadashi; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian ste-20 like kinase Mst1 plays important roles during apoptosis, proliferation, cell polarity, and migration. Here, we report a novel role of Mst1 for cytotoxic T-cell responses and tumor suppression. The defect of Mst1 caused decreased levels of FoxO, and promoted cytotoxicity in vitro. Mst1(-/-) cytotoxic T cells also exhibited enhanced T-bet expression that was associated with elevated expression levels of IFNγ and granzyme B. Moreover, Mst1(-/-) cytotoxic T cells suppressed tumor growth in vivo. The data suggest that Mst1 inhibits cytotoxicity via T-bet suppression by FoxO1 and FoxO3a. Thus, Mst1 is a potential therapeutic target for tumor immunotherapy.

  10. Hypermethylation of MST1 in IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Takataro; Tomiyama, Takashi; Yasuda, Kaneki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Yoshio; Son, Yonsu; Nomura, Shosaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2015-08-07

    The serine/threonine kinase Mst1 plays important roles in the control of immune cell trafficking, proliferation, and differentiation. Previously, we reported that Mst1 was required for thymocyte selection and regulatory T-cell functions, thereby the prevention of autoimmunity in mice. In humans, MST1 null mutations cause T-cell immunodeficiency and hypergammaglobulinemia with autoantibody production. RASSF5C(RAPL) is an activator of MST1 and it is frequently methylated in some tumors. Herein, we investigated methylation of the promoter regions of MST1 and RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from patients with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased number of CpG methylation in the 5′ region of MST1 was detected in AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions, whereas AIP patients without extrapancreatic lesions were similar to controls. In RA patients, we detected a slight increased CpG methylation in MST1, although the overall number of methylation sites was lower than that of AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions. There were no significant changes of the methylation levels of the CpG islands in the 5′ region of RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from AIP and RA patients. Consistently, we found a significantly down-regulated expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells of AIP patients. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells due to hypermethylation of the promoter contributes to the pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP. - Highlights: • Mst1 controls immune cells trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. • Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an idiopathic pancreatitis affecting multiple organs. • Decreased MST1 expression and increased CpG methylation of promoter of MST1 in AIP. • Slight increased CpG methylation of MST1 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. • MST1 contributes pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP.

  11. Automated seizure detection using EKG.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Changes in heart rate, most often increases, are associated with the onset of epileptic seizures and may be used in lieu of cortical activity for automated seizure detection. The feasibility of this aim was tested on 241 clinical seizures from 81 subjects admitted to several Epilepsy Centers for invasive monitoring for evaluation for epilepsy surgery. The performance of the EKG-based seizure detection algorithm was compared to that of a validated algorithm applied to electrocorticogram (ECoG). With the most sensitive detection settings [threshold T: 1.15; duration D: 0 s], 5/241 seizures (2%) were undetected (false negatives) and with the highest [T: 1.3; D: 5 s] settings, the number of false negative detections rose to 34 (14%). The rate of potential false positive (PFP) detections was 9.5/h with the lowest and 1.1/h with the highest T, D settings. Visual review of 336 ECoG segments associated with PFPs revealed that 120 (36%) were associated with seizures, 127 (38%) with bursts of epileptiform discharges and only 87 (26%) were true false positives. Electrocardiographic (EKG)-based seizure onset detection preceded clinical onset by 0.8 s with the lowest and followed it by 13.8 s with the highest T, D settings. Automated EKG-based seizure detection is feasible and has potential clinical utility given its ease of acquisition, processing, high signal/noise and ergonomic advantages viz-a-viz EEG (electroencephalogram) or ECoG. Its use as an "electronic" seizure diary will remedy in part, the inaccuracies of those generated by patients/care-givers in a cost-effective manner.

  12. Semiological seizure classification: before and after video-EEG monitoring of seizures.

    PubMed

    Hirfanoglu, Tugba; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Cansu, Ali; Bilir, Erhan; Gucuyener, Kivilcim

    2007-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the applicability and reliability of the semiological seizure classification in children with epilepsy in outpatient clinics. Ninety patients (age range, 2-16 years) who experienced clinical seizures during prolonged video-electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring were evaluated. Semiological seizure classification was performed, first based on history obtained from parents of the patient during outpatient follow-up visits and then based on video EEG-monitoring. Kappa statistics (kappa) were used to evaluate the consistency of the two rounds of semiological seizure classification. Classification based on history yielded the following distribution: simple motor seizures (66.3%), aura (28%), complex motor seizures (15.8%), special seizures (15.8%), dialeptic seizures (9.3%), and autonomic seizures (3.7%). Classification based on video EEG-monitoring yielded a different distribution: simple motor seizures (55.7%), complex motor seizures (26.9%), automotor seizures (26.9%), aura (23%), dialeptic seizures (22.1%), special seizures (9.6%), and autonomic seizures (1.9%). Negative myoclonic seizures (kappa = 1, P = 0.000) and hypermotor seizures (kappa = 0.85, P = 0.000) had excellent consistency; somatosensory aura (kappa = 0.26, P = 0.012) and automotor seizures (kappa = 0.28, P = 0.004) had the lowest consistency. The families or doctors often defined simple motor seizures (decrease of 10.6% from before to after monitoring, kappa = 0.44); the proportion of complex motor seizures changed rather from before to after monitoring (11.1%, kappa = 0.33). Generally, parents can describe seizures quite well. We suggest that semiological seizure classification is a reliable method applicable for everyday use during outpatient visits, especially if seizure semiology is evaluated individually for each component or if the semiological seizure classification is modified or refined for some seizure components (tonic, clonic, versive, conscious, automotor

  13. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  14. Occipital seizures imitating migraine aura.

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Sharoqi, I A; Agathonikou, A

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported in which symptoms of occipital seizures resembled the visual aura of migraine. Careful recording of the characteristics and timing of such visual effects will often resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:9204019

  15. MST12 regulates infectious growth but not appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyungsoon; Xue, Chaoyang; Zheng, Li; Lam, Stephen; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2002-03-01

    In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, PMK1, is known to regulate appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. Since PMK1 is homologous to the FUS3 and KSS1 genes that regulate the transcription factor STE12 in yeast, we functionally characterized the STE12 homologue in M. grisea (MST12). A polymerase chain reaction-based approach was used to isolate the MST12 gene that is homologous to yeast STE12. Four mst12 deletion mutants were isolated by gene replacement. No obvious defect in vegetative growth, conidiation, or conidia germination was observed in mst12 mutants. However, mst12 mutants were nonpathogenic on rice and barley leaves. In contrast to pmk1 mutants that did not form appressoria, mst12 mutants produced typical dome-shaped and melanized appressoria. However, the appressoria formed by mst12 mutants failed to penetrate onion epidermal cells. When inoculated through wound sites, mst12 mutants failed to cause spreading lesions and appeared to be defective in infectious growth. These data indicate that MST12 may function downstream of PMK1 to regulate genes involved in infectious hyphae growth. A transcription factor or factors other than MST12 must exist in M. grisea and function downstream from PMK1 for appressorium formation. PMID:11952120

  16. Early seizures in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Chraa; Kissani, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Early seizures (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the predictive factors for early seizures as well the clinical outcome in patients with first-ever stroke. A total of 352 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted to our department, were included in this retrospective study. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. About 47 patients (13%) had early seizure, and 8 had a status epilepticus. We had 28 women and 19 men. The mean age was 71.6 ± 14.6. They were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical associated hemorrhage. ES were associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). Early seizures occured in about 13% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES seem to be associated with a worse outcome after acute stroke. PMID:26097640

  17. Tobacco smoking, epilepsy, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lingling; Frontera, Alfred T; Benbadis, Selim R

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for death caused by noncommunicable diseases. In contrast to extensive research on the association between tobacco smoking and diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and cancers, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient. The exact roles tobacco smoking and nicotine use play in seizures or epilepsy have not been well reviewed. We reviewed available literature and found that 1) there are vast differences between tobacco smoke and nicotine based on their components and their effects on seizures or epilepsy; 2) the seizure risk in acute active tobacco smokers, women who smoke during pregnancy, electronic cigarette smokers, and the role of smoking in sudden unexplained/unexpected death in epilepsy remain unclear; 3) seizure risks are higher in acute secondhand smokers, chronic active smokers, and babies whose mothers smoke; 4) tobacco smoke protects against seizures in animal models whereas nicotine exerts mixed effects in animals; and 5) tobacco smoking agents can be noneffective, proconvulsant, or anticonvulsant. Finally, the opportunities for future research on this topic is discussed.

  18. The MST of Symmetric Disk Graphs Is Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Affash, A. Karim; Aschner, Rom; Carmi, Paz; Katz, Matthew J.

    Symmetric disk graphs are often used to model wireless communication networks. Given a set S of n points in ℝ d (representing n transceivers) and a transmission range assignment r: S →ℝ, the symmetric disk graph of S (denoted SDG(S)) is the undirected graph over S whose set of edges is E = {(u,v) | r(u) ≥ |uv| and r(v) ≥ |uv|}, where |uv| denotes the Euclidean distance between points u and v. We prove that the weight of the MST of any connected symmetric disk graph over a set S of n points in the plane, is only O(logn) times the weight of the MST of the complete Euclidean graph over S. We then show that this bound is tight, even for points on a line.

  19. Criteria and algorithms for spectrum parameterization of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The power spectra S(f) of MST radar signals contain useful information about the variance of refractivity fluctuations, the mean radial velocity, and the radial velocity variance in the atmosphere. When noise and other contaminating signals are absent, these quantities can be obtained directly from the zeroth, first and second order moments of the spectra. A step-by-step procedure is outlined that can be used effectively to reduce large amounts of MST radar data-averaged periodograms measured in range and time to a parameterized form. The parameters to which a periodogram can be reduced are outlined and the steps in the procedure, that may be followed selectively, to arrive at the final set of reduced parameters are given. Examples of the performance of the procedure are given and its use with other radars are commented on.

  20. Recent Ion Energy Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ion energy distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low energy (0.34-5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete ion energy distribution with high-energy resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the ion temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion Energy Sciences at DOE.

  1. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, L. S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception, which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions. We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: (1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow; Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow, and (2) Position invariance; The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields. It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  2. 38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: COMMUNICATIONS PANEL, CONTROL REEL (120 VOLTS), HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT, DOOR CONTROLS (480 VOLTS), POWER REEL (480 VOLTS), CRANE NORTH/CRANE SOUTH DOORS (480 VOLTS), CIRCUIT BREAKER FOR TEN-TON BRIDGE CRANE, DUCT HEATER 122. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

  4. Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

  5. The Impact of Psychoactive Drugs on Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mitra; Hart, Felecia; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are very common in patients with epilepsy, and in fact, a bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and some psychiatric disorders have been identified. However, despite their high prevalence, these comorbidities are not routinely recognized or adequately treated causing a significant burden for these patients. Atypical presentations of some of these psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy, the concern that some psychotropic drugs may lower seizure threshold worsening frequency of seizures, possibility of many drug-drug interactions, and the negative impact of some antiepileptic drugs on psychiatric conditions are some of the challenges faced by clinicians. Although the main focus in epilepsy has remained on treatment of seizures, acknowledgment of these comorbidities and their timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment not only can impact patients' quality of life but also may improve their response to antiepileptic therapies. PMID:27315249

  6. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  7. MST data exchange through the NCAR incoherent-scatter radar data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    One means of making MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar data more easily accessible for scientific research by the general scientific community is through a centralized data base. Such a data base can be designed to readily provide information on data availability and quality, and to provide copies of data from any radar in a common format to the user. The ionospheric incoherent scatter community has established a centralized data base at NCAR that may serve not only as a model for a possible MST data base, but also as a catalyst for getting an MST data base started. (Some key elements of the NCAR data base are given.) The NCAR data base can include MST data in the same framework with relatively little extra effort. They are willing to handle MST data on a limited basis in order to permit assessment of community interest and in order to provide some experience with a centralized data base for MST data.

  8. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation.

  9. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation. PMID:2529669

  10. Hippo/MST1 signaling mediates microglial activation following acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Lujun; Yan, Feng; He, Qing; Huang, Li; Peng, Shengyi; Jia, Junying; Cheng, Jinbo; Chen, Hong; Tao, Wufan; Ji, Xunming; Xu, Yun; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major public health concern that causes high rates of disability and mortality in adults. Microglial activation plays a crucial role in ischemic stroke-induced alteration of the immune microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying the triggering of microglial activation by ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase Hippo/MST1 plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in mammalian primary neurons and that the protein kinase c-Abl phosphorylates MST1 at Y433, which increases MST1 kinase activity. Microglial activation has been implicated as a secondary detrimental cellular response that contributes to neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke. Here, we are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that MST1 mediates stroke-induced microglial activation by directly phosphorylating IκBα at residues S32 and S36. We further demonstrate that Src kinase functions upstream of MST1-IκB signaling during microglial activation. Specific deletion of MST1 in microglia mitigates stroke-induced brain injury. Therefore, we propose that Src-MST1-IκB signaling plays a critical role in stroke-induced microglial activation. Together with our previous work demonstrating that MST1 is important for oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death, our results indicate that MST1 could represent a potent therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

  11. Mst2 Controls Bone Homeostasis by Regulating Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Youn, Bang Ung; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Jung Ha; Lee, Da-Hye; Seong, Semun; Kim, Inyoung; Han, Seung-Hee; Che, Xiangguo; Choi, Je-Yong; Park, Yong-Wook; Kook, Hyun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Nacksung

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (Mst2) plays a central role in the Hippo pathway, controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during development. However, the roles of Mst2 in osteoclast and osteoblast development are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Mst2 exhibit osteoporotic phenotypes with increased numbers of osteoclasts and decreased numbers of osteoblasts as shown by micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses. Osteoclast precursors lacking Mst2 exhibit increased osteoclastogenesis and Nfatc1, Acp5, and Oscar expression in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) exposure. Conversely, Mst2 overexpression in osteoclast precursors leads to the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Osteoblast precursors deficient in Mst2 exhibit attenuated osteoblast differentiation and function by downregulating the expression of Runx2, Alpl, Ibsp, and Bglap. Conversely, ectopic expression of Mst2 in osteoblast precursors increases osteoblastogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that the NF-κB pathway is activated by Mst2 deficiency during osteoclast and osteoblast development. Our findings suggest that Mst2 is involved in bone homeostasis, functioning as a reciprocal regulator of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation through the NF-κB pathway.

  12. REVIEW OF ACTINIDE AND STRONTIUM LOADING DATA FOR MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hobbs, D.; Fink, S.

    2010-10-20

    SRNL reviewed the relevant data from MST and mMST fissile loading studies to determine if further studies were required. With respect to MST, SRNL found that the published results adequately bound the expected conditions that Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process will operate under. The lack of strontium data does not represent an issue as strontium is not relevant to criticality. There is no threat to criticality safety from the lack of strontium loading data. However, SRNL proposes a single test with MST to ensure that future SCIX operations are conservatively bounded and strontium maximum loading is understood. With respect to attempts to maximally load mMST, SRNL's knowledge on actinide and strontium loading is limited to uranium behavior. mMST has a very weak affinity for uranium, and even extended contact time at high uranium concentration shows minimal loading onto mMST. This leaves questions about the ability to load plutonium, neptunium and strontium. SRNL proposes to perform two tests with mMST to ensure that questions on plutonium, neptunium, and strontium sorption are answered, as well as ensuring that future mMST operations are conservatively bounded.

  13. Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Multisystemic Therapy and a Statutory Therapeutic Intervention for Young Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Hickey, Nicole; Fonagy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is more effective in reducing youth offending and out-of-home placement in a large, ethnically diverse, urban U.K. sample than an equally comprehensive management protocol; and to determine whether MST leads to broader improvements in youth sociality and in mediators believed to be…

  15. What Works for Whom? Gender Differences in Intake Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes Following Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2009-01-01

    Aims of the study: We investigated whether girls and boys had similar referral symptoms and background characteristics at intake to Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and whether adolescent girls with serious behavior problems benefited as much from MST treatment as did boys. We also examined gender differences in rate of co-morbidity at intake and…

  16. An Independent Effectiveness Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Justice Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Bender, Monica B.; Kishna, Maureen A.; Mitchell, Clare C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of an evidence-based practice, multisystemic therapy (MST), conducted in a real-world mental health setting with juvenile justice involved youth and their families. Importantly, this is the first randomized clinical trial of MST with juvenile offenders in the United States conducted without direct oversight by…

  17. Multisystemic Therapy Effects on Attempted Suicide by Youths Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.; Edwards, James

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) in reducing attempted suicide among predominantly African American youths referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Youths presenting psychiatric emergencies were randomly assigned to MST or hospitalization. Indices of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation,…

  18. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  19. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Kang, Hoon Chul; Kim, Heung Dong

    2010-12-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information was obtained from 27 patients who made this dietary change from four different institutions. Ten (37%) patients had ≥10% additional seizure reduction with the KD over the MAD, of which five became seizure-free. The five children who did not improve on the MAD failed to improve when transitioned to the KD. A higher incidence of improvement with the KD occurred for those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (70% vs. 12% for all other etiologies, p = 0.004), including all who became seizure-free. These results suggest that the KD probably represents a "higher dose" of dietary therapy than the MAD, which may particularly benefit those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy.

  20. Automated seizure detection systems and their effectiveness for each type of seizure.

    PubMed

    Ulate-Campos, A; Coughlin, F; Gaínza-Lein, M; Fernández, I Sánchez; Pearl, P L; Loddenkemper, T

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy affects almost 1% of the population and most of the approximately 20-30% of patients with refractory epilepsy have one or more seizures per month. Seizure detection devices allow an objective assessment of seizure frequency and a treatment tailored to the individual patient. A rapid recognition and treatment of seizures through closed-loop systems could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality in epilepsy. However, no single detection device can detect all seizure types. Therefore, the choice of a seizure detection device should consider the patient-specific seizure semiologies. This review of the literature evaluates seizure detection devices and their effectiveness for different seizure types. Our aim is to summarize current evidence, offer suggestions on how to select the most suitable seizure detection device for each patient and provide guidance to physicians, families and researchers when choosing or designing seizure detection devices. Further, this review will guide future prospective validation studies.

  1. Differential operator in seizure detection.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Differential operators can detect significant changes in signals. This has been utilized to enhance the contrast of the seizure signatures in depth EEG or ECoG. We have actually taken normalized exponential of absolute value of single or double derivative of epileptic ECoG. This in short we call differential filtering. Windowed variance operation has been performed to automatically detect seizure onset on differentially filtered signal. A novel method for determining the duration of seizure has also been proposed. Since all operations take only linear time, the whole method is extremely fast. Seven empirical parameters have been introduced whose patient specific thresholding brings down the rate of false detection to a bare minimum. Results of implementation of the methods on the ECoG data of four epileptic patients have been reported with an ROC curve analysis. High value of the area under the ROC curve indicates excellent detection performance.

  2. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  3. Game-related seizures presenting with two types of clinical features.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Shang-Der; Huang, Chi-Ren

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated 22 patients with epileptic seizures in which the seizures were triggered by various games or game-related materials. Based on whether spontaneous seizure coexisted or not, these 22 patients were divided into two groups. Ten patients who experienced seizures exclusively while playing or watching specific games were referred to as Group I, while 12 patients that had both game-induced and spontaneous seizures were classified as Group II. The patients in Group I had a middle-age onset (39.1 years) with a male predominance (90%). The electroencephalogram (EEG) or brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed non-specific abnormalities in 60%, and the partial onset seizure was recognized in 30% of patients. Antiepileptic drugs had uncertain benefits in this group. In Group II, patients had a male predominance (67%), with onset during adolescence (16.3 years). Most of them had generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and absences, and 42% showed epileptiform discharge on EEG. These 12 patients were categorized into idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Although photosensitivity was an important factor, higher mental activity seemed to be significant precipitants of seizures in Group II. Antiepileptic drugs were necessary and valproic acid alone or combined with clonazepam was effective in this group. The results showed that game-related seizures are not a unique and homogeneous syndrome and may consist of different mechanisms. Teenage onset, coexistent spontaneous seizure, and associated idiopathic generalized epilepsies were crucial factors in the determination of antiepileptic drug therapy. Moreover, avoiding the related games altogether may be a more productive preventive measure.

  4. Using wearable sensors for semiology-independent seizure detection - towards ambulatory monitoring of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Heldberg, Beeke E; Kautz, Thomas; Leutheuser, Heike; Hopfengartner, Rudiger; Kasper, Burkhard S; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of the central nervous system. Nearly 70% of people with epilepsy respond to a proper treatment, but for a successful therapy of epilepsy, physicians need to know if and when seizures occur. The gold standard diagnosis tool video-electroencephalography (vEEG) requires patients to stay at hospital for several days. A wearable sensor system, e.g. a wristband, serving as diagnostic tool or event monitor, would allow unobtrusive ambulatory long-term monitoring while reducing costs. Previous studies showed that seizures with motor symptoms such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures can be detected by measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA) and motion measuring acceleration (ACC). In this study, EDA and ACC from 8 patients were analyzed. In extension to previous studies, different types of seizures, including seizures without motor activity, were taken into account. A hierarchical classification approach was implemented in order to detect different types of epileptic seizures using data from wearable sensors. Using a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier an overall sensitivity of 89.1% and an overall specificity of 93.1% were achieved, for seizures without motor activity the sensitivity was 97.1% and the specificity was 92.9%. The presented method is a first step towards a reliable ambulatory monitoring system for epileptic seizures with and without motor activity.

  5. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether they could increase the risk of developing epilepsy later. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures that ... brains of patients who underwent surgery for severe epilepsy. 3 The children with FSE were com- pared ...

  6. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Sato, T.; Saito, A.; Tomikawa, Y.; Aso, T.; Yamanouchi, T.; Ejiri, M.

    We have been promoting a project to introduce the first MST Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere IS Incoherent Scatter radar which is a VHF pulse Doppler radar in the Antarctic to Syowa Station 39E 69S Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST IS Radar PANSY as an important station observing the earth s environment with the aim to catch the climate change signals that the Antarctic atmosphere shows This radar consists of about 1000 crossed Yagi antennas having a peak power of 500kW which allows us to observe the Antarctic atmosphere with fine resolution and good accuracy in a wide height range of 1-500 km The interaction of the neutral atmosphere with the ionosphere and magnetosphere as well as the global-scale atmospheric circulation including the low and middle latitude regions are also targets of PANSY The observation data with high resolution and good accuracy obtained by the PANSY radar are also valuable from the viewpoint of certification of the reality of phenomena simulated by high-resolution numerical models The scientific importance of PANSY is discussed and resolved by international research organizations of IUGG URSI SCAR SCOSTEP and SPARC and documented in a report by Council of Science and Technology Policy in Japan One major issue for the operation of the MST IS radar at an isolated place such as Syowa Station is the reduction of power consumption We have developed a new power-efficient transmitter class-E amplifier and successfully reduced the needed power consumption to an acceptable

  7. Optimal management of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shelly; Fallah, Aria

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are clinically significant manifestations associated with 79%–90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Often occurring within the first year of life in the form of infantile spasms, seizures interfere with neuropsychiatric, social, and cognitive development and carry significant individual and societal consequences. Prompt identification and treatment of seizures is an important focus in the overall management of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. Medical management, either after seizure onset or prophylactically in infants with electroencephalographic abnormalities, is considered first-line therapy. Vigabatrin and adrenocorticotropic hormone have emerged over the past few decades as mainstay pharmacologic modalities. Furthermore, emerging research on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors demonstrated promise for the management of seizures and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. For appropriate surgical candidates with an epileptogenic zone associated with one or more glioneuronal hamartomas, ideally in noneloquent cortex, resective surgery can be considered, which provides a cure in 56% of patients. For medically refractory patients who do not meet criteria for curative surgery, palliative surgical approaches focused on reducing seizure burden, in the form of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation, are alternative management options. Lastly, the ketogenic diet, a reemerging therapy based on the anticonvulsant effects of ketone bodies, can be utilized independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities for the management of difficult-to-treat seizures. PMID:25364257

  8. Optimal management of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: current and emerging options.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shelly; Fallah, Aria

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are clinically significant manifestations associated with 79%-90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Often occurring within the first year of life in the form of infantile spasms, seizures interfere with neuropsychiatric, social, and cognitive development and carry significant individual and societal consequences. Prompt identification and treatment of seizures is an important focus in the overall management of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. Medical management, either after seizure onset or prophylactically in infants with electroencephalographic abnormalities, is considered first-line therapy. Vigabatrin and adrenocorticotropic hormone have emerged over the past few decades as mainstay pharmacologic modalities. Furthermore, emerging research on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors demonstrated promise for the management of seizures and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. For appropriate surgical candidates with an epileptogenic zone associated with one or more glioneuronal hamartomas, ideally in noneloquent cortex, resective surgery can be considered, which provides a cure in 56% of patients. For medically refractory patients who do not meet criteria for curative surgery, palliative surgical approaches focused on reducing seizure burden, in the form of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation, are alternative management options. Lastly, the ketogenic diet, a reemerging therapy based on the anticonvulsant effects of ketone bodies, can be utilized independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities for the management of difficult-to-treat seizures.

  9. Further developments of EISCAT as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The principal capabilities of EISCAT as an MST radar were described. Since the VHF transmitter of the EISCAT system is not yet delivered, only the UHF system could be used for radar experiments. Considerable developments in the year 1983 have now strongly improved the reliability of the operations. Most of the experiments were and will be done to investigate the high latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, but some time was also devoted to observations of the lower and middle atmosphere, particularly during the MAP/WINE compaign.

  10. Successful psychotherapy for psychogenic seizures in men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Maria Clare; Schofield, Margot J; Middleton, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined factors contributing to the development and successful treatment of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), in civilian men. In-depth interviews were conducted with therapist-client dyads comprising two male clients who had been successfully treated for PNES and their therapists. A theory-building case study approach provided evidence that those factors known to contribute to PNES and other somatoform symptoms in females and in males engaged in war also contributed to these symptoms in these two civilian males. In addition, PNES in these civilian males occurred in contexts where masculine identity was developmentally curtailed and socially constrained. Successful treatments occurred in long-term therapeutic relationships that sanctioned verbal expression of strong emotion and provided the attunement necessary for development of a robust masculine identity. These findings have implications for the funding of therapy, and training of therapists.

  11. Complex Partial Seizure as a Manifestation of Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia: The Needle Recovered From Haystack?

    PubMed

    Rani, Khairil Amir; Ahmed, Mohamed H; Dunphy, Louise; Behnam, Yousif

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with acute onset expressive dysphasia and right hemi-paresis with no prior history of seizure. He developed clusters of stereotypical complex partial seizures which were refractory to anti-epileptic agents. He was not known to have diabetes and his brain MRI was normal. His random blood sugar measurement on admission to hospital was 30 mmol/L with HbA1c measurement of 14.8%. His seizures terminated completely when his hyperglycemia was corrected with insulin and rehydration therapy. PMID:27222677

  12. Complex Partial Seizure as a Manifestation of Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia: The Needle Recovered From Haystack?

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Khairil Amir; Ahmed, Mohamed H.; Dunphy, Louise; Behnam, Yousif

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with acute onset expressive dysphasia and right hemi-paresis with no prior history of seizure. He developed clusters of stereotypical complex partial seizures which were refractory to anti-epileptic agents. He was not known to have diabetes and his brain MRI was normal. His random blood sugar measurement on admission to hospital was 30 mmol/L with HbA1c measurement of 14.8%. His seizures terminated completely when his hyperglycemia was corrected with insulin and rehydration therapy. PMID:27222677

  13. An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

  14. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN. SLC-3E MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. The international implementation of multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Heiblum, Naamith; Saldana, Lisa; Henggeler, Scott W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider, through the lenses of theory and research on technology transfer and the adoption and implementation of innovation, the international transport of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for youth, using Multisystemic Therapy (MST) as an example. MST is a well-validated family and community-based approach originally developed in the United States to treat serious juvenile offenders. This article describes challenges to MST transport internationally by virtue of the political, legal, economic, and cultural contexts in different nations. Modifications used to address these challenges and facilitate the international implementation of MST are described and pertain to pre-implementation processes, clinical staff, training materials and procedures, and clinical service delivery.

  16. The International Implementation of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Heiblum, Naamith; Saldana, Lisa; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider, through the lenses of theory and research on technology transfer and the adoption and implementation of innovation, the international transport of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for youth, using Multisystemic Therapy (MST) as an example. MST is a well-validated family and community-based approach originally developed in the United States to treat serious juvenile offenders. This article describes challenges to MST transport internationally by virtue of the political, legal, economic, and cultural contexts in different nations. Modifications used to address these challenges and facilitate the international implementation of MST are described and pertain to pre-implementation processes, clinical staff, training materials and procedures, and clinical service delivery. PMID:18367755

  17. Meteorological and dynamical requirements for MST radar networks: Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of wave motions using the MST radar have concentrated on single station time series analyses of gravity waves and tides. Since these radars collect high time resolution data they have the potential to become a significant tool for mesoscale research. In addition, radars are operated almost continuously unattended and, consequently, data sets are available for analyzing longer period wave motions such as tides and planetary scale waves. Although there is much to learn from single station data, the possibilities of new knowledge from a network of radars is exciting. The scales of wave motions in the atmosphere cover a broad range. Consequently the choice of a radar network depends to a large extent on the types of wave motions that are studied. There are many outstanding research problems that would benefit from observations from a MST radar network. In particular, there is a strong need for measurements of gravity wave parameters and equatorial wave motions. Some of the current problems in wave dynamics are discussed.

  18. Neutral dynamics and ion energy transport in MST plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zichuan; Nornberg, Mark; den Hartog, Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Anderson, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Neutral dynamics can have a significant effect on ion energy transport through charge exchange collisions. Whereas previously charge exchange was considered a direct loss mechanism in MST plasmas, new analysis indicates that significant thermal charge exchange neutrals are reionized. Further, the temperatures of the neutral species in the core of the plasma are suspected to be much higher than room temperature, which has a large effect on ion energy losses due to charge exchange. The DEGAS2 Monte Carlo simulation code is applied to the MST reversed field pinch experiment to estimate the density and temperature profile of the neutral species. The result is then used to further examine the effect of the neutral species on ion energy transport in improved confinement plasmas. This enables the development of a model that accounts for collisional equilibration between species, classical convective and conductive energy transport, and energy loss due to charge exchange collisions. The goal is to quantify classical, stochastic, and anomalous ion heating and transport in RFP plasmas. Work supported by the US DOE. DEGAS2 is provided by PPPL and STRAHL is provided by Ralph Dux of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik.

  19. Electron Energization During m=0 Magnetic Bursts in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    MST reversed-field pinch plasmas develop magnetic modes with both a core-resonant poloidal mode m=1 structure and edge-resonant m=0 structure on the reversal surface. The impact of the m=0 modes on electron energization has been observed with Thomson scattering under plasma conditions with suppressed m=1 modes. Under such conditions, the m=0 modes undergo brief (~100 μs) bursts of localized magnetic activity. These bursts show a localized 4% heating of electrons above a 600-900 eV background temperature, associated with a reduction of magnetic energy. An inward propagating cold pulse follows after the heating as a result of reduced confinement. Ensembles of hundreds of bursts are required to measure small relative heating, however single-shot results from MST's high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic support the ensemble results. Analysis of Thomson scattering data also provides constraints on non-Maxwellian distributions and upcoming upgrades will improve the ability to resolve electron currents associated with the magnetic bursts. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  20. Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.

  1. Ion Heating Anisotropy during Dynamo Activity in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Chapman, J. T.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.

    1999-11-01

    MHD dynamo activity is large in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch during sawtooth crashes, and small otherwise. During a sawtooth crash, ion temperature increases rapidly to a level several times as high as the temperature between sawteeth, which itself can be larger than the electron temperature. Several theories have been developed to explain this ion heating, some indicating a possible asymmetry in perpendicular to parallel heating [C. G. Gimblett, Europhys. Lett. 11, 541 (1990); Z. Yoshida, Nucl. Fusion 31, 386 (1991); N. Mattor, P. W. Terry, and S. C. Prager, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 15, 65 (1992)]. In standard MST discharges, impurity ion temperature measured perpendicular to the magnetic field (T_⊥) is higher than impurity ion temperature parallel to the magnetic field (T_allel) during a sawtooth crash. Throughout the rest of the sawtooth cycle, T_⊥ <= T_allel. This is in contrast to results obtained on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP which showed T_⊥ < T_allel throughout the discharge [K. Sasaki et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39, 333 (1997)

  2. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland Scott; Perrone, J. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception (Perrone, JOSA, 1992; Perrone & Stone, Vis. Res., in press), which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results (Warren & Hannon, Nature, 1988; Stone & Perrone, Neuro. Abstr., 1991) including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions (Royden et al., Nature, 1992). We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in- single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: 1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow. Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow (Orban et al., PNAS, 1992), and 2) Position invariance. The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields (e.g. Duffy & Wurtz, J. Neurophys., 1991; Graziano et al., J. Neurosci., 1994). It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  3. Modeling of EBW Propagation and Damping in PEGASUS and MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, S. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Forest, C.; Redd, A.; Seltzman, A.; Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) can be used for localized heating and current drive (CD) in overdense devices, such as the spherical torus, Pegasus, and the reversed field pinch, Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), located at UW-Madison. Numerical modeling of EBW propagation and damping has been explored using the GENRAY ray-tracing code and the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code in support of current and proposed heating and CD experiments on both devices. In Pegasus, calculations were performed investigating a proposed EBW system for available sources at 2.45, 3.6 and 5.55 GHz frequencies for waves launched 25^o above the midplane. Preliminary results show between -35 kA/MW to 65 kA/MW can be driven at r/a > 0.5 with the available sources. Edge current profile modification is being explored to improve particle and energy transport in MST. Calculations of 5.5 GHz injection estimate > 10 kA/MW can be driven off axis at r/a > 0.65 via the Ohkawa CD method. The effect of large stochastic particle transport on CD efficiency was investigated by varying the radial transport model included in CQL3D.

  4. MHD Simulation of RF Current Drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. A.; Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    Auxiliary current drive using the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) may advance the performance of the RFP. In prior computations, a hypothetical edge-localized current is shown to suppress tearing activity that governs transport in the RFP. Ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the current drive. To support MST EBW studies, an integrated modeling scheme incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ~ 104) agree with the previous work but at MST-like S (S ~ 3 × 106) show unexpected results. The effect on the current profile by the rf-driven force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as S increases. Simulations reproduce the experimentally observed periodic current profile relaxation events (sawteeth). With rf drive, reduction of tearing mode amplitudes is seen, but is limited to periods between each sawtooth, which persist with up to 10 MW of rf. Prolonged low tearing amplitudes are predicted with the combination of current drive and reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, these simulations show that the resistivity profile has a strong effect on the optimal current drive profile for mode stabilization. Work supported by US DoE.

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Effects on Youth Social Ecology and Criminal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduin, Charles M.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Heiblum, Naamith

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus usual community services (UCS) for 48 juvenile sexual offenders at high risk of committing additional serious crimes. Results from multiagent assessment batteries conducted before and after treatment showed that MST was more effective than UCS in improving key…

  6. A Current Review of Multisystemic Therapy: A Social-Ecological Approach to the Treatment of Conduct Problems among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpell, Jody V.; Andrews, Jac

    2006-01-01

    A current empirical review of the treatment efficacy of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for adolescent conduct problems (CP) was conducted. Conclusions based on this review suggest that MST can be a very powerful alternative to the usual legal and social service approaches (e.g. justice system, day treatment programs) used in the treatment of…

  7. Whole-exome sequencing identifies MST1R as a genetic susceptibility gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zheng, Hong; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Tang, Clara Sze-man; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Wong, Bonnie Wing Yan; Leong, Merrin Man Long; Sham, Pak Chung; Cheung, Florence; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Ng, Wai Tong; Yau, Chun Chung; Pan, Jianji; Peng, Xun; Tung, Stewart; Zhang, Zengfeng; Ji, Mingfang; Chiang, Alan Kwok-Shing; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Lee, Victor Ho-fun; Lam, Ka-On; Au, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Hoi Ching; Yiu, Harry Ho-Yin; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors, including host genetics, environmental factors, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection, contribute to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development. To identify genetic susceptibility genes for NPC, a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study was performed in 161 NPC cases and 895 controls of Southern Chinese descent. The gene-based burden test discovered an association between macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) and NPC. We identified 13 independent cases carrying the MST1R pathogenic heterozygous germ-line variants, and 53.8% of these cases were diagnosed with NPC aged at or even younger than 20 y, indicating that MST1R germ-line variants are relevant to disease early-age onset (EAO) (age of ≤20 y). In total, five MST1R missense variants were found in EAO cases but were rare in controls (EAO vs. control, 17.9% vs. 1.2%, P = 7.94 × 10−12). The validation study, including 2,160 cases and 2,433 controls, showed that the MST1R variant c.G917A:p.R306H is highly associated with NPC (odds ratio of 9.0). MST1R is predominantly expressed in the tissue-resident macrophages and is critical for innate immunity that protects organs from tissue damage and inflammation. Importantly, MST1R expression is detected in the ciliated epithelial cells in normal nasopharyngeal mucosa and plays a role in the cilia motility important for host defense. Although no somatic mutation of MST1R was identified in the sporadic NPC tumors, copy number alterations and promoter hypermethylation at MST1R were often observed. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NPC by highlighting the involvement of the MST1R-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26951679

  8. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.; Eisenstadt, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  10. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  11. Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Eunha; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Woo Cheol; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Cheong, Chaejoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-07-01

    The heterodimeric structure of the MST1 and RASSF5 SARAH domains is presented. A comparison of homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions provides a structural basis for the preferential association of the SARAH heterodimer. Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called ‘SARAH’ (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1–RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1–RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432–Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3{sub 10}-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1–RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438–Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441–Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST–RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.

  12. DESORPTION OF SORBATES FROM MST, MMST, AND CST UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-06-10

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program (formerly referred to as the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) Project) seeks to deploy equipment to remove the {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally {sup 238,239,240}Pu and {sup 237}Np) from the high level waste salt solutions. The equipment is installed within a high level waste tank to take advantage of the shielding provided by the waste tank. The process will involve adding monosodium titanate (MST) to the waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to sorb the Sr and select actinides, removing the MST and entrained sludge with in-riser rotary microfilters, and subsequently using ion-exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove the Cs. After being loaded with Cs, the CST will be ground to reduce the particle size and then transferred into another waste tank (e.g., Tank 40H). The MST and sludge solids stream will be transported to a sludge batch preparation tank (i.e., Tank 42H or Tank 51H) once the SCIX batch is processed. Both streams, MST/solids and CST, will ultimately be transported into and vitrified inside the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A series of experiments were performed to examine desorption from monosodium titanate (MST), modified monosodium titanate (mMST), and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) under various conditions. The first two experiments examined desorption from MST and CST under two different sludge treatment processes, aluminum dissolution and sludge washing. Desorption of all sorbates was observed to varying degrees under the aluminum dissolution conditions. The extent of desorption ranged from < 3% to about 50% after 4 weeks, with Pu exhibiting the lowest desorption. At the end of the experiment, the temperature was reduced from 65 C to 25 C and the tests monitored for an additional two weeks. After reducing the temperature, partial resorption of the sorbates was observed with both MST and CST. Under the sludge washing conditions, no

  13. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility.

  14. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording.

  15. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  16. Drosophila as a Model for Intractable Epilepsy: Gilgamesh Suppresses Seizures in parabss1 Heterozygote Flies

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Iris C.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na+ channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na+ channel gain-of-function mutant parabss1 that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with parabss1, seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of parabss1/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

  17. Seizure Prognosis in Brain Tumors: New Insights and Evidence-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhof, Melissa; Duran-Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTE) is common in low- and high-grade gliomas. The risk of seizures varies between 60% and 100% among low-grade gliomas and between 40% and 60% in glioblastomas. The presence of seizures in patients with brain tumors implies favorable and unfavorable factors. New-onset seizures represent an early warning sign for the presence of a brain tumor and count as a good prognostic factor for survival. Recurrence or worsening of seizures during the course of disease may signal tumor progression. Each of the modalities for tumor control (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) contributes to seizure control. Nevertheless, one third of BTE shows pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and may severely impair the burden of living with a brain tumor. For symptomatic therapy of BTE, seizure type and individual patient factors determine the appropriate AED. Randomized controlled trials in partial epilepsy in adults to which type BTE belongs and additional studies in gliomas indicate that levetiracetam is the agent of choice, followed by valproic acid (VPA). In the case of recurring seizures, combining these two drugs (polytherapy) seems effective and possibly synergistic. If either one is not effective or not well tolerated, lacosamide, lamotrigine, or zonisamide are additional options. A new and exciting insight is the potential contribution of VPA to prolonged survival, particularly in glioblastomas. A practice guideline on symptomatic medical management including dose schedules of AEDs is supplied. PMID:24899645

  18. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Anna F; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-07-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%-2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered.

  19. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Anna F.; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-01-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%–2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  20. Mst1 shuts off cytosolic antiviral defense through IRF3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fansen; Zhou, Ruyuan; Wu, Shiying; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Qiuheng; Zhou, Yao; Plouffe, Steven W; Liu, Shengduo; Song, Hai; Xia, Zongping; Zhao, Bin; Ye, Sheng; Feng, Xin-Hua; Guan, Kun-Liang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Pinglong

    2016-05-01

    Cytosolic RNA/DNA sensing elicits primary defense against viral pathogens. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key signal mediator/transcriptional factor of the antiviral-sensing pathway, is indispensible for interferon production and antiviral defense. However, how the status of IRF3 activation is controlled remains elusive. Through a functional screen of the human kinome, we found that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), but not Mst2, profoundly inhibited cytosolic nucleic acid sensing. Mst1 associated with IRF3 and directly phosphorylated IRF3 at Thr75 and Thr253. This Mst1-mediated phosphorylation abolished activated IRF3 homodimerization, its occupancy on chromatin, and subsequent IRF3-mediated transcriptional responses. In addition, Mst1 also impeded virus-induced activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), further attenuating IRF3 activation. As a result, Mst1 depletion or ablation enabled an enhanced antiviral response and defense in cells and mice. Therefore, the identification of Mst1 as a novel physiological negative regulator of IRF3 activation provides mechanistic insights into innate antiviral defense and potential antiviral prevention strategies.

  1. Mst1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-xL is required for myocardial reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Peiyong; Del Re, Dominic P.; Maejima, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Mst1 is a central Ser-Thr kinase in the Hippo pathway, which promotes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation. We have shown previously that, in cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress activates Mst1 at mitochondria, where Mst1 phosphorylates Bcl-xL at Ser14, inducing dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bax and thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the functional significance of Ser14 phosphorylation of endogenous Bcl-xL in vivo remains elusive. We generated knockin (KI) mice in which Ser14 of Bcl-xL is replaced with Ala. KI mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, and adult KI mice exhibited normal cardiac morphology and function at baseline. However, KI mice were protected from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and exhibited reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Although suppression of endogenous Mst1 also reduced I/R injury, there was no additive protective effect when Mst1 was inhibited in KI mice. The development of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by cardiac-specific overexpression of Mst1 was also ameliorated in KI mice. Lats2 and YAP, two other key components of the Hippo pathway, were not affected in KI mice. These results suggest that Ser14 phosphorylation of Bcl-xL plays an essential role in mediating both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial injury by acting as a key downstream mediator of Mst1 independently of the canonical Hippo pathway. PMID:27218122

  2. Temporal distribution of seizures in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Taubøll, E; Lundervold, A; Gjerstad, L

    1991-03-01

    A major problem in epileptology is why a seizure occurs at a particular moment in time. An initial step in solving this problem is a detailed analysis of the temporal distribution of seizures. Using methods and theories of stochastic processes, seizure patterns in a group of epileptic outpatients were examined for stationarity, randomness, dependency and periodicity in a prospective study. Sixteen of the 21 seizure diaries included in the study showed stationarity; 2 were non-stationary and 3 inconclusive. Eleven of the 16 stationary diaries were non-Poisson (P less than 0.005), indicating that in the majority of patients seizures did not occur randomly. The most frequently encountered phenomenon was seizure clustering. Clustering was considered when the diaries fulfilled all three criteria: (1) a positive R-test (P less than 0.001); (2) deviation from the fitted Poisson distribution towards clustering; and (3) the feature of an autoregressive process in the autocorrelogram plot. Dependency between seizure events was demonstrated in 8 of the 16 stationary diaries, computing first order transition probabilities. A detailed analysis of seizure occurrence is a major step towards a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying seizure precipitation. This is exemplified by our finding of a relation between seizure frequency and the menstrual cycle.

  3. Magnetic Reconnection in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, N.E.

    2001-06-01

    Magnetic field line reconnection is a process whereby magnetic field lines which are otherwise topologically preserved by, and frozen into, a plasma can break and reconnect to form field lines with different topologies. It plays a significant role in a wide variety of plasmas, including stellar, space and laboratory plasmas. The focus of this dissertation is the underlying dynamics of reconnection in one particular kind of laboratory plasma: the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Specifically, this dissertation reports measurements, made using a pair of insertable diagnostics in conjunction with arrays of magnetic sensing coils positioned near the plasma surface, of the spatial structure of the magnetic and parallel current density fluctuations associated with reconnection in the edge of MST. At least 4 significant results are obtained form such measurements. First we observe direct evidence of reconnection which takes the form of tearing modes in an RFP. Specifically we measure a (radial) magnetic field fluctuation that causes reconnection in the so-called reversal surface, or q = 0 surface, in the edge of MST. Notably this evidence of reconnection at the reversal surface is the first of its kind in an RFP. Second, we measure the radial width of the associated current sheet, or fluctuation in the component of the current density parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. Such current sheets are a characteristic feature of the reconnection process but their radial widths are sensitive to the specific effects that allow reconnection to occur sometimes call non-ideal effects because reconnection is forbidden by ideal MHD. We compare the observed width to those expected from models of reconnection that incorporate different non-ideal effects in Ohm's law. In particular we see that the observed width is significantly larger than those expected form resistivity in the context of linearly unstable tearing modes and electron inertia. It is a factor of a few larger than the

  4. Interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the scattering and reflection mechanisms that give rise to the MST radar echoes from the clear air is essential in the correct interpretation of the data about winds, waves, turbulence and stability in the atmosphere. There are two main aspects: the nature of the targets the radar sees and their generation mechanisms; and the signatures of the radar signals returned from the different targets. Volume scatterings from isotropic or anisotropic turbulence, and partial reflections from horizontally stratified, sharp refractive index gradients are believed the main contributors to radar echoes. Combined effects from all the mechanisms probably produce the observed data. The signature of the echo signals for these different scatterers under realistic experimental conditions should be studied. It is hoped from these studies, the nature of the targets can be better understood, and related to atmospheric dynamic processes.

  5. Capabilities and limitations of existing MST radars: Poker Flat. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Designed as a prototype system to continuously monitor the atmosphere up to approximately 100 km, the Poker Flat MST radar began operating in 1979 at a relatively low sensitivity. In almost continuous operation since then, the system is steadily increasing in sensitivity to its ultimate design characteristics. Current and final parameters are listed. The advantages of its modular design, which uses 64 transmitting modules distributed through the 200 mx 200 m antenna array include: easy maintenance, beam switching using very low power switching, air cooled transmitting tubes, lower feedline costs, and no moving parts. Continuous, uninterrupted operation ( 4 years) and less man-made interference because of the remote location) are other assets. Most disadvantages are related to its not-yet-finished status, climate, moose excursions, and operating expenses.

  6. Discrimination against interfering signals at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several on line and off line data processing techniques are used to remove interfering signals due to ground clutter, aircraft, instrumental effects, and external transmissions from the desired atmospheric echoes of Mesosphere Stratosphere, Troposphere (MST) radar. The on line, real time techniques are necessarily simple in order to minimize processing delays. This algorithm examines the individual Doppler spectra which are computed every two to four seconds (for oblique antenna beams). The total spectral power in each individual spectrum is computed by summing all the spectral points. If this integrated power increases from one spectrum to the next by a factor greater than a preselected threshold, then that spectrum is not added to the spectral sum. Succeeding spectra are compared to the last acceptable spectrum. Only a certain maximum number of spectra are allowed to be rejected in succession.

  7. The MST radar technique: Requirements for operational weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    There is a feeling that the accuracy of mesoscale forecasts for spatial scales of less than 1000 km and time scales of less than 12 hours can be improved significantly if resources are applied to the problem in an intensive effort over the next decade. Since the most dangerous and damaging types of weather occur at these scales, there are major advantages to be gained if such a program is successful. The interest in improving short term forecasting is evident. The technology at the present time is sufficiently developed, both in terms of new observing systems and the computing power to handle the observations, to warrant an intensive effort to improve stormscale forecasting. An assessment of the extent to which the so-called MST radar technique fulfills the requirements for an operational mesoscale observing network is reviewed and the extent to which improvements in various types of forecasting could be expected if such a network is put into operation are delineated.

  8. RF Current Drive and Heating Experiments on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Hendries, E. R.; Kaufman, M. C.; Seltzman, A. H.; Diem, S. J.; Harvey, R. W.

    2011-10-01

    Two rf schemes are being studied on the MST reversed field pinch for possible use in current profile control experiments. MHD modeling has shown that externally driven off-axis parallel current can improve stability of the dominant core tearing modes. Coupling experiments at the 100 kW level with lower hybrid (LH) and electron Bernstein waves (EBW) both show soft x-ray emission consistent with rf heating of electrons, and a small driven current in the LH case. Computational work in both cases suggests that, for sufficiently low energetic electron diffusivity, between 2 and 5 MW should drive enough current for mode stabilization. A 1 MW EBW system is under construction, with a compact antenna allowing variable polarization. A decision on higher power LH development will follow tests of a repaired antenna. Status and results of power and coupling tests will be presented.

  9. Transient and chronic seizure-induced inflammation in human focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy; Li, Yi; Tsui, Wai; Friedman, Daniel; Maoz, Anat; Wang, Xiuyuan; Harvey, Patrick; Tanzi, Emily; Morim, Simon; Kang, Yeona; Mosconi, Lisa; Talos, Delia; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Vallhabjosula, Shankar; Thesen, Thomas; Glodzik, Lidia; Ichise, Masanori; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily; de Leon, Mony J; French, Jacqueline

    2016-09-01

    In animal models, inflammation is both a cause and consequence of seizures. Less is known about the role of inflammation in human epilepsy. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using a radiotracer sensitive to brain inflammation in a patient with frontal epilepsy ~36 h after a seizure as well as during a seizure-free period. When statistically compared to a group of 12 matched controls, both of the patient's scans identified a frontal (supplementary motor area) region of increased inflammation corresponding to his clinically defined seizure focus, but the postseizure scan showed significantly greater inflammation intensity and spatial extent. These results provide new information about transient and chronic neuroinflammation in human epilepsy and may be relevant to understanding the process of epileptogenesis and guiding therapy.

  10. Pilomotor seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy: A case report with sequential changes in magnetic resonance imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Tsugiko; Sakurai, Kotaro; Takeda, Youji; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Piloerection is a rare ictal manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy. The case is a 38-year-old man with acute onset of repetitive pilomotor seizures. Lacking other symptoms implicating epileptic seizures, a month passed before he was diagnosed with epilepsy. Ictal electroencephalography revealed rhythmic waves in the right temporal area. Reversible magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were visible in the right hippocampus, right uncus, and right amygdala. The appropriate antiepileptic drug therapy made him seizure-free, but following MRI, he showed right hippocampal atrophy one year after seizure cessation. This case is significant in that we can follow sequential MRI from onset, and it is meaningful for considering the mesial temporal area as involved with piloerection. PMID:25667848

  11. Effects of Multisystemic Therapy through Midlife: A 21.9-Year Follow-Up to a Randomized Clinical Trial with Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Aaron M.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although current evidence suggests that the positive effects of multisystemic therapy (MST) on serious crime reach as far as young adulthood, the longer term impact of MST on criminal and noncriminal outcomes in midlife has not been evaluated. In the present study, the authors examined a broad range of criminal and civil court outcomes…

  12. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chaukimath, S P; Patil, P S

    2015-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393

  13. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

  14. Mst1 promotes cardiac myocyte apoptosis through phosphorylation and inhibition of Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, Dominic P.; Matsuda, Takahisa; Zhai, Peiyong; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Jain, Mohit Raja; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Hippo pathway, evolutionarily conserved from flies to mammals, promotes cell death and inhibits cell proliferation to regulate organ size. The core component of this cascade, Mst1 in mammalian cells, is sufficient to promote apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying both its activation and its ability to elicit cell death remain largely undefined. We here identify a novel signaling cassette in cardiac myocytes consisting of K-Ras, the scaffold RASSF1A and Mst1 that is localized to mitochondria and promotes Mst1 activation in response to oxidative stress. Activated Mst1 phosphorylates Bcl-xL at Ser14, which resides in the BH4 domain, thereby antagonizing Bcl-xL-Bax binding. This, in turn, causes activation of Bax and subsequent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic death. Our findings demonstrate mitochondrial localization of Hippo signaling and identify a novel target of this cascade, Bcl-xL, which is directly modified to promote apoptosis. PMID:24813943

  15. The MST radar technique: A tool for investigations of turbulence spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of the MST radar as a tool for investigating turbulence spectra is discussed. Power spectral measurements using radar data are discussed. The characteristics of stratospheric turbulence are described. A model of the mesoscale turbulent process is developed.

  16. STABLE SR VS 85SR SORPTION FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTIONS BY MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-04-02

    A series of tests were performed to examine the sorption of stable Sr versus the sorption of {sup 85}Sr by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) from simulated waste solutions. Earlier testing indicated a discrepancy between the decontamination factors (DFs) obtained by measuring the stable Sr concentrations by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the {sup 85}Sr activities by gamma spectroscopy. One hypothesis to explain this discrepancy was that the stable Sr and {sup 85}Sr were in different chemical forms in the simulated solutions. Several simulants were prepared using different methods for adding the Sr and performance tests were carried out using MST and mMST to determine the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs with the various simulants. Testing indicated no discrepancy between the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs in tests with these simulants.

  17. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Collaboration in Family Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; McCart, Michael R.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes and illustrates the collaboration strategies used by several family therapies. The strategies used within multisystemic therapy (MST) are emphasized because it has demonstrated high rates of treatment completion and favorable outcomes in multiple clinical trials. Many of the collaboration strategies in family work are common to other forms of evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., reflective listening, empathy, reframing, and displays of authenticity and flexibility); however, some strategies are unique to family systems treatments, such as the identification of strengths across multiple systems in the youth’s social ecology and the maintenance of a family (versus a child) focus during treatment. A case example illustrates collaboration and engagement in the context of MST. PMID:23616297

  20. TESTING OF BASELINE AND LAMINATED FILTER DISKS USING MST AND MMST WITH A PILOT SCALE ROTARY FILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2001-12-19

    Testing was completed to compare the filtration performance of modified monosodium titanate (mMST) with that of monosodium titanate (MST) with the rotary microfilter. In addition, the performance of the new laminated filter disk was compared to that of the original baseline welded filter disk. Results showed that flux rates for mMST exceeded that of MST with both the baseline and laminated filter disks in deployment concentrations of 0.2 g/L of mMST and 0.4 g/L of MST. The filtration rate of the mMST with the laminated filter disk exceeded that of the baseline filter disk. However, the baseline filter disk filtration rate for MST was greater than that of the laminated disk. The measured sample turbidity for all tests was 1.06 NTU or less. A contract was established with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disks and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of laminated filter disks using the same 0.5 micron filter disks. The membrane used for both disk sets was manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected and measured for turbidity.

  1. 28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC-3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775), PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), PORTABLE GUARD SHED, METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER. BACKGROUND CENTER TO RIGHT: STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), LIQUID OXYGEN APRON, SLC-3E MST, TOP OF SLC-3E FUEL STORAGE TANK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children ) Head injury Heart disease Heat illness ( heat intolerance ) High fever Phenylketonuria ( PKU ), which ...

  3. Emulating the Visual Receptive Field Properties of MST Neurons with a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously proposed a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. The model detectors were designed to extract self-translation (heading), self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer, and are arranged in cortical-like heading maps to perform this function. Heading estimation from optic flow has been postulated by some to be implemented within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether MST neurons can fulfill this role because some of their receptive-field properties appear inconsistent with a role in heading estimation. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST single-unit responses with the outputs of model detectors under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the basic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support heading estimation and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses which can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the primate superior temporal sulcus.

  4. Minocycline attenuates microglia activation and blocks the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jayne; Fox, Patrick D; Condello, Carlo; Bartolini, Alyssa; Koh, Sookyong

    2012-05-01

    Innate immunity mediated by microglia appears to play a crucial role in initiating and propagating seizure-induced inflammatory responses. To address the role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy, we first examined the time course of microglia activation following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE) in Cx3cr1(GFP/+) transgenic mice whose microglia are fluorescently labeled. We then determined whether this seizure-induced microglia activation primes the central immune response to overreact and to increase the susceptibility to a second seizure later in life. We used an inhibitor of microglia activation, minocycline, to block the seizure-induced inflammation to determine whether innate immunity plays a causal role in mediating the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizure. First status epilepticus was induced at postnatal day (P) 25 and a second status at P39. KA-SE at P25 caused nearly a two-fold increase in microglia activation within 24h. Significant seizure-induced activation persisted for 7 days and returned to baseline by 14 days. P39 animals with prior exposure to KA-SE not only responded with greater microglial activation in response to "second hit" of KA, but shorter latency to express seizures. Inhibition of seizure-induced inflammation by 7 day minocycline post-treatment abrogated both the exaggerated microglia activation and the increased susceptibility to the second seizure later in life. The priming effect of early-life seizures is accompanied by modified and rapidly reactivated microglia. Our results suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy after SE may be useful to block the epileptogenic process and mitigate the long-term damaging effects of early-life seizures. PMID:22366182

  5. The effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and ictal perfusion changes in amygdala kindled rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cleeren, Evy; Premereur, Elsie; Casteels, Cindy; Goffin, Karolien; Janssen, Peter; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are network-level phenomena. Hence, epilepsy may be regarded as a circuit-level disorder that cannot be understood outside this context. Better insight into the effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and the manner in which seizure activity spreads could lead to specifically-tailored therapies for epilepsy. We applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in two rhesus monkeys until these animals displayed consistent stage IV seizures. At this stage, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala by means of electrical microstimulation during fMRI (EM-fMRI). In addition, we imaged changes in perfusion during a seizure using ictal SPECT perfusion imaging. The spatial overlap between the connectivity network and the ictal perfusion network was assessed both at the regional level, by calculating Dice coefficients using anatomically defined regions of interest, and at the voxel level. The kindled amygdala was extensively connected to bilateral cortical and subcortical structures, which in many cases were connected multisynaptically to the amygdala. At the regional level, the spatial extents of many of these fMRI activations and deactivations corresponded to the respective increases and decreases in perfusion imaged during a stage IV seizure. At the voxel level, however, some regions showed residual seizure-specific activity (not overlapping with the EM-fMRI activations) or fMRI-specific activation (not overlapping with the ictal SPECT activations), indicating that frequently, only a part of a region anatomically connected to the seizure onset zone participated in seizure propagation. Thus, EM-fMRI in the amygdala of electrically-kindled monkeys reveals widespread areas that are often connected multisynaptically to the seizure focus. Seizure activity appears to spread, to a large extent, via these connected areas.

  6. The effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and ictal perfusion changes in amygdala kindled rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cleeren, Evy; Premereur, Elsie; Casteels, Cindy; Goffin, Karolien; Janssen, Peter; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are network-level phenomena. Hence, epilepsy may be regarded as a circuit-level disorder that cannot be understood outside this context. Better insight into the effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and the manner in which seizure activity spreads could lead to specifically-tailored therapies for epilepsy. We applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in two rhesus monkeys until these animals displayed consistent stage IV seizures. At this stage, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala by means of electrical microstimulation during fMRI (EM-fMRI). In addition, we imaged changes in perfusion during a seizure using ictal SPECT perfusion imaging. The spatial overlap between the connectivity network and the ictal perfusion network was assessed both at the regional level, by calculating Dice coefficients using anatomically defined regions of interest, and at the voxel level. The kindled amygdala was extensively connected to bilateral cortical and subcortical structures, which in many cases were connected multisynaptically to the amygdala. At the regional level, the spatial extents of many of these fMRI activations and deactivations corresponded to the respective increases and decreases in perfusion imaged during a stage IV seizure. At the voxel level, however, some regions showed residual seizure-specific activity (not overlapping with the EM-fMRI activations) or fMRI-specific activation (not overlapping with the ictal SPECT activations), indicating that frequently, only a part of a region anatomically connected to the seizure onset zone participated in seizure propagation. Thus, EM-fMRI in the amygdala of electrically-kindled monkeys reveals widespread areas that are often connected multisynaptically to the seizure focus. Seizure activity appears to spread, to a large extent, via these connected areas. PMID:27489773

  7. Transient inhibitory seizures mimicking crescendo TIAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Lerner, A

    1990-01-01

    Somatic inhibitory seizures are thought to occur rarely. We describe a patient with somatic inhibitory seizures who initially presented with a clinical picture of crescendo transient ischemic attacks. He did not improve with anticoagulation, but the episodes ceased promptly after the administration of an anticonvulsant.

  8. Search and Seizure in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

  9. A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

  10. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with “n = 1 case study research”. Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  11. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with "n = 1 case study research". Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient's sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  12. Epileptic seizure induced by fennel essential oil.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2011-09-01

    An epileptic seizure is reported in a 38-year-old woman, known to be an epileptic patient. Although she was under antiepileptic treatment and had well-controlled epilepsy, she developed a typical generalised tonic-clonic seizure and remained unconscious for 45 minutes following ingestion of a number of cakes containing an unknown quantity of fennel essential oil. Involuntary diarrhoea accompanied her epileptic seizure. This reported case recalls the fact that fennel essential oil can induce seizures and that this oil should probably be avoided by patients with epilepsy. Labelling of products with fennel essential oil should refer to the risk of seizures, particularly for patients with epilepsy. An awareness programme should involve all stakeholders affected by this issue.

  13. Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.

    PubMed

    Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2008-03-01

    A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case.

  14. Effect of electroconvulsive seizures on cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Maria; Grahm, Matilda; Ekstrand, Joakim; Höglund, Peter; Johansson, Mikael; Tingström, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of electroconvulsive therapy, strongly stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis, but it is not known how this relates to the therapeutic effect or to the unwanted cognitive side effects. Recent findings suggest that neurogenesis might be important for flexible learning in changing environments. We hypothesize that animals receiving ECS treatment, which induces hippocampal neurogenesis, will show enhanced cognitive flexibility compared with controls. We have utilized a touch screen-based cognitive test (location discrimination (LD) task) to assess how five consecutive ECS treatments affect cognitive flexibility (measured as reversal of cognitive strategy) as well as spatial pattern separation ability. ECS-treated animals performed more reversals in the LD task earlier than controls over the 9 experimental weeks irrespective of spatial separation of visual stimuli, indicating an enhanced cognitive flexibility but unaffected pattern separation ability after ECS. We observed no correlation between hippocampal neurogenesis and the number of performed reversals during the last experimental week. This is the first study to elucidate the effect of ECS on cognitive flexibility. Our results indicate that ECS improves cognitive flexibility without affecting spatial pattern separation ability. Whether cognitive flexibility is enhanced via neurogenesis or other ECS-modulated processes, remains unknown. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigation of the fast ion beta limit in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, William; Eilerman, Scott; Reusch, Joshua; Koliner, Jonathan; Anderson, Jay; Lin, Liang; Clark, Jerry; Liu, Deyong

    2013-10-01

    Fast ion orbits in the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration are well ordered and have low orbit loss, even considering the stochasticity of the magnetic field generated by multiple tearing modes. Purely classical TRANSP modeling of a 1MW tangentially injected hydrogen neutral beam in MST deuterium plasmas predicts a core-localized fast ion density that can be up to 25% of the electron density and a fast ion beta of many times the local thermal beta. However, neutral particle analysis (NPA) of an NBI-driven mode (presumably driven by a fast ion pressure gradient) clearly shows transport of core-localized fast ions and a saturated fast ion density. The TRANSP modeling is presumed valid until the onset of the beam driven mode and gives an initial estimate of the volume-averaged fast ion beta in the range of 1-2% (local core value up to 10%). Distinguishing between an experimental fast ion number limit or fast ion beta limit is performed by scanning both the magnetic field strength and the NBI energy while observing conditions at the onset of the beam driven mode. Upcoming experiments will further investigate the empirical fast ion beta limit through the use of a deuterium beam into deuterium plasma which will allow for the NPA and neutron flux signals to provide a local and global fast ion beta measurement respectively. Work supported by US DoE.

  16. Measurements of the Hall Dynamo in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, J. C.; Almagri, A. F.; McCollam, K. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuation-induced emfs correlated with tearing mode activity govern the relaxation process in RFP plasmas. Previous radial profile measurements in the edge of MST plasmas (ra/> 0 . 8) revealed a competition of the Hall, 1 ne < j ~ × b ~ >|| , and MHD, < v ~ × b ~ >|| , terms in Ohm's law. A robust magnetic probe allows measurements of the Hall-dynamo profile much deeper in the plasma (ra > 0 . 4) for low current conditions. The mode composition of the dynamo emf is computed using pseudospectral (cross-correlation) analysis with the spectrum measured from a toroidal magnetic array at the plasma surface. Extended MHD simulations with parameters comparable to the experiment have been performed using NIMROD. They predict complex variation of the Hall and MHD dynamo profiles across the plasma radius. Measurements of the Hall-dynamo profile can inform future computational work in addition to directing future experimental measurements of the MHD term. Work supported by U.S. DOE and NSF.

  17. Data processing techniques used with MST radars: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The data processing methods used in high power radar probing of the middle atmosphere are examined. The radar acts as a spatial filter on the small scale refractivity fluctuations in the medium. The characteristics of the received signals are related to the statistical properties of these fluctuations. A functional outline of the components of a radar system is given. Most computation intensive tasks are carried out by the processor. The processor computes a statistical function of the received signals, simultaneously for a large number of ranges. The slow fading of atmospheric signals is used to reduce the data input rate to the processor by coherent integration. The inherent range resolution of the radar experiments can be improved significant with the use of pseudonoise phase codes to modulate the transmitted pulses and a corresponding decoding operation on the received signals. Commutability of the decoding and coherent integration operations is used to obtain a significant reduction in computations. The limitations of the processors are outlined. At the next level of data reduction, the measured function is parameterized by a few spectral moments that can be related to physical processes in the medium. The problems encountered in estimating the spectral moments in the presence of strong ground clutter, external interference, and noise are discussed. The graphical and statistical analysis of the inferred parameters are outlined. The requirements for special purpose processors for MST radars are discussed.

  18. System studies of rf current drive for MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Diem, S.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Hendries, E. R.; Kaufman, M. C.; Seltzman, A. H.; Thomas, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Two rf schemes are being studied on the MST reversed field pinch for their potential in current profile control experiments. MHD modeling has shown that a substantial externally-driven off axis parallel current can improve stability of the dominant core tearing modes. A radially localized axisymmetric population of fast electrons has been observed by SXR emission during LH injection ( 100kW at 800MHz), and is consistent with CQL3D modeling which predicts a small driven current. Computational work suggests that doubling the input power will statistically improve the LH-induced SXR signal to background ratio, and that about 2MW of injected power (an order of magnitude increase) will drive enough current for stabilization of tearing modes. Additionally, a 1 MW 5.5 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) experiment is under construction, which utilizes a very simple and compact antenna compatible with the demands of the RFP. EBW allows access to electron cyclotron heating and current drive in the overdense plasma. Coupling of the external electromagnetic wave to the EBW has been demonstrated, and initial tests at ˜100kW power have produced a small, localized xray flux consistent with rf heating and high diffusivity of fast electrons. Computational work is currently underway to answer the very important questions of how much power is required, and what level of electron diffusivity is tolerable, to generate a consequential amount of EBW current.

  19. Failure of the Nemo Trial: Bumetanide Is a Promising Agent to Treat Many Brain Disorders but Not Newborn Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Damier, Philippe; Lemonnier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The diuretic bumetanide failed to treat acute seizures due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn babies and was associated with hearing loss (NEMO trial, Pressler et al., 2015). On the other hand, clinical and experimental observations suggest that the diuretic might provide novel therapy for many brain disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, Rett syndrome, and Parkinson disease. Here, we discuss the differences between the pathophysiology of severe recurrent seizures in the neonates and neurological and psychiatric disorders stressing the uniqueness of severe seizures in newborn in comparison to other disorders. PMID:27147965

  20. Withdrawal of valproic acid treatment during pregnancy and seizure outcome: Observations from EURAP.

    PubMed

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Craig, John; Lindhout, Dick; Perucca, Emilio; Sabers, Anne; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Vajda, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Based on data from the EURAP observational International registry of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and pregnancy, we assessed changes in seizure control and subsequent AED changes in women who underwent attempts to withdraw valproic acid (VPA) during the first trimester of pregnancy. Applying Bayesian statistics, we compared seizure control in pregnancies where VPA was withdrawn (withdrawal group, n = 93), switched to another AED (switch group, n = 38), or maintained (maintained-therapy group, n = 1,588) during the first trimester. The probability of primarily or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) was lower in the maintained-therapy group compared with the other two groups, both in the first trimester and for the entire duration of pregnancy. GTCS were twice as common during pregnancy in the withdrawal (33%) and switch groups (29%) compared with the maintained-treatment group (16%). Limitations in the data and study design do not allow to establish a cause-effect relationship between treatment changes and seizure outcome, but these observations provide a signal that withdrawal of, or switch from, VPA during the first trimester could lead to loss of seizure control, and highlight the need for a specifically designed prospective observational study. PMID:27319360

  1. Do reflex seizures and spontaneous seizures form a continuum? - triggering factors and possible common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Irmen, Friederike; Wehner, Tim; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Recent changes in the understanding and classification of reflex seizures have fuelled a debate on triggering mechanisms of seizures and their conceptual organization. Previous studies and patient reports have listed extrinsic and intrinsic triggers, albeit their multifactorial and dynamic nature is poorly understood. This paper aims to review literature on extrinsic and intrinsic seizure triggers and to discuss common mechanisms among them. Among self-reported seizure triggers, emotional stress is most frequently named. Reflex seizures are typically associated with extrinsic sensory triggers; however, intrinsic cognitive or proprioceptive triggers have also been assessed. The identification of a trigger underlying a seizure may be more difficult if it is intrinsic and complex, and if triggering mechanisms are multifactorial. Therefore, since observability of triggers varies and triggers are also found in non-reflex seizures, the present concept of reflex seizures may be questioned. We suggest the possibility of a conceptual continuum between reflex and spontaneous seizures rather than a dichotomy and discuss evidence to the notion that to some extent most seizures might be triggered.

  2. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  3. Acute and Chronic Electroconvulsive Seizures (ECS) Differentially Regulate the Expression of Epigenetic Machinery in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Pusalkar, Madhavi; Ghosh, Shreya; Jaggar, Minal; Husain, Basma Fatima Anwar; Galande, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive seizure treatment is a fast-acting antidepressant therapy that evokes rapid transcriptional, neurogenic, and behavioral changes. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to altered gene regulation, which underlies the neurogenic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive seizure. We hypothesized that electroconvulsive seizure may modulate the expression of epigenetic machinery, thus establishing potential alterations in the epigenetic landscape. Methods: We examined the influence of acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure on the gene expression of histone modifiers, namely histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone (lysine) demethylases as well as DNA modifying enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins in the hippocampi of adult male Wistar rats using quantitative real time-PCR analysis. Further, we examined the influence of acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure on global and residue-specific histone acetylation and methylation levels within the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in the cellular and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive seizure. Results: Acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure induced a primarily unique, and in certain cases bidirectional, regulation of histone and DNA modifiers, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins, with an overlapping pattern of gene regulation restricted to Sirt4, Mll3, Jmjd3, Gadd45b, Tet2, and Tet3. Global histone acetylation and methylation levels were predominantly unchanged, with the exception of a significant decline in H3K9 acetylation in the hippocampus following chronic electroconvulsive seizure. Conclusions: Electroconvulsive seizure treatment evokes the transcriptional regulation of several histone and DNA modifiers, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins within the hippocampus, with a predominantly distinct pattern of regulation induced by acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure. PMID

  4. Dual effects of limbic seizures on psychosis-relevant behaviors shown by nucleus accumbens kindling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L. Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background A paradox in epilepsy and psychiatry is that temporal lobe epilepsy is often predisposed to schizophrenic-like psychosis, whereas convulsive therapy can relieve schizophrenic symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is a key structure in mediating postictal psychosis induced by a hippocampal electrographic seizure. Objective/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesis that accumbens kindling cumulating in a single (1-time) or repeated (5-times) convulsive seizures have different effects on animal models of psychosis. Methods Electrical stimulation at 60 Hz was applied to nucleus accumbens to evoke afterdischarges until one, or five, convulsive seizures that involved the hind limbs (stage 5 seizures) were attained. Behavioral tests, performed at 3 days after the last seizure, included gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and prepulse inhibition to an acoustic startle response (PPI), tested without drug injection or after ketamine (3 mg/kg s.c.) injection, as well as locomotion induced by ketamine or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.p.). Results Compared to non-kindled control rats, 1-time, but not 5-times, convulsive seizures induced PPI deficit and decreased gating of hippocampal AEP, without drug injection. Compared to non-kindled rats, 5-times, but not 1-time, convulsive seizures antagonized ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion, ketamine-induced PPI deficit and AEP gating decrease. However, both 1- and 5-times convulsive seizures, significantly enhanced methamphetamine-induced locomotion as compared to non-kindled rats. Conclusions Accumbens kindling ending with 1 convulsive seizure may induce schizophrenic-like behaviors, while repeated (≥ 5) convulsive seizures induced by accumbens kindling may have therapeutic effects on dopamine independent psychosis. PMID:27267861

  5. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  6. On the nature of seizure dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical

  7. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  8. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  9. Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome with Seizures.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Sunil; Nayan, Swati

    2016-04-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. The disease is caused by mutations in gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and patients have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We present an 8-year-old boy with progressive muscle dystonia, neuroregression, frequent fall and multiple injury marks of different stages. Seizures are rare with PANK2. This child had seizure onset at 4 years of age and seizure free on valproate and levetricetam. The CT scan showed tiger eye appearance and mutations on PANK2 gene. PMID:27303611

  10. MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2014-02-12

    Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ∼ 10{sup 4}) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ∼ 3×10{sup 6}) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.

  11. MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Diem, S.; Forest, C. B.; Harvey, R. W.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ˜ 104) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ˜ 3×106) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.

  12. An Independent Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Non-Court-Referred Adolescents with Serious Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom; Ngo, Victoria K.; Caron, Annalise; Gallop, Robert; Guth, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent conduct problems exact serious social as well as personal costs, and effective treatments are essential. One of the most widely disseminated and effective programs for the treatment of serious conduct problems in adolescents is Multisystemic Therapy (MST). However, most evaluations of MST have involved the developers of MST. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an independent evaluation of MST, with non-court-referred adolescents with conduct problems. Method Participants were 164 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years who were recruited from self-contained behavior intervention classrooms in public schools. Adolescents and their families were randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual. Outcome measures assessed conduct problems, school functioning, and court records of criminal behavior. Participants were followed for 18 months after baseline using parent, adolescent, and teacher reports; arrest data were collected for 2.5 years post-baseline. Results Two of four primary outcome measures focused on externalizing problems showed significant treatment effects favoring MST. Several secondary and intervention targets pertaining to family functioning and parent psychopathology showed positive effects of MST, and no negative effects were identified. Conclusions Results provide some further support for the effectiveness of MST, although smaller effect sizes than previous studies also suggest the complexity of successful dissemination, particularly to non-court-referred populations. PMID:23937347

  13. DECONTAMINATION FACTORS AND FILTRATION FLUX IMPACT TO ARP AT REDUCED MST CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-06-27

    Tank Farm and Closure Engineering is evaluating changes to the Actinide Removal Process facility operations to decrease the MST concentration from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L and the contact time from 12 hours to between 6 and 8 hours. For this evaluation, SRNL reviewed previous datasets investigating the performance of MST at 0.2 g/L in salt solutions ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration. In general, reducing the MST concentration from 0.4 to 0.2 g/L and increasing the ionic strength from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration will decrease the measured decontamination factors for plutonium, neptunium, uranium and strontium. The decontamination factors as well as single standard deviation values for each sorbate are reported. These values are applicable within the sorbate and sodium concentrations used in the experimental measurements. Decreasing the MST concentration in the ARP from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L will produce an increase in the filter flux, and could lead to longer operating times between filter cleaning. The increase in flux is a function of a number of operating parameters, and is difficult to quantify. However, it is estimated that the reduction in MST could result in a reduction of filtration time of up to 20%.

  14. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a)...

  15. Mst1 Kinase Regulates the Actin-Bundling Protein L-Plastin To Promote T Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolu; Wang, Xinxin; Todd, Elizabeth M; Jaeger, Emily R; Vella, Jennifer L; Mooren, Olivia L; Feng, Yunfeng; Hu, Jiancheng; Cooper, John A; Morley, Sharon Celeste; Huang, Yina H

    2016-09-01

    Exploring the mechanisms controlling lymphocyte trafficking is essential for understanding the function of the immune system and the pathophysiology of immunodeficiencies. The mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) has been identified as a critical signaling mediator of T cell migration, and loss of Mst1 results in immunodeficiency disease. Although Mst1 is known to support T cell migration through induction of cell polarization and lamellipodial formation, the downstream effectors of Mst1 are incompletely defined. Mice deficient for the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) have phenotypes similar to mice lacking Mst1, including decreased T cell polarization, lamellipodial formation, and cell migration. We therefore asked whether LPL functions downstream of Mst1. The regulatory N-terminal domain of LPL contains a consensus Mst1 phosphorylation site at Thr(89) We found that Mst1 can phosphorylate LPL in vitro and that Mst1 can interact with LPL in cells. Removal of the Mst1 phosphorylation site by mutating Thr(89) to Ala impaired localization of LPL to the actin-rich lamellipodia of T cells. Expression of the T89A LPL mutant failed to restore migration of LPL-deficient T cells in vitro. Furthermore, expression of T89A LPL in LPL-deficient hematopoietic cells, using bone marrow chimeras, failed to rescue the phenotype of decreased thymic egress. These results identify LPL as a key effector of Mst1 and establish a novel mechanism linking a signaling intermediate to an actin-binding protein critical to T cell migration. PMID:27465533

  16. Initiation, Propagation, and Termination of Partial (Focal) Seizures

    PubMed Central

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiological patterns that correlate with partial (focal) seizures are well defined in humans by standard electroencephalogram (EEG) and presurgical depth electrode recordings. Seizure patterns with similar features are reproduced in animal models of partial seizures and epilepsy. However, the network determinants that support interictal spikes, as well as the initiation, progression, and termination of seizures, are still elusive. Recent findings show that inhibitory networks are prominently involved at the onset of these seizures, and that extracellular changes in potassium contribute to initiate and sustain seizure progression. The end of a partial seizure correlates with an increase in network synchronization, which possibly involves both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:26134843

  17. Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

  18. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  19. Nonphotosensitive video game-induced partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Shigematsu, H; Kubota, H; Inoue, Y; Fujiwara, T; Yagi, K; Seino, M

    1995-08-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a ring 20 chromosome anomaly whose complex partial seizures (CPS), presumably of frontal lobe origin, were often induced by playing video games. Neither photosensitivity nor pattern sensitivity was observed. An intensive video-EEG investigation showed that video games as well as mental calculation elicited rhythmic runs of bilateral high-voltage slow waves, which eventually evolved into ictal discharges. This case suggests that higher brain functions can be involved in seizure induction.

  20. A beta-thalassemia lesion abolishes the same Mst II site as the sickle mutation.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Alberti, A; Kan, Y W

    1983-11-25

    Digestion of DNA from a patient with homozygous beta zero thalassemia from Calabria, Italy with the restriction endonuclease Mst II produced a pattern similar to the one obtained with sickle cell trait DNA in that the Mst II site at the beta 6 position on one chromosome was abolished. We cloned the DNA from this beta-thalassemia chromosome and performed sequence analysis. The deletion of a single nucleotide (A) at the GAG codon of the beta 6 position results in a frame shift and early beta-globin chain termination. This mutation occurs on a chromosome with a haplotype similar to two other Mediterranean beta-thalassemia lesions. The Mst II enzyme is useful for prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in this population.

  1. Eye position effects on the remapped memory trace of visual motion in cortical area MST.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Naoko; Kawano, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    After a saccade, most MST neurons respond to moving visual stimuli that had existed in their post-saccadic receptive fields and turned off before the saccade ("trans-saccadic memory remapping"). Neuronal responses in higher visual processing areas are known to be modulated in relation to gaze angle to represent image location in spatiotopic coordinates. In the present study, we investigated the eye position effects after saccades and found that the gaze angle modulated the visual sensitivity of MST neurons after saccades both to the actually existing visual stimuli and to the visual memory traces remapped by the saccades. We suggest that two mechanisms, trans-saccadic memory remapping and gaze modulation, work cooperatively in individual MST neurons to represent a continuous visual world. PMID:26903084

  2. Genetic effects on sleep/wake variation of seizures

    PubMed Central

    Winawer, Melodie R.; Shih, Jerry; Beck, Erin S.; Hunter, Jessica E.; Epstein, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective There is a complex bidirectional relationship between sleep and epilepsy. Sleep/wake timing of seizures has been investigated for several individual seizure types and syndromes, but few large-scale studies of the timing of seizures exist in people with varied epilepsy types. In addition, the genetic contributions to seizure timing have not been well studied. Methods Sleep/wake timing of seizures was determined for 1,395 subjects in 546 families enrolled in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP). We examined seizure timing among subjects with different epilepsy types, seizure types, epilepsy syndromes, and localization. We also examined the familial aggregation of sleep/wake occurrence of seizures. Results Seizures in nonacquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) were more likely to occur during sleep than seizures in generalized epilepsy (GE), for both convulsive (odds ratio [OR] 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–7.52) and nonconvulsive seizures (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.48–7.21). Seizures occurring within 1 h of awakening were more likely to occur in patients with GE than with NAFE for both convulsive (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.54– 3.39) and nonconvulsive (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04–2.66) seizures. Frontal onset seizures were more likely than temporal onset seizures to occur during sleep. Sleep/wake timing of seizures in first-degree relatives predicted timing of seizures in the proband. Significance We found that sleep/wake timing of seizures is associated with both epilepsy syndrome and seizure type. In addition, we provide the first evidence for a genetic contribution to sleep/wake timing of seizures in a large group of individuals with common epilepsy syndromes. PMID:26948972

  3. Drosophila as a model for intractable epilepsy: gilgamesh suppresses seizures in para(bss1) heterozygote flies.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Iris C; Rusan, Zeid M; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na(+) channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na(+) channel gain-of-function mutant para(bss1) that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with para(bss1), seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of para(bss1)/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

  4. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures — A case report

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J.; Reiter, Joel M.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a “broken” self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed. PMID:25667872

  5. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures - A case report.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.

  6. Seizure or syncope: lessons over time.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Volney L

    2012-03-01

    A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed left temporal slowing with sharp features. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI revealed two moderately enhancing focal lesions within the left frontal and temporal regions. These findings raised the possibility of an underlying seizure focus. Repeat imaging studies of this patient 1 month later, however, demonstrated resolution of these findings and an area of encephalomalacia, consistent with a traumatic coup contrecoup injury. A repeat EEG was normal. Therefore, the cause of the loss of consciousness was due to syncope with the consequent head injury giving rise to an isolated seizure. Understanding the underlying cause of a seizure is important in dictating treatment. In this setting the patient was not initiated on seizure medication and has done well. PMID:22245277

  7. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  8. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  9. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  10. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  11. Two PAK kinase genes, CHM1 and MST20, have distinct functions in Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Xue, Chaoyang; Bruno, Kenneth; Nishimura, Marie; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2004-05-01

    In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, the Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is essential for appressorium formation and infectious growth. PMK1 is homologous to yeast Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases that are known to be regulated by the Ste20 PAK kinase for activating the pheromone response and filamentation pathways. In this study, we isolated and characterized two PAK genes, CHM1 and MST20, in M. grisea. Mutants disrupted in MST20 were reduced in aerial hyphae growth and conidiation, but normal in growth rate, appressorium formation, penetration, and plant infection. In chm1 deletion mutants, growth, conidiation, and appressorium formation were reduced significantly. Even though appressoria formed by chm1 mutants were defective in penetration, chm1 mutants were able to grow invasively on rice leaves and colonize through wounds. The chm1 mutants were altered in conidiogenesis and produced conidia with abnormal morphology. Hyphae of chm1 mutants had normal septation, but the length of hyphal compartments was reduced. On nutritionally poor oatmeal agar, chm1 mutants were unstable and produced sectors that differed from original chm1 mutants in growth rate, conidiation, or colony morphology. However, none of the monoconidial cultures derived from these spontaneous sectors were normal in appressorial penetration and fungal pathogenesis. These data suggest that MST20 is dispensable for plant infection in M. grisea, but CHM1 plays a critical role in appressorium formation and penetration. Both mst20 and chm1 deletion mutants were phenotypically different from the pmk1 mutant that is defective in appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. It is likely that MST20 and CHM1 individually play no critical role in activating the PMK1 MAP kinase pathway during appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. However, CHM1 appears to be essential for appressorial penetration and CHM1 and MST20 may have redundant functions in M. grisea. PMID:15141959

  12. A hierarchical approach for online temporal lobe seizure detection in long-term intracranial EEG recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Pin-Tzu; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiueh, Herming

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Around 1% of the world's population is affected by epilepsy, and nearly 25% of patients cannot be treated effectively by available therapies. The presence of closed-loop seizure-triggered stimulation provides a promising solution for these patients. Realization of fast, accurate, and energy-efficient seizure detection is the key to such implants. In this study, we propose a two-stage on-line seizure detection algorithm with low-energy consumption for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Approach. Multi-channel signals are processed through independent component analysis and the most representative independent component (IC) is automatically selected to eliminate artifacts. Seizure-like intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) segments are fast detected in the first stage of the proposed method and these seizures are confirmed in the second stage. The conditional activation of the second-stage signal processing reduces the computational effort, and hence energy, since most of the non-seizure events are filtered out in the first stage. Main results. Long-term iEEG recordings of 11 patients who suffered from TLE were analyzed via leave-one-out cross validation. The proposed method has a detection accuracy of 95.24%, a false alarm rate of 0.09/h, and an average detection delay time of 9.2 s. For the six patients with mesial TLE, a detection accuracy of 100.0%, a false alarm rate of 0.06/h, and an average detection delay time of 4.8 s can be achieved. The hierarchical approach provides a 90% energy reduction, yielding effective and energy-efficient implementation for real-time epileptic seizure detection. Significance. An on-line seizure detection method that can be applied to monitor continuous iEEG signals of patients who suffered from TLE was developed. An IC selection strategy to automatically determine the most seizure-related IC for seizure detection was also proposed. The system has advantages of (1) high detection accuracy, (2) low false alarm, (3) short

  13. Seizures as a Consequence of Hyperviscosity Syndrome in Two Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti

    2016-01-01

    Serum hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) was documented in two dogs with canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and seizures as the major clinical complaint. In both cases, laboratory abnormalities included mild non-regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperproteinemia with monoclonal gammopathy, and marked serum hyperviscosity. CanL was diagnosed using cytology in one case and indirect immunofluorescence assay and conventional polymerase chain reaction in the second. Specific therapy with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol(c) led to short-term remission in both dogs and normalization of serum viscosity. Although dogs rarely develop HVS, it should be suspected if hyperproteinemia and monoclonal gammopathy are present. Since CanL manifests with a variety of clinical presentations, including seizures resulting from HVS-induced central nervous system hypoxia, it should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in animals with seizures as a primary presenting sign. PMID:26808431

  14. Unseen battles: the recognition, assessment, and treatment issues of men with military sexual trauma (MST).

    PubMed

    Morris, E Ellen; Smith, Julia C; Farooqui, Sharjeel Yonus; Surís, Alina M

    2014-04-01

    While there is increasing attention on sexual violence in the military, the focus has been primarily on women. There is very little information regarding the effects of and treatment for men who experience military sexual trauma (MST). The aim of this article is to consolidate the known information about men with MST including prevalence rates, factors that affect those rates, gender differences, medical and psychiatric sequelae, and finally a review of two experimental studies. Implications for future research, practice, and policy are also discussed.

  15. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  16. Development of a Pulse-Burst Laser System for Fast Thomson Scattering on the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.

    2006-10-01

    A ``pulse-burst'' laser system is being developed for addition to the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST RFP. This laser will produce a burst of up to 200 approximately 1 J Q-switched pulses at repetition frequencies 5-250 kHz. The planned laser system will operate at 1064 nm and is based on existing Nd:YAG systems used to study fluid dynamics [Brian Thurow et al., Appl. Opt. 43, 5064 (2004)]. The burst train of laser pulses will enable the study of Te and ne dynamics in a single MST shot, and with ensembling, will enable correlation of Te and ne fluctuations with other fluctuating quantities.

  17. Overview of on-line data processing for MST radars (keynote paper), part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    The most important aspects of the processing of MST radar data are discussed. The important points of on-line data processing for MST radar are reviewed. The goals of the on-line and now almost exclusively digital processing, procedures are to achieve good altitude resolution and coverage, good frequency (Doppler shift) resolution, and good time resolution, while avoiding, the problems of range and frequency ambiguity (aliasing), ground clutter, and interference. Achieving optimum results requires pulse compression and some coherent integration. The first allows full utilization of the average power capability of the transmitter and the second reduces the computing requirements.

  18. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was −37.9% in the active and −17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

  19. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Nakamura, Takuji; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Kohma, Masashi; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The PANSY radar is the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic region. It is a large VHF monostatic pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz, consisting of an active phased array of 1045 Yagi antennas and an equivalent number of transmit-receive (TR) modules with a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar was installed at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E) in early 2011, and is currently operating with 228 antennas and modules. This paper reports the project's scientific objectives, technical descriptions, and the preliminary results of observations made to date. The radar is designed to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Moreover, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar which extends from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. From engineering points of view, the radar had to overcome restrictions related to the severe environments of Antarctic research, such as very strong winds, limited power availability, short construction periods, and limited manpower availability. We resolved these problems through the adoption of specially designed class-E amplifiers, light weight and tough antenna elements, and versatile antenna arrangements. Although the radar is currently operating with only about a quarter of its full designed system components, we have already obtained interesting results on the Antarctic troposphere, stratosphere and

  20. Bromide therapy in refractory canine idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Podell, M; Fenner, W R

    1993-01-01

    On a retrospective basis, the response to adding chronic oral bromide (BR) to phenobarbital (PB) administration in 23 refractory canine idiopathic epileptics between 1986 and 1991 was studied. The mean age for an observed first seizure was 24 months (range 7 to 72) for all dogs. Thirteen (57%) dogs were males with no breed predisposition observed. All dogs were diagnosed as having idiopathic epilepsy based on normal metabolic and neurologic diagnostic evaluations. Dogs were evaluated before BR therapy for a mean time of 22 months (range 5 to 75 months). Seventeen dogs (74%) received multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before BR therapy. All animals were maintained on PB at least 4 months before the onset of BR therapy, with a mean trough serum concentration of 37.8 mcg/mL and no improvement in seizure severity or recurrence. Twelve dogs presented with generalized isolated seizures and 11 with generalized cluster seizures (two or more seizures within 24 hours) as their first seizure. The effects of BR therapy were evaluated for a mean time of 15 months (range 4 to 33), with 17 dogs (74%) followed for 12 or more months. The mean BR serum concentration for the 0 to 4 months time period was 117 mg/dL compared with 161 mg/dL for the greater than 4 months period. Overall, response to BR therapy was associated with a reduction in the total number of seizures in 83% of the dogs when compared with their respective pre-BR period. For those followed for 1 year after BR, there was a 53% reduction in the number of seizures compared with the previous 12 months. Furthermore, owners reported a decrease in seizure intensity (65% of dogs) and change to a less severe seizure type (22% of dogs) in those dogs that continued to have seizures. Seizure-free status was obtained in 26% of the dogs with protection continuing up to 31 months in one dog. No correlations could be determined between response to BR and either age of onset of the first seizure or interval from the first AED

  1. The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: Synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, M.K.; Wright, L.K.M.; Stone, M.F.; Schwartz, J.E.; Kelley, N.R.; Moffett, M.C.; Lee, R.B.; Lumley, L.A.

    2012-03-15

    Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A}) receptors. However, seizure activity itself causes the endocytosis of GABA{sub A} receptors and diminishes the inhibitory effects of GABA, thereby reducing the efficacy of DZP. Treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist prevents this reduction in GABAergic inhibition. We examined the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist caramiphen edisylate (CED; 20 mg/kg, im) and DZP (10 mg/kg, sc), administered both separately and in combination, at 10, 20 or 30 min following seizure onset for attenuation of the deleterious effects associated with GD exposure (1.2 LD{sub 50}; 132 μg/kg, sc) in rats. Outcomes evaluated were seizure duration, neuropathology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, body weight, and temperature. We also examined the use of the reversible AChE inhibitor physostigmine (PHY; 0.2 mg/kg, im) as a therapy for GD exposure. We found that the combination of CED and DZP yielded a synergistic effect, shortening seizure durations and reducing neuropathology compared to DZP alone, when treatment was delayed 20–30 min after seizure onset. PHY reduced the number of animals that developed seizures, protected a fraction of AChE from GD inhibition, and attenuated post-exposure body weight and temperature loss independent of CED and/or DZP treatment. We conclude that: 1) CED and DZP treatment offers considerable protection against the effects of GD and 2) PHY is a potential therapeutic option following GD exposure, albeit with a limited window of opportunity. -- Highlights: ► Soman (GD) produced seizure activity resulting in neuropathology in rats. ► Tx: caramiphen (CED) and/or diazepam (DZP) @ 10, 20 or 30 min after seizure onset. ► CED/DZP showed superior anticonvulsant and neuroprotective capacity. ► Physostigmine (PHY) was

  2. Focal inhibitory seizure with prolonged deficit in adult Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aupy, Jerome; Bonnet, Charlotte; Arnould, Jean-Simon; Fernandez, Philippe; Marchal, Cecile; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder often related to varying degrees of motor impairment. The phenomenon of prolonged ictal paresis is a rare seizure sign that can be due to lesions affecting the centro-parietal lobe. Focal inhibitory motor seizures can be difficult to differentiate from other clinical entities such as stroke, migraine or postictal paresis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old patient suffering from Sturge-Weber syndrome, admitted due to prolonged right-sided hemiparesis following a usual seizure. Repeated EEGs during the prolonged deficit showed only intermittent left fronto-parietal sharp waves. (99m)Tc HMPAO-brain SPECT performed seven days after the last seizure showed a vast area of parieto-occipital hyperperfusion in the left hemisphere. Aggressive antiepileptic therapy dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and scintigraphic images, which corroborated the diagnosis of ictal paresis. This case highlights the role of SPECT in the evaluation of Sturge-Weber syndrome, not only to investigate progressive neurological deterioration, but also exacerbation of seizures or prolonged neurological deficits. In fact, it may be possible to document ongoing epileptic activity using SPECT, despite a non-contributory EEG, which may be of help in adapting a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26235101

  3. Antenatal treatment in two Dutch families with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    PubMed

    Bok, Levinus A; Been, Jasper V; Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Rijper, Elisabeth A M; Willemsen, Michèl A

    2010-03-01

    Incidental reports suggest that antenatal treatment of pyridoxine dependent seizures (PDS) may improve neurodevelopmental outcome of affected patients. Two families with PDS are reported, both with two affected siblings. Antenatal treatment with pyridoxine was instituted during the second pregnancy in each family (50 and 60 mg daily from 3 and 10 weeks of gestation, respectively). Perinatal characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome at 4 (Family A) and 12 (Family B) years of age were compared between the untreated and treated child within each family. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was present in both first pregnancies and abnormal foetal movements were noticed in one. In the treated infants, pregnancy and birth were uncomplicated. In family A, postnatal pyridoxine supplementation prevented neonatal seizures. Both children in family A were hypotonic and started walking after 2 years of age; both had white matter changes on MRI, and the first child was treated for squint. IQ was 73 and 98 in the antenatally untreated and treated child, respectively. The second child in family B developed seizures on the seventh day, because pyridoxine maintenance therapy had not been instituted after birth. Seizures responded rapidly to pyridoxine supplementation. MRI showed large ventricles and a mega cisterna magna. IQ was 80 and 106 in the antenatally untreated and treated child respectively. Both children had normal motor development. These results suggest that antenatal pyridoxine supplementation may be effective in preventing intrauterine seizures, decreasing the risk of complicated birth and improving neurodevelopmental outcome in PDS.

  4. Focal inhibitory seizure with prolonged deficit in adult Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aupy, Jerome; Bonnet, Charlotte; Arnould, Jean-Simon; Fernandez, Philippe; Marchal, Cecile; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder often related to varying degrees of motor impairment. The phenomenon of prolonged ictal paresis is a rare seizure sign that can be due to lesions affecting the centro-parietal lobe. Focal inhibitory motor seizures can be difficult to differentiate from other clinical entities such as stroke, migraine or postictal paresis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old patient suffering from Sturge-Weber syndrome, admitted due to prolonged right-sided hemiparesis following a usual seizure. Repeated EEGs during the prolonged deficit showed only intermittent left fronto-parietal sharp waves. (99m)Tc HMPAO-brain SPECT performed seven days after the last seizure showed a vast area of parieto-occipital hyperperfusion in the left hemisphere. Aggressive antiepileptic therapy dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and scintigraphic images, which corroborated the diagnosis of ictal paresis. This case highlights the role of SPECT in the evaluation of Sturge-Weber syndrome, not only to investigate progressive neurological deterioration, but also exacerbation of seizures or prolonged neurological deficits. In fact, it may be possible to document ongoing epileptic activity using SPECT, despite a non-contributory EEG, which may be of help in adapting a therapeutic strategy.

  5. Apoptosis, Bcl-2 family proteins and caspases: the ABCs of seizure-damage and epileptogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Tobias; Henshall, David C

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common, chronic neurological disorder. It is characterized by recurring seizures which are the result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Molecular pathways underlying neuronal death are of importance because prolonged seizure episodes (status epilepticus) cause significant damage to the brain, particularly within vulnerable structures such as the hippocampus. Additionally, repeated seizures over time in patients with poorly controlled epilepsy may cause further cell loss. Biochemical hallmarks associated with apoptosis have been identified in hippocampal and neocortical material removed from patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy: altered expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family genes and increased expression of caspases and the presence of their cleaved forms. However, apoptotic cells are rarely detected in such patient material and there is evidence of anti-apoptotic signaling changes in the same tissue, including upregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-w. From animal studies there is evidence that both brief and prolonged seizures can cause neuronal apoptosis within the hippocampus. Such cell death can be associated with caspase and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein activation. Pharmacological or genetic modulations of these pathways can significantly influence DNA fragmentation and neuronal cell death after seizures. Thus, the signaling pathways associated with apoptosis are potentially important for the pathogenesis of epilepsy and may represent targets for neuroprotective and perhaps anti-epileptogenic therapies. PMID:21383882

  6. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy.

  7. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:17015638

  8. Oligomeric peroxiredoxin-I is an essential intermediate for p53 to activate MST1 kinase and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morinaka, A; Funato, Y; Uesugi, K; Miki, H

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian Ste20-like kinase-1 (MST1) kinase mediates H₂O₂-induced cell death by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin in a p53-dependent manner. However, the mechanism underlying MST1 activation by H₂O₂ remains unknown. Here we show that peroxiredoxin-I (PRX-I) is an essential intermediate in H₂O₂-induced MST1 activation and cisplatin-induced cell death through p53. Cell stimulation with H₂O₂ resulted in PRX-I oxidation to form homo-oligomers and interaction with MST1, leading to MST1 autophosphorylation and augmentation of kinase activity. In addition, RNA interference knockdown experiments indicated that endogenous PRX-I is required for H₂O₂-induced MST1 activation. Live-cell imaging showed H₂O₂ generation by cisplatin treatment, which likewise caused PRX-I oligomer formation, MST1 activation and cell death. Cisplatin-induced PRX-I oligomer formation was not observed in embryonic fibroblasts obtained from p53-knockout mice, confirming the importance of p53. Indeed, ectopic expression of p53 induced PRX-I oligomer formation and cell death, both of which were cancelled by the antioxidant NAC. Moreover, we succeeded in reconstituting H₂O₂-induced MST1 activation in vitro, using purified PRX-I and MST1 proteins. Collectively, our results show a novel PRX-I function to cause cell death in response to high levels of oxidative stress by activating MST1, which underlies the p53-dependent cytotoxicity caused by anticancer agents.

  9. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  10. Electrographic seizures are significantly reduced by in vivo inhibition of neuronal uptake of extracellular glutamine in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Keiko; Ross, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rats were given unilateral kainate injection into hippocampal CA3 region, and the effect of chronic electrographic seizures on extracellular glutamine (GLNECF) was examined in those with low and steady levels of extracellular glutamate (GLUECF). GLNECF, collected by microdialysis in awake rats for 5 h, decreased to 62 ± 4.4% of the initial concentration (n = 6). This change correlated with the frequency and magnitude of seizure activity, and occurred in the ipsilateral but not in contralateral hippocampus, nor in kainate-injected rats that did not undergo seizure (n = 6). Hippocampal intracellular GLN did not differ between the Seizure and No-Seizure Groups. These results suggested an intriguing possibility that seizure-induced decrease of GLNECF reflects not decreased GLN efflux into the extracellular fluid, but increased uptake into neurons. To examine this possibility, neuronal uptake of GLNECF was inhibited in vivo by intrahippocampal perfusion of 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate, a competitive and reversible inhibitor of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) subtypes 1 and 2, as demonstrated by 1.8 ± 0.17 fold elevation of GLNECF (n = 7). The frequency of electrographic seizures during uptake inhibition was reduced to 35 ± 7% (n = 7) of the frequency in pre-perfusion period, and returned to 88 ± 9% in the post-perfusion period. These novel in vivo results strongly suggest that, in this well-established animal model of temporal-lobe epilepsy, the observed seizure-induced decrease of GLNECF reflects its increased uptake into neurons to sustain enhanced glutamatergic epileptiform activity, thereby demonstrating a possible new target for anti-seizure therapies. PMID:24070846

  11. A practical approach to uncomplicated seizures in children.

    PubMed

    McAbee, G N; Wark, J E

    2000-09-01

    Uncomplicated seizures and epilepsy are common in infants and children. Family physicians should be aware of certain epilepsy syndromes that occur in children, such as febrile seizures, benign focal epilepsy of childhood, complex partial epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and video game-related epilepsy. Not all uncomplicated childhood seizures require neuroimaging or treatment. Febrile seizures, rolandic seizures and video game-related seizures are childhood epileptic syndromes that are typically not associated with brain structural lesions on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and are often not treated with anticonvulsant drugs. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy does not require neuroimaging but does require treatment because of a high rate of recurrent seizures. Complex partial epilepsy often requires both neuroimaging and treatment. Although seizures are diagnosed primarily on clinical grounds, all children with a possible seizure (except febrile seizures) should have an electroencephalogram. Interictal EEGs may be normal. Computed tomography has demonstrated abnormalities in 7 to 19 percent of children with new-onset seizures. The yield of magnetic resonance imaging for specific childhood seizure types is not known, but it is the preferred modality of neuroimaging for many clinical presentations. Most children's seizures treated with anticonvulsants are controlled by the first drug selected. The value of "therapeutic' serum drug levels is questionable in the management of uncomplicated childhood seizures.

  12. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  13. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked?

    PubMed

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank p<0.0001). Our findings support the International League Against Epilepsy recommendation that seizures occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked.

  14. Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

  15. 2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST SHOWING FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST SHOWING FLAME BUCKET BENEATH LAUNCH DECK, AND DELUGE CHANNEL. THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, AND FLAME BUCKET FROM DELUGE CHANNEL. NOTE SQUARED CORNERS OF FLAME BUCKET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST AND LAUNCH DECK SHOWING FLAME BUCKET AND DELUGE CHANNEL. RETENTION BASIN IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR CONTROL OF SOUTH DOORS. NITROGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. The MST/Hippo Pathway and Cell Death: A Non-Canonical Affair

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Emma; O’Driscoll, Niamh A.; Matallanas, David

    2016-01-01

    The MST/Hippo signalling pathway was first described over a decade ago in Drosophila melanogaster and the core of the pathway is evolutionary conserved in mammals. The mammalian MST/Hippo pathway regulates organ size, cell proliferation and cell death. In addition, it has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and it is commonly deregulated in human tumours. The delineation of the canonical pathway resembles the behaviour of the Hippo pathway in the fly where the activation of the core kinases of the pathway prevents the proliferative signal mediated by the key effector of the pathway YAP. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence support the idea that the mammalian MST/Hippo pathway has acquired new features during evolution, including different regulators and effectors, crosstalk with other essential signalling pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and the ability to actively trigger cell death. Here we describe the current knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate MST/Hippo dependent cell death, especially apoptosis. We include evidence for the existence of complex signalling networks where the core proteins of the pathway play a central role in controlling the balance between survival and cell death. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of these signalling networks in several human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27322327

  20. 36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS AROUND CENTRAL OPENING, STRETCH SLING CYLINDER, AND PULLEY ON WEST SIDE, AIR-CONDITIONING DUCTING IN NORTHWEST CORNER, PLATFORM SEGMENTS AND HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT AT TOP; POWER BOX ON RIGHT; WINCH ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Mesospheric wave number spectra from Poker Flat MST radar measurements compared with gravity-wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.

  3. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  4. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Measuring response saturation in human MT and MST as a function of motion density.

    PubMed

    Durant, Szonya; Furlan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The human brain areas MT and MST have been studied in great detail using fMRI with regards to their motion processing properties; however, to what extent this corresponds with single cell recordings remains to be fully described. Average response over human MT+ has been shown to increase linearly with motion coherence, similar to single cell responses. In response to motion density some single cell data however suggest a rapid saturation. We ask how the combination of these responses is reflected in the population response. We measured the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response function of MT and MST using a motion density signal, comparing with area V1. We used spatially fixed apertures containing motion stimuli to manipulate the area covered by motion. We found that MT and MST responded above baseline to a very minimal amount of motion and showed a rather flat response to motion density, indicative of saturation. We discuss how this may be related to the size of the receptive fields and inhibitory interactions, although necessarily residual attention effects also need to be considered. We then compared different types of motion and found no difference between coherent and random motion at any motion density, suggesting that when combining response over several motion stimuli covering the visual field, a linear relationship of MT and MST population response as a function of motion coherence might not hold. PMID:25057944

  6. 39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480VOLT MASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480-VOLT MASTER POWER SHUTOFF AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS FOR CRANE NORTH DOORS/CRANE SOUTH DOORS ON LEFT; FOR BRIDGE CRANE AND DUCT HEATER 122 ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 20. VIEW FROM DECK UPWARD INTO SLC3W MST SHOWING UNDERSIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW FROM DECK UPWARD INTO SLC-3W MST SHOWING UNDERSIDES OF LOWERED SERVICE PLATFORMS. NOTE NARROWING OF CENTRAL OPENING MOVING UPWARD INTO THE TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE STATION FOR DELIVERY VEHICLE) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS SURROUNDING CENTRAL OPENING, PULLEY AND WINCH SYSTEM FOR RAISING SERVICE PLATFORM, AND PLATFORM HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory site

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Sujin; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Kyoung Jin; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Sam

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at Thr{sup 387}. • Overexpression of PHLPP1 sensitizes contact inhibition. • Tumor cells with suppressed PHLPP1 expression are refractory to apoptosis and highly proliferative. • Loss or down-regulation of PHLPP1 may drive tumor development and progression. - Abstract: Contact inhibition has been largely elusive despite that a loss of contact inhibition is a critical event for cancer development and progression. Here, we report that PHLPP1 is a binding protein for Mst1 and it modulates the Hippo pathway by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory Thr{sup 387} of Mst1. Yap1 was localized predominantly in the nucleus but marginally in the cytoplasm in HeLa cells under sparse conditions, whereas the functional protein was more directed to sequestration in the cytoplasm under dense environments. Furthermore, loss of PHLPP1 resulted in a failure of the apoptotic control. It is interesting that down-regulated expression of PHLPP1 appears to mimic the loss of contact inhibition, a hallmark of cancer.

  10. 37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING PLATFORM CONTROLS IN SOUTHWEST CORNER, COMMUNICATION STATION AND ELEVATOR ON WEST SIDE. STRETCH SLING CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STATION 78 VISIBLE THROUGH CENTRAL OPENING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED. LAUNCHER VISIBLE BELOW LOWEST SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC-3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF STATION 70.5. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. '"My Land, Your Social Transformation": Conflicts within the Landless People Movement (MST), Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Rute

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian "Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra" (MST) is one of the best-known and most prominent rural social movements. The unequal distribution of land in Brazil, and the neglect of this problem by successive Brazilian governments contributed greatly to the organisation of rural movements striving for the implementation of land…

  14. Reframing the Public in Public Education: The Landless Workers Movement (MST) and Adult Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapliyal, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Education for rural Brazilians has historically been dominated by two imperatives: human capital and political patronage. For the last four decades, the Landless Workers Movement (MST) have maintained a struggle to democratise public education and democracy itself. In this article, I make a situated analysis of the educational politics of the MST…

  15. The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rojo, Nuria; Amengual, Julià L; Ripollés, Pablo; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) has been developed recently to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. MST uses musical instruments, an electronic piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. In this paper, we first describe the rationale underlying MST, and we review the previous studies conducted on acute and chronic stroke patients using this new neurorehabilitation approach. Second, we address the neural mechanisms involved in the motor movement improvements observed in acute and chronic stroke patients. Third, we provide some recent studies on the involvement of auditory-motor coupling in the MST in chronic stroke patients using functional neuroimaging. Finally, these ideas are discussed and focused on understanding the dynamics involved in the neural circuit underlying audio-motor coupling and how functional connectivity could help to explain the neuroplastic changes observed after therapy in stroke patients. PMID:22524370

  16. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  17. Effects of an acute seizure on associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Holley, Andrew J; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed adult 129SvEvTac mice to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1h, but not 6h, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared with controls 24h later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1h after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open-field test 2h but not 24h later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge.

  18. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  19. Vagus nerve stimulation: predictors of seizure freedom

    PubMed Central

    Janszky, J; Hoppe, M; Behne, F; Tuxhorn, I; Pannek, H; Ebner, A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify predictive factors for the seizure-free outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Methods: All 47 patients who had undergone VNS implantation at one centre and had at least one year of follow up were studied. They underwent complete presurgical evaluation including detailed clinical history, magnetic resonance imaging, and long term video-EEG with ictal and interictal recordings. After implantation, adjustment of stimulation parameters and concomitant antiepileptic drugs were at the discretion of the treating physician. Results: Mean (SD) age of the patients was 22.7 (11.6) years (range 7 to 53). Six patients (13%) became seizure-free after the VNS implantation. Only two variables showed a significant association with the seizure-free outcome: absence of bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and presence of malformation of cortical development (MCD). Epilepsy duration showed a non-significant trend towards a negative association with outcome. By logistic regression analysis, only absence of bilateral IED correlated independently with successful VNS treatment (p<0.01, odds ratio = 29.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 353)). Bilateral IED (independent or bilateral synchronous) was found in one of six seizure-free patients and in 33 of 41 non-seizure-free patients. When bilateral IED were absent, the sensitivity for seizure-free outcome was 0.83 (0.44 to 0.97), and the specificity was 0.80 (0.66 to 0.90). Conclusions: Bilateral IED was independently associated with the outcome of VNS. These results are preliminary because they were based on a small patient population. They may facilitate prospective VNS studies enrolling larger numbers of patients to confirm the results. PMID:15716532

  20. Adjunctive pregabalin vs gabapentin for focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Glue, Paul; Friedman, Daniel; Almas, Mary; Yardi, Nandan; Knapp, Lloyd; Pitman, Verne; Posner, Holly B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the comparative safety and adjunctive efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin in reducing seizure frequency in patients with partial-onset seizures based on prestudy modeling showing superior efficacy for pregabalin. Methods: The design of this comparative efficacy and safety study of pregabalin and gabapentin as adjunctive treatment in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures was randomized, flexible dose, double blind, and parallel group. The study included a 6-week baseline and a 21-week treatment phase. The primary endpoint was the percentage change from baseline in 28-day seizure rate to the treatment phase. Results: A total of 484 patients were randomized to pregabalin (n = 242) or gabapentin (n = 242). Of these, 359 patients (187 pregabalin, 172 gabapentin) completed the treatment phase. The observed median and mean in percentage change from baseline was −58.65 and −47.7 (SD 48.3) for pregabalin and −57.43 and −45.28 (SD 60.6) for gabapentin. For the primary endpoint, there was no significant difference between treatments. The Hodges-Lehman estimated median difference was 0.0 (95% confidence interval −6.0 to 7.0). Safety profiles were comparable and consistent with prior trials. Conclusions: The absence of the anticipated efficacy difference based on modeling of prior, nearly identical trials and the larger-than-expected response rates of the 2 antiepileptic drugs were unexpected. These findings raise questions that are potentially important to consider in future comparative efficacy trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00537940. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with partial seizures enrolled in this study, pregabalin is not superior to gabapentin in reducing seizure frequency. Because of the atypical response rates, the results of this study are poorly generalizable to other epilepsy populations. PMID:27521437

  1. What is a seizure network? Long-range network consequences of focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2014-01-01

    What defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of seizure activity in brain networks? To fully answer this question a precise and quantitative definition of seizures is needed, which unfortunately remains elusive. Nevertheless, it is possible to ask under conditions where clearly divergent patterns of activity occur in large-scale brain networks whether certain activity patterns are part of the seizure while others are not. Here we examine brain network activity during focal limbic seizures, including diverse regions such as the hippocampus, subcortical arousal systems and fronto-parietal association cortex. Based on work from patients and from animal models we describe a characteristic pattern of intense increases in neuronal firing, cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) signals and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption in the hippocampus during focal limbic seizures. Similar increases are seen in certain closely linked subcortical structures such as the lateral septal nuclei and anterior hypothalamus, which contain inhibitory neurons. In marked contrast, decreases in all of these parameters are seen in the subcortical arousal systems of the upper brainstem and intralaminar thalamus, as well as in the fronto-parietal association cortex. We propose that the seizure proper can be defined as regions showing intense increases, while those areas showing opposite changes are inhibited by the seizure network and constitute long-range network consequences beyond the seizure itself. Importantly, the fronto-parietal cortex shows sleep-like slow wave activity and depressed metabolism under these conditions, associated with impaired consciousness. Understanding which brain networks are directly involved in seizures versus which sustain secondary consequences can provide new insights into the mechanisms of brain dysfunction in epilepsy, hopefully leading to innovative treatment

  2. Reducing premature KCC2 expression rescues seizure susceptibility and spine morphology in atypical febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Patricia N; Sanon, Nathalie T; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Carriço, Josianne Nunes; Ouardouz, Mohamed; Gagné, Jonathan; Duss, Sandra; Wolf, Daniele; Desgent, Sébastien; Cancedda, Laura; Carmant, Lionel; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Atypical febrile seizures are considered a risk factor for epilepsy onset and cognitive impairments later in life. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a history of atypical febrile seizures often carry a cortical malformation. This association has led to the hypothesis that the presence of a cortical dysplasia exacerbates febrile seizures in infancy, in turn increasing the risk for neurological sequelae. The mechanisms linking these events are currently poorly understood. Potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 affects several aspects of neuronal circuit development and function, by modulating GABAergic transmission and excitatory synapse formation. Recent data suggest that KCC2 downregulation contributes to seizure generation in the epileptic adult brain, but its role in the developing brain is still controversial. In a rodent model of atypical febrile seizures, combining a cortical dysplasia and hyperthermia-induced seizures (LHS rats), we found a premature and sustained increase in KCC2 protein levels, accompanied by a negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA. In parallel, we observed a significant reduction in dendritic spine size and mEPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by spatial memory deficits. To investigate whether KCC2 premature overexpression plays a role in seizure susceptibility and synaptic alterations, we reduced KCC2 expression selectively in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by in utero electroporation of shRNA. Remarkably, KCC2 shRNA-electroporated LHS rats show reduced hyperthermia-induced seizure susceptibility, while dendritic spine size deficits were rescued. Our findings demonstrate that KCC2 overexpression in a compromised developing brain increases febrile seizure susceptibility and contribute to dendritic spine alterations. PMID:26875662

  3. Long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes of vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Schultz, Lonni; Mohanarangan, Karthik; Gaddam, Aryamaan; Schwalb, Jason M; Spanaki-Varelas, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used adjunctive treatment option for intractable epilepsy. Most studies have demonstrated short-term seizure outcomes, usually for up to 5 years, and thus far, none have reported psychosocial outcomes in adults. We aimed to assess long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes in patients with intractable epilepsy on VNS therapy for more than 15 years. We identified patients who had VNS implantation for treatment of intractable epilepsy from 1997 to 2013 at our Comprehensive Epilepsy Program and gathered demographics including age at epilepsy onset and VNS implantation, epilepsy type, number of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) and seizure frequency before VNS implantation and at the last clinic visit, and the most recent stimulation parameters from electronic medical records (EMR). Phone surveys were conducted by research assistants from May to November 2014 to determine patients' current seizure frequency and psychosocial metrics, including driving, employment status, and use of antidepressants. Seizure outcomes were based on modified Engel classification (I: seizure-free/rare simple partial seizures; II: >90% seizure reduction (SR), III: 50-90% SR, IV: <50% SR; classes I to III (>50% SR)=favorable outcome). A total of 207 patients underwent VNS implantation, 15 of whom were deceased at the time of the phone survey, and 40 had incomplete data for medical abstraction. Of the remaining 152, 90 (59%) were contacted and completed the survey. Of these, 51% were male, with the mean age at epilepsy onset of 9.4 years (range: birth to 60 years). There were 35 (39%) patients with extratemporal epilepsy, 19 (21%) with temporal, 18 (20%) with symptomatic generalized, 5 (6%) with idiopathic generalized, and 13 (14%) with multiple types. Final VNS settings showed 16 (18%) patients with an output current >2 mA and 14 (16%) with rapid cycling. Of the 80 patients with seizure frequency information, 16 (20%) had a modified Engel class I outcome, 14

  4. Long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes of vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Schultz, Lonni; Mohanarangan, Karthik; Gaddam, Aryamaan; Schwalb, Jason M; Spanaki-Varelas, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used adjunctive treatment option for intractable epilepsy. Most studies have demonstrated short-term seizure outcomes, usually for up to 5 years, and thus far, none have reported psychosocial outcomes in adults. We aimed to assess long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes in patients with intractable epilepsy on VNS therapy for more than 15 years. We identified patients who had VNS implantation for treatment of intractable epilepsy from 1997 to 2013 at our Comprehensive Epilepsy Program and gathered demographics including age at epilepsy onset and VNS implantation, epilepsy type, number of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) and seizure frequency before VNS implantation and at the last clinic visit, and the most recent stimulation parameters from electronic medical records (EMR). Phone surveys were conducted by research assistants from May to November 2014 to determine patients' current seizure frequency and psychosocial metrics, including driving, employment status, and use of antidepressants. Seizure outcomes were based on modified Engel classification (I: seizure-free/rare simple partial seizures; II: >90% seizure reduction (SR), III: 50-90% SR, IV: <50% SR; classes I to III (>50% SR)=favorable outcome). A total of 207 patients underwent VNS implantation, 15 of whom were deceased at the time of the phone survey, and 40 had incomplete data for medical abstraction. Of the remaining 152, 90 (59%) were contacted and completed the survey. Of these, 51% were male, with the mean age at epilepsy onset of 9.4 years (range: birth to 60 years). There were 35 (39%) patients with extratemporal epilepsy, 19 (21%) with temporal, 18 (20%) with symptomatic generalized, 5 (6%) with idiopathic generalized, and 13 (14%) with multiple types. Final VNS settings showed 16 (18%) patients with an output current >2 mA and 14 (16%) with rapid cycling. Of the 80 patients with seizure frequency information, 16 (20%) had a modified Engel class I outcome, 14

  5. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).

    PubMed

    Hingray, C; Biberon, J; El-Hage, W; de Toffol, B

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are defined as change in behavior or consciousness resembling epileptic seizures but which have a psychological origin. PNES are categorized as a manifestation of dissociative or somatoform (conversion) disorders. Video-EEG recording of an event is the gold standard for diagnosis. PNES represent a symptom, not the underlying disease and the mechanism of dissociation is pivotal in the pathophysiology. Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors should be carefully assessed on a case-by-case basis. The process of communicating the diagnosis using a multidisciplinary approach is an important and effective therapeutic step. PMID:27117433

  6. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  7. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in

  8. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  9. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  10. Targeting deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory complex I and functional uncoupling exerts anti-seizure effects in a genetic model of temporal lobe epilepsy and in a model of acute temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Kristina A; Matthews, Stephanie A; Samson, Kaeli K; Simeone, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria actively participate in neurotransmission by providing energy (ATP) and maintaining normative concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. In human and animal epilepsies, ATP-producing respiratory rates driven by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) I are reduced, antioxidant systems are attenuated and oxidative damage is increased. We report that MRCI-driven respiration and functional uncoupling (an inducible antioxidant mechanism) are reduced and levels of H2O2 are elevated in mitochondria isolated from KO mice. Experimental impairment of MRCI in WT hippocampal slices via rotenone reduces paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses (resembling KO PPRs), and exacerbates seizure-like events in vitro. Daily treatment with AATP [a combination therapy composed of ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (T), sodium pyruvate (P) designed to synergistically target mitochondrial impairments] improved mitochondrial functions, mossy fiber PPRs, and reduced seizure burden index (SBI) scores and seizure incidence in KO mice. AATP pretreatment reduced severity of KA-induced seizures resulting in 100% protection from the severe tonic-clonic seizures in WT mice. These data suggest that restoration of bioenergetic homeostasis in the brain may represent a viable anti-seizure target for temporal lobe epilepsy.

  11. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle.

  12. Stable dosages of clobazam for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are associated with sustained drop-seizure and total-seizure improvements over 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Conry, Joan A; Ng, Yu-Tze; Kernitsky, Lydia; Mitchell, Wendy G; Veidemanis, Rima; Drummond, Rebecca; Isojarvi, Jouko; Lee, Deborah; Paolicchi, Juliann M

    2014-01-01

    baseline to Month 3, 86% still had that degree of drop-seizure reduction at Year 3 (and 14% lost their initial responses), and 47% were drop-seizure–free. Most patients who had achieved drop-seizure freedom in the original controlled trials remained drop-seizure–free in the OLE. Based on parents' and physicians' ratings of global evaluations, 80% of patients were “very much improved” or “much improved” after 3 years. Of the 43 patients with concomitant AED data who were treated for 5 years, 30% increased, 19% decreased, and 51% had no change in numbers of AEDs versus their Week 4 regimens. The mean modal clobazam dosage was 0.90 mg/kg/day at Year 1 and 0.97 mg/kg/day at Year 5, suggesting that study patients did not need significant increases in dosage over time. The safety profile was what would be expected for clobazam for LGS patients over a 5-year span, and no new safety concerns developed over time. Significance In this largest and longest-running trial in LGS, adjunctive clobazam sustained seizure freedom and substantial seizure improvements at stable dosages through 3 years of therapy in this difficult- to-treat patient population. PMID:24580023

  13. Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Childhood absence epilepsy Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin Thio, ... of this article is prohibited. Childhood absence epilepsy: Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin Thio ...

  14. Acid extrusion via blood–brain barrier causes brain alkalosis and seizures after neonatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Mohamed M.; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Watkins, Paul V.; Voipio, Juha; Kanold, Patrick O.; Kaila, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is often associated with a high seizure burden that is predictive of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The mechanisms underlying birth asphyxia seizures are unknown. Using an animal model of birth asphyxia based on 6-day-old rat pups, we have recently shown that the seizure burden is linked to an increase in brain extracellular pH that consists of the recovery from the asphyxia-induced acidosis, and of a subsequent plateau level well above normal extracellular pH. In the present study, two-photon imaging of intracellular pH in neocortical neurons in vivo showed that pH changes also underwent a biphasic acid–alkaline response, resulting in an alkaline plateau level. The mean alkaline overshoot was strongly suppressed by a graded restoration of normocapnia after asphyxia. The parallel post-asphyxia increase in extra- and intracellular pH levels indicated a net loss of acid equivalents from brain tissue that was not attributable to a disruption of the blood–brain barrier, as demonstrated by a lack of increased sodium fluorescein extravasation into the brain, and by the electrophysiological characteristics of the blood–brain barrier. Indeed, electrode recordings of pH in the brain and trunk demonstrated a net efflux of acid equivalents from the brain across the blood–brain barrier, which was abolished by the Na/H exchange inhibitor, N-methyl-isobutyl amiloride. Pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange also suppressed the seizure activity associated with the brain-specific alkalosis. Our findings show that the post-asphyxia seizures are attributable to an enhanced Na/H exchange-dependent net extrusion of acid equivalents across the blood–brain barrier and to consequent brain alkalosis. These results suggest targeting of blood–brain barrier-mediated pH regulation as a novel approach in the prevention and therapy of neonatal seizures. PMID:23125183

  15. Acid extrusion via blood-brain barrier causes brain alkalosis and seizures after neonatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Mohamed M; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Watkins, Paul V; Voipio, Juha; Kanold, Patrick O; Kaila, Kai

    2012-11-01

    Birth asphyxia is often associated with a high seizure burden that is predictive of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The mechanisms underlying birth asphyxia seizures are unknown. Using an animal model of birth asphyxia based on 6-day-old rat pups, we have recently shown that the seizure burden is linked to an increase in brain extracellular pH that consists of the recovery from the asphyxia-induced acidosis, and of a subsequent plateau level well above normal extracellular pH. In the present study, two-photon imaging of intracellular pH in neocortical neurons in vivo showed that pH changes also underwent a biphasic acid-alkaline response, resulting in an alkaline plateau level. The mean alkaline overshoot was strongly suppressed by a graded restoration of normocapnia after asphyxia. The parallel post-asphyxia increase in extra- and intracellular pH levels indicated a net loss of acid equivalents from brain tissue that was not attributable to a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as demonstrated by a lack of increased sodium fluorescein extravasation into the brain, and by the electrophysiological characteristics of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, electrode recordings of pH in the brain and trunk demonstrated a net efflux of acid equivalents from the brain across the blood-brain barrier, which was abolished by the Na/H exchange inhibitor, N-methyl-isobutyl amiloride. Pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange also suppressed the seizure activity associated with the brain-specific alkalosis. Our findings show that the post-asphyxia seizures are attributable to an enhanced Na/H exchange-dependent net extrusion of acid equivalents across the blood-brain barrier and to consequent brain alkalosis. These results suggest targeting of blood-brain barrier-mediated pH regulation as a novel approach in the prevention and therapy of neonatal seizures.

  16. Sudden death from pelvic hemorrhage after bilateral central fracture dislocations of the hip due to an epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C A; O'Briain, D S

    2000-12-01

    Fracture and dislocation of major joints may be caused by the forceful tonic muscular contractions of seizure activity. A 77-year-old man who was found dead in bed with no sign of external trauma had bilateral central fracture dislocations of the femoral head through the acetabular floor with fatal pelvic hemorrhage and extensive pulmonary fat and bone marrow embolism. He had epilepsy, but the last seizure was 6 years earlier, and he had long discontinued medication. The fractures were attributed to a new unwitnessed seizure. This is the twentieth case of central fracture dislocation of the hip since 1970, when better anesthesia eliminated convulsive therapy-induced fractures. The authors review these 20 cases. Seizures followed inflammation, infarction or neoplasia of the brain, eclampsia, metabolic or iatrogenic causes, or epilepsy (6 cases, 2 of which had no prior seizures for 5 years). There were 11 men (mean age, 64 years) and 9 women (mean age, 47 years). Fractures were unilateral in 13 and bilateral in 7. Additional fractures (in vertebrae, shoulders, or femur) were present in eight. Only eight had prior bone disease. Local symptoms led to diagnosis in most, but two were identified incidentally on imaging. The current patient was the only one to die suddenly, but six other patients presented with shock and three died (one of whom had injuries that led to a suspicion of manslaughter). Central fracture-dislocation of the hip is a rare and little known consequence of seizures, with strong potential for misdiagnosis and lethal complications.

  17. Levetiracetam prophylaxis ameliorates seizure epileptogenesis after fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Hoffer, Barry J; Wu, Pei-Jie; Ma, Hsin-I; Tsai, Jing-Jr; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether post-traumatic seizure severity would be affected by the interval between seizures and head injury, we measured seizures after various times with or without fluid percussion brain injury (2atm fluid percussion injury; FPI). To determine efficacy of anti-seizure medication, we also determined if levetiracetam (LEV) would alter the relationship between injury and subsequent seizures. Early post-traumatic seizures were induced by Kainic acid (KA) at one week after 2atm fluid percussion injury (FPI) in one group (FPI-ES). Seizures were induced at two weeks after FPI by KA in another group (FPI-LS). In addition, one group had induced seizures by KA without FPI, (sham-ES). Finally one group of animals received the antiepileptic agent (levetiracetam) infusion for one week after FPI and then had seizures induced by KA (FPI-LEV-ES). We measured seizure onset time, ictal duration and severity of seizures using a modified Racine's scale. Histopathological changes in the hippocampus CA1 region were also analyzed. Severity of seizures were increased in the FPI-ES group compared with sham-ES animals. Severity was also enhanced in early post-injury seizures induced by KA (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LS); this exacerbation of seizure severity could be ameliorated by levetiracetam infusion (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LEV-ES). Neuronal degeneration in CA1 was more severe in the FPI-ES group and this degeneration was also diminished by LEV. We conclude that early post injury seizures exacerbate susceptibility and severity of post traumatic seizures and increase neuronal degeneration in the CA1 layer of hippocampus. These changes are partially reversed by LEV infusion after FPI. PMID:27106270

  18. Lunar phases and seizure occurrence: just an ancient legend?

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulos, P; Argyriou, A A; Sirrou, V; Huliara, V; Aplada, M; Gourzis, P; Economou, A; Terzis, E; Chroni, E

    2006-05-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed all neurologic records of an emergency unit from 1999 to 2003 to identify a potential association between lunar phases and seizure occurrence. Overall 859 patients admitted for seizure occurrence were divided into the four quarters of the synodic month according to moon phases. A significant clustering of seizures around the full moon period was observed, supporting the ancient belief of periodic increased seizure frequency during full-moon days.

  19. Quadriplegia Following Epileptic Seizure : Things to Keep in Mind

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbudak, Zülal; Şişman, Lokman; Uca, Ali Ulvi

    2016-01-01

    People with epilepsy are believed to be at a higher risk of incurring accidental injury than people who do not have seizures. The incidence of injury, either due to seizure or accident as a consequent of seizure is also high and varies from 0.03% to 3%. The most common injuries are head contusions, lacerations, burns and fractures. In this article, we present a case of quadriplegia after a generalized epileptic seizure. PMID:27226869

  20. Quadriplegia Following Epileptic Seizure : Things to Keep in Mind.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Yeşilbudak, Zülal; Şişman, Lokman; Uca, Ali Ulvi

    2016-05-01

    People with epilepsy are believed to be at a higher risk of incurring accidental injury than people who do not have seizures. The incidence of injury, either due to seizure or accident as a consequent of seizure is also high and varies from 0.03% to 3%. The most common injuries are head contusions, lacerations, burns and fractures. In this article, we present a case of quadriplegia after a generalized epileptic seizure. PMID:27226869

  1. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents.

  2. Test of "Facilitation" vs. "Proximal Process" Moderator Models for the Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on Adolescents with Severe Conduct Problem.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan S; Tran, Nam T; Gallop, Robert; Ngo, Victoria K

    2015-07-01

    The present study identified moderators of Multisystemic Therapy's (MST) effects on adolescent conduct problems, considering facilitation and proximal process moderation models. The sample included 164 adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years; 83% male) randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual; parent, youth, and teacher reports of adolescent functioning were obtained. A number of significant moderators were identified. Proximal process moderation patterns were identified (e.g., families with parents with lower levels of adaptive child discipline skills gained more from MST), but the majority of significant interactions showed a facilitation moderation pattern with, for instance, higher levels of adaptive functioning in families and parents appearing to facilitate MST (i.e., greater benefits from MST were found for these families). This facilitation pattern may reflect such families being more capable of and/or more motivated to use the resources provided by MST. It is suggested that factors consistently identified as facilitation moderators may serve as useful foci for MST's strength-based levers of change approach. Other implications of these findings for individualized treatment also are discussed.

  3. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures.

    PubMed

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B; Derr, Lori L; Broshek, Donna K

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time.

  4. Reflex Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy: Seizures Induced by Tactile Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Turco, Emanuela Claudia; Pavlidis, Elena; Facini, Carlotta; Spagnoli, Carlotta; Andreolli, Anna; Geraci, Rosalia; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy with reflex seizures in infancy is an extremely rare condition, in which seizures are provoked mainly by auditory or auditory-tactile stimuli. To increase the awareness of pediatricians regarding this underrecognized condition, we describe a child with seizures provoked only by the tactile stimulation of specific areas of the head and face.

  5. 19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility...

  6. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    PubMed Central

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  7. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of...

  8. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  9. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  10. Seizures Are Regulated by Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 9 X-linked (USP9X), a De-Ubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Jessica M.; Tan, Men Chee; Wu, Shu; Cox, Allison J.; Sowers, Levi P.; Gecz, Jozef; Jolly, Lachlan; Ferguson, Polly J.; Darbro, Benjamin; Schneider, Amy; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; El-Shanti, Hatem; Wood, Stephen A.; Manak, J. Robert; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disabling disease with complex, multifactorial genetic and environmental etiology. The small fraction of epilepsies subject to Mendelian inheritance offers key insight into epilepsy disease mechanisms; and pathologies brought on by mutations in a single gene can point the way to generalizable therapeutic strategies. Mutations in the PRICKLE genes can cause seizures in humans, zebrafish, mice, and flies, suggesting the seizure-suppression pathway is evolutionarily conserved. This pathway has never been targeted for novel anti-seizure treatments. Here, the mammalian PRICKLE-interactome was defined, identifying prickle-interacting proteins that localize to synapses and a novel interacting partner, USP9X, a substrate-specific de-ubiquitinase. PRICKLE and USP9X interact through their carboxy-termini; and USP9X de-ubiquitinates PRICKLE, protecting it from proteasomal degradation. In forebrain neurons of mice, USP9X deficiency reduced levels of Prickle2 protein. Genetic analysis suggests the same pathway regulates Prickle-mediated seizures. The seizure phenotype was suppressed in prickle mutant flies by the small-molecule USP9X inhibitor, Degrasyn/WP1130, or by reducing the dose of fat facets a USP9X orthologue. USP9X mutations were identified by resequencing a cohort of patients with epileptic encephalopathy, one patient harbored a de novo missense mutation and another a novel coding mutation. Both USP9X variants were outside the PRICKLE-interacting domain. These findings demonstrate that USP9X inhibition can suppress prickle-mediated seizure activity, and that USP9X variants may predispose to seizures. These studies point to a new target for anti-seizure therapy and illustrate the translational power of studying diseases in species across the evolutionary spectrum. PMID:25763846

  11. Levetiracetam for Pediatric Posttraumatic Seizure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Hahn, Cecil D

    2016-03-01

    Investigators from Nationwide Children's Hospital performed an observational cohort study of early post-traumatic seizures (EPTS) among 34 children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received levetiracetam (LEV) prophylaxis following admission to their pediatric intensive care unit. PMID:27396956

  12. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy Following Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Francis, Andrew W.; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female following lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. Case Report A 38 year old female presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery which was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately following witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal and subretinal involvement. At 4 month follow up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. Conclusions The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy following lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted following episodes of seizure in adults. PMID:26099062

  13. Neonatal seizures: soothing a burning topic.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Matthew D; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L

    2013-10-01

    Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia and present the case of a 6-day-old male infant who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis.

  14. [Classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes].

    PubMed

    Noachtar, S; Rémi, J

    2012-02-01

    Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options require a revision of the current classification of seizures and epilepsies. Recently, a classification proposal was introduced which reflects the ambivalence of the Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie (ILAE). We suggest that epileptology should utilize the same established systematic approach used in clinical neurology.

  15. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  16. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: 'cardiac arrhythmias' and 'epilepsy'. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP.

  17. Targeting Pannexin1 Improves Seizure Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Marcelo F.; Veliskova, Jana; Patel, Naman K.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Caille, Dorothee; Charollais, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Scemes, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures. PMID:21949881

  18. Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Khan, Shariq Ali; Agrawal, Abhishek; Friedman, Allan H.; McDonagh, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 165 adult patients classified as higher risk for postoperative seizures who underwent brain tumor resection at Duke University Hospital between time May 2010 and December 2011. All patients had received levetiracetam monotherapy in doses of 1000-3000 mg/day in the immediate postoperative period. Results: We identified 165 patients with following tumor locations: Frontal 83 (50.3%), Temporal 37 (22.4%), Parietal 30 (18.2%), Occipital 2 (1.2%) and 13 (7.8%) with single lesions involving more than one lobe. Histology revealed: Glioma 98 (59.4%), Meningioma 57 (34.5%) and Brain Metastases 6 (3.6%). Preoperatively, 88/165 (53.3%) patients had presented with seizures. 12/165 patients (7.3%) developed clinical seizures (generalized 10, partial 2) in the immediate post-operative period. Other than somnolence in 7 patients (4.2%), no major side-effects were noted. Conclusions: The incidence of seizures was significantly lower in patients treated with levetiracetam (7.3%) when compared with the expected (15-20%) rate without AED prophylaxis based on the previous literature. Levetiracetam appears effective and safe for seizure prevention in patients undergoing brain tumor resection and who are at significantly higher risk of developing post-operative seizures. These findings warrant confirmation in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:24550999

  19. Remission of Psychosis in Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia Following a Seizure: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Younus, Sana; Mesiya, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of treatment-resistant schizophrenia in a 22-year-old woman, who, despite multiple trials of antipsychotics, did not respond to treatment. Clozapine treatment was initiated, but the patient’s symptoms did not remit until after she had a clozapine-induced seizure. The authors discuss the importance in considering that electroconvulsive therapy may be effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia. PMID:27800285

  20. Febrile seizures associated with influenza A.

    PubMed

    Hara, Keita; Tanabe, Takuya; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Inoue, Nao; Tamaki, Hirohumi; Okamoto, Nami; Okasora, Keisuke; Morimoto, Takahiro; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the clinical impact of influenza A on the development of febrile seizures (FS), consecutive FS patients brought to our hospital between October 2003 and September 2004 were prospectively surveyed. Patients infected with influenza A (influenza A patients) and those uninfected with influenza (non-influenza patients) were compared with regard to clinical characteristics of FS. Influenza infection was determined by rapid antigen test and/or serologically. Associations of influenza A with atypical findings of FS, including partial seizures, prolonged seizures, multiple seizures during the same illness, and 30-min or longer prolonged postictal impairment of consciousness (PPIC), were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. A total of 215 patients (47 influenza A and 168 non-influenza patients) were enrolled in the study. Age was significantly higher in the influenza A group (39.85+/-22.16 months vs. 27.51+/-17.14 months, P<0.001). Of 42 patients aged 48 months or older, which corresponded to the 80th percentile for age, 15 (35.7%) were influenza A patients, with a significantly higher incidence of such patients than in the subgroup of patients aged 47 months or younger (32/173, 18.5%) (P=0.015). On multiple logistic regression analysis, influenza A was independently associated with PPIC (odds ratio: 4.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.52-12.95, P=0.006), but not with other atypical findings. The positive association of influenza A with PPIC suggests that influenza may affect state of consciousness at the same time that it induces seizures with fever.

  1. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability. PMID:26912639

  2. Brivaracetam: A Review in Partial-Onset (Focal) Seizures in Patients with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-08-01

    Brivaracetam (Briviact(®); BRIVLERA™) is a high affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) ligand available orally (as a tablet or solution) or intravenously (as a bolus or infusion) in various countries worldwide, including the USA, Canada and those of the EU. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS) in adults (aged ≥18 years) [USA, EU and Canada] and adolescents (aged 16 to <18 years) [USA and EU] with epilepsy. In multinational, phase III studies in adults and adolescents (aged ≥16 years), oral brivaracetam as adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was generally associated with significant median percent reductions over placebo in seizure frequency and significant improvements in the proportion of patients achieving a ≥50 % reduction in seizure frequency compared with placebo. These benefits appeared to be sustained during up to 96 months' therapy in follow-up studies. Whether administered orally or intravenously, adjunctive brivaracetam was generally well tolerated in clinical studies, with the majority of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) being mild or moderate in intensity. In the absence of head-to-head studies, definitive conclusions on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of brivaracetam versus newer AEDs are not yet possible. In the meantime, brivaracetam extends the options currently available for the treatment of POS in patients aged ≥16 years with epilepsy. PMID:27503181

  3. Mst1 inhibition rescues β1-adrenergic cardiomyopathy by reducing myocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis rather than myocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace J.; Yan, Lin; Vatner, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that inhibition of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) protects the heart through reducing myocyte apoptosis. We determined whether inhibition with a dominant-negative Mst1 (DN-Mst1) would protect against the cardiomyopathy induced by chronic β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) stimulation by preventing myocyte apoptosis. DN-Mst1 mice were mated with β1-AR transgenic (Tg) mice and followed for 20 months. β1-AR Tg mice developed cardiomyopathy as they aged, as reflected by premature mortality and depressed cardiac function, which were rescued in β1-AR × DN-Mst1 bigenic mice. Surprisingly, myocyte apoptosis did not significantly decrease with Mst1 inhibition. Instead, Mst1 inhibition predominantly reduced non-myocyte apoptosis, e.g., fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Fibrosis in the hearts with cardiomyopathy increased fivefold and this increase was nearly abolished in the bigenic mice with Mst1 inhibition. Regression analysis showed no correlation between myocyte apoptosis and cardiac function or myocyte number, whereas the latter two correlated significantly, p < 0.05, with fibrosis, which generally results from necrosis. To examine the role of myocyte necrosis, chronic β-AR stimulation with isoproterenol was induced for 24 h and myocyte necrosis was assessed by 1 % Evans blue dye. Compared to WT, DN-Mst1 mice showed significant inhibition, p < 0.05, of myocyte necrosis. We confirmed this result in Mst1-knockout mice, which also showed significant protection, p < 0.05, against myocyte necrosis compared to WT. These data indicate that Mst1 inhibition rescued cardiac fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in β1-AR cardiomyopathy. However, this did not occur through Mst1 inhibition of myocyte apoptosis but rather by inhibition of cardiomyocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis, features of Mst1 not considered previously. PMID:25600225

  4. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Krsticevic, Flavia J; Schrago, Carlos G; Carvalho, A Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295-307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F ("Mst77Y"), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction-induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. PMID:25858959

  5. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Krsticevic, Flavia J; Schrago, Carlos G; Carvalho, A Bernardo

    2015-04-09

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295-307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F ("Mst77Y"), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction-induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes.

  6. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Krsticevic, Flavia J.; Schrago, Carlos G.; Carvalho, A. Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295−307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F (“Mst77Y”), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction−induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. PMID:25858959

  7. Reflex Seizures Triggered by Diaper Change in Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subki, Ahmed H; Alasmari, Aishah S; Jan, Fadi M; Moria, Feras A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures.

  8. How I treat a first single seizure in a child

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar

    2016-01-01

    An epileptic seizure is defined as transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in brain. There are diverse etiologies for acute seizure in infants and children. The present review provides a broad approach to diagnosis and treatment plan for acute seizure in children. The approach to a child with acute seizure is discussed with special emphasis on clinical approach based on history and focused examination with judicious choice of investigation and further management plan. The review also emphasizes on recognizing common nonepileptic events that masquerade as true seizure among infants and children. PMID:27011625

  9. Meteorological and aeronomical requirements for MST radar networks (keynote paper), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST) radar are phase coherent radars that measure the amplitude and Doppler shift of radio waves that are scattered back to the receiving antennas. For a monostatic system, the line-of-sight projection of the wind vector is obtained if one assumes that the atmospheric scatterers are being swept along with the wind velocity. The three-dimensional wind is then derived either by using multiple beams or by beam swinging. The turbulence intensity is derived either by measuring the backscattered power or by deriving the width of the autocorrelation function for the wind. Furthermore, some information on sharp changes in the atmospheric static stability (e.g., at the tropopause) can be obtained by looking for specular reflections. The discussion addresses the question of how these MST measurement capabilities can contribute to various meteorological and aeronomical research areas.

  10. The economics of data acquisition computers for ST and MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some low cost options for data acquisition computers for ST (stratosphere, troposphere) and MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) are presented. The particular equipment discussed reflects choices made by the University of Alaska group but of course many other options exist. The low cost microprocessor and array processor approach presented here has several advantages because of its modularity. An inexpensive system may be configured for a minimum performance ST radar, whereas a multiprocessor and/or a multiarray processor system may be used for a higher performance MST radar. This modularity is important for a network of radars because the initial cost is minimized while future upgrades will still be possible at minimal expense. This modularity also aids in lowering the cost of software development because system expansions should rquire little software changes. The functions of the radar computer will be to obtain Doppler spectra in near real time with some minor analysis such as vector wind determination.

  11. Capabilities and limitations of the Jicamarca radar as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Jicamarca radar (Long. 76.52W, Lat. 11.56S), located at 20 km from Lima at approximately 500 meters over sea level, is surrounded by mountains which provide a good shield from man-made interference. The radio horizon goes from a few hundred meters, across the dry valley where it is located, to 15 km, along the valley in the direction of the continental divide. This limits the clutter to 15 km, except for one high peak at 21 km. It is the most equatorial of all existing MST radars. Its proximity to the Andes, makes its location unique for the study of lee waves and orographic-induced turbulence. Vertical as well as horizontal projections of MST velocities are obtained by simultaneously pointing with different sections of the antenna into three or four different directions. The transmitters, receivers, and systems for data acquisition, processing, and control are included.

  12. Mediators of Change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Jason E.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The mediators of favorable multisystemic therapy (MST) outcomes achieved at 12 months postrecruitment were examined within the context of a randomized effectiveness trial with 127 juvenile sexual offenders and their caregivers. Outcome measures assessed youth delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and deviant sexual interest/risk…

  13. Rapamycin suppresses PTZ-induced seizures at different developmental stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; da Costa Schaefer, Isabel; Petersen, Bárbara Dutra; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    The mTORC1 complex integrates different inputs from intracellular and extracellular signals to control various cellular processes. Therefore, any disruption in the mTORC1 pathway could promote different neurological disorders. mTORC1 overactivation has been verified in different genetic and acquired epilepsy animal models. Therefore, inhibitors of this complex could have both antiepileptogenic and antiseizure effects. In our study, we investigated the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in zebrafish. Our results have shown that the latency to reach the tonic-clonic stage (stage III) of progressive behavioral alterations shown during PTZ-induced seizures was prolonged in larval (7days post fertilization, 7dpf), juvenile (45days post fertilization, 45dpf) and adult (6-8months) zebrafish after pretreatment with rapamycin. Furthermore, rapamycin pretreatment did not alter the locomotor activity in zebrafish. Therefore, the results obtained in our study indicate that rapamycin pretreatment is an important mechanism to control the progress of seizures in zebrafish throughout different developmental stages (larval, juvenile, and adult). Taken as a whole, our data support that rapamycin has immediate antiseizure effects and could be a potential alternative therapy for seizure control in epilepsy.

  14. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Beverlin II, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden I.

    2013-01-01

    Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris–Lecar (M–L) model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology (SONET) to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control. PMID:23390413

  15. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses.

  16. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:26535456

  17. Predictability of uncontrollable multifocal seizures – towards new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant, multifocal, non-resectable epilepsies are among the most difficult epileptic disorders to manage. An approach to control previously uncontrollable seizures in epilepsy patients would consist of identifying seizure precursors in critical brain areas combined with delivering a counteracting influence to prevent seizure generation. Predictability of seizures with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, even in an ambulatory setting, has been repeatedly shown, however, in patients with a single seizure focus only. We did a study to assess feasibility of state-of-the-art, electroencephalogram-based seizure-prediction techniques in patients with uncontrollable multifocal seizures. We obtained significant predictive information about upcoming seizures in more than two thirds of patients. Unexpectedly, the emergence of seizure precursors was confined to non-affected brain areas. Our findings clearly indicate that epileptic networks, spanning lobes and hemispheres, underlie generation of seizures. Our proof-of-concept study is an important milestone towards new therapeutic strategies based on seizure-prediction techniques for clinical practice. PMID:27091239

  18. Limbic system seizures and aggressive behavior (superkindling effects).

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Velamati, S

    1978-01-01

    This study was done to further analyze the neural mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior associated with psychomotor or temporal lobe seizures. The studies revealed that superkindling the aggressive system by sequential stimulations at seizure-inducing thresholds, of two or more sites in the limbic, hypothalamic, and basal ganglia structures facilitated the production of aggressive seizures. Aggressive behavior in the freely moving cat was evaluated in relation to the occurrence of hissing and growling during stimulation, after-discharge and postictal period. The behavior was correlated with the frequency of the elicited seizures and the seizure durations. Aggression did develop as a component behavioral manifestation of the limbic (psychomotor) seizure. Development of aggressive seizures was facilitated by "priming" the aggressive system. Optimum levels of aggressive behavior occurred with seizures of medium duration. Catecholamine blockers tended to attentuate the occurrence of aggression, whereas the agonist tended to facilitate it. Once the aggressive system was rendered hyperexcitable, exteroceptive stimuli also evoked aggressive attack behavior. It was concluded that repeatedly recurring limbic system seizures through superkindling mechanisms can eventually render the limbic-basal ganglia-preoptico-hypothalamic aggressive system hyper-responsive to both recurring seizures and to exteroceptive stimuli with resulting aggressive behavior with or without an accompanying seizure. PMID:571080

  19. A note on the use of coherent integration in periodogram analysis of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of coherent integration on the periodogram method to estimate the power spectra of MST radar signals is examined. The spectrum estimate usually is biased, even when care is taken to reduce the aliasing effects. Due to this bias, the signal power for Doppler shifted signals is underestimated by as much as 4 dB. The use of coherent integration in reducing the effect of aliased power line harmonics is pointed out.

  20. On the morphology of the scattering medium as seen by MST/ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Much is learned about the morphology of the small scale structures of the atmosphere from analysis of echoes observed by MST radars. The use of physical models enables a synthesis of diverse observations. Each model contains an implicit assumption about the nature of the irregularity structure of the medium. A comparison is made between the irregularity structure implicit in several models and what is known about the structure of the medium.

  1. Metabolic Disruption in Drosophila Bang-Sensitive Seizure Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fergestad, Tim; Bostwick, Bret; Ganetzky, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We examined a number of Drosophila mutants with increased susceptibility to seizures following mechanical or electrical stimulation to better understand the underlying factors that predispose neurons to aberrant activity. Several mutations in this class have been molecularly identified and suggest metabolic disruption as a possible source for increased seizure susceptibility. We mapped the bang-sensitive seizure mutation knockdown (kdn) to cytological position 5F3 and identified citrate synthase as the affected gene. These results further support a role for mitochondrial metabolism in controlling neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility. Biochemical analysis in bang-sensitive mutants revealed reductions in ATP levels consistent with disruption of mitochondrial energy production in these mutants. Electrophysiological analysis of mutants affecting mitochondrial proteins revealed an increased likelihood for a specific pattern of seizure activity. Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. PMID:16648587

  2. Quantitative Simulations of MST Visual Receptive Field Properties Using a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a template model of primate visual self-motion processing that proposes a specific set of projections from MT-like local motion sensors onto output units to estimate heading and relative depth from optic flow. At the time, we showed that that the model output units have emergent properties similar to those of MSTd neurons, although there was little physiological evidence to test the model more directly. We have now systematically examined the properties of the model using stimulus paradigms used by others in recent single-unit studies of MST: 1) 2-D bell-shaped heading tuning. Most MSTd neurons and model output units show bell-shaped heading tuning. Furthermore, we found that most model output units and the finely-sampled example neuron in the Duffy-Wurtz study are well fit by a 2D gaussian (sigma approx. 35deg, r approx. 0.9). The bandwidth of model and real units can explain why Lappe et al. found apparent sigmoidal tuning using a restricted range of stimuli (+/-40deg). 2) Spiral Tuning and Invariance. Graziano et al. found that many MST neurons appear tuned to a specific combination of rotation and expansion (spiral flow) and that this tuning changes little for approx. 10deg shifts in stimulus placement. Simulations of model output units under the same conditions quantitatively replicate this result. We conclude that a template architecture may underlie MT inputs to MST.

  3. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on 3D equilibria in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Boguski, J.; Cianciosa, M.; den Hartog, D. J.; Dubois, A. M.; Goetz, J. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.; Norval, R. J.; Sarff, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    The orientation of 3D equilibria in the MST RFP can now be controlled with application of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). This control has led to improved diagnosis revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. Coupled to a recent advance in the V3FIT code, reconstructions of the 3D equilibria have also been improved. The RMP also inhibits generation of high-energy (>20keV) electrons, which are otherwise produced with the 3D state. This state occurs when the normally broad spectrum of core-resonant m = 1 tearing modes condenses, with the innermost resonant mode growing to large amplitude ~ 8% of the axisymmetric field. As the dominant mode grows, eddy current in MST's conducting shell slows the mode's rotation, eventually leading to locking of the 3D structure. An m = 1 RMP with an amplitude br/B ~ 10% can force the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. Reduced stochasticity and improved confinement of high-energy electrons during the formations of the 3D structure are observed. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  4. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  5. Advanced control of MST's poloidal field with a programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.; Anderson, J. K.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2015-11-01

    One thrust of the MST program is to advance inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is in place, and a Bp PPS is being designed. Together, these supplies will provide inductive capability rivaling that of any fusion device in the world. To better inform the design of the Bp PPS, and to demonstrate some of the new capabilities that will be provided, the existing Bt PPS has been connected to MST's Bp circuit. While limited to lower voltage and current than the planned Bp PPS, this has already more than quadrupled the Ip flattop duration. It has also allowed access to very low Ip, down to 20 kA, substantially increasing MST's range of Lundquist number, important for the validation of MHD computational models. Low Ip has also allowed electron energization by high-harmonic EBW. At higher Ip, work has begun on self-similar ramp-down of Ip, a potential route to improved confinement. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E.

  6. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  7. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  8. Seizure Duration Determined by Subdural Electrode Recordings in Adult Patients with Intractable Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daeyoung; Cho, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jihyun; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Chyul; Hong, Seung Bong; Seo, Dae-Won

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To investigate the duration of seizures and its relationship to seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, and seizure clustering. Methods: We examined 1,251 seizures from 152 patients who underwent video-electrocorticographic monitoring with subdural electrodes. Their seizure duration, seizure types, epilepsy syndromes, and seizure clusters were analyzed. Results: The median seizure duration was 91.5s (4–1016s). There were 34 (2.7%) seizures lasting > 5 minutes in 20 (13.2%) patients. There was a significant difference in seizure duration according to seizure types (p < 0.0001), but not to epilepsy syndromes. There were 99 seizure clusters in 67 (44.1%) patients. The first seizure in a cluster of seizures tended to last longer than non-cluster seizures (median 98s versus 89s, p = 0.033). Seizure duration was significantly longer in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy than in neocortical lobe epilepsy (median 103s versus 87s, p = 0.041). Rate of seizure cluster was lower in mTLE (38.0%) than in NLE (47.1%), but this difference was not significant. Conclusions: Seizure durations were different among seizure types. Seizure clustering also differ between patients with mTLE and those with NLE, which suggests different seizure generation and propagation among different epileptogenic foci. This study has implications for the identification of abnormally prolonged seizures. PMID:24649447

  9. Mediators of Change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Jason E.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The mediators of favorable multisystemic therapy (MST) outcomes achieved at 12 months post recruitment were examined within the context of a randomized effectiveness trial with 127 juvenile sexual offenders and their families. Outcome measures assessed youth delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and deviant sexual interest/risk behaviors; and hypothesized mediators included measures of parenting and peer relations. Data were collected at pretreatment, 6 months post recruitment, and 12 months post recruitment. Consistent with the MST theory of change and the small extant literature in this area of research, analyses showed that favorable MST effects on youth antisocial behavior and deviant sexual interest/risk behaviors were mediated by increased caregiver follow-through on discipline practices as well as decreased caregiver disapproval of and concern about the youth's bad friends during the follow-up. These findings have important implications for the community-based treatment of juvenile sexual offenders. PMID:19485587

  10. Multisystemic Therapy(®) : Clinical Overview, Outcomes, and Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Schaeffer, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an evidence-based treatment originally developed for youth with serious antisocial behavior who are at high risk for out-of-home placement and their families; and subsequently adapted to address other challenging clinical problems experience by youths and their families. The social-ecological theoretical framework of MST is presented as well as its home-based model of treatment delivery, defining clinical intervention strategies, and ongoing quality assurance/quality improvement system. With more than 100 peer-reviewed outcome and implementation journal articles published as of January 2016, the majority by independent investigators, MST is one of the most extensively evaluated family based treatments. Outcome research has yielded almost uniformly favorable results for youths and families, and implementation research has demonstrated the importance of treatment and program fidelity in achieving such outcomes. PMID:27370172

  11. Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G.; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures (“focal” in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system’s dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems.

  12. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  13. An unusual cause for hyponatremia with seizures

    PubMed Central

    Naha, Kushal; Vivek, G; Dasari, Sowjanya; Manthappa, M; Dias, Lorraine; Acharya, Raviraja

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old Asian Indian female with known hypertension presented with persistent vomiting but no other symptoms of meningism. Clinical examination and basic laboratory parameters were entirely normal except for significant hyponatremia. Further investigation was suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Subsequently, despite steady correction of hyponatremia, the patient developed generalised seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis performed was inconclusive. Screening for a chronic meningitis underlying SIADH, yielded positive blood and CSF titres for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), which were confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA). The patient was treated for neurosyphilis and made a complete recovery. Hyponatremia resolved and she had no further episodes of seizures. She was tested for HIV infection which was negative. On follow-up, she remained TPHA positive but VDRL titres became negative. PMID:22605698

  14. Cerebral hemispherectomy for seizures with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T; Villemure, J G

    1989-01-01

    The risk-benefit ratio of this functionally complete but anatomically subtotal hemispherectomy is strongly in favor of its more widespread and early use for the small group of unfortunate seizure patients who have maximal or near maximal hemiplegia and a complete or high-grade hemianopsia, and whose seizures constitute a significant handicap in regard to schooling and psychosocial development despite an adequate trial of appropriate antiepileptic medication. The earlier the "good" hemisphere and the upper brain are spared the nociferous effect of continual bombardment by wide-spread high-amplitude epileptiform discharges, the more effectively motor, sensory, intellectual, and psychosocial development can take place in the remainder of the nervous system. PMID:2655991

  15. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  16. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  17. Animal Models of Posttraumatic Seizures and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Glushakov, Alexander V; Glushakova, Olena Y; Doré, Sylvain; Carney, Paul R; Hayes, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most common and devastating complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, the etiopathology and mechanisms of PTE are poorly understood and as a result, there is no effective treatment or means to prevent it. Antiepileptic drugs remain common preventive strategies in the management of TBI to control acute posttraumatic seizures and to prevent the development of PTE, although their efficacy in the latter case is disputed. Different strategies of PTE prophylaxis have been showing promise in preclinical models, but their translation to the clinic still remains elusive due in part to the variability of these models and the fact they do not recapitulate all complex pathologies associated with human TBI. TBI is a multifaceted disorder reflected in several potentially epileptogenic alterations in the brain, including mechanical neuronal and vascular damage, parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage, subsequent toxicity caused by iron-rich hemoglobin breakdown products, and energy disruption resulting in secondary injuries, including excitotoxicity, gliosis, and neuroinflammation, often coexisting to a different degree. Several in vivo models have been developed to reproduce the acute TBI cascade of events, to reflect its anatomical pathologies, and to replicate neurological deficits. Although acute and chronic recurrent posttraumatic seizures are well-recognized phenomena in these models, there is only a limited number of studies focused on PTE. The most used mechanical TBI models with documented electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures with remote epileptogenesis include fluid percussion, controlled cortical impact, and weight-drop. This chapter describes the most popular models of PTE-induced TBI models, focusing on the controlled cortical impact and the fluid percussion injury models, the methods of behavioral and electroencephalogram seizure assessments, and other approaches to detect epileptogenic properties

  18. Seizures after the age of sixty.

    PubMed

    Carney, L R

    1976-07-01

    Despite adequate diagnostic evaluation and prolonged follow-up, the causes of epilepsy in the elderly patient frequently remain unknown. Some of these may be of occult, degenerative or vascular central nervous system disease origin--entities which are often difficult to incriminate specifically. Unquestionably, in a few cases, seizures occur at the time of the initial cerebrovascular accident, although in some patients seizures may follow such an episode after a latent interval, particularly when cortical motor areas have been damaged by the initial vascular insult. It is important to differentiate this group from those with recurrent vascular episodes, in whom diagnostic studies and treatment may differ. Brain tumour is as prominent a cause of seizures in the seventh decade as it is in younger adults, but probably is of lower incidence thereafter. Focal, clinical and electroencephalographic findings and a progressive clinical course are particularly common in this group. A heterogeneous group of causes, a few of which are liable to affect the ageing patient, are responsible for some of the seizures in old age and should be searched for when the etiology is obscure. Diagnostic studies will vary with the individual problem and, whenever possible, should be restricted to non-invasive studies such as electroencephalography and computer-assisted tomography, after initial baseline clinical assessment and laboratory studies have been performed. Contrast procedures such as angiography are sometimes hazardous to patients with atherosclerosis and should be reserved for selected patients. Treatment follows conventional guidelines with some modifications due to the vulnerability of the ageing patient to degenerative disease and complications of immobilization. PMID:995828

  19. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    SciTech Connect

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  20. Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.G.; Kugler, S.L.; Stenroos, E.S.; Meulener, M.C.

    1996-02-02

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimizing therapy of seizures in patients with endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2006-12-26

    Endocrinologic disorders, such as thyroid dysfunction or diabetes, may be comorbidities in patients with epilepsy. The choice of medication should address such comorbidities wherever possible. Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, barbiturates, and oxcarbazepine among the new AEDs, may reduce the levels of free and total thyroxin. However, clinically relevant thyroid dysfunction owing to AED treatment is rare. Nevertheless, there are now better alternative AEDs with similar efficacy to the classic first-line drugs but without their enzyme-inducing properties. Such drugs should be considered in cases of thyroid dysfunction to reduce the likelihood of iatrogenic adverse effects. Sufficient data on some of the new AEDs to support this hypothesis are, however, still lacking and urgently needed. Several reports have pointed out the possible negative impact of valproate on glucose and insulin metabolism and particularly on body weight. The increased risk for development of polycystic ovarian syndrome remains a matter of debate but is certainly another argument for the development of alternative agents. The group of new AEDs offers some potential candidates. Topiramate is the AED that is most likely to lead to weight loss; this may be perceived as a positive side effect in some patients. This review summarizes the data on the possible impact of AEDs in endocrinological disorders, concentrating on thyroid dysfunction, insulin/glucose metabolism, and body weight.

  2. Perspectives on seizure clusters: Gaps in lexicon, awareness, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janice M; Shafer, Patricia; Shinnar, Ruth; Austin, Joan; Dewar, Sandra; Long, Lucretia; O'Hara, Kathryn; Santilli, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Seizure clusters in epilepsy can result in serious outcomes such as missed work or school, postictal psychosis, emergency room visits, or hospitalizations, and yet they are often not included in discussions between health-care professionals (HCPs) and their patients. The purpose of this paper was to describe and compare consumer (patient and caregivers) and professional understanding of seizure clusters and to describe how consumers and HCPs communicate regarding seizure clusters. We reviewed social media discussion sites to explore consumers' understanding of seizure clusters. We analyzed professional (medical) literature to explore the HCPs' understanding of seizure clusters. Major themes were revealed in one or both groups, including: communication about diagnosis; frequency, duration, and time frame; seizure type and pattern; severity; and self-management. When comparing discussions of professionals and consumers, both consumers and clinicians discussed the definition of seizure clusters. Discussions of HCPs were understandably clinically focused, and consumer discussions reflected the experience of seizure clusters; however, both groups struggled with a common lexicon. Seizure cluster events remain a problem associated with serious outcomes. Herein, we outline the lack of a common understanding and recommend the development of a common lexicon to improve communication regarding seizure clusters.

  3. Genetic comparison of seizure control by norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, D; Szot, P; Miller, N S; Rust, N C; Hohmann, J G; Pyati, U; White, S S; Palmiter, R D

    2001-10-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyperexcitability, and pharmacological and genetic studies have identified norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as important endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Both transmitters signal through G-protein-coupled receptors, are expressed either together or separately, and are abundant in brain regions implicated in seizure generation. NPY knock-out (NPY KO) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (DBH KO) mice that lack NE are susceptible to seizures, and agonists of NE and NPY receptors protect against seizures. To examine the relative contributions of NE and NPY to neuronal excitability, we tested Dbh;Npy double knock-out (DKO) mice for seizure sensitivity. In general, DBH KO mice were much more seizure-sensitive than NPY KO mice and had normal NPY expression, demonstrating that an NPY deficiency did not contribute to the DBH KO seizure phenotype. DKO mice were only slightly more sensitive than DBH KO mice to seizures induced by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazole, or flurothyl, although DKO mice were uniquely prone to handling-induced seizures. NPY contributed to the seizure phenotype of DKO mice at high doses of convulsant agents and advanced stages of seizures. These data suggest that NE is a more potent endogenous anticonvulsant than NPY, and that NPY has the greatest contribution under conditions of extreme neuronal excitability.

  4. Inheritance of febrile seizures in sudden unexplained death in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ingrid A; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R; Kinney, Hannah C; Krous, Henry F

    2012-04-01

    Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians.

  5. Seizures and Brain Arterovenous Malformation: A Surgical Series.

    PubMed

    Ferlisi, M; Zanoni, T; Moretto, G; Pasqualin, A

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common symptoms of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The potential risk factors for epilepsy in patients with AVMs are still controversial. The reported long-term outcome of seizures after surgical treatment of AVMs is variable and the data available are mainly from small retrospective case series.We identified all consecutive patients between 1990 and 2006 who underwent microsurgical resection of supratentorial AVMs at our institute. Pre-operative risk factors for seizures, intra-operative characteristics, long-term neurological disability, and seizure outcome (Engel's classification) were recorded and analyzed.During the study period, 110 patients underwent surgical resection of supratentorial AVM. Sixty of them (55 %) were symptomatic for seizures preoperatively. In our series, the absence of preoperative neurological deficits (p = 0.005), a large AVM size (p = 0.005), and no history of preoperative AVM hemorrhage (p < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for preoperative seizures. Following surgical resection, 77 % of patients with preoperative seizures had a modified Engel class I outcome. Among patients without a history of preoperative epilepsy, 56 % had new-onset seizures after surgical resection. None of the risk factors associated with preoperative seizures was associated with post-operative seizures. As there are no reliable factors predicting patients who may benefit from surgical treatment, epilepsy control should not be considered as the primary goal of AVMs surgery. PMID:27637642

  6. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA−/−), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp−/−), or both (Nsp:tPA−/−), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp−/− mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA−/− mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA−/− mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA−/− mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA−/−, and Nsp−/− mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFRα on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFRα signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFRα signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  7. Treadmill exercise protects against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2013-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35 mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility.

  8. Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35 mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

  9. National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH): results of the national audit of adult epilepsy in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Peter A; Kirkham, Jamie J; Marson, Anthony G; Pearson, Mike G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives About 100 000 people present to hospitals each year in England with an epileptic seizure. How they are managed is unknown; thus, the National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH) set out to assess prior care, management of the acute event and follow-up of these patients. This paper describes the data from the second audit conducted in 2013. Setting 154 emergency departments (EDs) across the UK. Participants Data from 4544 attendances (median age of 45 years, 57% men) showed that 61% had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy, 12% other neurological problems and 22% were first seizure cases. Each ED identified 30 consecutive adult cases presenting due to a seizure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Details were recorded of the patient's prior care, management at hospital and onward referral to neurological specialists onto an online database. Descriptive results are reported at national level. Results Of those with epilepsy, 498 (18%) were on no antiepileptic drug therapy and 1330 (48%) were on monotherapy. Assessments were often incomplete and witness histories were sought in only 759 (75%) of first seizure patients, 58% were seen by a senior doctor and 57% were admitted. For first seizure patients, advice on further seizure management was given to 264 (27%) and only 55% were referred to a neurologist or epilepsy specialist. For each variable, there was wide variability among sites that was not explicable. For the sites who partook in both audits, there was a trend towards better care in 2013, but this was small and dwarfed by the intersite variability. Conclusions These results have parallels with the Sentinel Audit of Stroke performed a decade earlier. There is wide intersite variability in care covering the entire care pathway, and a need for better organised and accessible care for these patients. PMID:25829372

  10. Risk factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received tranexamic acid: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Montes, Felix R; Pardo, Daniel F; Carreño, Marisol; Arciniegas, Catalina; Dennis, Rodolfo J; Umaña, Juan P

    2012-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic agents are used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding and reduce exposure to blood products. Several reports suggest that tranexamic acid (TA) can induce seizure activity in the postoperative period. To examine factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received TA. University-affiliated hospital. Case-control study. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified. During this time, all patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB received TA. Cases were defined as patients who developed seizures that required initiation of anticonvulsive therapy within 48 h of surgery. Exclusion criteria included subjects with preexisting epilepsy and patients in whom the convulsive episode was secondary to a new ischemic lesion on brain imaging. Controls who did not develop seizures were randomly selected from the initial cohort. From an initial cohort of 903 patients, we identified 32 patients with postoperative seizures. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-eight cases and 112 controls were analyzed. Cases were more likely to have a history of renal impairment and higher preoperative creatinine values compared with controls (1.39 ± 1.1 vs. 0.98 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P = 0.02). Significant differences in the intensive care unit, postoperative and total lengths of stay were observed. An association between high preoperative creatinine value and postoperative seizure was identified. TA may be associated with the development of postoperative seizures in patients with renal dysfunction. Doses of TA should be reduced or even avoided in this population. PMID:22234015

  11. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rieko; Okumura, Akihisa; Nakazawa, Tomoyuki; Hara, Satoshi; Yamakawa, Yoko; Kamata, Ayako; Kinoshita, Keiji; Obinata, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2010-06-01

    We reported a girl with HHV-6 infection associated with both acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion, and hemophagocytic syndrome. She had a prolonged convulsion after a one-day history of febrile illness. Cerebrospinal fluid or brain CT showed no abnormalities on admission and her consciousness was recovered on the next day. However, a prolonged seizure and deterioration of consciousness appeared on the sixth day of illness. Diffusion-weighted images revealed marked reduction of water diffusion in the bilateral frontal areas. HHV-6 infection was virologically proven by polymerase chain reaction. She was treated with gamma-globulin, steroid pulse therapy, and brain hypothermia. In addition, decrease in white blood cells and platelet counts, and elevation of liver enzymes and ferritin were noted on the fourth day of illness. Hemophagocytic macrophages were revealed by bone marrow aspiration on the sixth day. Her hematological and blood chemistry abnormalities recovered gradually after steroid pulse therapy. An elevation of interleukin-6, -8, and -10, and tumor necrosis factor in the serum and that of interleukin-4, -6, and-8 in the cerebrospinal fluid were observed at the onset of a late seizure. These facts suggested that hypercytokinemia will be related to the pathogenesis of acute encephalopathy of our patient. PMID:19556082

  12. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. PMID:26774005

  13. Role of cinnarizine and nifedipine on anticonvulsant effect of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole model of seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brahmane, Ranjana I.; Wanmali, Vikrant V.; Pathak, Swanand S.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) cinnarizine and nifedipine on maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions and also their effect in combination with conventional antiepileptic drugs (CAED). Materials and Methods: For this study, Swiss albino mice were used. Effects of cinnarizine (30 mg/kg), nifedipine (5 mg/kg), sodium valproate (300 mg/kg) and carbamazepine (8 mg/kg) alone and in combination were studied in MES and PTZ seizure models. Abolition of hind limb tonic extension was an index of anticonvulsant activity in MES, while for PTZ seizures, failure to observe even a single episode of tonic spasm for 5 s duration for 1 h was the index. With this, percentage protection was calculated and statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact test (Ovvind Langsrud software, German version). Results: In MES seizures, augmented effects were obtained when cinnarizine was combined with sodium valproate, i.e. 100%. In PTZ-induced seizures, augmented effects were obtained when nifedipine was combined with sodium valproate, i.e. 100%. Thus, cinnarizine added to sodium valproate therapy produces significant protection against MES seizures while nifedipine added to sodium valproate therapy produces significant protection against PTZ seizures. Conclusion: The results provide a lead for potential benefit of adding CCBs to sodium valproate in the treatment of epilepsy, which needs to be explored further. PMID:21350614

  14. Coenzyme Q10 enhances the anticonvulsant effect of phenytoin in pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats and ameliorates phenytoin-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Mona K

    2011-12-01

    Conventional antiepileptic drugs fail to adequately control seizures and predispose to cognitive impairment and oxidative stress with chronic usage in a significant proportion of patients with epilepsy. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant compound, exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects that are attributed to its potent antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 in rats against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and to study its interactions with the conventional antiepileptic drug phenytoin, two experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the effect of phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on seizure severity and oxidative markers in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Experiment 2 was conducted to test the effect of 2 weeks of chronic treatment with phenytoin, CoQ10, or both on oxidative markers and behavioral tests in rats. Overall, CoQ10 reduced the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures and the severity of oxidative stress. Moreover, it potentiated the antiepileptic effects afforded by phenytoin treatment, with the potential safety and efficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress and cognitive impairment caused by chronic phenytoin therapy. Our findings strongly suggest that CoQ10 can be considered a safe and effective adjuvant to phenytoin therapy in epilepsy both to ameliorate seizure severity and to protect against seizure-induced oxidative damage by reducing the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress associated with chronic use of phenytoin.

  15. Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner.

    PubMed

    Ait Lahmidi, Nassima; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brulé, Daphnée; Chatagnier, Odile; Arnould, Christine; Doidy, Joan; Berta, Graziella; Lingua, Guido; Wipf, Daniel; Bonneau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H(+) co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed.

  16. Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner.

    PubMed

    Ait Lahmidi, Nassima; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brulé, Daphnée; Chatagnier, Odile; Arnould, Christine; Doidy, Joan; Berta, Graziella; Lingua, Guido; Wipf, Daniel; Bonneau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H(+) co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed. PMID:27362299

  17. Technology Insight: neuroengineering and epilepsy—designing devices for seizure control

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C; Litt, Brian

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite substantial innovations in antiepileptic drug therapy over the past 15 years, the proportion of patients with uncontrolled epilepsy has not changed, highlighting the need for new treatments. New implantable antiepileptic devices, which are currently under development and in pivotal clinical trials, hold great promise for improving the quality of life for millions of people with epileptic seizures worldwide. A broad range of strategies is currently being investigated, using various modes of control and intervention in an attempt to stop seizures. The success of these devices rests upon collaboration between neuroengineers, physicians and industry to adapt new technologies for clinical use. The initial results are exciting, but considerable development and controlled clinical trials will be required before these treatments earn a place in our standard of clinical care. PMID:18301414

  18. Patient considerations in the management of focal seizures in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Daniel; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Focal epilepsy accounts for approximately one-half to two-thirds of new-onset epilepsy in children. Etiologies are diverse, and range from benign epilepsy syndromes with normal neuroimaging and almost certain remission to focal malformations of cortical development or hippocampal sclerosis with intractable seizures persisting lifelong. Other important etiologies in children include pre-, peri-, or postnatal brain injury, low-grade neoplasms, vascular lesions, and neuroimmunological disorders. Cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric comorbidities are commonly seen and must be addressed in addition to seizure control. Given the diverse nature of focal epilepsies in children and adolescents, investigations and treatments must be individualized. First-line therapy consists of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs; however, prognosis is poor after failure of two to three drugs for lack of efficacy. Refractory cases should be referred for an epilepsy surgery workup. Dietary treatments and neurostimulation may be considered in refractory cases who are not good candidates for surgery. PMID:24808722

  19. γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. γ-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  20. Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal models. Although early-life seizures in rodents do not result in cell loss, seizures cause in changes in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and alteration of excitatory or inhibitory balance, network connectivity and temporal coding. These morphological and physiological changes are accompanied by parallel impairment in cognitive skills. This increased understanding of the pathophysiological basis of seizure-induced cognitive deficits should allow investigators to develop novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

  1. Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal models. Although early-life seizures in rodents do not result in cell loss, seizures cause in changes in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and alteration of excitatory or inhibitory balance, network connectivity and temporal coding. These morphological and physiological changes are accompanied by parallel impairment in cognitive skills. This increased understanding of the pathophysiological basis of seizure-induced cognitive deficits should allow investigators to develop novel targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27544468

  2. Emergency department management of seizures in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Santillanes, Genevieve; Luc, Quyen

    2015-03-01

    Seizures account for 1% of all emergency department visits for children, and the etiologies range from benign to life-threatening. The challenge for emergency clinicians is to diagnose and treat the life-threatening causes of seizures while avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure and painful procedures in patients who are unlikely to have an emergent pathology. When treating patients in status epilepticus, emergency clinicians are also faced with the challenge of choosing anticonvulsant medications that will be efficacious while minimizing harmful side effects. Unfortunately, evidence to guide the evaluation and management of children presenting with new and breakthrough seizures and status epilepticus is limited. This review summarizes available evidence and guidelines on the diagnostic evaluation of first-time, breakthrough, and simple and complex febrile seizures. Management of seizures in neonates and seizures due to toxic ingestions is also reviewed.

  3. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  4. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

  5. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Clapp, Ned E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Lawkins, William F.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

  6. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  7. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  8. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  9. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  10. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up to a Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the long-term criminal activity of 176 youths who had participated in either multisystemic therapy (MST) or individual therapy (IT) in a randomized clinical trial (C. M. Borduin et al., 1995). Arrest and incarceration data were obtained on average 13.7 (range = 10.2-15.9) years later when participants were on…

  12. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures. PMID:26943929

  13. Seizures and the Role of Anticonvulsants After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lara L; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Vespa, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic seizures are a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Posttraumatic epilepsy accounts for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy in the general population and 5% of all epilepsy. Early posttraumatic seizures occur in more than 20% of patients in the intensive care unit and are associated with secondary brain injury and worse patient outcomes. Most posttraumatic seizures are nonconvulsive and therefore continuous electroencephalography monitoring should be the standard of care for patients with moderate or severe brain injury. The literature shows that posttraumatic seizures result in secondary brain injury caused by increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PMID:27637399

  14. Using a structured questionnaire improves seizure description by medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students’ ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure.  Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured questionnaire that asked the student to respond to 17 questions regarding specific features occurring during the seizures.  We determined the number and types of correct responses for each questionnaire. Results Overall, the structured questionnaire was more effective in eliciting an average of 9.25 correct responses compared to the unstructured questionnaire eliciting an average of 5.30 correct responses (p < 0.001). Additionally, 10 of the 17 seizure features were identified more effectively with the structured questionnaire. Potentially confounding factors, prior knowledge of someone with epilepsy or a prior experience of viewing a seizure, did not predict the student’s ability to correctly identify any of the 17 features. Conclusions A structured questionnaire significantly improves a medical student’s ability to provide an accurate clinical description of primary generalized and complex partial witnessed seizures. Our analysis identified the 10 specific features improved by using the structured questionnaire. PMID:26752118

  15. Self-induced photosensitive absence seizures with ictal pleasure.

    PubMed

    Faught, E; Falgout, J; Nidiffer, D; Dreifuss, F E

    1986-04-01

    A 32-year-old woman was treated for self-induced photosensitive seizures that included strong subjective feelings of pleasure and masturbatory behavior. Electroencephalograms demonstrated generalized polyphasic spike-wave discharges in response to stroboscopic stimulation. The behavioral sequences leading to seizures and the effects of treatment can be explained in terms of operant conditioning theory. Data from human and animal studies indicate a correlation between ictal pleasure or reinforcement and the subject's ability to induce seizures. Ictal pleasure is rare in spontaneous seizures that are not under the control of the patient.

  16. Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Kaspar A.; Bialonski, Stephan; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after 100 human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the viewpoint of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

  17. [Role of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures].

    PubMed

    Kamei, C; Okuma, C

    2001-05-01

    The role of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats was studied. Histamine content in the amygdala was significantly decreased after development of amygdaloid kindling. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine resulted in inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The H1-agonists 2-methylhistamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine also inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of histidine and metoprine inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures at doses that caused increases in histamine contents of the brain. H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine) attenuated histamine- or histidine-induced inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. Both i.c.v. and i.p. injections of H3-antagonists (thioperamide, AQ0145 and clobenpropit) resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The effects of thioperamide and AQ0145 were inhibited by an H3-agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine and H1-antagonists. On the other hand, H2-antagonists showed no antagonistic effect. GABAmimetic drugs, diazepam, sodium valproate and muscimol potentiated the effect of clobenpropit. Bicuculline caused significant antagonism of the inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures induced by clobenpropit. These findings suggested that a histaminergic mechanism plays an important role in suppressing amygdaloid kindled seizures through histamine H1-receptors. In addition, an inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures induced by histamine is closely related with the action of GABA.

  18. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  19. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography: Biomarkers for convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Pressler, Ronit; Wolf, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Muscle activity during seizures is in electroencephalographical (EEG) praxis often considered an irritating artefact. This article discusses ways by surface electromyography (EMG) to turn it into a valuable tool of epileptology. Muscles are in direct synaptic contact with motor neurons. Therefore, EMG signals provide direct information about the electric activity in the motor cortex. Qualitative analysis of EMG has traditionally been a part of the long-term video-EEG recordings. Recent development in quantitative analysis of EMG signals yielded valuable information on the pathomechanisms of convulsive seizures, demonstrating that it was different from maximal voluntary contraction, and different from convulsive psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Furthermore, the tonic phase of the generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) proved to have different quantitative features than tonic seizures. The high temporal resolution of EMG allowed detailed characterisation of temporal dynamics of the GTCS, suggesting that the same inhibitory mechanisms that try to prevent the build-up of the seizure activity, contribute to ending the seizure. These findings have clinical implications: the quantitative EMG features provided the pathophysiologic substrate for developing neurophysiologic biomarkers that accurately identify GTCS. This proved to be efficient both for seizure detection and for objective, automated distinction between convulsive and non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

  20. An Open and Shut Case: The Interaction of Magnesium with MST Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The shikimate pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants generates chorismate, which is drawn into biosynthetic pathways that form aromatic amino acids and other important metabolites, including folates, menaquinone, and siderophores. Many of the pathways initiated at this branch point transform chorismate using an MST enzyme. The MST enzymes (menaquinone, siderophore, and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes) are structurally homologous and magnesium-dependent, and all perform similar chemical permutations to chorismate by nucleophilic addition (hydroxyl or amine) at the 2-position of the ring, inducing displacement of the 4-hydroxyl. The isomerase enzymes release isochorismate or aminodeoxychorismate as the product, while the synthase enzymes also have lyase activity that displaces pyruvate to form either salicylate or anthranilate. This has led to the hypothesis that the isomerase and lyase activities performed by the MST enzymes are functionally conserved. Here we have developed tailored pre-steady-state approaches to establish the kinetic mechanisms of the isochorismate and salicylate synthase enzymes of siderophore biosynthesis. Our data are centered on the role of magnesium ions, which inhibit the isochorismate synthase enzymes but not the salicylate synthase enzymes. Prior structural data have suggested that binding of the metal ion occludes access or egress of substrates. Our kinetic data indicate that for the production of isochorismate, a high magnesium ion concentration suppresses the rate of release of product, accounting for the observed inhibition and establishing the basis of the ordered-addition kinetic mechanism. Moreover, we show that isochorismate is channeled through the synthase reaction as an intermediate that is retained in the active site by the magnesium ion. Indeed, the lyase-active enzyme has 3 orders of magnitude higher affinity for the isochorismate complex relative to the chorismate complex. Apparent negative-feedback inhibition by ferrous