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Sample records for sekwencji wieloimpulsowych cz

  1. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  2. Photovoltaic Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.L. )

    1994-06-30

    Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) began a three-year, three-phase cost shared contract in March 1992 to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work has focused on near-term projects for implementation in the SSI Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work has been undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program has concentrated in the areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, module development, and environmental, safety, and health issues.

  3. Photovoltaic Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, Theresa L.

    1996-01-01

    Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) began a three-year, three-phase cost shared contract in March 1992 to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work has focused on near-term projects for implementation in the SSI Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work has been undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The program has concentrated in the areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, module development and environmental, safety and health issues.

  4. Degradation of bulk diffusion length in CZ silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, J.H.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    Commercially-produced, unencapsulated, CZ silicon solar cells can lose 3 to 4% of their initial efficiency after exposure to light. After this initial, rapid ( < 30 min.) decrease, the cell power output remains stable. The cell performance recovers in a matter of hours in the dark at room temperature, and degrades again under light exposure. The different conditions under which CZ silicon cells degrade, and the reverse process, annealing, are characterized with the methods of spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Iron impurities are a possible cause of this effect.

  5. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  6. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced processing techniques for non-CZ silicon sheet material that might improve the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic module production were investigated. Specifically, the simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus organometallic precursors into n-type dendritic silicon web was examined. The simultaneous junction formation method for solar cells was compared with the sequential junction formation method. The electrical resistivity of the n-n and p-n junctions was discussed. Further research activities for this program along with a program documentation schedule are given.

  7. Multiple batch recharging for industrial CZ silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickett, B.; Mihalik, G.

    2001-05-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth process used in the Siemens Solar Industries’ (SSI) Vancouver, WA facility was non-continuous. Each furnace run's production was limited by the size of the starting charge. Once the charge was depleted, the furnace was shut down, cooled, and set back up for the next run. A recharge system was developed which transforms standard CZ growth into a semi-continuous process. Now when the charge is depleted, the crucible can be refilled in situ as the grown ingot is being removed from the furnace. SSI has demonstrated up to 14 recharge cycles in a single run. The resulting benefits included: significant cost reduction, increased yield, increased throughput, reduced energy consumption, improved process capability, reduced material handling requirements, and reduced labor. The recharge system also enables the use of granular silicon, which requires less than 30% of the energy required when manufacturing silicon-starting materials. This significantly reduces the energy “pay-back” time associated with SSI's finished product, photovoltaic panels.

  8. First Measurement of Beam-Recoil Observables Cx and Cz

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bradford; R.A. Schumacher; G. Adams; M.J. Amaryan; P. Ambrozewicz; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J.P. Ball; N.A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B.L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A.S. Biselli; B.E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W.J. Briscoe; W.K. Brooks; S. B¨ultmann; V.D. Burkert; C. Butuceanu; J.R. Calarco; S.L. Careccia; D.S. Carman; B. Carnahan; S. Chen; P.L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; † P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; V. Crede; J.P. Cummings; R. De Masi; E. De Sanctis; R. De Vita; P.V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K.V. Dharmawardane; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G.E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O.P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K.S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R.J. Feuerbach; T.A. Forest; H. Funsten; M. Garcon; G. Gavalian; G.P. Gilfoyle; K.L. Giovanetti; F.X. Girod; J.T. Goetz; A. Gonenc; R.W. Gothe; K.A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; R.S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F.W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C.E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D.G. Ireland; B.S. Ishkhanov; E.L. Isupov; M.M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H.S. Jo; K. Joo; H.G. Juengst; N. Kalantarians; J.D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; K.Y. Kim; K. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F.J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L.H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S.E. Kuhn; S.V. Kuleshov; J. Lachniet; J.M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A.C.S. Lima; K. Livingston; H.Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; J.J. Manak; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J.W.C. McNabb; B.A. Mecking; M.D. Mestayer; C.A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; K. Moriya; S.A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G.S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; N. Natasha; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B.B. Niczyporuk; M.R. Niroula; R.A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G.V. O’Rielly; M. Osipenko; A.I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S.A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B.M. Preedom; J.W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L.M. Qin; B.P. Quinn; B.A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B.G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P.D. Rubin; F. Sabatie; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; J.P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; V.S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y.G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; N.V. Shvedunov; S. Simionatto; A.V. Skabelin; E.S. Smith; L.C. Smith; D.I. Sober; D. Sokhan; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S.S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; P. Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D.J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; L. Todor; C. Tur; M. Ungaro; M.F. Vineyard; A.V. Vlassov; K. Wang; D.P. Watts; L.B. Weinstein; H. Weller; D.P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; and Z.W. Zhao

    2007-03-01

    Spin transfer from circularly polarized real photons to recoiling hyperons has been measured for the reactions $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Lambda$ and $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Sigma^0$. The data were obtained using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies $W$ between 1.6 and 2.53 GeV, and for $-0.85<\\cos\\theta_{K^+}^{c.m.}< +0.95$. For the $\\Lambda$, the polarization transfer coefficient along the photon momentum axis, $C_z$, was found to be near unity for a wide range of energy and kaon production angles. The associated transverse polarization coefficient, $C_x$, is smaller than $C_z$ by a roughly constant difference of unity. Most significantly, the {\\it total} $\\Lambda$ polarization vector, including the induced polarization $P$, has magnitude consistent with unity at all measured energies and production angles when the beam is fully polarized. For the $\\Sigma^0$ this simple phenomenology does not hold. All existing hadrodynamic models are in poor agreement with these results.

  9. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  10. Metabolic difference of CZ48 in human and mouse liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Dejesus, Albert; Cao, Zhisong; Vardeman, Dana; Giovanella, Beppino

    2012-01-01

    CZ48, chemically camptothecin-20-O-propionate hydrate, is currently under clinical investigation. The kinetics of the metabolite camptothecin (CPT) formation and of CZ48 depletion in mouse and human liver microsomes in the presence or absence of NADPH was examined. The formation rate of camptothecin in human liver microsomes was significantly higher than that in mouse with mean K(m)s of 1.9 and 0.5 nM and V(max)s of 9.3 and 2.2 pmol/min/mg, respectively. However, the apparent intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) ratios for camptothecin in human and mouse liver microsomes were not significantly different from each other (4.9 versus 4.4) in the presence of NADPH. The depletion of CZ48 in human microsomes was four times faster with 4.55% of CZ48 remaining intact while in mouse 19.11% of the drug remained unchanged after 60 min. These results suggest that there is a remarkable species difference of CZ48 biotransformation between human and mouse. The depletion rate of CZ48 in human liver microsomes is considerably higher than that in the mouse.

  11. THE OLD ENVIRONMENT OF THE FAINT CALCIUM-RICH SUPERNOVA SN 2005cz

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Gal-yam, Avishay; Crockett, R. Mark; Sullivan, Mark; Anderson, Joseph P.; James, Phil A.; Neill, James D.; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2011-02-20

    The supernova SN 2005cz has recently attracted some attention due to the fact that it was spectroscopically similar to type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib), a class that is presumed to result from the core collapse of massive stars, yet it occurred in an elliptical galaxy, where one expects very few massive stars to exist. Two explanations for this remarkable event were put forward. Perets et al. associate SN 2005cz with the class of Ca-rich, faint SNe Ib, which likely result from old double-white-dwarf systems with an He-rich secondary. On the other hand, Kawabata et al. suggest that SN 2005cz is indeed a core-collapse event (in a binary system), albeit of a star at the lower end of the mass range, 10-12 M{sub sun}. The existence of this star in its elliptical host is explained as resulting from low-level star formation (SF) activity in that galaxy. Here we present extensive observations of the location of SN 2005cz, sensitive to a variety of SF tracers, including optical spectroscopy, H{alpha} emission, UV emission, and Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We show that NGC 4589, the host galaxy of SN 2005cz, does not show any signatures of a young stellar population or recent SF activity either close to or far from the location of SN 2005cz.

  12. Selection and preparation of hand and foot movements: Cz activity as a marker of limb system preparation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Event-related potentials were used to examine the preparation of hand and foot responses in tasks using both limb systems. As in tasks using only one system, opposite lateralized readiness potentials were observed for hand and foot responses (Experiment 1). Furthermore, movement-related activity at Cz was more positive prior to hand than foot responses, revealing that Cz activity can be used to index selective movement preparation by one limb system. In Experiment 2, two responses were cued prior to stimulus onset. Cue-related activity at Cz was more positive with hand than foot cuing, reinforcing the conclusion that Cz activity is sensitive to selective preparation for one of these limb systems. Overall, the results show that it is possible to carry out motor preparation of two responses within the same limb system and that differential Cz activity is a useful index of this preparation in tasks with hand versus foot movements.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. CZ-UAM, Isolated from a Methanotrophic Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Steffani-Vallejo, José Luis; Zuñiga, Cristal; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Lozano, Luis; Morales, Marcia; Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Revah, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingobacterium sp. CZ-UAM was isolated from a methanotrophic consortium in mineral medium using methane as the only carbon source. A draft genome of 5.84 Mb with a 40.77% G+C content is reported here. This genome sequence will allow the investigation of potential methanotrophy in this isolated strain. PMID:28818899

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobacterium sp. CZ-UAM, Isolated from a Methanotrophic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Steffani-Vallejo, José Luis; Zuñiga, Cristal; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Lozano, Luis; Morales, Marcia; Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtemoc; Revah, Sergio; Utrilla, José

    2017-08-17

    Sphingobacterium sp. CZ-UAM was isolated from a methanotrophic consortium in mineral medium using methane as the only carbon source. A draft genome of 5.84 Mb with a 40.77% G+C content is reported here. This genome sequence will allow the investigation of potential methanotrophy in this isolated strain. Copyright © 2017 Steffani-Vallejo et al.

  15. Cz-Silicon Produced from Solar-Grade and Recycled Materials. Part II: Investigating Performances of Solar Cell Produced from Solar-Grade Cz-Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes; Di Sabtino, Marisa; Juel, Mari; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This paper is the second of two, investigating the properties of P-type Cz-silicon materials and solar cells produced with recycled silicon and Elkem Solar Silicon (ESS) materials. While the focus on the first work was on the bulk properties and grown defects of the material, the current study focuses on the solar cell performances. In the processing of the solar cells, the phosphorous diffusion process was optimized to improve the bulk properties and thus to maximize the final solar cell characteristics. Results from the characterization of material defects suggest that the performances of the experimental ingots are limited by the activated grown-in defects, which should be strictly controlled during crystal growth and solar cell processing. The solar cells produced from the investigated ingots showed efficiency values up to 18.5 pct and fill factor values up to 79 pct, comparable to conventional silicon produced from poly silicon. Solar cells produced from mixed recycled and ESS material exhibit a better performance than 100 pct recycled material. Boron and oxygen concentration levels and net doping level showed a concurrent effect on light-induced degradation (LID). Appropriate compensation was finally demonstrated to be an efficient way to improve solar cells efficiency of Cz-silicon produced from recycled silicon, even though higher dopant concentration incurred relatively faster LID.

  16. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  17. Advanced chemical model for analysis of Cz and DS Si-crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorob'ev, A. N.; Sid'ko, A. P.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    In growing bulk crystals from the melt, impurities contained in silicon feedstock, generated due to the melt-to-crucible contact and transported by the gas flow from graphite elements strongly affect the efficiency of mono and multicrystalline silicon solar cells. The present paper is aimed at developing an advanced coupled chemical model accounting for such phenomena as oxygen and nitrogen solution at crucible wall, oxygen and carbon transport through the melt free surface, formation of Si3N4-, Si2N2O- and SiC-particles in the melt, mass transport of SiO-, CO- and Si-species in argon carrier gas and, finally, formation of parasitic deposits on the furnace units. The model is verified by simulation of DS and Cz Si-crystal growth. It is shown that the computational results agree well with available experimental data, and the model can be used for optimization of Cz and DS processes.

  18. Melt Flow before Crystal Seeding in Cz Si Growth with Transversal MF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masaya; Mukaiyama, Yuji; Demina, S. E.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Industrial Cz growth of Si crystal of 300 mm and higher diameter usually requires DC magnetic fields (MFs) to suppress turbulence in the melt. We present 3D unsteady analysis of melt turbulent convection in an industrial Cz system coupled with the effect of the transversal MF for different argon gas flow rates for the stage before crystal seeding. We have performed detailed 2D axisymmetric modeling of global heat transfer in the whole Cz furnace. Radiative heat fluxes obtained in 2D modeling have been used in detailed 3D steady and unsteady modeling of crystallization zone. LES method is applied as a predictive approach for modeling of turbulent flow of silicon melt. We have obtained flow structure and temperature distribution in the melt, which were different from previously reported data. We have observed a well-fixed dark spike which includes low temperature melt area on the melt free surface in MF cases. These results indicates that MF and argon flow rate conditions are important to achieve stable positioning of the dark spike on the melt free surface for optimized crystal seeding without uncontrollable meltdown and single crystal structure loss.

  19. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the Cz increases joint flexibility.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takamasa; Aramaki, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Joint flexibility depends on both mechanical and neural factors. However, the contribution of neural factors is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that the sensorimotor cortex is involved in joint flexibility, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Cz modifies ankle and wrist flexibility in healthy human participants. In eight male participants, range of motion of the left ankle and wrist were measured during a passive-dorsiflexion test. We also assessed passive torque, which represents involuntary resistance to dorsiflexion at the ankle. Participants performed passive-dorsiflexion tests before and after anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the Cz. The current was applied for 10min with an intensity of 2.0mA during anodal and cathodal tDCS. Cathodal tDCS resulted in a 10.5% increase in range of motion of the ankle, but no significant increase in range of motion of the wrist. Neither anodal nor sham tDCS had a significant effect. Cathodal tDCS over the Cz may have affected neural factors, such as perception of joint angle or pain, because the passive torque at 0°, 5°, 10°, and 15°, which indicates mechanical effects, did not change. These results suggest that the sensorimotor cortex is involved in joint flexibility.

  20. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  1. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program concentrated on the areas of crystal growth; wafer technology; and environmental, safety, and health issues.

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 during methane degradation using citrate or propionate as cosubstrates.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under nitrogen limitation with CH4 as carbon source and when either citrate or propionate was added as cosubstrates. The highest PHAs content (yPHA) in closed flasks was obtained in the CH4-citrate and CH4-propionate experiments attaining values of 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. M. organophilum CZ-2 cultivated in bioreactors with citrate and continuous CH4 addition yielded a final PHAs concentration of 143 gm(-3) containing hydroxybutyrate (HB), hydroxyvalerate (HV) and hydroxyoctanoate (HO), in a 55:35:10 ratio, with, yPHA of 0.88 and a CH4 elimination capacity (EC) of 20 gm(-3) h(-1). With propionate, the yPHA was 0.3 and the EC around 8 gm(-3) h(-1). From 1H and 13C NMR experiments it was found that the polymer produced with CH4-citrate contained six different monomers: 3HB, 3HV, 4HV, 4-hydroxyheptanoate (4HH), 3HO and 4HO, showing the great versatility of this PHAs producing bacterium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of oxygen complexes in Cz and FZ silicon crystals implanted with carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Boris; Melnik, Victor; Popov, Valentin; Babich, Vilik; Kladko, Vasyl; Gudymenko, Olexandr; Ilchenko, Volodimir; Vasyliev, Iegor; Goriachko, Andrii

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative study of thermal donor (TD) center formation mechanisms as a result of carbon ion implantation into float zone (FZ-Si) and Czochralski (Cz-Si) silicon crystals. The kinetics of the TD center formation and transformation of their structure during annealing have been investigated. Also, the TD center formation takes place after additional oxygen implantation into FZ/Cz-Si, and an important role of recoil oxygen atoms (from the screen oxide) has been demonstrated for the FZ-Si case. Their concentration in the Si surface layer depends on the implantation dose and the screen oxide thickness, reaching up to values 1018 to 1019 cm-3, which is comparable with the oxygen concentration in Cz-Si. These oxygen atoms can lead to additional thermal donor centers generation, especially in the FZ-Si.

  4. Back surface cell structures for reducing recombination in CZ silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. R.; Mitchell, K. W.; Gee, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    Mass-produced terrestrial CZ silicon solar cells are currently entering the domain in which bulk diffusion length is comparable to the cell thickness, so that recombination at the back surface can have a significant effect on device performance. Three manufacturable processes that address the problem of back recombination are examined here: boron diffusion from a deposited doped SiO2, layer; Al-alloyed layers using screen-printed paste; and use of a collecting n* layer on the back interdigitated with the positive electrode. 104 sq cm cells fabricated at Siemens Solar Industries using these back surface structures are characterized by current-voltage, spectral response, photoconductivity decay, and SIMS measurements.

  5. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  6. The community-driven BiG CZ software system for integration and analysis of bio- and geoscience data in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Richard, S. M.; Cheetham, R.; Meyer, F.; Henry, C.; Berg-Cross, G.; Packman, A. I.; Aronson, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the prototypes of a new scientific software system designed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, https://github.com/UCHIC/ODM2) to substantially enhance integration of biological and Geological (BiG) data for Critical Zone (CZ) science. The CZ science community takes as its charge the effort to integrate theory, models and data from the multitude of disciplines collectively studying processes on the Earth's surface. The central scientific challenge of the CZ science community is to develop a "grand unifying theory" of the critical zone through a theory-model-data fusion approach, for which the key missing need is a cyberinfrastructure for seamless 4D visual exploration of the integrated knowledge (data, model outputs and interpolations) from all the bio and geoscience disciplines relevant to critical zone structure and function, similar to today's ability to easily explore historical satellite imagery and photographs of the earth's surface using Google Earth. This project takes the first "BiG" steps toward answering that need. The overall goal of this project is to co-develop with the CZ science and broader community, including natural resource managers and stakeholders, a web-based integration and visualization environment for joint analysis of cross-scale bio and geoscience processes in the critical zone (BiG CZ), spanning experimental and observational designs. We will: (1) Engage the CZ and broader community to co-develop and deploy the BiG CZ software stack; (2) Develop the BiG CZ Portal web application for intuitive, high-performance map-based discovery, visualization, access and publication of data by scientists, resource managers, educators and the general public; (3) Develop the BiG CZ Toolbox to enable cyber-savvy CZ scientists to access BiG CZ Application Programming Interfaces (APIs); and (4) Develop the BiG CZ Central software stack to bridge data systems developed for multiple critical zone domains into a single

  7. Correlation between the sensitivity of tumors to treatment with CZ48 and local concentrations of the active metabolite CPT within the tumors

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XING; CAO, ZHISONG; MENDOZA, JOHN; VARDEMAN, DANA; GIOVANELLA, BEPPINO

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline camptothecin-20-O-propionate hydrate (CZ48) is an esterification product from the reaction of natural camptothecin with propionic anhydride. CZ48 has been tested against 29 human tumor lines grown in nude mice as xenografts. Of the tested tumor lines, 28 were found to be responsive to CZ48, by regression or significant inhibition. The total response rate was 97%. However, the effective dose required to achieve the positive response varied from 100 to 2000 mg/kg/day depending on the tumor type. Thus, the sensitivity of tumors to CZ48 treatment varied from tumor to tumor. The most sensitive CLO-breast carcinoma achieved regression when treated with 100 mg/kg/day, while PC3-prostate carcinoma required as high as 1000 mg/kg/day to achieve a definitive response. To determine the reason for these differences in sensitivities among the tumors, we treated 9 human xenografts grown in nude mice with 1000 mg/kg/day CZ48 until saturation and measured the local concentrations of the parental CZ48 as well as the corresponding metabolite camptothecin (CPT) in the tumors with the established high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. Results showed that the sensitivities of these tumors to CZ48 treatment were not affected by local concentrations of the active metabolite CPT in the tumors, but instead by the types of tumors. PMID:24648919

  8. Charge distribution and chemical bonding in B-O complexes in Cz-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuliang; Caliste, Damien; Pochet, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Density functional calculations based on wavelet basis set are performed to investigate charge distribution and chemical bonding in possible BiOi (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen), BsO2i (substitutional boron and interstitial oxygen dimer), and BiO2i (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen dimer) complexes in Cz-Si solar cells. It is confirmed that the BsO2ist complex composed by Bs and staggered oxygen dimer (O2ist) at second nearest site to boron has the lowest formation energy, resulting in better agreement with experiment. This is resulted by Coulomb attraction between Si-Oi and Si-Bs and consequently a decreased Coulomb repulsion between Bs-Oi in BsO2ist complex. A more physical description of the localized nature on bonding has been analyzed by maximally localized Wannier functions. It is found through the predicted Wannier centers that a doubly negative charge state of interstitial oxygen exists, which is consistent with our Bader charge analysis.

  9. Steady State Photoinduced Absorption Studies of PDPA-nBu and PDPA-Cz Solutions and Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Wang, D. K.; Epstein, A. J.

    2000-03-01

    Steady state (ms) photoinduced absortion (PA) spectra are reported for both film and solution forms of n-butyl and p-carbazol substituted poly-(diphenylacetylene)(PDPA-nBu,PDPA-Cz), using an excitation at 2.70 eV. The PA spectra of films of PDPA-nBu show a peak at 1.7 eV, consistent with earlier report that attributed it to a soliton transition in the main backbone of the polymer(I. Gontia, et. al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,4058 (1999). We report very similar PA spectra for PDPA-Cz films. Detailed investigation on temperature and pump intensity dependence of the PA spectra will be reported. A comparison to PA spectra taken in toluene solutions will be given. -------------------------------------------------------------

  10. Isolation and identification of methanethiol-utilizing bacterium CZ05 and its application in bio-trickling filter of biogas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-zheng; Zhang, Wei-jiang; Xu, Jiao

    2013-12-01

    A bacterium capable of methanethiol (MT) degradation was enriched and isolated by employing activated sewage sludge as the inoculum in a mineral medium containing MT. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa CZ05 through a Biolog test and 16S rDNA sequencing. This strain can utilize both organic and inorganic media and thrives at pH 4 to 9. The batch culture showed that the strain can degrade MT better in the No. 4 medium than in the No. 1 medium. A series-operating biotrickling filter with lava stone as the carrier was employed to test the application of P. polymyxa CZ05 in the removal of MT in simulated biogas. Long-term experiments showed that a high concentration of MT (60 ppm) was efficiently removed (99.5%) by the biotrickling filters at EBRT 30 s. The addition of hydrogen sulfide decreased the MT removal rate because the dissolved oxygen competed with MT.

  11. Biosorption of copper(II) and zinc(II) from aqueous solution by Pseudomonas putida CZ1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Cai; Wang, Yuan Peng; Lin, Qi; Shi, Ji Yan; Wu, Wei Xiang; Chen, Ying Xu

    2005-12-10

    To study Pseudomonas putida CZ1, having high tolerance to copper and zinc on the removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions, the biosorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living and nonliving P. putida CZ1 were studied as functions of reaction time, initial pH of the solution and metal concentration. It was found that the optimum pH for Zn(II) removal by living and nonliving cells was 5.0, while it was 5.0 and 4.5, respectively, for Cu(II) removal. At the optimal conditions, metal ion biosorption was increased as the initial metal concentration increased. The adsorption data with respect to both metals provide an excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The binding capacity of living cells is significantly higher than that of nonliving cells at tested conditions. It demonstrated that about 40-50% of the metals were actively taken up by P. putida CZ1, with the remainder being passively bound to the bacterium. Moreover, desorption efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living cells was 72.5 and 45.6% under 0.1M HCl and it was 95.3 and 83.8% by nonliving cells, respectively. It may be due to Cu(II) and Zn(II) uptake by the living cells enhanced by intracellular accumulation.

  12. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  13. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults.

  14. Saturation development in the bentonite barrier of the Mock-Up-CZ geotechnical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacovský, J.; Svoboda, J.; Zapletal, L.

    This paper reports on both the methodology and the results of the measurement of saturation development during the operation of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment. This experiment simulates the engineered barrier system hydration process of the Swedish KBS-3V vertical disposal system. The Mock-Up-CZ model consists of a barrier of bentonite blocks and a heater which simulates the radioactive waste. The potential inflow of granitic water from the natural barrier is simulated by employing a flooding system installed on the inner side of the experimental tank. The whole experiment is enclosed in a cylindrical pressure tank the construction of which allowed for the high pressure caused by the considerable swelling of the bentonite. Six measurement profiles along the vertical profile of the tank allow the continuous measurement of the various on-going processes. A number of sensors were placed inside the bentonite barrier (40 thermometers, 50 hydraulic pressure cells and 37 humidity sensors). The experiment commenced on 7th May 2002. In the first phase, the bentonite barrier was loaded only with the heat created by the heater for a period of six months. During the second phase, which commenced on 4th November 2002, in addition to the continuing thermal activity, the barrier was saturated with synthetic granitic water. This phase will most likely be concluded at the end of 2005. It has been found that of all the geotechnical measurements currently being performed, the measurement of changes in water content is the most challenging. The results obtained from employing any of the usually accepted methods for the measurement of indirect water content are often somewhat unreliable. Despite the problematic nature of these methods, 37 humidity sensors were installed in the barrier. Moreover, the construction of the experimental tank provided for sampling locations with access points allowing core sampling by means of drilling. These samples allow the determination of the water content

  15. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  16. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  17. Nitrates and phosphates in cave waters of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Różkowski, Jacek; Różkowski, Kazimierz; Rahmonov, Oimahmad; Rubin, Hanna

    2017-09-22

    The paper presents the varied presence of nitrates and phosphates in water from caves located in Częstochowa and Kraków, in urban, strongly anthropogenic conditions, representing the vadose zone of the fissure-karstic-porous massif of Upper Jurassic limestones. Hydrochemical research was carried out by the authors in the Cave on the Stone in Częstochowa in 2012-2015, in caves of the Zakrzówek horst from 1996 to 2002, and in the Dragon's Cave by the research team of J. Motyka in 1995-1998. A number of NO3 and PO4 measurements were performed in waters sampled at these research sites: 20 measurements each of NO3 and PO4 at the Cave on the Stone, 228 of NO3 and 422 of PO4 at Zakrzówek, and 19 each of NO3 and PO4 at the Dragon's Cave. To assess the quality aspect of N and P compounds in waters from the Cave on the Stone, the results of geochemical modelling were processed using PHREEQC software. In cave waters, the oxidised form of nitrogen NO3(-) predominates; in surface waters in the vicinity, unoxidised forms prevail: NH4+, NH3, and NH4SO4(-). Among phosphorus speciations, dissolved forms are dominant: HPO4(2-), H2PO4(-), and the insoluble form CaHPO4; in surface waters, these forms are practically absent. Transformations of water chemistry in 'urban' caves, often centuries old, manifest themselves in, inter alia, the occurrence of multi-ionic waters, including seasonal variations and extremely diversified concentrations, with very high concentrations in subpopulations of NO3 (0.2-485 mg dm(-3)) and P (0.02-6.87 mg dm(-3)). The common presence of NO3 in waters of the phreatic zone of the Częstochowa Upland, an area developed in an agricultural direction, is documented by, inter alia, the exploitation of intakes supplying the city of Częstochowa (10-57 mg dm(-3), 2011) and crenological studies from 2008 to 2015 (NO3, 2-58 mg dm(-3)), at simultaneously low phosphate concentrations (PO4, 0.02-0.24 mg dm(-3)).

  18. M* G€* GÈ***** .25 Background*b¿ÿÿczõÿcXñÿc ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2015-09-01

    ... þÿc»*b$*bÏûÿc§õÿc*ùÿc>ûÿc"÷ÿcºùÿcÂÿÿcÍ*b¹*b]*bäþÿc"b„ÿÿc öÿc*õÿcêýÿc þÿcºþÿcÿb*þÿc'þÿcÉýÿc#õÿczôÿc¥úÿc¸úÿc¼ùÿcXýÿcµb *b2b*ûÿc±ûÿc ...

  19. Utilization of Tabula Rasa to Stabilize Bulk Lifetimes in n-Cz Silicon for High-Performance Solar Cell Processing

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Jensen, Mallory Ann; Youssef, Amanda; Nemeth, William; Page, Matthew; Buonassisi, Tonio; Stradins, Paul

    2016-11-21

    We investigate a high temperature, high cooling-rate anneal Tabula Rasa (TR) and report its implications on n-type Czochralski-grown silicon (n-Cz Si) for photovoltaic fabrication. Tabula Rasa aims at dissolving and homogenizing oxygen precipitate nuclei that can grow during the cell process steps and degrade the cell performance due to their high internal gettering and recombination activity. The Tabula Rasa thermal treatment is performed in a clean tube furnace with cooling rates >100 degrees C/s. We characterize the bulk lifetime by Sinton lifetime and photoluminescence mapping just after Tabula Rasa, and after the subsequent cell processing. After TR, the bulk lifetime surprisingly degrades to <; 0.1ms, only to recover to values equal or higher than the initial non-treated wafer (several ms), after typical high temperature cell process steps. Those include boron diffusion and oxidation; phosphorus diffusion/oxidation; ambient annealing at 850 degrees C; and crystallization annealing of tunneling-passivating contacts (doped polycrystalline silicon on 1.5 nm thermal oxide). The drastic lifetime improvement during high temperature cell processing is attributed to improved external gettering of metal impurities and annealing of intrinsic point defects. Time and injection dependent lifetime spectroscopy further reveals the mechanisms of lifetime improvement after Tabula Rasa treatment. Additionally, we report the efficacy of Tabula Rasa on n-type Cz-Si wafers and its dependence on oxygen concentration, correlated to position within the ingot.

  20. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałaś, Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  1. Phylogenetic Identification, Phenotypic Variations, and Symbiotic Characteristics of the Peculiar Rhizobium, Strain CzR2, Isolated from Crotalaria zanzibarica in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Tai; Liu, Chi-Te; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Kao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Crotalaria zanzibarica is an exotic and widely distributed leguminous plant in Taiwan. The relationship between C. zanzibarica and its rhizobial symbionts has been suggested to contribute to its successful invasion. A rhizobial strain (designed as CzR2) isolated from the root nodules of C. zanzibarica and cultivated in standard YEM medium displayed pleomorphism, with cells ranging between 2 and 10 μm in length and some branching. In the present study, we identified this rhizobial strain, investigated the causes of pleomorphism, and examined the nodules formed. The results of a multilocus sequence analysis of the atpD, dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA, and rpoB genes revealed that CzR2 belongs to Bradyrhizobium arachidis, a peanut symbiont recently isolated from China. Cells of the strain were uniformly rod-shaped in basal HM medium, but displayed pleomorphism in the presence of yeast extract, mannitol, or fructose. These results indicate that the morphology of CzR2 in its free-living state is affected by nutrient conditions. Several highly pleomorphic bacteroids enclosed in symbiosomes were frequently detected in FM and TEM observations of sections of the indeterminate nodules induced by CzR2; however, no infection thread was identified. Flow cytometric analyses showed that CzR2 cells in YEM medium and in the nodules of C. zanzibarica had two or more than two peaks in relative DNA contents, respectively, suggesting that the elongated cells of CzR2 in its free-living state occur due to a cell cycle-delayed process, while those in its symbiotic state are from genomic endo-reduplication. PMID:27682803

  2. Effect of process parameters and crystal orientation on 3D anisotropic stress during CZ and FZ growth of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drikis, Ivars; Plate, Matiss; Sennikovs, Juris; Virbulis, Janis

    2017-09-01

    Simulations of 3D anisotropic stress are carried out in <100> and <111> oriented Si crystals grown by FZ and CZ processes for different diameters, growth rates and process stages. Temperature dependent elastic constants and thermal expansion coefficients are used in the FE simulations. The von Mises stress at the triple point line is 5-11% higher in <111> crystals compared to <100> crystals. The process parameters have a larger effect on the von Mises stress than the crystal orientation. Generally, the <111> crystal has a higher azimuthal variation of stress along the triple point line ( 8%) than the <100> crystal ( 2%). The presence of a crystal ridge increases the stress beside the ridge and decreases it on the ridge compared with the round crystal.

  3. Photovoltaic Small Molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-Cz)3: Tuning Open-Circuit Voltage over 1.0 V for Their Organic Solar Cells by Increasing Fluorine Substitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Duan, Linrui; Tao, Qiang; Peng, Wenhong; Chen, Jianhua; Tan, Hua; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo

    2016-11-09

    To simultaneously improve both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) for organic solar cells, a novel D(A-π-Ar)3 type of photovoltaic small molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 was designed and synthesized, which contain central triphenylamine (TPA), terminal carbazole (Cz), armed fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (FxBT, where x = 1 or 2), and bridged thiophene (T) units. A narrowed ultraviolet-visible absorption and a decreasing highest occupied molecular orbital energy level were observed from TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3 to TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3 with increasing fluorine substitution. However, the TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based solar devices showed a rising Voc of 1.01 V and an enhanced Jsc of 10.84 mA cm(-2) as well as a comparable power conversion efficiency of 4.81% in comparison to the TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based devices. Furthermore, in comparison to the parent TPA(BT-T-3Cz)3 molecule without fluorine substitution, the fluorine-substituted TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 molecules exhibited significantly incremental Voc and Jsc values in their bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, owing to fluorine incorporation in the electron-deficient benzothiadiazole unit.

  4. Investigations into B-O defect formation-dissociation in CZ-silicon and their effect on solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnyat, Prakash M.

    About 30% of the total market share of industrial manufacture of silicon solar cells is taken by single crystalline Czochralski (CZ) grown wafers. The efficiency of solar cells fabricated on boron-doped Czochralski silicon degrades due to the formation of metastable defects when excess electrons are created by illumination or minority carrier injection during forward bias. The recombination path can be removed by annealing the cell at about 200° C but recombination returns on exposure to light. Several mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline solar cells have been characterized by methods such as laser beam induced current (LBIC), Four-Probe electrical resistivity etc. to better understand the light induced degradation (LID) effect in silicon solar cells. All the measurements are performed as a function of light soaking time. Annealed states are produced by exposing the cells/wafer to temperature above 200° C for 30 minutes and light soaked state was produced by exposure to 1000 W/m2 light using AM1.5 solar simulator for 72 hours. Dark I-V data are analyzed by a software developed at NREL. This study shows that LID, typically, has two components- a bulk component that arises from boron-oxygen defects and a surface component that appears to be due to the SiNx:H-Si interface. With the analysis of dark saturation current (J02), it is seen that the surface LID increases with an increase in the q/2kT component. Results show that cell performance due to bulk effect is fully recovered upon annealing where as surface LID does not recover fully. This statement is also verified by the study of mc- silicon solar cells. Multi-crystalline silicon solar cell has very low oxygen content and, therefore, recombination sites will not be able to form. This shows that there is no bulk degradation in mc- Si solar cells but they exhibit surface degradation. The results suggest that a typical Cz-silicon solar cell with an initial efficiency of ˜18% could suffer a reduction in efficiency

  5. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements on Cz-grown silicon pulled from compensated and recycled feedstock materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Modanese, Chiara; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-11-01

    In this work, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 88-350 K were carried out to investigate the electrical properties of three solar grade p-type Czochralski (Cz) silicon ingots, pulled from recycled p-type multi-crystalline silicon top cuts and compensated solar grade (SoG) feedstock. Material bulk properties including Hall mobility, carrier density and resistivity as functions of temperature were studied to evaluate the influence of compensation and impurities. Recycled top cut replacing poly-silicon as feedstock leads to a more uniform resistivity. In addition, higher concentrations of O and C, give rise to oxygen related defects, which act as neutral scattering centers displaying only a slight influence on the electrical properties at low temperature compared to the dominant compensation effect. The electrical performances of all samples are shown to be strongly dependent on compensation level, especially at the lowest temperature (~88 K). A significant presence of incompletely ionized phosphorus was deduced through the measured carrier density. The temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements fit Klaassen's mobility model very well at low temperatures (<150 K), showing consistency with the explanation of a reduced screening effect on ionized dopants for lightly doped silicon, while the deviation at the high temperature probably may be accounted for by the presence of as-grown defects, such as oxygen related defects and phosphorus clusters, which are usually neglected in most mobility models.

  6. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance.

  7. Integration of bio- and geoscience data with the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem for the CZOData and BiG CZ Data projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a family of solutions to the challenges of integrating diverse data from of biological and geological (BiG) disciplines for Critical Zone (CZ) science. These standards and software solutions have been developed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, http://ODM2.org), which was designed as a profile of the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard. The ODM2 standards and software ecosystem has at it's core an information model that balances specificity with flexibility to powerfully and equally serve the needs of multiple dataset types, from multivariate sensor-generated time series to geochemical measurements of specimen hierarchies to multi-dimensional spectral data to biodiversity observations. ODM2 has been adopted as the information model guiding the next generation of cyberinfrastructure development for the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (http://www.iedadata.org/) and the CUAHSI Water Data Center (https://www.cuahsi.org/wdc). Here we present several components of the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem that were developed specifically to help CZ scientists and their data managers to share and manage data through the national Critical Zone Observatory data integration project (CZOData, http://criticalzone.org/national/data/) and the bio integration with geo for critical zone science data project (BiG CZ Data, http://bigcz.org/). These include the ODM2 Controlled Vocabulary system (http://vocabulary.odm2.org), the YAML Observation Data Archive & exchange (YODA) File Format (https://github.com/ODM2/YODA-File) and the BiG CZ Toolbox, which will combine easy-to-install ODM2 databases (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2) with a variety of graphical software packages for data management such as ODMTools (https://github.com/ODM2/ODMToolsPython) and the ODM2 Streaming Data Loader (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2StreamingDataLoader).

  8. Parallel electron donation pathways to cytochrome c(z) in the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Azai, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the regulation mechanism of electron donations from menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c-554 to the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. We measured flash-induced absorption changes of multiple cytochromes in the membranes prepared from a mutant devoid of cytochrome c-554 or in the reconstituted membranes by exogenously adding cytochrome c-555 purified from Chlorobium limicola. The results indicated that the photo-oxidized cytochrome c(z) bound to the reaction center was rereduced rapidly by cytochrome c-555 as well as by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and that cytochrome c-555 did not function as a shuttle-like electron carrier between the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c(z). It was also shown that the rereduction rate of cytochrome c(z) by cytochrome c-555 was as high as that by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. The two electron-transfer pathways linked to sulfur metabolisms seem to function independently to donate electrons to the reaction center.

  9. First-principles study of new series of quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabça, A.; Rozale, H.; Amar, A.; Wang, X. T.; Sayade, A.; Chahed, A.

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties of new quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) were investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus modified Becke and Johnson as the exchange correlation. The results showed that all Heusler compounds were stable in Type (I) structure. The CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds had a nearly HM characteristic, and CsSrCZ (Z=P, As, Sb) compounds were true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnets. The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction of 3.45%, 1.69%, 1.69%, 7.16%, 7.16%, and 11.2% for all six quaternary Heusler compounds. We also investigated the thermal effects using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  10. Spatial Pattern of Copper Phosphate Precipitation Involves in Copper Accumulation and Resistance of Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangcun; Lin, Huirong; Chen, Xincai

    2016-12-28

    Bacterial biofilms are spatially structured communities that contain bacterial cells with a wide range of physiological states. The spatial distribution and speciation of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms that accumulated 147.0 mg copper per g dry weight were determined by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and micro-X-ray fluorescence microscopy coupled with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) analysis. It was found that copper was mainly precipitated in a 75 μm thick layer as copper phosphate in the middle of the biofilm, while there were two living cell layers in the air-biofilm and biofilm-medium interfaces, respectively, distinguished from the copper precipitation layer by two interfaces. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of biofilm revealed that species resembling Cu₃(PO₄)₂ predominated in biofilm, followed by Cu-Citrate- and Cu-Glutathione-like species. Further analysis by micro-XANES revealed that 94.4% of copper were Cu₃(PO₄)₂-like species in the layer next to the air interface, whereas the copper species of the layer next to the medium interface were composed by 75.4% Cu₃(PO₄)₂, 10.9% Cu-Citrate-like species, and 11.2% Cu-Glutathione-like species. Thereby, it was suggested that copper was initially acquired by cells in the biofilm-air interface as a citrate complex, and then transported out and bound by out membranes of cells, released from the copper-bound membranes, and finally precipitated with phosphate in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. These results revealed a clear spatial pattern of copper precipitation in unsaturated biofilm, which was responsible for the high copper tolerance and accumulation of the biofilm.

  11. The route to MBxNyCz molecular wheels: II. Results using accurate functionals and basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthler, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandey, R.; Boustani, I.

    2014-04-01

    Applying ab initio quantum chemical methods, molecular wheels composed of metal and light atoms were investigated. High quality basis sets 6-31G*, TZPV, and cc-pVTZ as well as exchange and non-local correlation functionals B3LYP, BP86 and B3P86 were used. The ground-state energy and structures of cyclic planar and pyramidal clusters TiBn (for n = 3-10) were computed. In addition, the relative stability and electronic structures of molecular wheels TiBxNyCz (for x, y, z = 0-10) and MBnC10-n (for n = 2 to 5 and M = Sc to Zn) were determined. This paper sustains a follow-up study to the previous one of Boustani and Pandey [Solid State Sci. 14 (2012) 1591], in which the calculations were carried out at the HF-SCF/STO3G/6-31G level of theory to determine the initial stability and properties. The results show that there is a competition between the 2D planar and the 3D pyramidal TiBn clusters (for n = 3-8). Different isomers of TiB10 clusters were also studied and a structural transition of 3D-isomer into 2D-wheel is presented. Substitution boron in TiB10 by carbon or/and nitrogen atoms enhances the stability and leads toward the most stable wheel TiB3C7. Furthermore, the computations show that Sc, Ti and V at the center of the molecular wheels are energetically favored over other transition metal atoms of the first row.

  12. Superdiffusion of Carbon by Vacancies Irradiated with Soft X-Rays in CZ Silicon / Superdifūzija Ar Vakancēm Iestarota Ar Mīkstajiem Rentgenstariem CZ Silīcijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Mekys, A.; Purlys, R.; Norgėla, Ž.; Daugėla, S.; Rinkūnas, R.

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray photons absorbed in the inner K, L, M shells of Si atoms produce photoelectrons and Auger electrons, thus generating vacancies, interstitials and metastable oxygen complexes. The samples of Czochralski silicon crystals covered with 0.1 μm thickness layer of carbon have been irradiated by X-rays using different voltages of Cu anode of the Russian diffractometer DRON-3M. The influence of X-rays on the formation of point defects and vacancy complexes, and their dynamics in Cz-Si crystals have been studied by infrared absorption. We have measured and calculated dynamics of concentration of carbon and interstitial oxygen using FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature after irradiation by soft X-rays. Using transmittance measurements and nonlinear diffusion theory we have calculated densities increasing for substitutional carbon and interstitial oxygen by reactions and very fast diffusion. The superdiffusion coefficients of carbon in silicon at room temperature generated by X-rays are about hundred thousand times greater than diffusion coefficients obtained for thermodiffusion. Rezumējums: Rentgena staru fotoni, absorbēti Si atoma iekšējos slāņos, izstaro fotoelektronus un Ožē elektronus, ģenerējot vakances, starpmezglu silīcija atomus, vakanču un skābekļa kompleksus. Čohraļska silīcija kristāli, kas pārklāti ar oglekli 0.1 μm biezuma kārtā, tika apstaroti ar rentgena stariem, izmantojot krievu difraktometru DRON-3M. Oglekļa un skābekļa difūzija un koncentrāciju izmaiņa silīcijā tika izmērīta izmantojot infrasarkano staru FTIR spektroskopiju. Rentgena staru ģenerētās ļoti ātrās oglekļa difūzijas vai superdifūzijas koeficients istabas temperatūrā silīcijā ir simtiem tūkstošu reižu lielāks nekā termodifūzijas gadījumā.

  13. Specific PVMaT R&D on Siemens Cz silicon product manufacturing: Annual Subcontract Report, June 1998 -- June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    2000-04-24

    This report describes work done by Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) from June 1998 to June 1999 during Phase 1 of a three-phase Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT 5A2) subcontract from DOE/NREL. The work focuses on improvements in the cost per watt of Cz modules and improved PV module manufacturing technology. The first step toward reducing cost was to reduce wafer thickness. The approach has been a two-step reduction in thickness, from 385 microns to 250 micron cells, and then from 250 microns to 125 micron cells during Phase II. During Phase I, the handling tools, the back-surface-field process, and the confirmation of the environmental integrity of thinner wafers have all been accomplished. Cells with efficiency over 15.5% have been demonstrated in high-volume production. SSI has initiated the development and growth of 200-mm ingot to be fabricated into wafers and eventually cells. Cell and module production with 200-mm cells will begin during Phase II. Hazardous waste reduction has been attacked in two ways. The largest consumable item aside from polysilicon is silicon carbide (SiC) used in the wafer-slicing process. This SiC use has been reduced significantly through recycling and re-use. This program approach is well under way at SSI, with more than 25% of the SiC used being recycled. The largest hazardous waste volume at SSI is the caustic waste generated in the wafer etching processes. The reduction of this waste will be accomplished using subcontractors with extensive environmental compliance experience such that the solution is driven by best available techniques, lowering operating cost as a secondary motive. These three areas of focus thinner cells, larger cells and modules, and hazardous waste reduction have the potential to reduce cost by about 30% per watt. This first phase of large 150-mm-thinner 250-micron cells has demonstrated a potential for 10% cost reduction, with the final yield improvements being implemented in the SSI line now. The

  14. Measurement of the Double Polarization Observables Cx and Cz for Λn Final-state Interactions in γd -->K+ Λn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong

    2015-04-01

    Building a comprehensive picture of the strong interaction is the goal of modern nuclear physics. While considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, we are still far from a complete understanding of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) interaction, which plays a key role in hypernuclear matter and neutron stars. For the YN potential, some parameters can be obtained from the NN potential by using SU(3) symmetry. However, other parameters cannot be obtained from the NN potential due to broken SU(3) and must be obtained from fits to experimental data. One can access the dynamics of the YN interaction by studying nuclear reactions in which hyperons are produced. In this talk we present preliminary results for the polarization transfers Cx and Cz from the photon to the hyperon for final-state interactions in γd -->K+ Λn and discuss their dependence on kinematic variables. We use data taken with the CLAS detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Our results are the first ever obtained for Cx and Cz and will provide stringent constraints on the theoretical models of the YN potential. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under Grant PHY-125782.

  15. RCM ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulations of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 climate over the Central Europe region with emphasis on analysis of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA, two simulations of the future climate conditions in the Central Europe were performed by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ under high resolution of 10 km. The simulations according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario cover 30-years time intervals in the middle (2021-2050) and end of the 21st century (2071-2100). The regional model was driven by the general circulation model ARPEGE-Climate over the Central Europe integration domain covering 74 × 148 points (lat. × lon.). The presented analysis of the expected change in extreme events is focused only on the Czech Republic that represents a central part of the domain with 789 model's grid points. Before the analysis of the future climate, the model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created from all available data records stored in the climatological database of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ's grid of 10 km horizontal resolution while taking into account the model's elevation and distance from an individual grid point. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the past climate (1961-1990) GCM driven ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulation in each grid point. According to relationship between these two datasets, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. Corrected model outputs are analyzed with regard to extreme events of air temperature and precipitation by applying 131 indices defined within the WP4 of the CECILIA project. The obtained results are compared

  16. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  17. Effect of the bias correction on computed extremes based on simulations of ALADIN-Climate/CZ for the area of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Outputs of regional climate models are biased to some extend, resulting either from errors in driving data or from given regional climate model (RCM) itself (smoothed orography, physical parametrization etc.). Such biased outputs can lead then to biased results for computed extreme indices. The influence of the bias correction on RCM data in the scenario experiment was studied. The investigation was focused on the selected extreme indices calculated either from corrected or original uncorrected RCM data. The data for analysis of extremes were taken from two IPCC SRES A1B scenario experiments that were carried out by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ driven by global circulation model (GCM) ARPEGE- Climat for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future These experiments as well as the definition of the extreme indices definition were prepared in frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA (2006-2009). The model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created. All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ grid of 10 km horizontal resolution. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the RCM simulation (driven by GCM) of the past climate (1961-1990) in each model grid point. According to relationship between the gridded station dataset and RCM past climate simulation, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. The gridding and all data processing including the presented analysis were done by ProClimDB database software (free download from http://www.climahom.eu/) for processing of climatological datasets (

  18. Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Type Ia Supernovae 1991T, 1991bg, 1999ek, 2001bt, 2001cn, 2001cz, and 2002bo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Phillips, Mark M.; Candia, Pablo; Prieto, José Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Chassagne, Robin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Espinoza, Juan; Garnavich, Peter M.; González, David; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamuy, Mario; Ivanov, Vladimir D.; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Patrick; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Muena, César; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Persson, S. E.; Pinto, Philip A.; Roth, Miguel; Rubenstein, Eric P.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Zapata, Abner; Porter, Alain; Wischnjewsky, Marina

    2004-12-01

    We present optical and/or infrared photometry of the Type Ia supernovae SN 1991T, SN 1991bg, SN 1999ek, SN 2001bt, SN 2001cn, SN 2001cz, and SN 2002bo. All but one of these supernovae have decline rate parameters, Δm15(B), close to the median value of 1.1 for the whole class of Type Ia supernovae. The addition of these supernovae to the relationship between the near-infrared absolute magnitudes and Δm15(B) strengthens the previous relationships we have found in that the maximum light absolute magnitudes are essentially independent of the decline rate parameter. (SN 1991bg, the prototype of the subclass of fast-declining Type Ia supernovae, is a special case.) The dispersion in the Hubble diagram in JHK is only ~0.15 mag. The near-infrared properties of Type Ia supernovae continue to be excellent measures of the luminosity distances to the supernova host galaxies because of the need for only small corrections from the epoch of observation to maximum light, low dispersion in absolute magnitudes at maximum light, and the minimal reddening effects in the near-infrared.

  19. Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.; Zhang, X. W.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional CZ crystal growth, since formation of a cone tail takes a long time, from such a crystal to have been subject the long heat treatment it is not possible to observe actual distribution of vacancies (Vs) and interstitial atoms (Is) in a straight body of a crystal during growth. This experiment attempted to observe point defect distribution frozen by rapidly cooling a crystal that had been detached from a melt during growth to eliminate the effect of the time delay. Comparison between the experimental results of these specimens and the defect distributions of a conventionally pulled crystals revealed that Vs are introduced at a growth interface and the concentration of the Vs does not depend on the pulling rate. In addition, when the pulling rate is low, Is are generated by thermal stress which increases with increasing thermal gradient G because the amount of heat transfer by mass transfer is decreased and the crystal surface near the growth interface is cooled for longer period. As a result, the generation of Is due to the increase of the thermal stress is observed in an area referred to as an interstitial generation area (IGA) located above the vacancy region on the growth interface, where the crystal temperature is 1300 °C or more. This paper describes the recombination (Rc) mechanism by which these Is created in the IGA are recombined with Vs transformed through the growth interface, thereby creating an observable Rc area at a location where no defect can be detected.

  20. Low Surface Recombination Velocity on P-Type Cz-Si Surface by Sol-Gel Deposition of Al2O3 Films for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Raja, Jayapal; Ju, Minkyu; Venkatesan, Muthukumarasamy Rangaraju; Lee, Haeseok; Yi, Junsin

    2015-07-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner and lower cost wafers. The passivation property of spin coated Al2O3 films with a thickness of about 50 nm on p-type Cz-Si wafers has been investigated as a function of annealing temperatures. An effective surface recombination velocity of 55 cm/s was obtained for the films annealed at 500 °C. The chemical and field effect passivation was analyzed by C-V measurements. A high density of negative fixed charges (Qf) in the order of 9 x 10(11) cm(-2) was detected in Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation was demonstrated experimentally. The C-V curves show density of the interface state (Dit) of 1 x 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2) at annealing temperature of 500 °C. During annealing, a thin interfacial SiOx is formed, and this interfacial layer is supposed to play a vital role in the origin of negative QF and Dit. The homogeneous SiOx interlayer result in higher passivation performance due to both the increase of negative Qf and the decrease of Dit.

  1. Influence of grown-in defects on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer analyzed by a coupled model with the interaction of point defects, oxygen precipitates, and dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bing; Juel, Mari; Mhamdi, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    To illuminate the role of crystal growth process on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer, a coupled model, including the interaction of oxygen precipitates, point defects, and dislocation loops, has been used to test the influence of grown-in defects generated during crystal growth process. Several grown-in defect parameters such as density and size of oxygen precipitates and concentration of net silicon interstitials were checked. Results show that it is essential to control grown-in oxygen precipitate size and density, and net Si vacancy. By well controlling the three parameters less than some values, it is possible to remove the influence of crystal growth process on the final oxygen precipitates after heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer. Simple 1D results clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to control grown-in oxygen precipitates during crystal growth process.

  2. Identification of an acidic endo-polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028 and its broad use in major tropical and subtropical fruit juices production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Wang, Qingyan; Xian, Liang; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Tang, Hongchi; Lu, Zhilong; Zhu, Qixia; Chen, Yunlai; Huang, Ribo

    2017-02-18

    Endo-polygalacturonases play an important role on depectinization in fruit juices industry. A putative endo-polygalacturonase gene PoxaEnPG28A was cloned from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028. PoxaEnPG28A consisted of a putative signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 28, and it shared 72% identity with that of a functionally characterized endo-polygalacturonase from Trichoderma harzianum. Gene PoxaEnPG28A was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 1828.7 U/mL. The purified recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in endo-manner releasing oligo-galacturonates. PoxaEnPG28A showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 55°C, and was stable between pH 3.0 to 10.0 and below 45°C. The kinetic constants Km and Vmax of PoxaEnPG28A were calculated as 1.57 g/L and 14,641.29 U/mg, respectively. PoxaEnPG28A significantly improved the yields of fruit juices from banana, plantain, papaya, pitaya and mango. The high production level of the recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A by P. pastoris and remarkable catalytic activity of PoxaEnPG28A toward five kinds of fruit juices made the enzyme a potential application in agriculture and food industries.

  3. CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    reasons, it has been adopted by designers of new programming languages, such as Fortress [2]. Unfortunately however, problems arise when integrating...Prentice-Hall, 1997. [25] S. Meyers. Effective C++: 50 specific ways to improve your programs and designs . Addison Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  4. Model My Watershed and BiG CZ Data Portal: Interactive geospatial analysis and hydrological modeling web applications that leverage the Amazon cloud for scientists, resource managers and students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Sazib, N. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Cheetham, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Model My Watershed Web app (http://wikiwatershed.org/model/) was designed to enable citizens, conservation practitioners, municipal decision-makers, educators, and students to interactively select any area of interest anywhere in the continental USA to: (1) analyze real land use and soil data for that area; (2) model stormwater runoff and water-quality outcomes; and (3) compare how different conservation or development scenarios could modify runoff and water quality. The BiG CZ Data Portal is a web application for scientists for intuitive, high-performance map-based discovery, visualization, access and publication of diverse earth and environmental science data via a map-based interface that simultaneously performs geospatial analysis of selected GIS and satellite raster data for a selected area of interest. The two web applications share a common codebase (https://github.com/WikiWatershed and https://github.com/big-cz), high performance geospatial analysis engine (http://geotrellis.io/ and https://github.com/geotrellis) and deployment on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud cyberinfrastructure. Users can use "on-the-fly" rapid watershed delineation over the national elevation model to select their watershed or catchment of interest. The two web applications also share the goal of enabling the scientists, resource managers and students alike to share data, analyses and model results. We will present these functioning web applications and their potential to substantially lower the bar for studying and understanding our water resources. We will also present work in progress, including a prototype system for enabling citizen-scientists to register open-source sensor stations (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/) to stream data into these systems, so that they can be reshared using Water One Flow web services.

  5. High resolution studies of gully erosion, sedimentation processes, and land use changes since the late Pleistocene and future trajectories in the Kazimierz Dolny area (Nałęczów Plateau, SE-Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Rodzik, J.; Zgłobicki, W.; Schmitt, A.; Schmidtchen, G.; Bork, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of 30 years of research on the Doły Podmularskie gully system (catchment 0.35 km2 in size), which is situated in the south-western part of the loess-covered Nałęczów Plateau in SE-Poland. Detailed topographic, stratigraphic and pedologic investigations, and monitoring of a tributary gully (gully area: 0.7 ha, catchment: 2.5 ha), combined with historical, archaeological and palaeoecological records reveal a long and complex history in terms of the temporal and spatial extent and the impact of land use on gully erosion, and the long-term feed-back mechanisms between land use changes and natural processes since the end of the Pleistocene are also expressed. Phases of gully erosion and subsequent filling occurred in the Bronze Age and around the 10th to 11th century. The most severe deepening and expansion of the gully took place in the 17th century. The results also show that field structures and land use intensity had a significant influence on the frequency and magnitude of run-off, soil erosion, piping, and landslide events. The last significant erosion phase started in the mid-19th century with renewed headward retreatment and down-cutting into older gully fills. Today, most of the catchment is either forested or the land is covered in berry shrubs. In the future, the area will continue to produce sediments, because of the steep slopes and because there are still areas of bare soil with a low resistance to erosion, a legacy from past land uses, which will remain a factor affecting soil erosion and sedimentation processes in the future. This study is an example of how important it is to observe and understand slow geomorphologic processes, changes and rare extreme events in the light of land use changes when investigating long-term human-environment interactions.

  6. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV-vis-NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission-Department of Atomic Research-Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR-KN/CSR-63/2014-2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  7. CZ: Multimethods and Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    renaming (e.g., Eiffel [31]) or by lin- earizing the class hierarchy [46, 45]. However, there is still no satisfactory solution to the dia- mond...the latter is the desirable semantics; it is supported in languages such as Scala, Eiffel , and C++ (the last through virtual inheritance) [38, 31, 21...certain. Previous Solutions. Languages that directly attempt to solve the object initialization problem include Eiffel [31], C++ [21], Scala [38] and

  8. Process research of non-Cz material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1985-06-01

    Efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Lasers and other heat sources were tried. Successful results were gained by two different methods: laser and flash lamp. Polymer dopants were applied to both sides of dendritic web cells. Rapid heating and cooling avoided any cross contamination between two junctions after removal of the dendrites. Both methods required subsequent thermal annealing in an oven to produce maximum efficiency cells.

  9. Progress research of non-Cz silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus dopants into N-type dendritic silicon web for solar cells was investigated. It is planned that the diffusion parameters required to achieve the desired P(+)NN(+) cell structure be determined and the resultant cell properties be compared to cells produced in a sequential differential process. A cost analysis of the simultaneous junction formation process is proposed.

  10. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  11. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  12. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  13. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  14. Assessment of Selected Aspects of Teaching Programming in SK and CZ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Záhorec, Jan; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Authors of this paper carried out a broader international research aimed at assessing the computer science education at upper secondary level of education--ISCED 3A. The assessed school subjects were informatics and programming as the most common school subjects taught at secondary schools within computer sciences. The assessment was based on the…

  15. Human urine certified reference material CZ 6009: creatinine, styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sperlingová, I; Dabrowská, L; Stránský, V; Kucera, J; Tichý, M

    2004-03-01

    The reference material was prepared by freeze-drying pooled urine samples obtained from healthy persons occupationally exposed to styrene. The concentrations of mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), and hippuric acid (HA) in urine were determined by three modes of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For isochronous stability testing the urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid concentrations were followed over a 24-month period for a preliminary batch by use of HPLC. No changes of the concentration values were found. The creatinine concentration was stable for more than five years. Standard Reference Material NIST 914a Creatinine was used for traceability purposes for creatinine. Pure chemicals MA and PGA were used for traceability purposes. Control material ClinChek-Urine Control (Recipe) was analyzed simultaneously. The mean values of MA and PGA compare well with the means and fall within the control range of control samples. Results from homogeneity, stability, and traceability testing were evaluated using the statistical program ANOVA. The certified values and their uncertainties were evaluated from the results of interlaboratory comparisons, and homogeneity and stability tests. The values are unweighed arithmetical averages of accepted results and their uncertainties are combined uncertainties (coverage factor=1).

  16. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  17. DLTS Studies of high-temperature electron irradiated Cz n-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimash, V.; Kras'ko, M.; Kraitchinskii, A.; Voytovych, V.; Tishchenko, V.; Simoen, E.; Rafi, J. M.; Claeys, C.; Versluys, J.; de Gryse, O.; Clauws, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) study of both oxygen-related thermal donors (OTDs) and radiation-induced defects (RDs) formed in high-temperature 1 MeV electron irradiated n-type Czochralski silicon. The heating of Si samples is done in-situ by the electron beam. The formation of deep levels is studied on both heat-treated and irradiated at high temperature sides of samples. The interaction between OTDs and RDs is investigated.

  18. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of BxNyCz monolayers with adsorption of hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, L.; Azevedo, S.; de Lima Bernardo, B.

    2017-03-01

    We apply first-principles calculations, using density functional theory, to analyze the electronic and optical properties of monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of 2D hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN). It also investigated the effects of the adsorption of hydrogen atoms in different atoms at the edge of the h-BN nanodomain. We calculate the electronic band structure, the complex dielectric function and the optical conductivity. For such systems, the calculations demonstrate that the compounds exhibit a prominent excitement in the visible and near-infrared regions. In this form, the present study provides physical basis for potential applications of the considered materials in optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

  20. Processing for Highly Emissive CZ-Silicon by Depositing Stressed Sol-Gel Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedrabbo, S.; Fiory, A. T.; Ravindra, N. M.

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced band-gap emission from Czochralski silicon substrates of up to ~100 times is reported. This was achieved by processing for a stressed interface resulting from baked and annealed silica films prepared by sol-gel processes. The active dopants include but are not limited to erbium and are prepared with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) while forming the active precursors using oxide and nitrate forms of the rare earth. In addition, annealed films produce infrared emission in the 1.5- μm band from erbium ions in the film. Steady-state photoluminescence studies indicate that a strong correlation of the intensity of the emission at the band gap to the stress formed at the interface and is a direct function of the annealing temperature of the silica films, independent from the known erbium 4 f emission bands.

  1. Striations in CZ silicon crystals grown under various axial magnetic field strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.

    1985-10-01

    Inhibition of fluid flow instabilities in the melt by the axial magnetic field in Czochralski silicon crystal growth (AMCZ) is investigated precisely by a high-sensitivity striation etch in conjunction with temperature measurements. The magnetic field strength (B) was varied up to 4.0 kG, incremented mostly in 0.5-kG/2.5-cm crystal length. The convection flow was substantially suppressed at B greater than or equal to 1.0 kG. A low oxygen level of 2-3 ppm and a high resistivity of 400 ohm-cm is achieved in the AMCZ silicon crystals at B greater than or equal to 1.0 kG. Random striations at B = O, characteristic of turbulent convection, assumed progressively a periodicity, indicative of oscillatory convection at B from 0.35-4.0 kG. The striation contrast or 'intensity' decreased steadily with the increase in B. At B = 4 kG, most of the crystal was free of striations, although some weak, localized periodic striations persisted near the crystal periphery. Spreading-resistance measurement shows, however, a uniform dopant distribution in all crystal sections grown at B from 0.35-4.0 kG within a few percent.

  2. ASASSN-17cz: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in 2MASX J17503055-0148023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Cacella, P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Marples, P.; Post, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy 2MASX J17503055-0148023.

  3. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  4. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  5. Flat-plate solar array project process development area, process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The program is designed to investigate the fabrication of solar cells on N-type base material by a simultaneous diffusion of N-type and P-type dopants to form an P(+)NN(+) structure. The results of simultaneous diffusion experiments are being compared to cells fabricated using sequential diffusion of dopants into N-base material in the same resistivity range. The process used for the fabrication of the simultaneously diffused P(+)NN(+) cells follows the standard Westinghouse baseline sequence for P-base material except that the two diffusion processes (boron and phosphorus) are replaced by a single diffusion step. All experiments are carried out on N-type dendritic web grown in the Westinghouse pre-pilot facility. The resistivities vary from 0.5 (UC OMEGA)cm to 5 (UC OMEGA)cm. The dopant sources used for both the simultaneous and sequential diffusion experiments are commercial metallorganic solutions with phosphorus or boron components. After these liquids are applied to the web surface, they are baked to form a hard glass which acts as a diffusion source at elevated temperatures. In experiments performed thus far, cells produced in sequential diffusion tests have properties essentially equal to the baseline N(+)PP(+) cells. However, the simultaneous diffusions have produced cells with much lower IV characteristics mainly due to cross-doping of the sources at the diffusion temperature. This cross-doping is due to the high vapor pressure phosphorus (applied as a metallorganic to the back surface) diffusion through the SiO2 mask and then acting as a diffusant source for the front surface.

  6. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  7. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  8. Overview of new GNSS tropospheric products for GNSS-meteorology and their assessment at Geodetic Observatory Pecny (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousa, J.; Vaclavovic, P.; Gyori, G.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP) has a long-term experience in the estimation of precise tropospheric parameters from GNSS permanent stations, in particular under the limited timelines of near real time. More than a decade, the GOP zenith total delays (ZTD) contributed to various projects in Europe (COST-716, TOUGH, E-GVAP, E-GVAP II) and the operational ZTD hourly updated product flows via the meteorological observation exchange network - GTS - to the end users worldwide. Currently, the GOP regional ZTD product is operationally assimilated in Météo France and UK MetOffice at least and further exploited in various ways at many other meteorological institutions. New developments at GOP over last three years consist of a) implementation and assessment of the global hourly ZTD product of about 170 stations, b) implementation of routine multi-GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) ZTD European product, and c) implementation of ultra-fast/real-time ZTD product. The GOP global ZTD product has been implemented on request of the meteorological institutions running global numerical weather forecasting models. The global ZTD product was seriously evaluated over ten months (Oct 2009 - Aug 2011) when compared to reprocessed EUREF and IGS ZTDs, radiosondes and ZTDs derived from UK MetOffice's global numerical weather model. After the evaluation (and on special request of UK MetOffice) the product has been switched from testing to operational status within the framework of the EUMETNET EIG GPS Water Vapour Programme (E-GVAP) and officially disseminated via the GTS network. The GOP multi-GNSS ZTD solution has been tested since 2009 shortly after developing GOP ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits for the International GNSS Service (IGS). A specific bias of mean value 1.5 mm was identified between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD at that time, and relation to the IGS05 antenna phase centre offset and variation models (PCO+PCV) identified. Consequently, the implementation of a routine operation has been done after the GPS week 1632 together with adopting IGS08 PCO+PCVs, which eliminated the bias and demonstrated an overall general better consistence between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD estimates. The multi-GNSS ZTD product runs in parallel to the GPS-only and is going to replace the current official GPS-only product after more than a year assessment. This multi-GNSS product has assesses a satisfactory quality and robustness of unofficial IGS ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits necessary for multi-GNSS solution. The GOP ultra-fast and real-time ZTD estimation is being developed with in-house software application using own G-Nut library and Precise Point Positioning technique (in contrast to all other GOP ZTD products based on Bernese GPS software and based on double-difference observations). The IGS Real-time Pilot Project orbit and clock corrections are seriously exploited in these ultra-fast and real-time tropospheric products aimed for nowcasting and severe weather monitoring. Our implementation assesses an optimal balance between timelines and product quality required by these applications.

  9. Steady distribution structure of point defects near crystal-melt interface under pulling stop of CZ Si crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2017-02-01

    In order to reveal a steady distribution structure of point defects of no growing Si on the solid-liquid interface, the crystals were grown at a high pulling rate, which Vs becomes predominant, and the pulling was suddenly stopped. After restoring the variations of the crystal by the pulling-stop, the crystals were then left in prolonged contact with the melt. Finally, the crystals were detached and rapidly cooled to freeze point defects and then a distribution of the point defects of the as-grown crystals was observed. As a result, a dislocation loop (DL) region, which is formed by the aggregation of interstitials (Is), was formed over the solid-liquid interface and was surrounded with a Vs-and-Is-free recombination region (Rc-region), although the entire crystals had been Vs rich in the beginning. It was also revealed that the crystal on the solid-liquid interface after the prolonged contact with the melt can partially have a Rc-region to be directly in contact with the melt, unlike a defect distribution of a solid-liquid interface that has been growing. This experimental result contradicts a hypothesis of Voronkov's diffusion model, which always assumes the equilibrium concentrations of Vs and Is as the boundary condition for distribution of point defects on the growth interface. The results were disscussed from a qualitative point of view of temperature distribution and thermal stress by the pulling-stop.

  10. Low cost solar array project cell and module formation research area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated. The baseline diffusion masking and drive processes were compared with those involving direct liquid applications to the dendritic web silicon strips. Attempts were made to control the number of variables by subjecting dendritic web strips cut from a single web crystal to both types of operations. Data generated reinforced earlier conclusions that efficiency levels at least as high as those achieved with the baseline back junction formation process can be achieved using liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants. The deliveries of dendritic web sheet material and solar cells specified by the current contract were made as scheduled.

  11. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  12. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  13. Effect of compensation and of metallic impurities on the electrical properties of Cz-grown solar grade silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libal, Joris; Novaglia, Sara; Acciarri, Maurizio; Binetti, Simona; Petres, Roman; Arumughan, Jayaprasad; Kopecek, Radovan; Prokopenko, Aleksander

    2008-11-01

    In this work we present a study of a p-type Czochralski-grown Si ingot which was grown using 10% solar grade silicon (SoG-Si). As the SoG-Si contains a relatively high concentration of impurities including phosphorus, the electrical properties of the as-grown wafers from this ingot are affected by both the compensating dopants and other impurities. Measurements of the minority charge carrier lifetime in the as-grown material reveal very low values (4-8μs). The Hall mobilities at room temperature correspond to normal values for Czochralski silicon in the upper part of the ingot (which solidifies first) and decrease significantly toward the bottom of the ingot. Segregation leads to an accumulation of impurities toward the lower parts of the ingot as well as to a stronger increase in phosphorus than of boron, the latter of which results in a high compensation level (i.e., an increasing resistivity). A priori, both effects could be responsible for the degradation of the electrical properties in the lower parts of the ingot, whereas theoretical considerations show that the level of compensation should not cause a strong decrease in Hall mobility at room temperature. Untextured solar cells have been processed from wafers originating from different positions of the ingot. As expected, the phosphorus diffusion leads to a gettering effect: the recombination active impurities are removed out of the wafer volume. This results in relatively high efficiencies (>16%) of the solar cells but does not show a strong correlation between ingot height and cell efficiency. This observation is also confirmed by the high bulk lifetimes (>200μs) measured after the process even for samples originating from the last solidified (lower)part of the ingot. The Hall mobility of samples cut from finished solar cells has been measured and shows the same trend as the as-grown samples, the values for the bottom of the ingot still being very low. With the concentrations of boron and phosphorus studied up to this point, compensation showed no detrimental effect on the cell efficiency of industrial-like solar cells.

  14. Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2016-02-01

    The crystals were grown by a gradually decreased pulling rate method, a special crystal growing method, and detached from a melt during the growth so as to rapidly cool the grown crystal and then to observe the appearance and disappearance of point defects at the moment of the detachment. This observation - nearly in situ observation, as it were - revealed that vacancies (Vs) were introduced through a growth interface, and interstitials (Is) were generated at an interstitial generation area, an area at which the thermal stress was increased through the increased thermal gradient, above the growth interface. In the beginning of the gradually decreased pulling rate method, since the pulling rate was high, the Vs introduced through the growth interface remained in the crystal; as the pulling rate was decreased, the generation of the Is began from the interstitial generation area, and these interstitials were recombined with the Vs introduced through the growth interface, thereby forming a first recombination area. As the concentration of the Is increased due to a lower pulling rate, a dislocation loop region began to be formed. On the growth interface side of this dislocation loop region, a V region from the growth interface and a second recombination area were similarly formed. The formation of these two recombination areas proves that the growth interface was the V region. In this paper, the point defects and secondary defects thereof were observed by our three new observation methods and the etch-pit method used in product inspection. The results of these methods were consistent with all the above phenomenon.

  15. Late-Variscan rare metal ore deposition and plume-related magmatism in the eastern European Variscides (D, CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Located at the northwestern border of the Bohemian Massif in the eastern part of the European Variscides, the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in Europe with a 800-year history of mining. The following rare metal resources are associated with late-Variscan (315 - 280 Ma), postmagmatic mineralization pulses in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory and surrounded areas: 900 kt Sn, 230 kt W, 10 kt Mo, 1 kt Ta, 300 kt Li, 200 kt Rb, 2 kt Cs, 1.5 kt In, 230 t Ge, 320 t Sc, 14 kt Sb, 10 kt Bi, and 3 kt Ag. At the end of the Variscan Orogeny the regional tectonic regime in Central Europe changed, indicating the beginning of the break-up of the supercontinent. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian in Europe was a period of widespread basin formation that was associated in many areas with mantle-derived magmatic activity. 300 Ma-old dike swarms in NE England and the Scottish Midland Valley, the Oslo Graben and Scania, radiate from a triple junction in the northernmost part of Jutland. This triple junction marked the axis of a deep-mantle plume centered in this area. In this context it is important to note that the mantle plume center is surrounded by significant lamprophyre intrusions which show in some districts spatial-time relationships to Sn-W-polymetallic, Ag-base metal, and U mineralization. During the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian an extensive magmatic province developed within the present northern and central Europe, intimately with extensional tectonics, in an area stretching from southern Scandinavia, through the North Sea, into Northern Germany. Peak magmatic activity was concentrated in a narrow time-span from 300 to 280 Ma. Simultaneously in Stephanian-Early Permian an intensive bimodal magmatism associated with intra-continental extensional setting occurs in the European Variscides. Permo-Carboniferous volcanism in the Spanish Central System, Iberian Ranges, Cantabrian Chain, Pyrenees and the French Massif Central includes a range of mafic calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rock types, and lamprophyres (spessartites and camptonites) with age data between 300-270 Ma. The Mid-European Variscides show a large number of Permo-Carboniferous magmatic complexes with similar ages (Halle Volcanic Complex, Saar-Nahe Basin, Thuringian Forest, Harz Mts., Northwest-Saxonian Volcanic Complexes, bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and the Rhyolite Complex of Tharandt as well as Li-F-Sn small intrusion granites and lamprophyric intrusions in the Erzgebirge. It is important to note that the late-Variscan W-Mo, Sn-W-Mo, Ag-bearing Sn-In-base metal, Ag-Sb-base metal, and U mineralizations in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory are spatially and temporal associated with intrusion centers of Permo-Carboniferous post-collisional mafic and rhyolitic (sub)volcanic bimodal magmatism (315-290 Ma) along deep-rooted NW-SE fault zones, especially at the intersections with NE-SW, E-W, and N-S major regional structural zones. The bimodal lamprophyre-rhyolite assemblage in the Erzgebirge / Sub-Erzgebirge basin area was formed during intracontinental rifting in a 'Fast Extension' setting by melting of a metasomatic enriched mantle source. The emplacement of fluid-enriched lamprophyres and F-rich rhyolitic intrusions at the same time is probably associated with decompression melting of updoming asthenosphere which is possibly associated with the above mentioned mantle plume.

  16. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  17. Low cost solar array project: Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Meniscus coates tests, back junction formation using a new boron containing liquid, tests of various SiO2 and boron containing liquids, pelletized silicon for replenishment during web growth, and ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study are discussed.

  18. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  19. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  20. Characterization of defects created in Cz and epitaxial Si doped with Ga or B using Laplace-DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamhere, Cloud; Deenapanray, P. N. K.; Auret, F. D.; Farlow, F. C.

    2006-04-01

    We have measured the electrical and annealing properties of defects created in epitaxial and Czochralski-grown Si doped with either B or Ga by electron irradiation using both conventional and Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy (L)-DLTS. With L-DLTS, we have been able to resolve several defects that cannot be resolved using conventional DLTS. L-DLTS provides a new avenue to study defect introduction rates and annealing kinetics in B- and Ga-doped Si. The isochronal annealing behaviour of the defects was also investigated.

  1. CO detections and IRAS observations of bright radio spiral galaxies at cz equal or less than 9000 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    CO emission has been detected from 20 of 21 bright radio spirals with strong extended nuclear sources, including the most distant (NGC 7674) and the most luminous (IC 4553 = Arp 220, NGC 6240) galaxies yet detected in CO. All of these galaxies are rich in molecular gas, with M total(H2) = 3 x 10 to the 8th - 2 x 10 to the 10th solar masses. IRAS observations show that they have a strong far-infrared (FIR) excess, with L(FIR)/L(B) approximately equal to 1-35 and L(FIR) (40-400 microns) approximately equal to 10 to the 10th - 10 to the 12th L solar masses. The primary luminosity source for these radio cores appears to be star formation in molecular clouds. A strong correlation is found between the FIR and extended 21 cm continuum flux, implying that the fraction of massive stars formed is independent of the star formation rate. The ratio L(FIR)/M(H2) provides a measure of the current rate of star formation, which is found to be a factor 3-20 larger in these galaxies than for the ensemble of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. At these rates their molecular gas will be depleted in about 10 to the 8th yr.

  2. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  3. Dissolution of Oxygen Precipitate Nuclei in n-Type CZ-Si Wafers to Improve Their Material Quality: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Basnyat, Prakash; Devayajanam, Srinivas; Tan, Teh; Upadhyaya, Ajay; Tate, Keith; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Xu, Han

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental results which show that oxygen-related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in p-doped, n-type, Czochralski wafers can be dissolved using a flash-annealing process, yielding very high quality wafers for high-efficiency solar cells. Flash annealing consists of heating a wafer in an optical furnace to temperature between 1150 and 1250 degrees C for a short time. This process produces a large increase in the minority carrier lifetime (MCLT) and homogenizes each wafer. We have tested wafers from different axial locations of two ingots. All wafers reach nearly the same high value of MCLT. The OPN dissolution is confirmed by oxygen analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectra and injection-level dependence of MCLT.

  4. Structural characterisation of a water-soluble polysaccharide from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng.

    PubMed

    Si, Hua-Yang; Chen, Nai-Fu; Chen, Nai-Dong; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-07-10

    A water-soluble polysaccharide TC-DHPA4 with a molecular weight of 8.0 × 10(5) Da was isolated from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense by anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the homogeneous polysaccharide was made up of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 1.28:1:1.67:4.71:10.43:1.42. The sugar residue sequence analysis based on the GC-MS files and NMR spectra indicated that the backbone of TC-DHPA4 consisted of the repeated units:→6)-β-Galp-(1→6)-β-Galp-(1→4)-β-GlcpA-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(→. The sugar residue sequences β-Glcp-(1→)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, β-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, β-Galp-(1→6)-β-Manp-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, and α-l-Araf-(1→2)-β-Manp-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→ were identified as the branches attached to the C-3 position of (1→6)-linked galactose in the backbone.

  5. A Novel Acid-Stable Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028: Purification, Characterization, and Application in the Beverage Industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Xian, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhen; Huang, Ribo

    2016-06-28

    Acidic endo-polygalacturonases are the major part of pectinase preparations and extensively applied in the clarification of fruits juice, vegetables extracts, and wines. However, most of the reported fungal endo-polygalacturonases are active and stable under narrow pH range and low temperatures. In this study, an acidic endo-polygalacturonase (EPG4) was purified and characterized from a mutant strain of Penicillium oxalicum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EPG4 (ATTCTFSGSNGAASASKSQT) was different from those of reported endopolygalacturonases. EPG4 displayed optimal pH and temperature at 5.0 and 60-70°C towards polygalacturonic acid (PGA), respectively, and was notably stable at pH 2.2-7.0. When tested against pectins, EPG4 showed enzyme activity over a broad acidic pH range (>15.0% activity at pH 2.2-6.0 towards citrus pectin; and >26.6% activity at pH 2.2-7.0 towards apple pectin). The Km and Vmax values were determined as 1.27 mg/ml and 5,504.6 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PGA in endo-manner, releasing oligo-galacturonates from PGA, as determined by TLC. Addition of EPG4 (3.6 U/ml) significantly reduced the viscosity (by 42.4%) and increased the light transmittance (by 29.5%) of the papaya pulp, and increased the recovery (by 24.4%) of the papaya extraction. All of these properties make the enzyme a potential application in the beverage industry.

  6. Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

  7. Significance of data-quality control in passive seismic experiments exemplified on CZ broad-band seismic pool MOBNET in the AlpArray collaborative project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecsey, Ludek; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Jedlicka, Petr; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    We focus on major issues related to data reliability and the MOBNET network performance in the AlpArray seismic experiment. Twenty temporary broad-band stations of the Czech MOBNET pool of mobile stations are currently involved in the AlpArray Seismological Network and previously were deployed in the AlpArray EASI complementary experiment. Currently-used high-resolution seismological methods require high-quality data (1) during a long-time period from observatories as well as (2) during full-time operation of temporary stations. We present both hardware and software tools we have developed to reach the high standard of quality of broad-band seismic data. Special attention is paid to issues like a detection of sensor mis-orientation, timing problems, exchange of components and/or their polarity reversal, as well as sensor mass centring, or anomalous channel amplitudes due to, e.g., imperfectly set gain. Thorough data-quality control should represent an integral constituent of seismic data recordings, pre-processing and archiving, especially for the data from temporary stations in passive seismic experiments. Large international experiments require enormous efforts of scientists from different countries and institutions to gather hundreds of stations to be deployed in the field simultaneously for a limited time period. Each participating group is required to contribute to the experiment with high-quality and reliable seismic data. We demonstrate beneficial effects of the suggested procedures for having a large set of high-quality and reliable data to be shared among researchers.

  8. Soil gas radon, indoor radon and gamma dose rate in CZ: contribution to geostatistical methods for European atlas of natural radiations.

    PubMed

    Barnet, Ivan; Fojtíková, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of Czech indoor radon data, soil gas radon data and gamma dose rate was performed on the data sets of 92,276 indoor radon measurements in existing dwellings (National Radiation Protection Institute - NRPI), database of 9500 test sites of soil gas radon measurements (Czech Geological Survey - CGS) georeferenced to levels of gamma dose rate map. Three methods were used for the study of soil gas Rn-indoor Rn relationship: (1) based on the vectorised point soil gas and indoor data related to vectorised areas of gammadose rate, (2) vectorised soil gas-indoor data based on vectorised geological units and (3) soil gas and indoor data related to grid squares 10 x 10 km2. The first and second methods seem to express the closer correlation compared with the third one, however the correlation using the third method is influenced by the representativeness of data value in the square of 100 km2 area. On the other hand, the third method can be used for the overview coverage of the continental areas with lack of input information.

  9. [Analgesia for labour in the Czech Republic in the year 2011 from the perspective of OBAAMA-CZ study - prospective national survey].

    PubMed

    Štourač, P; Bláha, J; Nosková, P; Klozová, R; Seidlová, D; Jarkovský, J; Zelinková, H; Skupina, Obaama-Cz Studijní

    2015-03-01

    The aim of national survey was to describe current practice for analgesia during labour provided by anaesthesiologists in the Czech Republic (CZE). National prospective observational. 49 obstetric departments in CZE. We aimed to enrol all 97 obstetric departments in CZE and to monitor every case of anaesthetic care in peripartum period during November 2011. Data were recorded to Case Report Form with two parts (Demography 2010 and Case Report) into TrialDB database (Yale University, USA; adapted IBA, MU, CZE). Demographic data for CZE were obtained on request by ÚZIS. The data were analysed using SPSS 22. We enrolled 1943 cases of anaesthesiological care and 579 (29.8%) of them was to relief labour pain. Population and center weighted estimate of incidence of epidural labour analgesia was 12.5% (95% CI: 10.6% - 14.4%). Epidural analgesia was the most frequently applied via Tuohy needle G18 (97.8%), with administration of an epidural catheter G20 (95.7%), via medial approach (98.8%), in lateral position (76.7%) by the loss of resistance method (94.3%). All administrations of epidural analgesia were started by initial bolus, only in 28.2% of cases were followed continously. Always has been applied mixture of local anaesthetic with sufentanil at a dose of 3-10 mcg. Bupivacaine was most frequently used local anaesthetic (80.7%), followed by levobupivacaine (12.6%). Median concentrations both bupivacaine and levobupivacaine were 0.125% (min. 0.1%, max. 0.3%).The most common complication of epidural analgesia was repeated puncture (21.2%), blood in the catheter (1.4%), blood in the needle (1.2%), unintended puncture of the dura mater (0.7%) and transient paresthesias (0.5%). In comparison to previously published data there was trend for lower incidence of epidural analgesia for labour in the CZE.

  10. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Infrared studies of oxygen-related complexes in electron-irradiated Cz-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Feng; Yan, Wen-Bo; Chen, Hong-Jian; Cui, Hui-Ying; Li, Yang-Xian

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the infrared absorption spectra of oxygen-related complexes in silicon crystals irradiated with electron (1.5 MeV) at 360 K. Two groups of samples with low [Oi] = 6.9 × 1017 cm-3 and high [Oi] = 1.06 × 1018 cm-3 were used. We found that the concentration of the VO pairs have different behaviour to the annealing temperature in different concentration of oxygen specimen, it is hardly changed in the higher concentration of oxygen specimen. It was also found that the concentration of VO2 in lower concentration of oxygen specimen gets to maximum at 450 °C and then dissapears at 500 °C, accompanied with the appearing of VO3. For both kinds of specimens, the concentration of VO3 reachs to maximum at 550 °C and does not disappear completely at 600 °C.

  12. Wpływ wybranych czynników środowiskowych na maksymalny przepływ nosowy wdechowy - część projektu ECAP (Epidemiologia Chorób Alergicznych w Polsce).

    PubMed

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Furmańczyk, Konrad; Piekarska, Barbara; Sybilski, Adam; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2017-02-28

    Celem niniejszej pracy była próba określenia wpływu wybranych czynników/parametrów na wynik maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF, ang. peak nasal inspiratory flow) w badanej populacji polskiej projektu Epidemiologia Chorób Alergicznych w Polsce (ECAP). Materiał/metody: Badaną populację stanowiła grupa dzieci w wieku 6-7 lat (n=1123), młodzieży w wieku 13-14 lat (n=1136) oraz dorosłych (n=1876) zamieszkałych w siedmiu dużych polskich miastach. W badaniu posłużono się pomiarem maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF). Do oceny wpływu wybranych czynników na wartości PNIF wykorzystano przetłumaczone i walidowane kwestionariusze opracowane na potrzeby światowych badań ECRHS II (European Community Respiratory Health Survey II) i ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Wyniki: Określone warunki wewnątrz gospodarstwa domowego, m.in. ogrzewanie węglem, drewnem lub piecem gazowym, istotnie zwiększają przekrwienie błony śluzowej nosa. W grupie biernych palaczy PNIF był niższy niż w grupie czynnych palaczy. Wskaźnik PNIF malał wraz ze wzrostem liczby domowników palących papierosy. Wnioski: Wybrane czynniki środowiska.

  13. Comment on "Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 434 (2016) 128-137] and on "Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 436 (2016) 23-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Jan; Kamiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Kozo; Sueoka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    In the papers mentioned above, Abe et al. published beautiful experimental data on intrinsic point defect related defect distributions in detached growing Czochralski Si crystals with and without additional thermal anneals [1,2]. The new fact compared to the results published before [3] is that the crystals are pulled with decreasing speed before detaching, resulting in crystals that vary along the axis from initially vacancy-rich to interstitial-rich for the slowest pulling speed before detaching.

  14. Electroluminescence of carbazole-substituted polyacetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Run G.; Wang, Yunzhang; Zou, Xiaoming; Fahlam, Mats; Zheng, Qianbing; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Masuda, Toshio; Epstein, Arthur J.

    1998-12-01

    We present photo- and electro-luminescence, and hole mobility measurements of carbazole (Cz) substituted polyacetylene (PA-Cz) and poly(diphenylacetylene) (PDPA-Cz). The photoluminescence (PL) of the interband transition in PA-Cz thin film is quenched. PDPA-Cz shows a green-yellow emission with a PL efficiency about 30 percent of the interband transition. The hole mobility of PDPA-Cz is determined to be approximately 10 7 cm2/Vs and the ionization energy is 5.3 eV. PDPA-Cz forms robust thin films and is thermally stable up to 470 degrees C. For a structure of ITO/PDPA-Cz/Alq(tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum)/MgAg EL quantum efficiency over 1 percent is achieved.

  15. Integrated Interdisciplinary Science of the Critical Zone as a Foundational Curriculum for Addressing Issues of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Timothy; Wymore, Adam; Dere, Ashlee; Hoffman, Adam; Washburne, James; Conklin, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Earth's critical zone (CZ) is the uppermost layer of Earth's continents, which supports ecosystems and humans alike. CZ science aims to understand how interactions among rock, soil, water, air, and terrestrial organisms influence Earth as a habitable system. Thus, CZ science provides the framework for a holistic-systems approach to teaching Earth…

  16. Effect of the ratio of zinc amino acid complex to zinc sulfate on the performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, A; Upah, N C; Sucu, E; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; DeFrain, J M; Gorden, P J; Baumgard, L H

    2014-07-01

    Multiparous (n=70) and primiparous (n=66) Holstein cows were balanced by 305-d previous mature-equivalent milk yield and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to evaluate the ratio of zinc sulfate to zinc amino acid complex (CZ) in pre- and postpartum Holstein cows fed diets containing 75 mg of added zinc/kg. Treatments were (1) 75 mg of supplemental zinc/kg of dry matter (DM) provided entirely as zinc sulfate (0-CZ); (2) 0-CZ diet, except 33.3 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 15.5mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet were replaced by CZ from Availa-Zn (16-CZ; Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie MN); and (3) 0-CZ diet, except 66.6 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 40.0 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet was replaced by Availa-Zn (40-CZ). Cows were housed at the Iowa State University Dairy Farm and were individually offered a total mixed ration containing dietary treatments beginning at 28 ± 15 d before expected calving date until 250 d in milk. Relative to 0-CZ, multiparous cows (but not primiparous) fed CZ (16-CZ or 40-CZ) had increased (20%) colostrum IgG concentrations. Prepartum DM intake (DMI) was decreased with CZ supplementation. Postpartum DMI was decreased in cows fed CZ, whereas milk yield (MY) was increased in the 40-CZ-fed cows relative to those fed both 0-CZ and 16-CZ. Feed efficiency increased linearly when measured as MY/DMI, 3.5% fat-corrected MY/DMI, and solids-corrected MY/DMI. Regardless of level, feeding CZ decreased services per conception. Feeding 16-CZ decreased milk fat concentration and feeding CZ linearly increased milk urea nitrogen concentration. In summary, supplementing zinc as a mixture of CZ and zinc sulfate, as opposed to supplementing only zinc sulfate, has beneficial effects on production parameters in dairy cows, with those benefits becoming more apparent as the ratio of CZ to zinc sulfate increases. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  17. Complete nucleotide sequences of two NDM-1-encoding plasmids from the same sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    PubMed

    Studentova, V; Dobiasova, H; Hedlova, D; Dolejska, M; Papagiannitsis, C C; Hrabak, J

    2015-02-01

    The sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Kpn-3002cz was confirmed to harbor two NDM-1-encoding plasmids, pB-3002cz and pS-3002cz. pB-3002cz (97,649 bp) displayed extensive sequence similarity with the blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid pKPX-1. pS-3002cz (73,581 bp) was found to consist of an IncR-related sequence (13,535 bp) and a mosaic region (60,046 bp). A 40,233-bp sequence of pS-3002cz was identical to the mosaic region of pB-3002cz, indicating the en bloc acquisition of the NDM-1-encoding region from one plasmid by the other.

  18. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, Joon Ching; Jiang Yajie; Meng Xiujuan; Cao Weiliang; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Zhang Jingchang . E-mail: zhangjc1@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-07-03

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid.

  19. Czy smog ma wpływ na częstość występowania zaostrzeń przewlekłego zapalenia krtani? Analiza na przykładzie mieszkańców województwa małopolskiego.

    PubMed

    Ziarno, Remigiusz; Suska, Anna; Kulinowski, Wojciech; Grudzień-Ziarno, Aleksandra; Kostrzon, Magdalena; Paciorek, Magdalena; Składzień, Jacek

    2017-06-30

    Due to dynamic industrialisation smog became a frequent phenomenon in most developing cities. According to the last WHO report from Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, Krakow has been classified in the 11th place among the most polluted cities in Europe. It seems to be an urgent issue because of the influence of air pollution on the condition of upper respiratory tract. Materials & Methods: In December 2015 there were 141 patients aged 17-91 years with upper respiratory tract diseases admitted to the phoniatric outpatient clinic in the University Hospital in Cracow. They suffered from cough, hoarseness and periodic aphonia. On the basis of the results of videolaryngostroboscopy 60 patients with exacerbation of the chronic laryngitis were selected into two numerically equal groups: from Cracow and from other places at least 60 km away. The groups were equal to each other also in three categories: sex, age and voice usage. The patients were referred to the Pedagogical University in Cracow for laryngography to evaluate the movement of the vocal folds and to trace a voice profile. Finally, there were two possible types of treatment - conventional pharmacotherapy or subterraneotherapy in the underground Health Resort in the "Wieliczka" Salt Mine. Pearson correlation coefficient between the distance from the place of residence to Cracow and the scale of exacerbation of inflammation of upper respiratory tract presenting as vocal fold dysfunction was observed (r= 0,617; p<0,05). The place of residence (in or out of the industrial area) and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis are highly correlated. Air pollution seems to be the main factor influencing on the condition of upper respiratory tract. In our local conditions of Lesser Poland Voivodeship subterraneotherapy may be an interesting, non-invasive method preventing from exacerbations of upper respiratory tract diseases.

  20. Rare Earth Elements of Orzeskie Beds of South-West Part Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) / Pierwiastki Ziem Rzadkich Z Pokładów Węgla Warstw Orzeskich Południowo-Zachodniej Części Gzw (Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Białecka, Barbara; Moszko, Joanna Całusz; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the research concerned the coal samples from 360/1, 361 and 362/1 seams of the Orzesze beds in the "Pniówek" coal mine. The obtained samples were characterized by low ash content - 2.22- 6.27% of the mass. The chemical composition of the ash indicates the presence of aluminosilicate minerals in the analyzed coal samples - most likely clay minerals, the presence of which has been confirmed in microscopic tests of the petrographic composition of channel samples of coal. The content of rare earth elements (REE sum) in the ash of the tested coal seams ranged from 364 to 1429 ppm. Variation of the REE content has been observed within a single seam. The fraction of REE indicates a relation with a mineral substance. No relation of the REE fraction and the presence of red beds has been found based on the tested samples. The content of REE found in ash, normalized to chondrites, is characterized by LREE enrichment in relation to HREE. The Eu anomaly is most likely related to tuff and tonstein levels occurring in Orzesze beds, which accompany the coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (i.a., south of the studied area). The research has indicated that LREE in the tested samples are more related to the mineral substance, while HREE have a stronger affinity with organic substances. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów 360/1, 361 i 362/1 warstw orzeskich KWK Pniówek. Próbki te charakteryzują się niewielką zawartością popiołu 2,22-6,27% mas. Skład chemiczny popiołów wskazuje na obecność w analizowanych próbkach węgla minerałów z grupy glinokrzemianów najprawdopodobniej minerałów ilastych, których obecność była stwierdzona w badaniach mikroskopowych składu petrograficznego próbek bruzdowych węgla. Zawartości pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (suma REE) w popiołach badanych pokładów węgla wahają się od 364 do 1429 ppm. Obserwuje się zróżnicowanie zawartości REE w obrębie jednego pokładu. Udział REE wykazuje związek z substancją mineralną. Nie stwierdzono związku udziału REE, w badanych próbkach, z obecnością utworów pstrych w stropie karbonu. Zawartości REE oznaczone w popiołach, znormalizowane do chondrytów, charakteryzują się wzbogaceniem LREE wobec HREE. Anomalia Eu związana jest prawdopodobnie z występującymi w warstwach orzeskich (m.in. na północ od obszaru badań) Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego poziomami tufów i tonsteinów, które towarzyszą pokładom węgla. Badania wykazały, że LREE w badanych próbkach związane są raczej z substancją mineralną, natomiast HREE posiadają silniejsze powinowactwo z substancją organiczną.

  1. Integration of Stream Sediment Geochemical and Aster Data for Porphyry Copper Deposit Exploration in Khatun Abad, North West of Iran / Integracja geochemicznych danych o osadach dennych oraz danych pozyskanych z systemu aster do poszukiwań geologicznych w rejonie złóż miedzi porfirytowej w khatun abad, w północno-zachodniej części iranu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarpazhouh, Jamal; Hassanipak, Ali Asghar; Seifpanahi Shabani, Kumars

    2013-03-01

    Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt is the host of large porphyry copper deposits in Iran. Khatun Abad area is located in north west part of this belt, so in this study, the stream sediment geochemical survey and hydrothermal alteration zones extracted from ASTER data were used to generation new target for future lithogeochemical survey. In this study after a brief discussion on descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to compress the information to a few maps and to assist in determining multi-element associations. Then C-A fractal method was used for map classification. In order to extraction hydrothermal zones ASTER data were used. ASTER SWIR bands are most useful for the identification of alteration minerals such as Alunite, Pyrophylite, Kaolinite, Sericute and Carbonates. In this paper based on spectral analysis of ASTER SWIR data six maps of alteration zones were prepared. Geochemical study and spectral analysis of ASTER data showed that mineralization and alteration are limited to E1lb and gr lithological units and have NW-SE trends from east of Khatun Abad to Ghezeljeh-Gheshlaghi.

  2. The Extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Do Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Yoo, Young Hyo; Park, Sun Kyu; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, Min Beom

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) has been used for beverage or tea and also as folk medicine for the remedy of diverse inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, the therapeutic effect of CZ on arthritis remains to be unknown. In this paper we aim to investigate the CZ's antiarthritic effect and mechanism of action both in vitro and in vivo. To assess CZ's antiarthritic effect, mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used. Mice were used to gauge clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biological methods were adopted to measure CZ's effect on arthritis and to understand the veiled mechanism of action. CZ greatly suppressed CIA, histopathological score, bone erosion, and osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, CZ inhibited the production of various inflammatory and arthritic mediators like inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and chemokines. Of note, CZ significantly suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in vivo. CZ exerted an antiarthritic effect in CIA mice by curbing the production of crucial inflammatory and arthritis mediators. This study warrants further investigation of CZ for the use in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:27840652

  3. Strength characteristics of light weight concrete blocks using mineral admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, P.; Priyadharshini, U.; Gurucharan, S.; Mithunram, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the characteristics of light weight concrete blocks. Cement was partially replaced with mineral admixtures like Fly ash (FA), limestone powder waste (LPW), Rice husk ash (RHA), sugarcane fiber waste (SCW) and Chrysopogonzizanioides (CZ). The maximum replacement level achieved was 25% by weight of cement and sand. Total of 56 cubes (150 mm x 150 mm x150 mm) and 18 cylinders (100mmφ and 50mm depth) were cast. The specimens being (FA, RHA, SCW, LPW, CZ, (FA-RHA), (FA-LPW), (FA-CZ), (LPW-CZ), (FA-SCW), (RHA-SCW)).Among the different combination, FA,FA-SCW,CZ,FA-CZ showed enhanced strength and durability, apart from achieving less density.

  4. Metal-organic-framework-derived carbons: Applications as solid-base catalyst and support for Pd nanoparticles in tandem catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xinle; Zhang, Biying; Fang, Yuhui; ...

    2017-02-11

    Here, the facile pyrolysis of a bipyridyl metal-organic framework, MOF-253, produces N-doped porous carbons (Cz-MOF-253), which exhibit excellent catalytic activity in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction and outperform other nitrogen-containing MOF-derived carbons. More importantly, by virtue of their high Lewis basicity and porous nature, Cz-MOF-253-supported Pd nanoparticles (Pd/Cz-MOF-253-800) show excellent performance in a one-pot sequential Knoevenagel condensation-hydrogenation reaction.

  5. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-01

    Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  6. Alternative activation and increase of Trypanosoma cruzi survival in murine macrophages stimulated by cruzipain, a parasite antigen.

    PubMed

    Stempin, Cinthia; Giordanengo, Laura; Gea, Susana; Cerbán, Fabio

    2002-10-01

    We studied the macrophage (Mo) activation pathways through Mo interaction with immunogenic Trypanosoma cruzi antigens as cruzipain (Cz) and R13. J774 cells, peritoneal and spleen Mo from normal mice, were used. Although Mo classic activation was observed in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, evaluated through nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-12 production, Cz and R13 did not activate Mo in this way. To study the alternative pathway, we examined the arginase activity in Mo cultured with Cz. An increase of arginase activity was detected in all Mo sources assayed. An increase of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in culture supernatants from Mo stimulated with Cz was observed. The study of expression of B7.1 and B7.2 in spleen Mo revealed that Cz induces preferential expression of B7.2. In vitro studies revealed that Cz stimulated J774 cells and then, infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, developed a higher number of intracellular parasites than unstimulated infected Mo. Thus, Cz favors the perpetuation of T. cruzi infection. In addition, a down-regulation of inducible NO synthase was observed in J774 cells stimulated with Cz. These results suggest that Cz interaction with Mo could modulate the immune response generated against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway in Mo.

  7. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.E. )

    1990-04-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag. 36 refs.

  8. Photodegradation of the azole fungicide climbazole by ultraviolet irradiation under different conditions: Kinetics, mechanism and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Hu, Li-Xin; Yao, Li; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Tian, Fei

    2016-11-15

    Climbazole (CZ) has been known to persist in various environmental media, and may cause potential risks to aquatic organisms. This study investigated the photodegradation of CZ by ultraviolet (UV, 254nm) under different conditions. The results revealed that CZ could be effectively degraded in aqueous solutions under UV-254 irradiation with a half-life of 9.78min (pH=7.5), and the photodegradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. pH had almost no effect on its rate constants and quantum yields; but the water quality of natural waters could affect the photolysis of CZ, and the coexisting constituents such as Fe(3+), NO3(-), and HA obviously inhibited its photolysis. The addition of different radical scavengers also inhibited the photodegradation of CZ due to the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). CZ underwent direct and self-sensitized photolysis involving ROS. Based on the identified photodegradation by-products, the proposed pathways included hydroxylative dechlorination, dechlorination and de-pinacolone. Moreover, toxicity evaluation using duckweed found significant toxicity reduction in the photodegradation system of CZ after the irradiation of UV-254, and the remaining by-products did not pose extra toxicity compared with CZ itself. These findings from present study suggest that CZ in effluent could be further reduced by applying UV photolysis treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and evaluation of N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan micelles containing clotrimazole for oral candidiasis treatment.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Woraphatphadung, Thisirak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2017-03-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) micelles have been developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis treatment. NSCS was synthesized by reductive N-amination and N,O-succinylation. CZ was incorporated into the micelles using various methods, including the dropping method, the dialysis method, and the O/W emulsion method. The size and morphology of the CZ-loaded micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The drug entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, release characteristics, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans were also evaluated. The CZ-loaded micelles prepared using different methods differed in the size of micelles. The micelles ranged in size from 120 nm to 173 nm. The micelles prepared via the O/W emulsion method offered the highest percentage entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. The CZ released from the CZ-loaded micelles at much faster rate compared to CZ powder. The CZ-loaded NSCS micelles can significantly hinder the growth of Candida cells after contact. These CZ-loaded NSCS micelles offer great antifungal activity and might be further developed to be a promising candidate for oral candidiasis treatment.

  10. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag.

  11. Identification of Levothyroxine Antichagasic Activity through Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Bellera, Carolina L.; Balcazar, Darío E.; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A.; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  12. Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and cobbler's bench, facing west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photocatalytic Oxygenation of Substrates by Dioxygen with Protonated Manganese(III) Corrolazine.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Neu, Heather M; Leeladee, Pannee; Siegler, Maxime A; Ohkubo, Kei; Goldberg, David P; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-04-04

    UV-vis spectral titrations of a manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(TBP8Cz)] with HOTf in benzonitrile (PhCN) indicate mono- and diprotonation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) to give Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] with protonation constants of 9.0 × 10(6) and 4.7 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. The protonated sites of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] were identified by X-ray crystal structures of the mono- and diprotonated complexes. In the presence of HOTf, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H))] acts as an efficient photocatalytic catalyst for the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene and thioanisole by O2 to the corresponding alcohol and sulfoxide with 563 and 902 TON, respectively. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis measurements of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] in the presence of O2 revealed the formation of a tripquintet excited state, which was rapidly converted to a tripseptet excited state. The tripseptet excited state of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) reacted with O2 with a diffusion-limited rate constant to produce the putative Mn(IV)(O2(•-))(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), whereas the tripseptet excited state of [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] exhibited no reactivity toward O2. In the presence of HOTf, Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can oxidize not only HMB but also mesitylene to the corresponding alcohols, accompanied by regeneration of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)). This thermal reaction was examined for a kinetic isotope effect, and essentially no KIE (1.1) was observed for the oxidation of mesitylene-d12, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism is operative in this case. Thus, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex, Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), acts as an efficient photocatalyst for the oxidation of HMB by O2 to the alcohol.

  14. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  15. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation.

  16. Twelve testable hypotheses on the geobiology of weathering

    Treesearch

    S.L. Brantley; J.P. Megonigal; F.N. Scatena; Z. Balogh-Brunstad; R.T. Barnes; M.A. Bruns; P. van Cappelen; K. Dontsova; H.E. Hartnett; A.S. Hartshorn; A. Heimsath; E. Herndon; L. Jin; C.K. Keller; J.R. Leake; W.H. McDowell; F.C. Meinzer; T.J. Mozdzer; S. Petsch; J. Pett-Ridge; K.S. Pretziger; P.A. Raymond; C.S. Riebe; K. Shumaker; A. Sutton-Grier; R. Walter; K. Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) research investigates the chemical, physical, and biological processes that modulate the Earth's surface. Here, we advance 12 hypotheses that must be tested to improve our understanding of the CZ: (1) Solar-to-chemical conversion of energy by plants regulates flows of carbon, water, and nutrients through plant-microbe soil networks, thereby...

  17. Electrical Properties of Nitrogen Doped Float Zone Silicon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    examination from Shin - Etsu Handotai Co. throuqh Dr. T. Abe. The boule is typical of such material grown by Shin - Etsu and nitrogen doping was accomplished... Shin - Etsu FZ Nitrogen n 10 3 Handotai Hughes FZ residual p105 Aircraft Boron Monsanto CZ Phosphorus n 200 Monsanto CZ Phosphorus n 2.0 Several 3/8" x 3

  18. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment. PMID:28361968

  19. Critical Zone Science as a Multidisciplinary Framework for Teaching Earth Science and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymore, A.; White, T. S.; Dere, A. L. D.; Hoffman, A.; Washburne, J. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the terrestrial portion of the continents ranging from the top of the vegetative canopy down through soil and bedrock to the lowest extent of freely circulating groundwater. The primary objective of CZ science is to characterize and understand how the reciprocal interactions among rock, soil, water, air and terrestrial organisms influence the Earth as a habitable environment. Thus it is a highly multidisciplinary science that incorporates the biological, hydrological, geological and atmospheric sciences and provides a holistic approach to teaching Earth system science. Here we share highlights from a full-semester university curriculum that introduces upper-division Environmental Science, Geology, Hydrology and Earth Science students to CZ science. We emphasize how a CZ framework is appropriate to teach concepts across the scientific disciplines, concepts of sustainability, and how CZ science serves as a useful approach to solving humanities' grand challenges.

  20. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-31

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  1. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  2. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The results of investigation of the associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coals Seams from Chwałowice Trough were presented in this article. The results of researches show that sandstones and mudstones dominate in the investigating profile. Claystones are situated mainly in ceilings and floors of coal seams. Grains of sandstones include mainly quartz, feldspars, micas and also quartzite's and gneiss's fragments. It is also possible to observe small grains of heavy minerals. Some of sandstones present bad compactness and are destroyed during transportation. This feature is connected with presence of little quantity of cement, especially in medium grained sandstones, which include more matrix than typical cement. The cement is built mainly of clay minerals, kaolinite and illite, carbonates and chalcedony but X-ray diffraction confirmed also the presence of halite in the cement of investigated sandstones. Mudstones and claystones are composed mainly of clay minerals. It's also possible to find quartz and micas there. Higher amounts of quartz and micas are possible to find rather in mudstones. The associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coal Seams from Chwałowice Trough include also organic matter. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań skał towarzyszących pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w badanym profilu dominują piaskowce oraz mułowce. Iłowce natomiast występują głównie w stropach i spągach pokładów węgla. Okruchy piaskowców to głównie ziarna kwarcu, skaleni, mik oraz fragmenty kwarcytów i gnejsów. Można tu również zaobserwować drobne okruchy minerałów ciężkich. Niektóre piaskowce charakteryzują się obniżoną zwięzłością i podczas transportu ulegają rozpadowi. Cecha ta związana jest z niewielką ilością spoiwa, szczególnie w piaskowcach średnioziarnistych, w których matrix przeważa nad typowym cementem. Spoiwo zbudowane jest głównie z minerałów ilastych, takich jak kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  3. Optical basicity and polarizability for copper-zinc doped sol-gel glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, G. Pandey, O. P.; Amjotkaur, Kumar, Vishal

    2016-05-06

    CaO-SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses have been studied by varying ratios of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Glasses were prepared using Sol-Gel technique. Opitical Basicity and oxide ion Polarizability were calculated and discussed in relation with non bridging Oxygen ions (NBOs). Optical basicity is average electron donating capability of an oxide atom. All glasses had a little difference in optical basicity and polarizability values but CZ8 glass (20CaO-60SiO{sub 2}-5B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-2CuO-8ZnO) came out to show highest optical basicity and polarizability with value 0.5177 and 0.9798 respectively. This showed the highest electron donating tendency of CZ8 glass and highest number of NBOs. These were minimum for CZ2 glass with 8CuO and 2ZnO. In aspect of optical basicity and polarizability glasses follow the series CZ2 < CZ4 < CZ6 < CZ8. Increasing concentration of ZnO and decreasing concentration of CuO lead to higher optical basicity and oxide ion polarizability.

  4. Cytokinin Activity of cis-Zeatin and Phenotypic Alterations Induced by Overexpression of Putative cis-Zeatin-O-glucosyltransferase in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Toru; Makita, Nobue; Kojima, Mikiko; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    cis-Zeatin (cZ) is generally regarded as a cytokinin with little or no activity, compared with the highly active trans-zeatin (tZ). Although recent studies suggested possible roles for cZ, its physiological significance remains unclear. In our studies with rice (Oryza sativa), cZ inhibited seminal root elongation and up-regulated cytokinin-inducible genes, and its activities were comparable to those of tZ. Tracer experiments showed that exogenously supplied cZ-riboside was mainly converted into cZ derivatives but scarcely into tZ derivatives, indicating that isomerizations of cZ derivatives into tZ derivatives are a minor pathway in rice cytokinin metabolism. We identified three putative cZ-O-glucosyltransferases (cZOGT1, cZOGT2, and cZOGT3) in rice. The cZOGTs preferentially catalyzed O-glucosylation of cZ and cZ-riboside rather than tZ and tZ-riboside in vitro. Transgenic rice lines ectopically overexpressing the cZOGT1 and cZOGT2 genes exhibited short-shoot phenotypes, delay of leaf senescence, and decrease in crown root number, while cZOGT3 overexpressor lines did not show shortened shoots. These results propose that cZ activity has a physiological impact on the growth and development of rice. PMID:22811434

  5. Treatment of Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Abscesses: Comparison of Cefazolin, Cephalothin, Cefoxitin, and Cefamandole

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Donald; Parsons, James N.; Carrizosa, Jaime; Kobasa, William D.

    1979-01-01

    Cefazolin (CZ), cephalothin (CF), cefoxitin (CX), and cefamandole (CM) were evaluated in therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infection produced in perforated table tennis balls placed intraperitoneally in rabbits. Four weeks after placement of two balls in each rabbit, a beta-lactamase producing strain of S. aureus was injected into one of the balls. Twenty-four hours later therapy was initiated with 40 mg of CZ or 80 mg of CF, CX, or CM per kg intramuscularly every 6 h. After 24 h of treatment, the mean log10 colony-forming units per ml were 7.1 for CZ, 6.7 for CF, 6.5 for CX, and 7.2 for CM. After 72 h the mean log10 colony-forming units per ml were 5.0 for CZ, 4.1 for CF, 3.6 for CX, and 5.6 for CM. After 8 days, the titers were 1.6/ml for CZ, 1.0 for CF, 1.9 for CX, and 3.6 for CM. CZ serum levels were about double CF and CX levels and about two-thirds of CM levels. In sterile ball fluid CZ and CM levels were more than double CF or CX concentrations. Concentrations of all four antibiotics were lower in infected balls. PMID:426513

  6. White organic light-emitting diodes based on electroplex from polyvinyl carbazole and carbazole oligomers blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei-Peng; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Zu-Jin; Tian, Wen-Jing; Lü, Ping; Im, Chan

    2010-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes with a blue emitting material fluorene-centred ethylene-liked carbazole oligomer (Cz6F) doped into polyvinyl carbazole (PVK) as the single light-emitting layer are reported. The optical properties of Cz6F, PVK, and PVK:Cz6F blends are studied. Single and double layer devices are fabricated by using PVK: Cz6F blends, and the device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PVK:Cz6F/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminium (Alq3)/LiF/A1 exhibits white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.30, 0.33) and a brightness of 402 cd/m2. The investigation reveals that the white light is composed of a blue-green emission originating from the excimer of Cz6F molecules and a red emission from an electroplex from the PVK:Cz6F blend films.

  7. Femtosecond transient photoluminescence of the substituted poly(diphenylacetulene)s.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskun, N. V.; Wang, D. K.; Lim, H.; Epstein, A. J.; Vanwoerkom, L. D.; Gustafson, T. L.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of a femtosecond transient photoluminescence (PL) study of solutions of two derivatives of substituted poly(diphenylacetylene) using an up-conversion technique. n-Butyl (nBu) and p-carbazole (Cz) substituted poly(diphenylacetylene), PDPA-nBu and PDPA-Cz respectively, have band gaps determined by maxima in the slope of absorption vs. energy of 2.75 eV and 2.63 eV. The steady state emission peaks are at 2.4 eV for PDPA-nBu and at 2.3 eV for PDPA-Cz respectively. The PL peak for PDPA-Cz is red shifted in comparison to the PL peak for PDPA-nBu. Roles of phenyl groups, electron donating effect of the carbazole side units and planarity of the backbone are discussed. Exciting at 3.1 eV, the fs PL shows a faster decay for PDPA-Cz than that for PDPA-nBu, in accord with the decrease of PL quantum efficiency of PDPA-Cz. The 200 fs - 80 ps PL(t) agrees with ~1 ns lifetime. The PDPA-Cz has larger red shift in the 0.2-20 ps time frame. The origin of that shift will be discussed. This work is supported in part by ONR.

  8. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  9. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi.

  10. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  11. Changing Energy Inputs at Earth's Surface Translates to Differences in Water Availability, Weathering Rates, and Biotic Activity at Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, J. C.; Zapata-Rios, X.; Rasmussen, C.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; Pelletier, J. D.; Chorover, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ), the thin skin of the Earth, from the top of canopies down to saturated bedrock, provides vital environmental and human services, including water storage, elemental cycling and climate regulation. CZ structure develops over both long (geologic) timescales in response to variations in water, energy and carbon availability, or short (episodic) timescales due to disturbance, such as fire and land use change. This structural heterogeneity in turn mediates dissipative products of CZ development altering water and solute fluxes, transit times and flowpaths. Understanding how these coupled process control CZ evolution across timescales is one of the grand challenges for CZ science. Here, we investigate how microclimate and hydrologic fluxes related to aspect and landscape position influence CZ structure and function across time scales in seasonally water-limited montane catchments. We show how CZ topographic structure interacts with climate change and associated disturbance to control inputs of water, energy and carbon into the CZ, which translates to differences in water availability, weathering rates, and biotic activity at depth. Beyond temporal and elevational trends in climatic forcing, we observe strong impacts of aspect variation on biological productivity in water-limited systems, largely because of the aspect induced diurnal covariation of solar radiation with temperature, that increases potential ET on S- or W-facing slopes relative to N- or E-facing slopes. This directly impacts the amount of water, carbon and energy available for subsurface weathering, leading to deeper regolith on N- and E-facing slopes. Consequently, we see longer water transit times and greater weathering fluxes in N-facing slopes. Higher weathering fluxes and microbial activity are also seen in convergent areas characterized by higher values of topographic wetness index, due to greater lateral fluxes of water and DOC. In so far as CZ evolution depends on meteorologic

  12. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  13. Maximum length of large diameter Czochralski silicon single crystals at fracture stress limit of seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.

    1990-03-01

    Growth of large diameter Czochralski (CZ) silicon crystals require complete elimination of dislocations by means of Dash technique, where the seed diameter is reduced to a small size typically 3 mm in conjunction with increase in the pull rate. The maximum length of the large CZ silicon is estimated at the fracture stress limit of the seed neck diameter ( d). The maximum lengths for 200 and 300 mm CZ crystals amount to 197 and 87 cm, respectively, with d = 0.3 cm; the estimated maximum weight is 144 kg.

  14. A New Star-shaped Carbazole Derivative with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Core: Crystal Structure and Unique Photoluminescence Property.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zixuan; Yu, Tianzhi; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Guoyun; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Lanqin

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid material based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) capped with carbazolyl substituents, octakis[3-(carbazol-9-yl)propyldimethylsiloxy]-silsesquioxane (POSS-8Cz), was successfully synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of POSS-8Cz were described. The photophysical properties of POSS-8Cz were investigated by using UV–vis,photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The hybrid material exhibits blue emission in the solution and the solid film.The morphology and thermal stablity properties were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TG-DTA analysis.

  15. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-06

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  16. 75 FR 56503 - Membership of the Departmental Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Secretary: ] John C. Connor, Director, Office of White House Liaison Tene A. Dolphin, Director, Executive... Secretary for Market Access and Compliance Theodore C.Z. Johnston, Chief of Staff for ITA Minority Business...

  17. FLIS Procedures Manual. Materiel Management Decision Rule Tables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    KX KX 28 KX 28 28 G28S T1 CZ 15 28 7D CZ CZ 28 CZ 28 28 G28T T1 CY 15 28 7D CY CY 28 CY 28 28 G28V T1 28 48 54 5428 5428 28 G280 TI 28 48 75 75 28...X 75 G270 FD 27 48 75 75 75 27 75 G271 FD 75 11 27 7G 75 75 7527 X 75 G280 T1 28 48 75 75 28 7528 75 G281 T1 75 11 28 7G 75 75 28 7528 X 75 G300 GH 30...28 48 54 54 54 28 28 G280 T1 0 1974323 28 48 75 75 75 28 28 G281 TI 0 1974323 75 11 28 7G 75 75 75 X 28 28 G282 TI 0 1982305 54 12 28 7V 54 54 54 28

  18. Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining area and china dresser in background, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bifold ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bi-fold door to hall, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser and structural system, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative crawl space vents, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Involvement of CYP2D6 in oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine and flunarizine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, S; Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Ohmori, S; Kitada, M; Hosokawa, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T

    1993-06-30

    Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) and its fluorine derivative flunarizine (FZ), both of which are selective calcium entry blockers, was examined in human liver microsomes. The ring-hydroxylations and the N-desalkylations constituted primary metabolic pathways in microsomal metabolism of CZ and FZ. Among these pathways, the ring-hydroxylase (p-hydroxylation) activities at the cinnamyl moiety of both drugs were highly correlated with debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity and CYP2D6 content. Quinidine, a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6, suppressed the ring-hydroxylase activities of CZ and FZ. These results suggest that CYP2D6 is involved in the ring-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl moiety of both CZ and FZ in human liver microsomes.

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Ground floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior Details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. First floor plan - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Second floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Rodman, Republic or Panama), 1940. Elevations. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. First floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940) Toilet plans - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Details of toilets - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Basement floor plan. - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Sections - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Elevation and section - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. General view of building in context showing row of residences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing row of residences adjacent to golf course, facing northeast. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Detail of southeast corner showing vaulted stair and balcony supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner showing vaulted stair and balcony supports, and railing panels of tile filler, facing southwest. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original steel wall-mounted ladder, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original pipe handrails, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in distance, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed window awnings, and decorative parapet coping, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern Profile, Bow Profile, Loose Plate - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Detail of east gable showing vent and three rafter ends ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east gable showing vent and three rafter ends protruding under gable fascia boards, facing northwest. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen dresser, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Pulsed excimer laser processing for cost-effective solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1984-01-01

    The goal was to demonstrate the cost effectiveness feasibility of fabricating 16% efficient solar cells on 125 mm diameter Cz wafers using pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization.

  10. Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior window opening, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue Avenue Circle, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground floor and mission scrolls, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and west bedrooms showing bar transoms, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Interior detail of women's toilet room showing original sink and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of women's toilet room showing original sink and tile wainscot, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view of living/dining areas with living porch in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living/dining areas with living porch in the background, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of unit "B" living porch showing double doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of unit "B" living porch showing double doors to living area and bedroom 1, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living area and living porch showing structural system, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Defining optimal laser-fiber sweeping angle for effective tissue vaporization using 180 W 532 nm lithium triborate laser.

    PubMed

    Ko, Woo Jin; Choi, Benjamin B; Kang, Hyun Wook; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Rutman, Matthew; Osterberg, E Charles

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study is to identify the most efficient sweeping angle (SA) during photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). Experiments were conducted with GreenLight XPS™ laser at 120 and 180 W. Ten blocks of porcine kidney were used for each SA (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 degrees). Vaporization efficiency was assessed by the amount of tissue removed per time. The coagulation zone (CZ) thickness was also measured. Maximal vaporization rate (VR) was achieved at SA 15 and 30 degrees. Irrespective of power, VR increased and CZ decreased linearly with decreasing SA from 120 to 30 degrees. The CZ was the thinnest at SA 30 degrees. Optimal vaporization occurred at a SA of 15 degrees and 30 degrees with the lowest CZ at 30 degrees. Contrary to a previous recommendation for a wider SA (60 degrees or greater), a narrower SA (30 degrees) achieved the maximal tissue vaporization efficiency.

  5. Improving operation lifetime of OLED by using thermally activated delayed fluorescence as host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun-tao; Hu, Sheng; Ye, Kang-li; Wei, Qing-qing; Xu, Kai; Wang, Xiang-hua

    2017-07-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material of 4CzIPN, which show better stability compared with the 4,4'-Bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) based devices. The half lifetime of the device using 4CzIPN as host material has doubled, and a slower voltage rise compared with that of CBP-based devices has been achieved, which indicates the improvement of stability. We attribute the better stability to the good film morphology and difficult crystallization property of 4CzIPN. Our results suggest that employing the 4CzIPN as host material can be a promising way of fabricating OLEDs with longer operation lifetime.

  6. Interior view of kitchen, pantry area, and pivoting door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of kitchen, pantry area, and pivoting door to dining area, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Detail of east wall showing double casement windows set into ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east wall showing double casement windows set into arched recess, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Detail of front entry stairs showing original boot scrape set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front entry stairs showing original boot scrape set in concrete, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Left side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Rear elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Longitudinal section. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Second floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Front elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). First floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), Right side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Interior view of shower room 216 with original marble surround ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of shower room 2-16 with original marble surround and double sash windows, facing east. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Side elevation - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215A. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5A. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Critical Zone Science: a new scientific paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Nord, G.; André, F.

    2014-12-01

    The main merit of the Critical Zone (CZ) Science is to foster multidisciplinary approaches on one of the most important envelopes of our Planet, the zone on which humanity lives and on which humans develop their societies. Policy makers and stakeholders also require a more unified scientific vision on the behavior of the CZ. The CZ science is not new and many communities have been doing CZ science for many decades. CZ-type observatories have been developed in most of the countries for different aims but generally lack of an integrated approach. When hydrologic measurements are made, they are generally not associated to geochemical measurements and the situation is worst for biological parameters. Instrumental geophysics of the CZ has done impressive progresses over the last decades but the misfit between the scientific questions and instrumental development is still a challenging issue. We will take the example of the French initiatives to build up a wide community of CZ scientists ("critical zonists") at the national scale taking into account decades of instrumentation and observation. More than creating new CZOs the French national research agencies helped foster collaboration between existing infrastructures by funding networking activities and developing significant investment programs for new equipment. We will review the main challenges of creating CZ networks based on existing funded research infrastructures and highlight the main instrumental challenges that need to be addressed to explore and understand the CZ in a modern way. The French initiatives mirror the European initiatives and the need for developing the links between the geo-centered initiative CZ concept and the ecology-centered concepts of LTER (and more recently LTSER) at the European scale. This willingness of linking historically separated communities is a stimulating opportunity for the advance of integrated Earth and Life sciences. As quoted by Bruno Latour (2014) the new environmental

  3. Critical zone architecture and processes: a geophysical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    The "critical zone (CZ)," Earth's near-surface layer that reaches from treetop to bedrock, sustains terrestrial life by storing water and producing nutrients. Despite is central importance, however, the CZ remains poorly understood, due in part to the complexity of interacting biogeochemical and physical processes that take place there, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring CZ properties and processes at depth. Major outstanding questions include: What is the architecture of the CZ? How does that architecture vary across scales and across gradients in climate, lithology, topography, biology and regional states of stress? What processes control the architecture of the CZ? At what depth does weathering initiate, and what controls the rates at which it proceeds? Based on recent geophysical campaigns at seven Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) sites and several other locations, a geophysical perspective on CZ architecture and processes is emerging. CZ architecture can be usefully divided into four layers, each of which has distinct geophysical properties: soil, saprolite, weathered bedrock and protolith. The distribution of those layers across landscapes varies depending on protolith composition and internal structure, topography, climate (P/T) and the regional state of stress. Combined observations from deep CZ drilling, geophysics and geochemistry demonstrate that chemical weathering initiates deep in the CZ, in concert with mechanical weathering (fracturing), as chemical weathering appears concentrated along fractures in borehole walls. At the Calhoun CZO, the plagioclase weathering front occurs at nearly 40 m depth, at the base of a 25-m-thick layer of weathered bedrock. The principal boundary in porosity, however, occurs at the saprolite/weathered bedrock boundary: porosity decreases over an order of magnitude, from 50% to 5% over an 8-m-thick zone at the base of saprolite. Porosity in weathered bedrock is between 2-5%. Future progress will depend on (1

  4. Photophysical properties and computational investigation on substituent effects on the structural and electronic properties of 3,6-di(thiophene-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriyab, Suwannee; Gleeson, Matthew Paul; Hannongbua, Supa; Suramitr, Songwut

    2016-12-01

    A series of 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives, 3,6-CzTh-(1), 3,6-CzTh-(2), 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4), were synthesized to investigate the influence of structural distortion on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) complexation between the conjugation components and carbazole core unit of the 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives. The 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives were synthesized and analysed using UV-Visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The electron-donating substituents on the carbazole core unit, which was linked by formyl and acetyl at the 3,6-positions of the carbazole core so as to directly involve the electron-donating edge substituents in backbone, exhibited conjugation breaks in the middle of the carbazole core units. The break lead to a planar structure with an extraordinary ability to stabilize on the excited state resulting in a strong fluorescence quantum yield (Vfluo ≈ 0.6-0.7). The results of the Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were in agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that the low fluorescence of 3,6-CzTh-(1) and 3,6-CzTh-(2) is derived not only from intersystem crossing but also from internal conversion due to the proximity effect; this inference was also supported by the measurements of the photoluminescence spectra at low temperatures. In addition, factors leading efficiently to non-radiative processes were shown to be absent in 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4). This work deepens our understanding of 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives and provides insight into the future design of novel materials for improved fluorescence efficiencies and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Photochemical Oxidation of a Manganese(III) Complex with Oxygen and Toluene Derivatives to Form a Manganese(V)-Oxo Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Ohkubo, Kei; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A.; Neu, Heather M.; Goldberg, David P.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Visible light photoirradiation of an oxygen-saturated benzonitrile solution of a manganese(III) corrolazine complex [(TBP8Cz)MnIII (1): [TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato3−] in the presence of toluene derivatives resulted in formation of the manganese(V)-oxo complex [(TBP8Cz)MnV(O)]. The photochemical oxidation of (TBP8Cz)MnIII with O2 and hexamethylbenzene (HMB) led to the isosbestic conversion of 1 to (TBP8Cz)MnV(O), accompanied by the selective oxidation of HMB to pentamethylbenzyl alcohol (87%). The formation rate of (TBP8Cz)MnV(O) increased with methyl group substitution, from toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene, durene, pentamethylbenzene, up to hexamethylbenzene. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were observed for toluene (KIE = 5.4) and mesitylene (KIE = 5.3). Femtosecond laser flash photolysis of (TBP8Cz)MnIII revealed the formation of a tripquintet excited state, which was rapidly converted to a tripseptet excited state. The tripseptet excited state was shown to be the key, activated state that reacts with O2 via a diffusion-limited rate constant. The data allow for a mechanism to be proposed in which the tripseptet excited state reacts with O2 to give the putative (TBP8Cz)MnIV(O2•−), which then abstracts a hydrogen atom from the toluene derivatives in the rate-determining step. The mechanism of hydrogen abstraction is discussed by comparison of the reactivity with the hydrogen abstraction from the same toluene derivatives by cumylperoxyl radical. Taken together, the data suggest a new catalytic method is accessible for the selective oxidation of C-H bonds with O2 and light, and the first evidence for catalytic oxidation of C–H bonds was obtained with 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine as a substrate. PMID:24219426

  6. Valence tautomerism in a high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complex induced by a Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Leeladee, Pannee; Baglia, Regina A; Prokop, Katharine A; Latifi, Reza; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2012-06-27

    Addition of the Lewis acid Zn(2+) to (TBP(8)Cz)Mn(V)(O) induces valence tautomerization, resulting in the formation of [(TBP(8)Cz(+•))Mn(IV)(O)-Zn(2+)]. This new species was characterized by UV-vis, EPR, the Evans method, and (1)H NMR and supported by DFT calculations. Removal of Zn(2+) quantitatively restores the starting material. Electron-transfer and hydrogen-atom-transfer reactions are strongly influenced by the presence of Zn(2+).

  7. An Expert System for Managing Storage Space Constraints Aboard United States Naval Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    make the task sore manageable. It is also possible the information provided from the expert system can be useful in refining the procedures for...016: (W1 Of) ’( nIV (C3)G2. .G1000-(CZ)N2. .NI000- A:020: (116] ’OPTION7 A:020: (W1 ’(RICALC X2..N1O00)- 115 A: Q21: [363 O(IID)RV(CE)K2. .I10-(CZ)312

  8. Performance of Passive and Active Sonars in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Philippine Sea Arthur B. Baggeroer Massachusetts Institute of Technology Departments of Mechanical and Ocean Engineering Cambridge, MA 02139 phone: (617...to model the features of a CZ which we observed in the PhilSea09 experiment. The data from this found very abrupt transitions and into the CZ’s and...The CZ is one of the most notable features of deep ocean sound propagation. Several models for the sound speed profile have been used to model the

  9. Critical Zone Services as Environmental Assessment Criteria in Intensively Managed Agricultural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes (IML), the provisioning, supporting, and regulating services are altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, from these landscapes than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the energy or cost equivalents of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. The valuation of CZ services in energy or monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. A multi-layer canopy-root-soil model is combined with nutrient and water flux models to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system. This data enables the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's nutrient cycling supporting services and atmospheric stabilizing regulating services defined by the flux of carbon and nutrients. Such measurements include soil carbon storage, soil carbon respiration, nitrate leaching, and nitrous oxide flux into the atmosphere. Additionally, the socioeconomic values of corn feed and ethanol define the primary productivity supporting services of each crop use.In the debate between feed production and corn-based ethanol production, measured nutrient CZ services can cost up to four times more than traditionally estimated CO2 equivalences for the entire bioenergy production system. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impacts demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol systems.

  10. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  11. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-05

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  12. Determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride, related impurities and preservatives in oral solution and tablet dosage forms using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jaber, A M Y; Al Sherife, H A; Al Omari, M M; Badwan, A A

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride (CZ) as well as its related impurities in commercial oral solution and tablet formulations. Furthermore, two preservatives associated with the drug formulations, namely, propyl (PP) and butylparabens (BP) were successfully determined by this method. The chromatographic system used was equipped with a Hypersil BDS C18, 5 microm column (4.6 x 250 mm) and a detector set at 230 nm in conjunction with a mobile phase of 0.05 M dihydrogen phosphate:acetonitrile:methanol:tetrahydrofuran (12:5:2:1, v/v/v/v) at a pH of 5.5 and a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). The calibration curves were linear within the target concentration ranges studied, namely, 2 x 10(2) - 8 x 10(2) microg ml(-1) and 1-4 microg ml(-1) for CZ, 20-100 microg ml(-1) for preservatives and 1-4 microg ml(-1) for CZ related impurities. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for CZ were, respectively, 0.10 and 0.34 microg ml(-1) and for CZ related impurities were in the ranges of 0.08-0.26 microg ml(-1) and 0.28-0.86 microg ml(-1), respectively. The method proved to be specific, stability indicating, accurate, precise, robust and could be used as an alternative to the European pharmacopoeial method set for CZ and its related impurities.

  13. The mechanistic basis for the disparate effects of angiotensin II on coronary collateral growth.

    PubMed

    Reed, Ryan; Kolz, Christopher; Potter, Barry; Rocic, Petra

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesize that controversial effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) are attributable to its regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent signaling. Coronary collateral growth (CCG) was stimulated in normal (WKY) and syndrome X (JCR) rats by transient/repetitive ischemia (RI). Blood flow was measured in the normal (NZ) and the collateral-dependent (CZ) zone. In WKY, RI increased CZ flow (0.84 mL/min/g), but RI+subpressor Ang II increased it more (1.24 mL/min/g). This was associated with transient p38 and sustained Akt activation. A hypertensive dose of Ang II decreased CZ flow (0.69 mL/min/g), which was associated with sustained p38 and transient Akt activation. AT1R blockade by candesartan abrogated CZ flow in WKY (0.58 mL/min/g), reduced myocardial superoxide, and blocked p38 and Akt activation. RI-induced CZ flow in JCR was significantly decreased compared with WKY (0.12 mL/min/g), associated with a large increase in superoxide and lack of p38 and Akt activation. CZ flow in JCR was partially restored by candesartan (0.45 mL/min/g), accompanied by reduction in superoxide and partial restoration of p38 and Akt activation. Ang II/AT1R blockade, at least in part, regulates CCG via generating optimal ROS amounts and activating redox-sensitive signaling.

  14. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: Intermetrics, Inc. I2Ada Compiler, Version 17.08 for the IBM 370 Architecture under UTS 2.3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-10

    SPEC-AE.ADA P REPORTBODY-B.ADA P *CHECK FILE-B.ADA P CZ110A- ABADA *CZ11O1A-AB.ADA P CZ11O2A-B.ADA P *CZ121A-B.ADA P CZ12O1A-AB.ADA P CZ12O1B-AB.ADA P...B55AO1E-AB.ADA P B59001H- ABADA P B52003B-AB.ADA P B55AO1F-AB.ADA P B590011-AB.ADA P B52003C-AB.ADA P B55AO1G-AB.ADA P C51002A-AB.ADA P *B52OO04A...AB.ADA P P C95012A-B.ADA P C96005B-B.TST P C97203E-AB.ADA P *C95013A-B.ADA P C96005C-B.TST P C97204A-B.ADA P C95021A-B.ADA P C96005D-B.ADA P C97303A- ABADA

  15. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-23

    (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on (31)P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  16. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  17. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  18. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  19. Electroencephalography Pattern Variations During Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mohammadreza; Taheri, Hamidreza; Saberi Kakhki, Alireza; Ghoshuni, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined how motor skill acquisition affects electroencephalography patterns and compared short- and long-term electroencephalography variations. For this purpose, 17 volunteers with no history of disease, aged 18 to 22 years, attended seven training sessions every other day to practice a pursuit tracking motor skill. Electroencephalography brainwaves were recorded and analyzed on the first and last days within pre- and post-training intervals. The results showed a significant decrease in performance error and variability with practice over time. This progress slowed at the end of training, and there was no significant improvement in individual performance at the last session. In accordance with performance variations, some changes occurred in brainwaves. Specifically, θ power at Fz and α power at Cz increased on the last test day, compared with the first, while the coherence of α at Fz-T3 and Fz-Cz decreased. β Coherence between Fz-Cz was significantly reduced from pre- to posttest. Based on these results, power changes seem to be more affected by long-term training, whereas coherence changes are sensitive to both short- and long-term training. Specifically, β coherence at Fz-Cz was more influenced by short-term effects of training, whereas θ power at Fz, α power at Cz, and α coherence at Fz-T3 and Fz-Cz were affected by longer training.

  20. Strong Inhibition of O-Atom Transfer Reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(π-Radical-Cation)(Lewis Acid) versus Mn(V)(O) Porphyrinoid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-05-27

    The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity of two valence tautomers of a Mn(V)(O) porphyrinoid complex was compared. The OAT kinetics of Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) reacting with a series of triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates were monitored by stopped-flow UV-vis spectroscopy, and revealed second-order rate constants ranging from 16(1) to 1.43(6) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the OAT transition state analogues Mn(III)(OPPh3)(TBP8Cz) and Mn(III)(OP(o-tolyl)3)(TBP8Cz) was carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). A valence tautomer of the closed-shell Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can be stabilized by the addition of Lewis and Brønsted acids, resulting in the open-shell Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA (LA = Zn(II), B(C6F5)3, H(+)) complexes. These Mn(IV)(O)(π-radical-cation) derivatives exhibit dramatically inhibited rates of OAT with the PAr3 substrates (k = 8.5(2) × 10(-3) - 8.7 M(-1) s(-1)), contrasting the previously observed rate increase of H-atom transfer (HAT) for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA with phenols. A Hammett analysis showed that the OAT reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA is influenced by the Lewis acid strength. Spectral redox titration of Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):Zn(II) gives Ered = 0.69 V vs SCE, which is nearly +700 mV above its valence tautomer Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (Ered = -0.05 V). These data suggest that the two-electron electrophilicity of the Mn(O) valence tautomers dominate OAT reactivity and do not follow the trend in one-electron redox potentials, which appear to dominate HAT reactivity. This study provides new fundamental insights regarding the relative OAT and HAT reactivity of valence tautomers such as M(V)(O)(porph) versus M(IV)(O)(porph(•+)) (M = Mn or Fe) found in heme enzymes.

  1. Oxidative metabolism of flunarizine and cinnarizine by microsomes from B-lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Uchino, K; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1996-11-01

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine [(E)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, CZ] and flunarizine [(E)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, FZ] was examined in microsomes from lymphoblastoid cells that expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among 10 kinds of CYP enzymes examined, only CYP2D6 catalyzed p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl ring of CZ (C-2 formation) and FZ (F-2 formation), and only CYP2B6 exhibited activity for p-hydroxylation (C-4 formation) of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ at a substrate concentration of 50 microM. On the other hand, CYP2C9 together with CYP1A1, -1A2 and/or -2A6 mediated N-desalkylation at the 1- and 4-positions of the piperazine ring of the two drugs that formed C-1 and C-3 from CZ and F-1 and F-3 from FZ, respectively, whereas CYP2C8, -2C19, -2E1 or -3A4 did not show detectable activity for these reactions under the conditions used. We then examined kinetics for the oxidative metabolism of CZ and FZ using CYP2B6 and -2D6 that have considerable activities. CYP2D6 with Km values of 2 to 4 microM had intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) of 0.31 and 0.14 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-2 and F-2 formation, respectively, while CYP2B6 with a Km value of 17 microM exhibited the clearance value of 0.10 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-4 formation. These results suggest that CYP2D6 mainly mediates p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl rings of CZ and FZ, and CYP2B6 mediates that of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ.

  2. Evolution of the structural fault permeability in argillaceous rocks in a polyphased tectonic context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, J.; Peyaud, J. B.; Vergély, P.; Pagel, M.; Cabrera, J.

    Deep argillaceous formations have petrophysical and hydrodynamic properties favourable to long-term radioactive waste confinement (very low intrinsic permeability, high sorption capacity,…). However, these properties may be modified by the development of discontinuities in the host-rock. The tectonic activity is responsible on the one hand for creating the fractures and on the other hand for reactivating them. Today, the calcite crystallisations in faults give evidence of paleofluid flows during the tectonic deformation. The microstructural study shows that faults were alternately and temporarily impermeable, permeable or “semi-permeable” during the tectonic activity. These “hydraulic states” were controlled by the nature and the architecture of the microstructures and by variations in the petrophysical properties of the rock in the core zone (CZ) and damage zone (DZ) of the faults. Within DZ, the structural fault permeability evolution is associated with (1) microcracking and (2) a probable ductile behaviour of the shales. Within CZ, the structural fault permeability is associated with the development of cavities generated by (1) dilation, (2) shearing and openings in extensional stepover and (3) microcracking in pre-existing calcite fillings. During the tectonic evolution, the development of a new structural porosity both in CZ and DZ gave up the faults permeable. The crystallisation sealing of the total structural porosity gave up the faults impermeable. But, when only the CZ was sealed, the fault was “semi-permeable”. Finally, we show that (1) the fluid transfers occurred principally from the DZ to the CZ, (2) the DZ constituted a “storage zone” in fluids for the CZ, (3) the DZ then remained longer permeable than the CZ and became permeable with weaker stress intensity and (4) the sealed discontinuities constituted zones of weakness (fracture reactivation with or without shearing) in the argillaceous material.

  3. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsekian, Andy; Singha, Kamini; Minsley, Burke J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Slater, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  4. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.

    2015-03-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  5. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  6. Highly sensitive colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for cyanazine based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Changjun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao; Wu, Huixiang; Shen, Caihong; Huo, Danqun

    2016-06-01

    Cyanazine residue poses a great threat to human health and its derivatives would remain in soils, natural waters, and other environmental domains for a long time. Herein, a simple, rapid, and ultra-sensitive analytical method for the determination of cyanazine (CZ) based on inner filter effect (IFE) of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) is first described in this study. With the presence of citrate-stabilized AuNPs, the fluorescence of GSH-capped CdTe QDs was remarkably quenched by AuNPs via IFE. The fluorescence of the AuNP-CdTe QD system was recovered upon addition of CZ. CZ can adsorb on to the surface of AuNPs due to its cyano group that has good affinity with gold, which could induce the aggregation of AuNPs accompanying color change from red to blue. Thus, the IFE of AuNPs on CdTe QDs was weakened, and the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs was recovered accordingly. A good linear correlation for detection of CZ was exhibited from 0.05 to 9 μM, and the detection limit reached 0.1568 μM, which was much lower than the safety limit required by the USA, the UK, and China. In order to probe into the selectivity of AuNPs towards CZ over other pesticides, various frequently used pesticides were mixed with AuNPs. AuNP composite solution shows good selectivity towards CZ among other pesticides. This method was successfully carried out for the assessment of CZ in real samples with satisfactory results, which revealed many advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, and non-time-consuming compared with traditional methods.

  7. Calmidazolium evokes high calcium fluctuations in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Budu, Alexandre; Gomes, Mayrim M; Melo, Pollyana M; El Chamy Maluf, Sarah; Bagnaresi, Piero; Azevedo, Mauro F; Carmona, Adriana K; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2016-03-01

    Calcium and calmodulin (CaM) are important players in eukaryote cell signaling. In the present study, by using a knockin approach, we demonstrated the expression and localization of CaM in all erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, calmidazolium (CZ), a potent CaM inhibitor, promoted a transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase in isolated trophozoites, indicating that CZ mobilizes intracellular sources of calcium. In the same extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, the [Ca(2+)]cyt rise elicited by CZ treatment was ~3.5 fold higher when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store was previously depleted ruling out the mobilization of calcium from the ER by CZ. The effects of the Ca(2+)/H(+) ionophore ionomycin (ION) and the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin (MON) suggest that the [Ca(2+)]cyt-increasing effect of CZ is driven by the removal of Ca(2+) from at least one Ca(2+)-CaM-related (CaMR) protein as well as by the mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular acidic calcium stores. Moreover, we showed that the mitochondrion participates in the sequestration of the cytosolic Ca(2+) elicited by CZ. Finally, the modulation of membrane Ca(2+) channels by CZ and thapsigargin (THG) was demonstrated. The opened channels were blocked by the unspecific calcium channel blocker Co(2+) but not by 2-APB (capacitative calcium entry inhibitor) or nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor). Taken together, the results suggested that one CaMR protein is an important modulator of calcium signaling and homeostasis during the Plasmodium intraerythrocytic cell cycle, working as a relevant intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir in the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B. A.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-06-01

    Observation and quantification of the Earth's surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of critical zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", which extends from the top of unweathered bedrock to the top of the vegetation canopy. Fundamental to CZ science is the development of transdisciplinary theories and tools that transcend disciplines and inform other's work, capture new levels of complexity, and create new intellectual outcomes and spaces. Researchers are just beginning to use lidar data sets to answer synergistic, transdisciplinary questions in CZ science, such as how CZ processes co-evolve over long timescales and interact over shorter timescales to create thresholds, shifts in states and fluxes of water, energy, and carbon. The objective of this review is to elucidate the transformative potential of lidar for CZ science to simultaneously allow for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological processes. A review of 147 peer-reviewed lidar studies highlights a lack of lidar applications for CZ studies as 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % had an interdisciplinary focus. A handful of exemplar transdisciplinary studies demonstrate lidar data sets that are well-integrated with other observations can lead to fundamental advances in CZ science, such as identification of feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes over hillslope scales and the synergistic co-evolution of landscape-scale CZ structure due to interactions amongst carbon, energy, and water cycles

  9. Structure-Property Study on Two New D-A Type Materials Comprising Pyridazine Moiety and the OLED Application as Host.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojie; Zhang, Xunlu; Ou, Changjin; Wang, Shulei; Yang, Xinli; Zhou, Xinhui; Mi, Baoxiu; Cao, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, two new pyridazine based donor-acceptor type materials, i.e., 3CzPyaPy: 9,9'-(3-(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridazin-3-yl)pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole) and 4CzPyPyaPy: 3,6-bis(2,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyridazine, were synthesized with high yields. These two materials exhibited strong absorption/emission with high molar extinction coefficients and moderate photoluminescence quantum yield. The glass transition temperature of 3CzPyaPy was detected to be as high as 131 °C, showing its high thermal stability. Although the absorption energies and oxidation/reduction behaviors of the two materials were similar, the emission from 4CzPyPyaPy with longer effective-conjugation length presented hypsochromic shift both in films and in dilute solutions, contradicting to the common sense. The single crystal structure study disclosed their different space stretching and packing: 3CzPyaPy was twisted in larger angles and adopted dimerlike packing, while 4CzPyPyaPy showed smaller torsion angles and exhibited slipped herringbone packing. The dimerlike packing in 3CzPyaPy is responsible for its bathochromic shift of emission in solid state, while its unsymmetrical molecular structure accounts for that in solution. We believe that the unsymmetrical molecular structure of 3CzPyaPy is partially responsible for its high thermal-stability and also responsible for its HOMO dispersion which renders it slightly more difficult to oxidize. 3CzPyaPy was proved to be a bipolar-transport material and when served as a phosphor host, a green phosphorescent device achieved maximum efficiencies of 54.0 cd A(-1), 42.4 lm W(-1), and 17.7%, which are among the best with nonoptimized device structure, demonstrating its great potential for optoelectronic application. Furthermore, the new synthesized pyridazine derivatives and the corresponding structural and molecular-packing influences on material properties give a new insight into molecule tailoring.

  10. Laser microdissection of conifer stem tissues: Isolation and analysis of high quality RNA, terpene synthase enzyme activity and terpenoid metabolites from resin ducts and cambial zone tissue of white spruce (Picea glauca)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Laser microdissection (LMD) has been established for isolation of individual tissue types from herbaceous plants. However, there are few reports of cell- and tissue-specific analysis in woody perennials. While microdissected tissues are commonly analyzed for gene expression, reports of protein, enzyme activity and metabolite analysis are limited due in part to an inability to amplify these molecules. Conifer stem tissues are organized in regular patterns with xylem, phloem and cortex development controlled by the activity of the cambial zone (CZ). Defense responses of conifer stems against insects and pathogens involve increased accumulation of terpenoids in cortical resin ducts (CRDs) and de novo formation of traumatic resin ducts from CZ initials. These tissues are difficult to isolate for tissue-specific molecular and biochemical characterization and are thus good targets for application of LMD. Results We describe robust methods for isolation of individual tissue-types from white spruce (Picea glauca) stems for analysis of RNA, enzyme activity and metabolites. A tangential cryosectioning approach was important for obtaining large quantities of CRD and CZ tissues using LMD. We report differential expression of genes involved in terpenoid metabolism between CRD and CZ tissues and in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcript levels of β-pinene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase were constitutively higher in CRDs, but induction was stronger in CZ in response to MeJA. 3-Carene synthase was more strongly induced in CRDs compared to CZ. A differential induction pattern was observed for 1-deoxyxyulose-5-phosphate synthase, which was up-regulated in CRDs and down-regulated in CZ. We identified terpene synthase enzyme activity in CZ protein extracts and terpenoid metabolites in both CRD and CZ tissues. Conclusions Methods are described that allow for analysis of RNA, enzyme activity and terpenoid metabolites in individual tissues isolated

  11. Molecular diagnosis of pyrethroid resistance in Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Li, Andrew Y; Hernandez, Ruben

    2002-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic assays were used to identify possible resistance-associated roles of two amino acid substitutions found in pyrethroid resistance-associated genes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Individual larvae from the San Felipe target site resistant strain and the Coatzacoalcos (Cz) metabolic resistant strain were separated into resistant and susceptible groups by larval packet bioassays and analyzed by PCR. A Phe --> Ile amino acid mutation in the sodium channel gene S6 transmembrane segment of domain III was found to have a close association with survival of acaricide treatments containing as high as 30% permethrin. As the permethrin dose was increased, an increase was seen in the proportion of surviving larvae that possessed two mutated sodium channel alleles. An Asp --> Asn amino acid substitution, originally found in high allele frequency in alleles of the CzEst9 esterase of the Cz strain, appeared to provide some resistance to permethrin. However, the presence of the mutation did not associate with resistance in the dose-response fashion seen with the sodium channel amino acid mutation. Resistance provided by CzEst9 might be more dependent on concentration of CzEst9 more so than the presence of a mutated allele.

  12. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; Brooks, Paul D.; Troch, Peter A.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Craig

    2016-03-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high-elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment-scale discharge, and satellite-derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). Although we do not know the timescales of CZ change, these results suggest an upward migration of CZ/ecosystem structure on the order of 100 m decade-1, and that decadal-scale differences in EEMT are similar to the differences between convergent/hydrologically subsidized and planar/divergent landscapes, which have been shown to be very different in vegetation and CZ structure.

  13. Assessment of potential soil degradation on agricultural land in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Šarapatka, Bořivoj; Bednář, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made worldwide to develop methods to identify the areas most threatened by soil degradation. Some soils in afflicted areas may be irreversibly degraded and thus have very little resilience (the ability to restore themselves). For the purpose of assessing the current state of soil degradation in the Czech Republic (CZ) we have developed an overall indicator of land vulnerability to the threat of soil degradation on the basis of individual factors that contribute to soil degradation and are monitored on a long-term basis in various research worksites in the CZ. Individual degradation factors were divided into two groups: chemical and physical degradation. On the basis of principal component analysis, individual degradation factors were assigned a specific weight of influence. With the use of a GIS, the input factors of degradation were combined to create maps of chemical and physical soil degradation, and consequently a map of overall degradation-threatened soils for the CZ, along with a map of areas differentiated according to the prevailing type of degradation. Results showed that, at present, the most important degradation factor in the CZ is water erosion, followed by loss of organic matter. Statistical analysis showed that approximately 51% of agricultural land is moderately threatened in the CZ.

  14. The comparative influence of prophylactic antibiotics on the prothrombin response to warfarin in the postoperative prosthetic cardiac valve patient. Cefamandole, cefazolin, vancomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Angaran, D M; Dias, V C; Arom, K V; Northrup, W F; Kersten, T G; Lindsay, W G; Nicoloff, D M

    1987-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted comparing the effect of three antibiotics: cefamandole (CM), cefazolin (CZ), and vancomycin (V), used as prophylaxis for prosthetic valve surgery, on the prothrombin (PT) response to warfarin (W) on the third day of anticoagulant therapy. Twenty patients, with normal preoperative PTs, were randomized to each antibiotic. Their PTs were not significantly different at 2 hours after operation and the morning before W was begun. The three groups received similar W doses for 2 days, and the PT, as percentage of activity, on the morning of the third day demonstrated that V (51 +/- 18%) was significantly greater (p less than 0.005) than CM (29 +/- 14%) or CZ (38 +/- 18%). CM had a significantly greater percentage of change in PT (64 +/- 14%, p less than 0.0001) from the first to third day than either CZ (51.1 +/- 18%) or V (44.6 +/- 19%). CM also had a greater number of patients (6) with PTs greater than or equal to 30 seconds on day 3 than either CZ (1) or V (1). The antibiotic influence on the PT response to W in this study is ranked as CM greater than CZ greater than V. PMID:3300580

  15. The comparative influence of prophylactic antibiotics on the prothrombin response to warfarin in the postoperative prosthetic cardiac valve patient. Cefamandole, cefazolin, vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Angaran, D M; Dias, V C; Arom, K V; Northrup, W F; Kersten, T G; Lindsay, W G; Nicoloff, D M

    1987-08-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted comparing the effect of three antibiotics: cefamandole (CM), cefazolin (CZ), and vancomycin (V), used as prophylaxis for prosthetic valve surgery, on the prothrombin (PT) response to warfarin (W) on the third day of anticoagulant therapy. Twenty patients, with normal preoperative PTs, were randomized to each antibiotic. Their PTs were not significantly different at 2 hours after operation and the morning before W was begun. The three groups received similar W doses for 2 days, and the PT, as percentage of activity, on the morning of the third day demonstrated that V (51 +/- 18%) was significantly greater (p less than 0.005) than CM (29 +/- 14%) or CZ (38 +/- 18%). CM had a significantly greater percentage of change in PT (64 +/- 14%, p less than 0.0001) from the first to third day than either CZ (51.1 +/- 18%) or V (44.6 +/- 19%). CM also had a greater number of patients (6) with PTs greater than or equal to 30 seconds on day 3 than either CZ (1) or V (1). The antibiotic influence on the PT response to W in this study is ranked as CM greater than CZ greater than V.

  16. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy. PMID:26312947

  17. Phtophysical processes involved within the bichromophoric system 9-benzotriazole-1-ylmethyl-9H-carbazole and its role as an artificial photosynthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Paulami; Misra, Tapas; De, Asish; Ghosh, Sanjib; Chaudhury, Shyamal Roy; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2007-03-01

    From both steady state and fluorescence lifetime measurements it reveals that due to photoexcitation of benzotriazole (BZ) part of the bichromophore, 9(1-H-benzotriazole-lylmethyl)-9H-carbazole (BHC), singlet-singlet energy transfer takes place to populate the lowest excited singlet of carbazole (CZ). CZ, thus being excited indirectly via energy transfer process, undergoes strong charge transfer (CT) reaction with the surrounding polar medium acetonitrile (ACN). On the other hand, very weak CT band was apparent when CZ part, within BHC, was directly excited. In less polar tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polar benzonitrile (BN) environment, lack of formation of CT band strongly suggests in favor of the electron-accepting behavior of ACN. Moreover, by measuring the emission spectra of BHC in microcrystals and of 30 bilayers mixed LB film at high mole fraction of BHC molecules, the possibility of excimer formation or aggregation has been ruled out. Thus, BHC, when dissolved in ACN, acts as a triad system of BZ-CZ-ACN where BZ acts as an antenna molecule and CZ as a reaction center. The possible role of the bichromophoric system BHC as an artificial photosynthetic or solar energy conversion device has been hinted.

  18. Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target.

    PubMed

    Taku, Alemji A; Marcaccio, Christina L; Ye, Wenda; Krause, Gregory J; Raper, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory sensory axons target well-defined intermediate targets in the zebrafish olfactory bulb called protoglomeruli well before they form odorant receptor-specific glomeruli. A subset of olfactory sensory neurons are labeled by expression of the or111-7:IRES:GAL4 transgene whose axons terminate in the central zone (CZ) protoglomerulus. Previous work has shown that some of these axons misproject to the more dorsal and anterior dorsal zone (DZ) protoglomerulus in the absence of Netrin 1/Dcc signaling. In search of additional cues that guide these axons to the CZ, we found that Semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is expressed in the anterior bulb and acts as a repellent that pushes them towards the CZ. Further analysis indicates that Sema3D signaling is mediated through Nrp1a, while Nrp2b also promotes CZ targeting but in a Sema3D-independent manner. nrp1a, nrp2b and dcc transcripts are detected in or111-7 transgene-expressing neurons early in development and both Nrp1a and Dcc act cell-autonomously in sensory neurons to promote accurate targeting to the CZ. dcc and nrp1a double mutants have significantly more DZ misprojections than either single mutant, suggesting that the two signaling systems act independently and in parallel to direct a specific subset of sensory axons to their initial protoglomerular target.

  19. Results from Coalbed Methane Drilling in Winn Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Richard, Troy E.; Ross, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    A coalbed methane (CBM) well in Winn Parish, Louisiana, named CZ Fee A No. 114, was drilled by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., in January 2004. The CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well was drilled to a total depth of 3,114 ft and perforated at 2,730-2,734 ft in a Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal bed. Analytical data from the drilling project have been released by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., and by the current well operator, Hilcorp Energy Corporation (see Appendix) to the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for publication. General information about the CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well is compiled in Table 1, and analytical data from the well are included in following sections. The CZ Fee A No. 114 well is located in eastern Winn Parish, approximately 30 mi east of where Wilcox Group strata crop out on the Sabine Uplift (fig. 1). In the CZ Fee A No. 114 well, lower Wilcox Paleocene coal beds targeted for CBM production occur at depths of 2,600-3,000 ft (fig. 2). Average monthly gas production for the reporting period August 1, 2004, through May 1, 2005, was 450 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) (Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 2005).

  20. Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target

    PubMed Central

    Taku, Alemji A.; Marcaccio, Christina L.; Ye, Wenda; Krause, Gregory J.; Raper, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory sensory axons target well-defined intermediate targets in the zebrafish olfactory bulb called protoglomeruli well before they form odorant receptor-specific glomeruli. A subset of olfactory sensory neurons are labeled by expression of the or111-7:IRES:GAL4 transgene whose axons terminate in the central zone (CZ) protoglomerulus. Previous work has shown that some of these axons misproject to the more dorsal and anterior dorsal zone (DZ) protoglomerulus in the absence of Netrin 1/Dcc signaling. In search of additional cues that guide these axons to the CZ, we found that Semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is expressed in the anterior bulb and acts as a repellent that pushes them towards the CZ. Further analysis indicates that Sema3D signaling is mediated through Nrp1a, while Nrp2b also promotes CZ targeting but in a Sema3D-independent manner. nrp1a, nrp2b and dcc transcripts are detected in or111-7 transgene-expressing neurons early in development and both Nrp1a and Dcc act cell-autonomously in sensory neurons to promote accurate targeting to the CZ. dcc and nrp1a double mutants have significantly more DZ misprojections than either single mutant, suggesting that the two signaling systems act independently and in parallel to direct a specific subset of sensory axons to their initial protoglomerular target. PMID:26732841

  1. The ground water ammonium sorption onto Croatian and Serbian clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Siljeg, Mario; Foglar, Lucija; Kukucka, Miroslav

    2010-06-15

    The removal of ammonium from the Valpovo region ground water (VGW) with the use of natural clinoptilolite samples from the Donje Jesenje deposit (Croatia) and the Zlatokop deposit in Vranjska Banja (Serbia) was studied. The natural Serbian (SZ) and Croatian zeolites (CZ) were transformed to the Na-form (Na-CZ and Na-SZ) in order to increase the exchange capacity of zeolite. The CZ and SZ theoretic ammonium sorption capacities were 24.24 mg NH(4)(+)/g CZ and 32.55 mg NH(4)(+)/g SZ, respectively. The application of natural and Na-form of clinoptilolite for efficient removal of ammonium ions from VGW was further investigated. For that purpose, the four "filter guard" vessels filled with zeolite samples were set in parallel in the ground water purification pilot plant. The complete ammonium removal, with the use of SZ and Na-SZ was achieved during 20 h. After having observed saturation of clinoptilolite, the samples were regenerated with the use of 2 mol/L NaCl, and reused for determination of ammonium sorption efficiency. The regenerated samples showed to be still very efficient for NH(4)(+) removal and, in addition, the SZ was shown as superior for ammonium removal in comparison to the CZ.

  2. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  3. Czochralski growth of NaNO3-LiNO3 solid solution single crystals using axial vibrational control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissov, Igor; Sadovskiy, Andrei; Belov, Stanislav; Kong Khan, Chan; Mozhevitina, Elena; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Zharikov, Eugeniy

    2014-09-01

    T-x diagram of LiNO3-NaNO3 quasi-binary system has been improved using an original technique based on Raman measurements of condense phase. (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystal has been grown at different regimes of axial vibrational control (AVC) technique. Significant difference in segregation coefficient behavior between AVC-CZ and conventional CZ grown crystals has appeared: with AVC intensity increase the segregation coefficient (SC) raises for light molecular weight elements, SC reduces for medium molecular weight elements, and SC remains practically unchangeable for heavy molecular weight elements. Effect of vibrational intensity on vibron and optical characteristics, microhardness of AVC-CZ (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystals has been studied. For the AVC-CZ crystals has been observed increases in microhardness as well as in optical transmission up to 10 rel% compare to conventional CZ grown crystals.

  4. Hydrological partitioning in the critical zone: Recent advances and opportunities for developing transferable understanding of water cycle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Fan, Ying; Godsey, Sarah E.; Maxwell, Reed M.; McNamara, James P.; Tague, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Hydrology is an integrative discipline linking the broad array of water-related research with physical, ecological, and social sciences. The increasing breadth of hydrological research, often where subdisciplines of hydrology partner with related sciences, reflects the central importance of water to environmental science, while highlighting the fractured nature of the discipline itself. This lack of coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines has hindered the development of hydrologic theory and integrated models capable of predicting hydrologic partitioning across time and space. The recent development of the concept of the critical zone (CZ), an open system extending from the top of the canopy to the base of groundwater, brings together multiple hydrological subdisciplines with related physical and ecological sciences. Observations obtained by CZ researchers provide a diverse range of complementary process and structural data to evaluate both conceptual and numerical models. Consequently, a cross-site focus on "critical zone hydrology" has potential to advance the discipline of hydrology and to facilitate the transition of CZ observatories into a research network with immediate societal relevance. Here we review recent work in catchment hydrology and hydrochemistry, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology that highlights a common knowledge gap in how precipitation is partitioned in the critical zone: "how is the amount, routing, and residence time of water in the subsurface related to the biogeophysical structure of the CZ?" Addressing this question will require coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines and interfacing sciences, and catalyze rapid progress in understanding current CZ structure and predicting how climate and land cover changes will affect hydrologic partitioning.

  5. Modulation of the Bifidobacterial Communities of the Dog Microbiota by Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Sabbioni, Alberto; Ferrario, Chiara; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Riccardi, Enzo; Di Ianni, Francesco; Beretti, Valentino; Superchi, Paola; Ossiprandi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    During last decades canine health and well being is becoming an important issue for human owners. In dogs, several factors including diet, pathogenic bacterial and stress conditions can affect the composition of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary chabazitic zeolitite (CZ) supplementation on the contribution of bifidobacteria to the fecal microbiota in training hunting dogs. Fecal microbiota cataloging based on 16S rRNA microbial profiling analyses highlighted an increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in animals treated with CZ, with a simultaneous decrease of pathogens associated with dog gastrointestinal infections, such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter. A detailed profiling of the bifidobacterial population of dogs receiving CZ based on the ITS-based sequencing approach, revealed an enhancement bifidobacterial of species typical of animals such as Bifidobacterium animalis and B. pseudolongum. Moreover, these analyses identified the occurrence of putative new bifidobacterial taxa in both treated and untreated samples. PMID:27713735

  6. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S. G.; M. L. Sweet; Francisco, A.

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report advances the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program by improving the energy performance of affordable and market-rate housing. Southface Energy Institute (Southface), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team Partnership for Home Innovation, worked with owners and builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in three climate zones (CZs): Savannah Gardens in Savannah, Georgia (CZ 2); JMC Patrick Square in Clemson, South Carolina (CZ 3); and LaFayette in LaFayette, Georgia (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high-performance homes.

  7. Effect of reverse intersystem crossing rate to suppress efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Munetomo; SereviĿius, Tomas; Nakanotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Kou; Matsushima, Toshinori; JuršĿnas, Saulius; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters 1,2-bis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,5-dicyanobenzene (2CzPN) and 3-(9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)-9H-xanthen-9-one (ACRXTN) is investigated by considering intramolecular exciton relaxation processes. Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off at high current density is dramatically suppressed using ACRXTN as an emitter instead of 2CzPN because of suppressed bimolecular exciton annihilation processes such as singlet⿿triplet and triplet⿿triplet annihilation. The rate constant of reverse intersystem crossing from triplet to singlet excited states of ACRXTN is about 300 times higher than that of 2CzPN, decreasing triplet exciton density and suppressing exciton annihilation processes under optical and electrical excitation.

  8. Effect of oxygen on ion-beam induced synthesis of SiC in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, V. V.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Klyui, N. I.; Melnik, V. P.; Romanyuk, A. B.; Romanyuk, B. N.; Yuhimchuk, V. A.

    1999-01-01

    The properties of Si-structures with a buried silicon carbide (SiC) layer created by high-dose carbon implantation into Cz-Si or Fz-Si wafers followed by high-temperature annealing were studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The effect of additional oxygen implantation on the peculiarities of SiC layer formation was also studied. It was shown that under the same implantation and post-implantation annealing conditions the buried SiC layer is more effectively formed in Cz-Si or in Si (Cz-or Fz-) subjected to additional oxygen implantation. So we can conclude that oxygen in silicon promotes the SiC layer formation due to SiO x precipitate creation and accommodation of the crystal volume in the region where SiC phase is formed. Carbon segregation and amorphous carbon film formation on SiC grain boundaries were revealed.

  9. Solar Overshoot Region and Small-scale Dynamo with Realistic Energy Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, H.

    2017-07-01

    We carry out high-resolution calculations of the solar overshoot region with unprecedentedly realistic parameters, especially the small energy flux compared with ρ {c}{{s}}3, where ρ and c s are density and speed of sound. Our main purpose is to investigate the behavior of the overshoot and the small-scale dynamo with parameters as close as possible to those of the Sun. Our calculations show that the bottom part of the convection zone (CZ) becomes subadiabatic, which efficiently suppresses downflows. As a result, we see a steep transition from the CZ to the radiative zone, whose width is estimated to be 0.4% of the local pressure scale height. This result is consistent with a semianalytic convection/overshoot model. We also find that the small-scale dynamo becomes efficient with a smaller energy flux. The sudden suppression of the downflows around the base of the CZ increases the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo.

  10. Crystal front shape control by use of an additional heater in a Czochralski sapphire single crystal growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min-Jae; Han, Xue-Feng; Choi, Ho-Gil; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The quality of sapphire single crystals used as substrates for LED production is largely influenced by two defects: dislocation density and bubbles trapped in the crystal. In particular, the dislocation density has a higher value in sapphire grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method than by other methods. In the present study, we predict a decreased value for the convexity and thermal gradient at the crystal front (CF) through the use of an additional heater in an induction-heated CZ system. In addition, we develop a solute concentration model by which the location of bubble formation in CZ growth is calculated, and the results are compared with experimental results. We further calculate the location of bubble entrapment corresponding with the use of an additional heater. We find that sapphire crystal growth with an additional heater yields a decreased thermal gradient at the CF, together with decreased CF convexity, improved energy efficiency, and improvements in terms of bubble formation location.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of Cetirizine dihydrochloride orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Sankar, V; Manakadan, Asha Asokan; Ismail, Sareena; Andhuvan, G

    2010-04-01

    Cetirizine orodispersible tablets were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using cetirizine along with camphor and mannitol in the proportion of 1:1:1, 1:1:3, and 1:1:6. The flow property of granules was found to be good for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3). The hardness and friability of all the formulations were found to be within the standard limit for orodispersible tablets. Disintegration time was found to be rapid in formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).The in vitro dissolution time was found to be 100% in 11 minutes for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).

  12. Chinese space and aviation industries score major breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the current status of China's aviation and aerospace industries is presented, as well as planned future development and areas of importance for China's future space programs. The development of China's CZ-1, CZ-2 and CZ-3 rocket program is discussed, as well as China's satellite launch capabilities. China's first geostationary communications satellite STW-1 is also mentioned, and further development of the second and third communications satellites to be launched in 1987 are shown. Other developments include a seventh low Earth orbiting photographic reconnaissance satellite, plans for an image transmitting remote sensing satellite to be launched in 1988 to 1990, and other satellite developments. The Chinese-designed Y-10 transport aircraft is discussed, as well as the TU-16 bomber aircraft and the co-production agreement with McDonnell Douglas for the MD-82 passenger aircraft.

  13. Current multi-element distribution in forest epigeic moss in the Czech Republic--a survey of the Czech national biomonitoring programme 2000.

    PubMed

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I

    2004-12-01

    The content of 35 elements was determined in moss samples collected at 250 sites in the Czech Republic (CZ) in 2000. Four main areas of increased element contents in moss were revealed in the CZ (southern Moravia, Czech part of the former Black Triangle I territory, industrial northeastern Moravia, and the surroundings of a smelting town in southwestern Bohemia). The bioindicated high levels of Al, Ce, Co, Ga, La, Li, Pr, S, Th, U, V and Y atmospheric deposition loads in southern Moravia have never been reported in any paper before. Correlations were found in element content in moss vs. altitude, precipitation sums and bedrock types of the moss sampling plots. The current variability of element content in the CZ moss samples can be explained by the operation of not more than six factors.

  14. Preparation of ceria-zirconia by modified coprecipitation method and its supported Pd-only three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Chen, Shanhu; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Maochu; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2015-07-15

    A CeO2-ZrO2 compound with mixed phase composition (CZ4) was prepared by modified co-precipitation method, and for comparison, single-phase Ce(0.2)Zr(0.8)O2, Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O2 and Ce(0.8)Zr(0.2)O2 were synthesized via simultaneous co-precipitation method. The textural, structural and redox properties, together with the catalytic performance of the supported Pd-only three-way catalysts were investigated systematically. The results revealed that the generation of numerous interface sites in Pd/CZ4 due to its mixed phase composition (as confirmed by TEM observation) had a positive influence on modifying its structural, redox properties and thermal stability. The XRD and Raman results revealed that the highest structural stability was obtained by Pd/CZ4 with negligible lattice variation and slightest grain growth after aging treatment. The XPS analysis demonstrated that the compositional heterogeneity of Pd/CZ4 could facilitate the formation of Ce(3+), and was beneficial to preserve high dispersion of Pd as well as maintain Pd at a more oxidized state. The H2-TPR and oxygen storage capacity measurements indicated that Pd/CZ4 possessed highest reduction ability as well as largest oxygen storage capacity regardless of thermal aging treatment. And consequently Pd/CZ4 exhibited improved three-way catalytic activity compared with the catalysts supported on single-phase Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O2 both before and after thermal aging treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reversible Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Show Promise for a Chagas Disease Cure

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Christian; Black, W. Cameron; Isabel, Elise; Vasquez-Camargo, Fabio; Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Massé, Frédéric; Mellon, Christophe; Methot, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cruzipain is essential for the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Thus, inhibitors of cruzipain are considered promising anti-T. cruzi chemotherapeutic agents. Reversible cruzipain inhibitors containing a nitrile “warhead” were prepared and demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as potent as 1 nM in baculovirus-generated cruzipain enzyme assays. In epimastigote and intracellular amastigote in vitro assays, the most potent compounds demonstrated antiparasitic behavior in the 5 to 10 μM IC50 range; however, trypomastigote production from the amastigote form was ∼90 to 95% inhibited at 2 μM. Two key compounds, Cz007 and Cz008, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1.8 nM, respectively, against the recombinant enzyme were tested in a murine model of acute T. cruzi infection, with oral dosing in chow for 28 days at doses from 3 to 50 mg/kg of body weight. At 3 mg/kg of Cz007 and 3 mg/kg of Cz008, the blood parasitemia areas under the concentration-time curves were 16% and 25% of the untreated group, respectively. At sacrifice, 24 days after immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, parasite presence in blood, heart, and esophagus was evaluated. Based on negative quantitative PCR results in all three tissues, cure rates in surviving animals were 90% for Cz007 at 3 mg/kg, 78% for Cz008 at 3 mg/kg, and 71% for benznidazole, the control compound, at 50 mg/kg. PMID:24323474

  16. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  17. Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a biofilter in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Liang-Zi; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-23

    A Gram-staining-negative bacterial strain (termed CZ-AZ5T) was isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. CZ-AZ5T cells were non-spore-forming, non-motile rods, 0.6-0.7 μm wide and 3.0-3.7 μm long. CZ-AZ5T was strictly heterotrophic, aerobic, oxidase-negative, and catalase-positive. Growth occurred in the temperature range 20-40 °C (optimal: 30 °C), pH range 6.0-8.5 (optimal: 7.5), and salinity range 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal: 1 %). In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, CZ-AZ5T was assigned to the family Saprospiraceae (phylum Bacteroidetes) and was clustered with the genera Saprospira and Aureispira within the family. It showed highest sequence similarity to Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens (86.2 %), followed by Saprospira grandis ATCC 23119T (85.7 %) and Lewinella persica T-3T (85.6 %). DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol %, the major menaquinone was MK-7, and the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16:1ω7c and iso-C15:0. Our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic observations, taken together, led us to conclude that strain CZ-AZ5T represents a new species and genus of the family Saprospiraceae, for which the name Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CZ-AZ5T (= CGMCC 1.13179T = JCM 18886T).

  18. Nanopaleomagnetism of meteoritic Fe-Ni studied using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, James F. J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian; Ghidini, Massimo; Redfern, Simon A. T.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Harrison, Richard J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) enables natural remanent magnetisation to be imaged with ˜30 nm resolution across a field of view of 5-20 μm. The method is applied to structural features typical of the Widmanstätten microstructure (kamacite - tetrataenite rim - cloudy zone - plessite) in the Tazewell IIICD iron meteorite. Kamacite lamellae and the tetrataenite rim are multidomain, whereas plessite consists of laths of different phases displaying a range of stable magnetisation directions. The cloudy zone (CZ) displays a complex interlocking domain pattern resulting from nanoscale islands of tetrataenite with easy axes distributed along three possible crystallographic directions. Quantitative analysis of the coarse and intermediate CZ was achieved using a combination of image simulations and histogram profile matching. Remanence information was extracted from individual regions of interest ˜400 nm wide, demonstrating for the first time the capability of XPEEM to perform quantitative paleomagnetic analysis at sub-micron length scales. The three tetrataenite easy axis orientations occur with equal probability in the coarse and intermediate CZ, suggesting that spinodal decomposition in these regions was not strongly influenced by internal interaction fields, and that they are suitable candidates for future paleomagnetic studies. The fine CZ shows a strong dominance of one easy axis. This effect is attributed to island-island exchange interactions that render the fine CZ unsuitable for paleomagnetic study. Variations in the relative strength (proportion of dominant easy axis) and direction (direction of dominant easy axis) of a paleomagnetic field can be resolved from different regions of the CZ using XPEEM, raising the prospect of obtaining a time-resolved measurement of the active dynamo period in meteorites originating from the upper unmelted regions of differentiated asteroids (e.g. chondrites, pallasites, mesosiderites).

  19. Movement related potentials and oscillatory activities in the human internal globus pallidus during voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Eric W; Hamani, Clement; Moro, Elena; Mazzella, Filomena; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Yeh, I-Jin; Chen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To study internal globus pallidus (GPi) activities and the interactions among the bilateral GPi and motor cortical areas during voluntary movements. Five patients with cervical dystonia who underwent bilateral GPi deep brain stimulation (DBS) were studied. Local field potentials from the GPi DBS electrodes and EEG were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated right wrist movements. Movement related potentials were recorded at the GPi bilaterally before the onset of self-initiated but not externally triggered movements. In all movements studied, frequency analysis revealed a ≈ 10-24 Hz beta event related desynchronisation at bilateral GPi and with EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz) and the bilateral sensorimotor cortical regions (C3/C4-Cz). A ≈ 64-68 Hz, gamma event related synchronisation was found with EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz), the sensorimotor cortices (C3-Cz) and the GPi contralateral to movements. Both beta event related desynchronisation and gamma event related synchronisation occurred before the onset of self-initiated movements and at the onset of externally triggered movements. There was a resting ≈ 5-18 Hz coherence between the bilateral GPi, which attenuated for ≈ 1 s during movements. Gamma coherences were observed between EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz), contralateral sensorimotor cortices (C3-Cz) and the GPi from 0 to 0.5 s after movement onset for externally triggered movements and from 0.5 s before to 0.5 s after movement onset for self-initiated movements. The beta and gamma frequency bands in the GPi are modulated by the preparation of self-initiated movements and the execution of self-initiated and externally triggered movements. The 5-18 Hz coherence at the bilateral GPi may be related to dystonia and its attenuation may facilitate voluntary movements.

  20. Investigating the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on chemical weathering in the critical zone using high resolution reactive transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) represents a major life-sustaining realm of the terrestrial surface. The processes controlling the development and transformation of the CZ are important to continued health of the planet as human influence continues to grow. The CZ encompasses the shallow subsurface, a region of reaction, unsaturated flow, and transport. Chemical weathering in the subsurface is one of the important processes involved in the formation and functioning of the CZ. We present two case studies of reactive transport modeling to investigate the influence of subsurface heterogeneity and unsaturated flow on chemical weathering processes in the CZ. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN. Heterogeneity in subsurface flow is represented using multiple realizations of conductive fracture networks in a hillslope cross-section. The first case study is motivated by observations at the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BCCZO) including extensive hydrologic and geochemical datasets. The simulations show that fractures greatly enhance weathering as compared to a homogeneous porous medium. Simulations of north-facing slope hydrology with prolonged snowmelt pulses also increases weathering rates, showing the importance of slope aspect on weathering intensity. Recent work elucidates deteriorating water quality caused by climate change in the CZ of watersheds where acid rock drainage (ARD) occurs. The more complex reactions of ARD require a customized kinetic reaction module with PFLOTRAN. The second case study explores the mechanisms by which changes in hydrologic forcing, air and ground temperatures, and water table elevations influence ARD. For instance, unreacted pyrite exposed by a water table drop was shown to produce a 125% increase in annual pyrite oxidization rate, which provides one explanation for increased ARD.

  1. Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of Axially Ligated Mn(V)–Oxo Complexes: Evidence for Enhanced Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Addition of anionic donors to the manganese(V)–oxo corrolazine complex MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) has a dramatic influence on oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactivity with thioether substrates. The six-coordinate anionic [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes (X = F–, N3–, OCN–) exhibit a ∼5 cm–1 downshift of the Mn–O vibrational mode relative to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex as seen by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Product analysis shows that the oxidation of thioether substrates gives sulfoxide product, consistent with single OAT. A wide range of OAT reactivity is seen for the different axial ligands, with the following trend determined from a comparison of their second-order rate constants for sulfoxidation: five-coordinate ≈ thiocyanate ≈ nitrate < cyanate < azide < fluoride ≪ cyanide. This trend correlates with DFT calculations on the binding of the axial donors to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex. A Hammett study was performed with p-X-C6H4SCH3 derivatives and [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− (X = CN– or F–) as the oxidant, and unusual “V-shaped” Hammett plots were obtained. These results are rationalized based upon a change in mechanism that hinges on the ability of the [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes to function as either an electrophilic or weak nucleophilic oxidant depending upon the nature of the para-X substituents. For comparison, the one-electron-oxidized cationic MnV(O)(TBP8Cz•+) complex yielded a linear Hammett relationship for all substrates (ρ = −1.40), consistent with a straightforward electrophilic mechanism. This study provides new, fundamental insights regarding the influence of axial donors on high-valent MnV(O) porphyrinoid complexes. PMID:25238495

  2. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, H K; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-03-07

    Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. The lowest test concentration (50 microg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 microg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 microg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  3. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-01-01

    Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata. PMID:19267932

  4. Directional Stability Tests of Two Prismatic Planing Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Cv lateral force coefficient, Y/wb 3 Cz vertical force coefficient, Z/wb 3 Non-dimensional quantities Forces Moments X’ = X/qb’ = 2 Cx/Cv’ K’ = K/ qb3 ...2 CK/Cv = Y’ = Y/qb2 = 2 Cv/Cv’ M’ = M/ qb3 = 2 Cm/Cv2 Z’ = Z/qb* = 2 Cz/Cvl N’ = N/ qb3 = 2 CN/Cv2 Sign Convention The sign conventions are discussed

  5. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  6. Regulation of TCR Signaling to NF-kB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Nov 1;8(11):1690-2)   85   REFERENCES 1. Ballard DW, Bohnlein E, Lowenthal JW, Wano Y, Franza BR, Greene WC. 1988. HTLV -I tax...kappaB activation. Mol Cell Biol 27:5235-45 88. Zhi H, Yang L, Kuo YL, Ho YK, Shih HM, Giam CZ. 2011. NF-kappaB hyper- activation by HTLV -1 tax...HM, Giam CZ. 2011. NF-kappaB hyper- activation by HTLV -1 tax induces cellular senescence, but can be alleviated by the viral anti-sense protein HBZ. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002025

  7. Large third-order nonlinear optical response of conjugated copolymers consisting of fluorene and carbazole units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaowei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben; Liu, Xuchun; Xu, Gang; Ye, Peixian

    2002-08-01

    Off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties using degenerate four-wave mixing measurements in solution at 1064 nm have been studied for novel π-conjugated, processible, optically transparent and thermally stable copolymers constituted of carbazole and fluorene. The second-order hyperpolarizability γ1111 per repeat unit of the polymer containing alkyne segment (Cz-PFE) is as high as 6.5×10 -31 esu. The large nonlinearity of Cz-PFE is attributed to its rigid planar and intrachain charge transfer structure.

  8. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  9. Ecohydrological Consequences of Critical Zone Structure in the Franciscan Formation, Northern California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Dawson, T. E.; Lovill, S.; Rempe, D.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability regulates ecosystem function, particularly in seasonally dry climates where lack of moisture in the growing season acts as an ecological bottleneck. Water within hillslopes is extracted by plants during transpiration and also delivered to streams to support baseflow for riparian ecosystems and human use. How water is stored and then released from hillslopes is strongly influenced by the structure of the critical zone (CZ) that emerges from the complex interaction of lithology, climate, and tectonics. Here we show how contrasting CZ development has extreme ecohydrological consequences in the seasonally dry climate of the Northern California Coast Ranges. To explore how the CZ transmits and stores water, we studied hydrologic dynamics at two sites with similar climate across belts of the Franciscan Formation in the Eel River CZO. We monitored plant water use, precipitation inputs and stream runoff, groundwater and vadose zone moisture dynamics and documented near-surface hydraulic conductivity and runoff-generation processes. We investigated CZ structure via boreholes and geophysical methods. We find that CZ thickness determines the extent to which hillslopes `shed' or `store' wet season precipitation, and fundamentally controls the structure of plant communities and summer low-flows. In a climate where winter precipitation regularly exceeds 2000 mm, the thin CZ of the sheared argillite matrix Central belt rapidly fills, resulting in wet-season saturation overland flow that drives flashy winter runoff in channels that then quickly run dry in the early summer. The maximum unsaturated moisture storage of approximately 200 mm is sufficient to host an ecologically diverse yet sparsely forested oak savanna. In contrast, the thick CZ of the interbedded argillite and greywacke Coastal belt stores up to 600 mm of winter precipitation in the unsaturated zone and a seasonal groundwater system within fractured bedrock provides year-round flow to channels

  10. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  11. Axial vibration control of melt structure of sodium nitrate in crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Andrey; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Belov, Stanislav; Kostikov, Vladimir; Zykova, Marina; Artyushenko, Maxim; Zharikov, Evgeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The melt structure evolution under the action of the low-frequency axial vibration control (AVC) technique was studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy for several complex chemical compound melts: sodium nitrate, margarine acid, paraffin mixture (C17-C20). The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from the melting point up to 60 °C above. Comparison of crystallization heats for AVC activated and steady melts with melting heats of AVC-CZ and conventional CZ produced powders allowed to propose the energy diagram of NaNO3 states for activated and non-activated melts and crystals based on DTA, XRD, DSC and Raman experimental data.

  12. Possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors affecting parkinsonism inducement by cinnarizine and flunarizine.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1995-11-09

    Potentialities of cinnarizine [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, CZ] and its fluorine derivative flunarizine [1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, FZ] to induce parkinsonism as an adverse effect were evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically in rats. In multiple-dose experiments, CZ or FZ was given to rats at a daily dose of 20 mumol/kg for 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days, and CZ, FZ, and the ring-hydroxylated metabolites of their cinnamyl moiety [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine, C-2 and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-[3-(4'- hydroxyphenyl)propenyl]piperazine, F-2] in the plasma and striatum were determined 24 hr after the final dose. Plasma and striatum concentrations of the above compounds except for FZ reached steady state after 10 doses, but their concentrations of FZ continued to increase throughout the experiments. The concentrations obtained after the 30 doses were in the order of FZ > F-2 > CZ > C-2 for the plasma and of F-2 > FZ > CZ > C-2 for the striatum. The ratios of striatum to plasma concentrations of C-2 and F-2 were 2.4 and 3 times higher than those of the parent drugs. Binding affinities of CZ, FZ, and their 10 metabolites for rat striatal dopamine D-2 receptors (D2-R) were assessed by competitive radioligand-binding studies using [3H]-N-[(2RS,3RS)-1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]-5-chloro-2-met hoxy- 4-methylamino-benzamide ([3H]-YM-09151-2). The IC50s calculated from their Ki values were in the order of F-2 < C-2 < FZ < CZ < C-4 < F-1, indicating that C-2 and F-2 exhibit higher affinities for D2-R than the parent drugs, whereas affinities of other metabolites were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those of C-2 and F-2. These results suggest some important roles of C-2 and F-2 in the development of parkinsonism as active metabolites during chronic medication with CZ and FZ, respectively.

  13. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  14. Islamic Extremism in the Czech Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    20th century . The first Czech contacts with Islam occurred in the Middle-Ages around end of the 15th century . Since the time of the Crusades, the...from Hasistein ( *1450 – †1517), Peregrinate to Holy Tomb, 1505. The book provides author’s experience from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1493. Václav...země (Islam and the Czech Lands ), Praha, Votobia, 1998. 12 17. 9. 2004, available from http://www.mkcr.cz/cz/cirkve-a-nabozenske- spolecnosti/odkazy

  15. MELOC - Memory and Location Optimized Caching for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    locations PZID, CZID, <CD> list O/P: Cache Reallocation Operation Notations: PZ Previous Zone CZ Current Zone NCD List of nodes whose original...zone C Cache location crossing the zone CD[C] Cached data of C Trigger :( Cache Location moving from PZ to CZ) if (( NCD minus NPZ)> NCD /2) then...Insert CD[C] into H [PZ] Else No operation if (( NCD minus NCZ)> NCD /2) then No operation Else Delete CD[C] from C

  16. Developing a Paradigm to Measure and Model the Form and Function of the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes all chemical, physical, and biological processes in our environment. As humans change the CZ, it becomes more important for us to understand how the CZ will respond. The problem with understanding the CZ is that so many different processes are tightly coupled and exhibit threshold behaviors. We therefore have difficulty creating models that accurately describe CZ evolution. CZ science targets the development of models to understand these processes. To parameterize the models requires CZ characterization and observatories to measure fluxes of water, energy, solutes, and sediments (WESS). WESS fluxes can then, in turn, be compared to the time-integrated histories of those fluxes that are recorded in soil profiles, sediment deposits, and rocks. By using scenarios of human behavior along with models to cross timescales from minutes to millenia, we will learn to forecast the impacts of anthropogenic activity. In the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, a large team of researchers are developing a suite of models to simulate CZ processes over a range of timescales. At the same time, this team is moving from a paradigm of "measure everything everywhere" to "measure only what we need" as we scale up from the 0.1 km2 watershed at Shale Hills to the 165 km2 Shavers creek watershed. At Shale Hills, we made densely spaced measurements. In the Shavers creek watershed, we are targetting catenas in sub-catchments of the watershed as well as measurements of the main-branch streams. Sub-catchments were chosen to explore the different lithologies and land use characteristics. Instrumentation is already deployed in one first-order sub-catchment located on Tuscarora sandstone. The next sub-catchment to be instrumented, like Shale Hills, will be located on shale bedrock. Unlike Shale Hills, however, the sub-catchment will host agricultural activity. We are targetting our intensive chemical, physical, and biological measurements on catenas

  17. Development of metallization process: FSA project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    This experiment is involved in determining bulk resistivity values for different past concentrations. Experiments were performed on silicon Cz and non-Cz wafers. To determine bulk resistivity more accurately, pastes were printed on ceramic substrates. Contact resistance was determined by measuring the voltage drop at constant current. Because of irregularity of grid profiles, accurate determination of cross sections of grid lines is difficult. The bulk resistivity is accurate when the resistivity of the metallization is much less than that of the layer beneath it. When the resistivity of the metal approaches that of the substrate, the actual resistivity will be larger than the measured value.

  18. Study of Mechanisms for Long Wavelength Schottky-Barrier Infrared Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Hamann [10] have pointed out that a variation in the STM tip to the sample separation as a function of the STM tip bias voltage may be significant and...D. Stiles and D. R. Hamann , Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3179 (1991). [111 L. J. Brillson, A. D. Katnani, M. Kelly, and G. Margaritondo, J. Vac. Sci...current . 2 -A., 1 -20 0 100 200 300 400 500 x distance Fig. 3 17 0O 0~ cz- 0E 0 0>.1n C,, 0C) LOI a, LO) C) LO) CO LI) C~J C’J C) LO) E Cj 0 ocn C~l CZ

  19. Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed.

  20. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the Earth's outer shell where all the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes critical for sustaining life occur and interact. As microbes in the CZ drive many of these biogeochemical cycles, understanding their impact on life-sustaining processes starts with an understanding of their biodiversity. In this review, we summarize the factors controlling where terrestrial CZ microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live and what is known about their diversity and function. Microbes are found throughout the CZ, down to 5 km below the surface, but their functional roles change with depth due to habitat complexity, e.g. variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients. Abundances of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decrease from 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 or rock-1, or ml water-1 by up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Although symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers have been studied extensively in soil habitats, where they occur up to 103 cells g soil-1, little is known regarding their identity or impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that they are limited in space, nutrients, are unable to cope with oxygen limitations, or some combination thereof. Since deep regions of the CZ have limited access to recent photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes there depend on deposited organic material or a chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for a complete food chain, independent from the surface, although limited energy flux means cell growth may take tens to thousands of years. Microbes are found in all regions of the CZ and can mediate important biogeochemical processes, but more work is needed to understand how microbial populations influence the links between different regions of the CZ and weathering processes. With the recent development of "omics" technologies, microbial ecologists have new methods that

  1. [H2O2 oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines over Mg2+ ion exchanged clinoptilolite and solventless solid state acid decomposition of ester to 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi; Sato, Kanji; Nomura, Masayuki; Nakata, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    The acid property of alkali and alkali earth cation exchanged clinoptiolites were observed by micro-calorimetry of NH(3) adsorption at 200 degrees C. The reaction rates on decomposition of tert-butyl acetate (TBA) over clinoptilolites was proportional to the acid strength. 1,4-Dihydropyridines were oxidized to corresponding Pyridines in high yields at room temperature by H(2)O(2) aqueous solution over Mg(2+) ion exchanged clinoptilolte (CZ-Mg) in acetone. Solventless acid ester decomposition of Di-tert-butyl 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate to 3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid was effected using CZ-Mg at 170 degrees C.

  2. Defects and device performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Armstrong, R.; Johnson, S.; Lin, H. C.; Regnault, W.; Yoo, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for a low-cost crystalline silicon sheet material for photovoltaics has generated a number of alternative crystal growth techniques that would replace Czochralski (Cz) and float-zone (FZ) technologies. Efficiencies of devices fabricated from low resistivity FZ silicon are approaching 20%, and it is highly likely that this value will be superseded in the near future. However, FZ silicon is expensive, and is unlikely ever to be used for photovoltaics. Cz silicon has many of the desirable qualities of FZ except that minority-carrier lifetimes at lower resistivities are significantly less than those of FZ silicon. Even with Cz silicon, it is unlikely that cost goals can be met because of the poor-material yield that results from sawing and other aspects of the crystal rowth. Although other silicon sheet technologies have been investigated, almost all have characteristics that limit efficiency to approx. 16%. In summary, 20% efficient solar cells can likely be fabricated from both FZ and Cz silicon, but costs are likely to be ultimately unacceptable. Alternate silicon technologies are not likely to achieve this goal, but cost per watt figures may be eventually better than either of the single crystal technologies and may rival any thin-film technology.

  3. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE: Project 4.2. Direct Air Blast Exposure Effects in Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-12-01

    I. Whitten A. C. Allen, HIMC J. S. Otto, HMC P. E. Thompson, HGC A. L. Parnham, HM1 D. J. Skelley, HM2 T. P. Nordquist, HM3 .:. E. Jar&- ara , 113 The...30 Commanding General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , NAVY ACTIVITIES C.Z. AlI’S: Cml. Off. 331 Commanding General, USARFANT & MDFR, Ft. Brooke, 72

  4. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 5.3. Blast Effects on B-36 Type Aircraft in Flight. Report to the Test Director

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-03-01

    blast-induced loads was primarily the responsibility of Allied Research Associates, Inc. ( ARA ). Calculations relative to thermal radiation were...Beard ffk, Hcmdquarters, continental Amy Command, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Comnsndlng General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , C.Z. Aimi: Cml. Off

  5. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Project 8.10. Physical Characteristics of Thermal Radiation from an Atomic Bomb Detonation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-02-01

    Amador , C.Z. ATTN; Cml. Off. Commander-in-chief, European Cooroind, APO 128, c/o PM, New York, N.T. Coamander-ln-Chief, Far Eaat Comind, APO 500...Albuquerque, N. Ma*. ATTN: Technical Training Group 192-200 Chief, Araed Forcea Special Weapona Project, Waahington 25, D.C. Technical Information

  6. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VII. A dense filament with extremely long H I streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.; Minchin, R. F.; Herbst, H.; Davies, J. I.; Rodriguez, R.; Vazquez, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present completed observations of the NGC 7448 galaxy group and background volume as part of the blind neutral hydrogen Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. Our observations cover a region spanning 5°× 4°, over a redshift range of approximately -2000 <cz < 20 000 km s-1. A total of 334 objects are detected, mostly in three overdensities at cz ˜ 7500, cz ˜ 9600 and cz ˜ 11 400 km s-1. The galaxy density is extremely high (15 deg-2) and many (˜24 per cent) show signs of extended H I emission, including some features as much as 800 kpc in projected length. We describe the overall characteristics of this environment: kinematics, typical galaxy colours and mass-to-light ratios, and substructure. To aid in the cataloguing of this data set, we present a new FITS viewer (FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension). This incorporates interactive source cataloguing tools which increase our source extraction speed by approximately a factor of 50.

  7. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before they…

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-19 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section along line "AA". - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Fixed Wing Stability and Control Theory and Flight Test Techniques. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    angle of attack relationship would probably exhibit satisfactory stall warning and a well defined aerodynamic stall (Figure 2). F_+SALAZ~ + ISTALL ...system 111-28 LONGITUDINAL FLYING-QUALITIES IV SECTION IV LONGITUDINAL FLYING QUALITIES LOW"’J"ITUDINAL FLYING QUALITIES IV Cow a- ci C,z -J C 2 2 0

  10. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Section and details - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Sections and layout plans. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan; ...

    2016-11-29

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta,more » GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.« less

  14. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan; Bhandari, Mahabir S.

    2016-11-29

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta, GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.

  15. Constructing a Novel Dendron for a Self-Host Blue Emitter with Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: Solution-Processed Nondoped Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Bipolar Charge Transfer and Stable Color Purity.

    PubMed

    Ban, Xinxin; Lin, Baoping; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Yueming

    2017-01-17

    Self-host thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have recently been identified as effective emitters for solution-processed nondoped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, except for the carbazole unit, few novel dendrons have been developed to build self-host TADF emitters. This study reports two self-host blue materials, tbCz-SO and poCz-SO, with the same TADF emissive core and different dendrons. The influence of the peripheral dendrons on the photophysical properties and electroluminescent performances of the self-host materials were systematically investigated. The transient fluorescence and electroluminescence spectra indicated that the diphenylphosphoryl carbazole units could effectively encapsulate the emissive core to reduce the concentration quenching effect and to enhance reverse intersystem crossing. By using tbCz-SO and poCz-SO as host-free blue emitters, the performance of the solution-processed nondoped OLED device demonstrated that a more balanced charge transfer from the bipolar dendrons would offer a better current efficiency of 10.5 cd A(-1) and stable color purity with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage units of (0.18, 0.27). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Identification (ID) Cards for Members of the Uniformed Services, Their Dependents, and Other Eligible Individuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    Colombia CO Comoros CN Congo CF Cook Islands CW Coral Sea Islands CR Costa Rica CS Cuba CU Cyprus CY Czechoslovakia CZ Denmark DA Djibouti DJ Dominica DO...Grenadines VC San Marino SM Sao Tome and Principe TP Saudi Arabia SA Senegal SG Seychelles SE Sierra Leone SL Singapore SN Solomon Islands BP Somalia

  17. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  18. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. The Effects of Forebody Strakes on Asymmetric Vortices on a Vertically Launched Missile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    designed to be representative of a cruciform tail-control missile with four very low aspect ratio wings. This model was fabricated from aluminum alloy ...GOTO 3700 6655 CLS:LOCATE 12,15:INPUT "DO YOU REALLY WANT TO QUIT"AW$ 6660 IF AW$cz>"Y" THEN GOTO 3700 6665 GOSUB 7060 6670 END 6680 6690 ’This

  1. The roles of trees In the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    As trees extract water from a wide variety of potential subsurface reservoirs and transpire it into the forest boundary layer they link Earth and atmosphere and influence the critical zone (CZ). In seasonally dry climates there is growing evidence that some tree species derive their primary source of water from a deep weathered bedrock reservoir below the soil and saprolite while other species use a wide range of water sources in a more opportunistic manner. As trees extract water from these different sources they can change the behavior of stream baseflow, recharge dynamics in both the subsurface and streams, and impact water availability for evapotranspiration (ET). Each of these changes in turn change the site-specific hydrological balance in very different ways as well as the nature of how well buffered the CZ is in response to climate and climate change. I will present examples from the Critical Zone Observatory network on (1) where different tree species derive their water in the CZ ranging from less that a meter deep to many tens of meters deep, (2) how this compares to the diversity of known water reservoirs in the subsurface from the surface of the Earth to fresh bedrock, (3) how this impacts baseflow and recharge dynamics of the CZ, and (4) how the manner and magnitude of tree water use can feedback and feed forward to change local climate and the strength of the linkages between Earth and atmosphere as modulated by trees in the critical zone.

  2. Propagation of hydroclimatic variability through the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A. M.; Calabrese, S.; Parolari, A.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction between soil moisture dynamics and mineral-weathering reactions (e.g., ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution) affects the availability of nutrients to plants, composition of soils, soil acidification, as well as CO2 sequestration. Across the critical zone (CZ), this interaction is responsible for propagating hydroclimatic fluctuations to deeper soil layers, controlling weathering rates via leaching events which intermittently alter the alkalinity levels. In this contribution, we analyze these dynamics using a stochastic modeling approach based on spatially lumped description of soil hydrology and chemical weathering reactions forced by multi-scale temporal hydrologic variability. We quantify the role of soil moisture dynamics in filtering the rainfall fluctuations through its impacts on soil water chemistry, described by a system of ordinary differential equations (and algebraic equations, for the equilibrium reactions), driving the evolution of alkalinity, pH, the chemical species of the soil solution, and the mineral-weathering rate. A probabilistic description of the evolution of the critical zone is thus obtained, allowing us to describe the CZ response to long-term climate fluctuations, ecosystem and land-use conditions, in terms of key variables groups. The model is applied to the weathering rate of albite in the Calhoun CZ observatory and then extended to explore similarities and differences across other CZs. Typical time scales of response and degrees of sensitivities of CZ to hydroclimatic fluctuations and human forcing are also explored.

  3. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  4. Cancellation of Surface Reverberation from a Bistatic Sonar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    output ref. 1 LMS adaptive + m ref. K jso• -’ filtr / + filter Tw second ×mit counter Figure 2- 1. Multiple Canceller Strutue for Application to CZ...No. 12, Dec. 1973. [3] B. Widrow, "Adaptive Filters" in Aspects of Network and System Theory, R. Kalman and N. DeClarts Eds., New York: Rinehart and

  5. Exploring Mass Loss, Low-Z Accretion, and Convective Overshoot in Solar Models to Mitigate the Solar Abundance Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Mussack, Katie

    2010-04-01

    Solar models using the new lower abundances of Asplund et al. or Caffau et al. do not agree as well with helioseismic inferences as models that use the higher Grevesse & Noels or Grevesse & Sauval abundances. Adopting the new abundances leads to models with sound-speed discrepancies of up to 1.4% below the base of the convection zone (CZ) compared to discrepancies of less than 0.4% with the old abundances; a CZ that is too shallow; and a CZ helium abundance that is too low. Here we briefly review recent attempts to restore agreement, and we evaluate three changes to the models: early mass loss, accretion of low-Z material, and convective overshoot. One goal of these attempts is to explore models that could preserve the structure in the interior obtained with the old abundances while accommodating the new abundances at the surface. Although the mass-losing and accretion models show some improvement in agreement with seismic constraints, a satisfactory resolution to the solar abundance problem remains to be found. In addition, we perform a preliminary analysis of models with the Caffau et al. abundances that shows that the sound-speed discrepancy is reduced to only about 0.6% at the CZ base, compared to 1.4% for the Asplund et al. abundances and 0.4% for the Grevesse & Noels abundances. Furthermore, including mass loss in models with the Caffau et al. abundances may improve sound-speed agreement and help resolve the solar lithium problem.

  6. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1945. Plans and details for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1943. Proposed design for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  10. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before they…

  11. Reasons for using polymer blends in the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinova, Lenka; Lubasova, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    Polymer blends can be very effective for the processing of nanofibers, especially for the novel electrospinning process of Nanospider™ (Jirsak et al., 2005, www.nanospider.cz), offering the realistic potential for industrial production of nanofiber sheets. Polymer blending is designed to generate materials with optimized chemical, structural, mechanical, morphological and biological properties.

  12. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  13. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  14. A Novel Application of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method for Estimating the Critical Zone Thicknes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S.; Yaede, J.; McBride, J. H.; Park, C.; Turnbull, S. J.; Tingey, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    MASW approaches are suitable for the accurate measurement of variably thick weathering profiles by producing shear-wave (Vs) profiles. The critical zone (CZ) base is usually a transitional boundary, which is captured by MASW but not by conventional seismic reflection techniques. Modified MASW methods were used in Hawaii, USA to extend the investigative depth of saprolite (kaolin clays, Fe-oxides) thickness calibrated against wells with geologic logs. Active-source ± passive dispersion curves produced improved low-frequency fundamental modes by combining records with varying source-receiver offsets, enabling the generation of Vs profiles to >50 m depth. The top of unaltered bedrock occurs at a Vs of >~500 m/s. Intra-saprolite high Vs zones probably represent aa flow interiors with fewer primary discontinuities (vesicles and fractures), therefore imparting higher secondary stiffness than altered pahoehoe and pyroclastic material. The MASW approach permits measuring CZ thicknesses at discrete locations rapidly, inexpensively, and without drilling. For example, employed on slopes of the Koolau Volcano (neither aggrading nor degrading), the downward rate of advance of the weathering front of the CZ varies from 0.02 to 0.03 mm/yr in wet and ~0.01 mm/yr in dry areas. This compares well with recent work based on solute mass fluxes averaged over large areas. MASW can be deployed in a variety of settings where rapid estimation of the CZ thickness at particular locations is desired.

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41981 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-1 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Foundation plan, floor plan and roof plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #453, Washington, D.C.). Aerial view of Quarry Heights and Balboa from Sosa Hill - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Fort Amador - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Balboa Heights with Balboa Elementary School in background center. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing Lbeams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing L-beams and holes for hanging parachutes, and wooden roof construction, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, POOL ALGAECIDE 15, 05 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ifl \\ ' .! I.. -' - I' "l 1 I , , I + ,- . \\ T +-" 1 r 'r .. r cr r.' (; G 1 <; r· 2 vir r ,'" S t I, i " i tic a 1 r. iJ e Co r (M ~J, a,':: d r~ i'~ i " ' ,'1 C l ') l' 0 f ~ etc 77 f:. cz. 0 f ...

  3. Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käpylä, Petri J.; Rheinhardt, Matthias; Brandenburg, Axel; Arlt, Rainer; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Lagg, Andreas; Olspert, Nigul; Warnecke, Jörn

    2017-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.

  4. Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. External Ballistics. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-11

    describes the mcticn of the center of mass of artillery stell cz unguided rocket on iract~ie leg in the dense layers of tle atacsjtere 3.U -E; p--j-; ,2-P...designation/purpose of zccket, its ccnstructice, principle of cferakion and equipment/device of the ccntrcl E~ stem , i.e., on the method cf guidance

  6. A review of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Various parameters that affect solar cell efficiency were discussed. It is not understood why solar cells produced from less expensive Czochralski (Cz) silicon are less efficient than cells fabricated from more expensive float-zone (Fz) silicon. Performance characteristics were presented for recently produced, high-efficient solar cells fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Corp., Spire Corp., University of New South Wales, and Stanford University.

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48479 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-9 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, elevations sheet 1. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46953 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-3 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402112 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-12 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413320 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-20 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Exterior Details. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41379 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Left side and front framing - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section of central line. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413313 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48476 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-6 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section second floor. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48473 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-3 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, sub-basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 484710 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-10 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, elevations sheet 2. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41334 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-4 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Details. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40717 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-7 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, front and rear elevations. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407115 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-15 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings A, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41374 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-4 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407110 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-10 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, sections, buildings C, and details of stairs and steps. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46956 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-6 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48477 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-7 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Right side and front elevations - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 469510 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-10 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Cross sections A-A and B-B. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48474 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-4 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section basement floor. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413711 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, upper third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Floor plans. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407118 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-18 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings B, second story plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Elevations. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41357 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. East elevations for covered passageway detail. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46959 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-9 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Southeast elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41352 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-2 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Plan and elevation of walkway between administration and clinics and kitchen and mess buildings. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 469511 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-11 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Cross sections C-C and D-D. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, (U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Right side and rear framing. - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40218 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-8 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-17 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section through porch. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46957 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-7 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Northwest side elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40718 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-8 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, longitudinal sections and end elevations. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413312 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413315 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, middle third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48475 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-5 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40719 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-9 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, sections, buildings A and B. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46954 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-4 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413310 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407116 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-16 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings A, second story plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41351 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-1 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. General elevations and planed for walkways and passageways. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41339 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46958 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-8 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413513 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevation of walkway between administration and clinics building and ward group C. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Interior partition framing - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402116 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-16 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, stair details, etc. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing 41378 dated 1917 on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing 4137-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407117 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-17 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings B, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48478 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-8 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section fourth floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413311 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41986 dated 1919 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-6 dated 1919 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevations and upper floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407119 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-19 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings C, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413710 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. End elevation and sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41375 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-5 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407120 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-20 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings C, second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402113 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-13 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46955 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-5 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, lower third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Left side and rear elevations - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1916. Floor plan - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41987 dated 1919 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-7 dated 1919 on file at Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-sections, elevation and basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41982 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-2 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevations and cross-sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402116 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-16 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Typical details, blueprint # 4021-16. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Synthesis of Energetic Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    SRI International 333 Ravenswood Avenue-.., L Menlo Park, California 94025 (415) 326-6200 cz Cable: SRI INTL MPK TWX: 910-373-1246 80 1Q 2 Qn$ .-. r...Cumberland 2 Attn: Dr. Jack Linsk Aerospace Division Allegany Org. 83-10 Bldg. 154 Ballistics Lab P.O. Box 210 Cumberland, MD 21502 * Attn: Dr. Rocco

  17. Crystal-originated particles in germanium-doped Czochralski silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Li, Hong; Ma, Xiangyang; Tian, Daxi; Li, Liben; Que, Duainlin

    2007-08-01

    Grown-in distribution and annealing behavior of crystal-originated particles (COPs) in Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafer with germanium doping have been investigated. It was found that COPs with high density but small sizes were inclined to generate in germanium-doped Cz-Si (GCz-Si) wafer. The increase of boron atoms in Cz-Si crystal with the germanium doping could benefit the formation of COPs while the oxygen interstitials in GCz-Si wafer could enhance the generation of COPs with small sizes. Meanwhile, it was suggested that the germanium doping in Cz-Si would result in the poor thermal stability of COPs. It is proposed that the combination between germanium atom and vacancy could reduce the free vacancy concentration and the onset temperature for void generation, thus forming denser but smaller void. While the stress compensation induced by boron and germanium atoms could increase the vacancy fluxes in heavy-boron doped GCz-Si crystal, the presence of oxygen atom in GCz-Si would incline to benefit the formation of inner oxide walls of void, especially with small sizes. Furthermore, thinner oxide walls within void for GCz-Si crystal are considered to be charged for the easy annihilation by the germanium doping.

  18. New Feedstock for c-Si Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexey; Shagun, Alexander; Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2015-03-01

    Results from functional tests of highly doped silicon purified with electron beam melting, a new feedstock for photovoltaics are presented. Possibility of obtaining dislocation free single crystals from such feedstock in typical industrial processes (CZ and FZ) is shown, crystals' parameters are tested for coherence with requirements for PV silicon.

  19. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OPTIMIZATION: SELECTIVE PROTEIN SAMPLE ON-COLUMN RETENTION IN REVERSE-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why work was done?

    To be able to identify, on a proteomic level, cytochromes P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) in mouse liver microsomes for the conazole exposure study IRP # NHEERL-ECD-SCN-CZ-2002-01-R1_Addendum 1. The new enrichment method was necessary beca...

  20. Interior view of living/dining area of unit "A" showing double ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living/dining area of unit "A" showing double doors to living porch and door to front stair hall, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  2. Stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and chlorzoxazone and their toxic impurities.

    PubMed

    Abdelaleem, Eglal A; Abdelwahab, Nada S

    2013-02-01

    A highly sensitive, selective and accurate thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)-densitometric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PAR) and chlorzoxazone (CZ) and their toxic impurities, 4-amino phenol (4AP) and 2-amino-4-chlorophenol (2ACP), respectively, which are also considered to be the hydrolytic degradation products and related substances of the studied drugs. A developing system consisting of chloroform-methanol-glacial acetic acid (9.5:0.5:0.25, by volume) was found to be sufficient for chromatographic separation among the four studied components using pre-activated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates with ultraviolet detection at 225 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in the ranges of 0.3-3, 1-10, 0.06-3 and 0.04-3 µg/band for PAR, CZ, 4AP and 2ACP, respectively, using polynomial equations. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. Moreover, the method was successfully applied for the determination of PAR and CZ in different marketed samples and the results were statistically compared to those obtained by the reported reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using F-test and Student's-t test. The low detection and quantitation limits of the developed method make it suitable for quality control and stability studies of PAR and CZ in different pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OPTIMIZATION: SELECTIVE PROTEIN SAMPLE ON-COLUMN RETENTION IN REVERSE-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why work was done?

    To be able to identify, on a proteomic level, cytochromes P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) in mouse liver microsomes for the conazole exposure study IRP # NHEERL-ECD-SCN-CZ-2002-01-R1_Addendum 1. The new enrichment method was necessary beca...

  4. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  5. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANTHRAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (CzCLj), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 “C in aqueous solutions containing ei- ther (1) 500 pM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 pM Fe2+, or (3) 250 pM HS-. The pH ranged ...

  6. Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Katarzyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Zespół kanału nadgarstka (ZKN) to najczęstsza neuropatia uciskowa i częsta przyczyna zwolnień lekarskich z powodu przeciążenia ręki związanego z pracą. ZKN leczy się przede wszystkim operacyjnie.

  7. Lake Ladora and Lake Mary Phase 2 Data Addendum Site 2-17 Task No. 20 - Lower Lakes Version 3.1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    AND CZ.tTIFIED METHODS 3 Synonymous Names Used AnalysislMethods/Analytes in Appendix B Abbreviations I AGENT PRODUCTS/HPLCM Chloroacetic acid ... Chloroacetic acid CLC2A Thiodiglycol Thiodiglycol (TDG) TDGCL I AGENT PRODUCTSIIONCHROD Isopropylmethylphosphonic Isopropylmethylphosphonate IMPA acid ANIONS

  8. The Application of PECS in a Deaf Child with Autism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Okalidou, Areti

    2007-01-01

    A 10-year-old nonverbal Greek boy, C.Z., who had been diagnosed with both bilateral sensorineural profound hearing loss and autism, was taught to use the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), with some modifications and extensions, over a 4-month intensive intervention period. C.Z.'s original communication and behavioral status as well as…

  9. Using RNA Interference to Reveal Genetic Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Luo, B., Heard, A.D. & Lodish , H.F. Small interfering RNA production by enzymatic engineering of DNA (SPEED). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 5494-9...suppressors identifies REST. Cell 121, 837-48 (2005). 44. Chen, C.Z., Li, L., Lodish , H.F. & Bartel, D.P. MicroRNAs modulate hematopoietic lineage

  10. Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Precise Positioning Service (PPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-30

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Precise Positioning ...The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Precise Positioning Service (PPS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...EQUIPMENT USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) / PRECISE POSITIONING SERVICE (PPS) DISTRIBUTION: SMC/CZ (3 cys); AFFSA; NAWCAD; ESC/GA; SPAWAR Code

  11. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    DOE PAGES

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations usedmore » a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.« less

  12. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Details of bookshelves and pilasters. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in the Construction Inventory Book at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). East front. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1919 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1919 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #352, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of El Prado from administration building with Balboa Elementary School on left side, looking west. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1938 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1938 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #93, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of Balboa Elementary School, looking south. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post1943 (original postcard located USACERL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post-1943 (original postcard located USACERL, Champaign, IL). Kodachrome by Leon Greene, published exclusively for L.G.G. View of Balboa Elementary School, looking southwest. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1939 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1939 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #2129, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of Balboa Elementary School from El Prado, looking east. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations used a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Second floor wiring plan - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413110 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413113 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413112 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413114 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-14 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking south. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Elevation on prado - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413116 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section looking west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413115 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking north. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). New Ancon Hospital general layout - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at the Office of the 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, Republic of Panama). Photographer unknown. View of U.S. Army Air Corps over Fort Amador. - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413118 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of doors and sash. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413111 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41376 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  18. Short-term effects of natural and NH4+-enriched chabazite zeolitite amendments to soil microbial biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Colombani, Nicolò; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Coltorti, Massimo; Mastrocicco, Micòl

    2017-04-01

    Natural zeolite-bearing rocks (zeolitites) are known to be a suitable material for agricultural purposes by improving soil physicochemical properties and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, little is known about their effects on soil microbial biomass. Aim of this work is to evaluate short-term effects of different chabazite-zeolitite amendments on soil microbial biomass (and activity). To this purpose a silty-clay agricultural soil was amended in three different ways, by the addition of 5 and 15 wt% of natural chabazite zeolitites (NZ) and 10 wt% of NH4+-enriched chabazite zeolitites (CZ). Soil pH, water content, dissolved organic carbon (C), total dissolved N, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, microbial biomass C and N and ergosterol were periodically measured over a time course of 16 days in a laboratory incubation experiment. In order to verify the immobilization of N derived from CZ into microbial biomass, the δ15N signature of microorganisms was evaluated by the Extraction-Fumigation-Extraction method followed by EA-IRMS analysis. This latter investigation was possible because zeolitites were enriched with NH4+ derived from pig-slurry, which have a very high 15N natural abundance that allow to trace microbial incorporation. Soil amended with 5 wt% of NZ showed increased ergosterol content as well as microbial C/N ratio starting from day 9 of incubation, suggesting that fungal biomass was probably favored, although the same behavior was not found in the soil amended with 15 wt% of the same material. On the other hand, the NH4+-enriched CZ showed strong interactions with soil microbial biomass N. Isotopic measurements supported microbial assimilation of the N introduced with CZ since the second day of incubation. The high dissolved organic C and microbial biomass N suggested an increase of mineralization and immobilization processes. In addition, in CZ amended soil, microbial biomass N was related to NO3- production over time and inversely related to NH4+, suggesting high

  19. Weathering, Fractures and Water in the deep Critical Zone: Geophysical investigations in the U.S. Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Hayes, J. L.; Flinchum, B. A.; St Clair, J. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Leone, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is Earth's breathing skin: the thin layer from treetop to bedrock that supports most terrestrial life. Key hydrological, biogeochemical, and physical processes occur in the CZ, including physical and chemical weathering, soil production, erosion, nutrient cycling, and surface/groundwater exchange. These processes in turn influence subsurface water storage capacity, landscape evolution, ecological stability, aquifer recharge and stream flow. Because the deep CZ is hidden from direct observation, it can only be studied by drilling and/or geophysical measurements. Given the relative scarcity of such data, we lack a complete understanding of the architecture of the CZ, how it varies across landscapes, and what controls that variation. We present geophysical data that address these questions at six Critical Zone Observatories (CZO): Calhoun, Boulder Creek, Eel River, Reynolds Creek, Catalina-Jemez, and Southern Sierra. Conclusions include: (1) Regolith depth is influenced by the opening of fractures due to the release of regional and topographic stress as rocks are exhumed toward the surface. Stress models at Calhoun and Boulder Creek show remarkable agreement with seismic velocities in the shallow subsurface, suggesting that stress release controls the development of fracture porosity in the CZ. (2) Chemical weathering (plagioclase dissolution) begins at depths where fractures open (~40 m at Calhoun), implying that fracturing and chemical weathering are intimately paired in the deep CZ. (3) Volumetric strain is an underappreciated contributor to porosity in the CZ. In the Southern Sierra, strain dominates over chemical weathering in the upper 10 m, consistent with the stress-release model. (4) Geological structure and lithology can trump environmental controls (e.g., aspect and climate) on regolith development. At Catalina, strongly contrasting regolith thickness on north- and south-facing slopes, is not due to "northness", but rather to

  20. Carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian; Dong, Peng; Yuan, Kang; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Junwei; Zhao, Jianjiang; Yu, Xuegong; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-07-01

    Rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at high temperatures can be employed to introduce vacancies to control oxygen precipitation (OP) behavior in Czochralski (CZ) silicon. Such excessive vacancies survive from the recombination of silicon-interstitials and vacancies (V-I recombination) during the RTA. In this work, we aim to elucidate the carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in CZ silicon during the high temperature RTA by means of gold diffusion in combination with deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is revealed that the existence of ˜1017 cm-3 carbon atoms significantly increases the amount of survival vacancies in the form of vacancy-oxygen (VOm, m ≥ 2) complexes in CZ silicon when subjected to the 1250 °C/60 s RTA. Moreover, such an increase in the number of vacancies becomes more significant with the increase in the cooling rate of RTA. The density functional theory calculations suggest that the V-I recombination is to some extent unfavorable as a carbon atom is close to the silicon-interstitial. Alternatively, it is believed that the substitutional carbon (Cs) atoms tend to trap the silicon-interstitials, thus forming Ci complexes (Cs + I → Ci) in CZ silicon during the RTA. In this context, the V-I recombination is suppressed in a manner, leading to the survival of more vacancies, thus generating more VOm complexes. Furthermore, after the 1250 °C/60 s RTA, the oxide precipitate nucleation based on the VOm complexes is more significant in carbon-rich CZ (CCZ) silicon than in the conventional CZ counterpart. Hence, when subjected to the same OP anneal consisting of the nucleation anneal at 650 or 800 °C for 4 h and the subsequent growth anneal at 1000 °C for 16 h, CCZ silicon possesses a higher density of bulk microdefects and therefore stronger internal gettering capability than CZ silicon. However, the nucleation temperature for OP should be carefully selected as 650 °C for CCZ silicon in order to form an oxide precipitate-free denuded zone.

  1. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  2. Surface stabilized nanosized Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O(2) solid solutions over SiO(2): characterization by XRD, Raman, and HREM techniques.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; Loridant, Stéphane; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción

    2005-07-21

    Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solutions deposited over silica surface were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques in order to understand the role of silica support and the temperature stability of these composite oxides. For the purpose of comparison, an unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) was also synthesized and subjected to characterization by various techniques. The Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2)/SiO(2) (CZ/S) (1:1:2 mole ratio based on oxides) was synthesized by depositing Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solution over a colloidal SiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method and unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) (CZ) (1:1 mole ratio based on oxides) was prepared by a coprecipitation procedure, and the obtained catalysts were subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K. The XRD measurements disclose the presence of cubic phases with the composition Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2) and Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) in CZ samples, while CZ/S samples possess Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) in different proportions. The crystallinity of these phases increased with increasing calcination temperature. The cell a parameter estimations indicate contraction of ceria lattice due to the incorporation of zirconium cations into the CeO(2) unit cell. Raman measurements indicate the presence of oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and displacement of oxygen ions from their normal lattice positions in both the series of samples. The HREM results reveal, in the case of CZ/S samples, a well-dispersed nanosized Ce-Zr-oxides over the surface of amorphous SiO(2). The structural features of these crystals as determined by digital diffraction analysis of experimental images reveal that the Ce-Zr-oxides are mainly in the cubic geometry and exhibit high thermal stability. Oxygen storage capacity measurements by a thermogravimetric method reveal a substantial enhancement in the oxygen

  3. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai; Trumbore, Susan; Lehmann, Robert; Steinhäuser, Christine; Herrmann, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future

  4. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-03-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the critical, outer shell of the Earth that provides an arena for the interplay of diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes that are fundamental for sustaining life. As microbes are the principle drivers of biogeochemical cycles, it is necessary to understand the biodiversity of the CZ unseen majority and their impact on life-sustaining processes. This review aims to summarize the factors controlling where microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live within the CZ and what is known to date about their diversity and function. Microbes live in all regions of the CZ down to 5 km depth, but due to changing habitat complexity, e.g., variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients, their functional role changes with depth. The abundance of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decreases from a maximum of 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers are best understood in soil habitats, where they are up to 103 cells g soil-1. However, little is known about their identity and impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that these organisms are either limited in space or nutrients or unable to cope with oxygen limitations. Since deep regions of the CZ are limited in the recent input of photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes are dependent on deposited organic material or on chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for the establishment of a complete food chain independent from the surface. However, the energy flux available might only allow cell growth over tens to thousands of years. The recent development of "omics" technologies has provided microbial ecologists with methods to link the composition and function of in situ microbial communities. We should expect new metabolic discoveries as we have a closer look utilizing a polyphasic approach into the

  5. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-01-01

    Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science. Observation and quantification of the Earth surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of Critical Zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and ecosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", extending from the groundwater to the vegetation canopy. Lidar holds promise as a transdisciplinary CZ research tool by simultaneously allowing for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological data. Researchers are just beginning to utilize lidar datasets to answer synergistic questions in CZ science, such as how landforms and soils develop in space and time as a function of the local climate, biota, hydrologic properties, and lithology. This review's objective is to demonstrate the transformative potential of lidar by critically assessing both challenges and opportunities for transdisciplinary lidar applications. A review of 147 peer-reviewed studies utilizing lidar showed that 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % have an interdisciplinary focus. We find that using lidar to its full potential will require numerous advances across CZ applications, including new and more powerful open-source processing tools, exploiting new lidar acquisition technologies, and improved integration with physically-based models and complementary in situ and remote-sensing observations. We provide a five-year vision to utilize and advocate for the expanded use of lidar datasets to benefit CZ science applications.

  6. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781

  7. Attenuation of a human H9N2 influenza virus in mammalian host by reassortment with an avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Lim, W; Tashiro, M

    2004-07-01

    In order to develop a surrogate virus strain for production of an inactivated influenza vaccine against a human H9N2 virus, A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (HK1073: H9N2) was co-infected in embryonated chicken eggs with an apathogenic avian influenza virus, A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/56 (Dk/Cz: H4N6), for gene segment reassortment. Multiple-gene reassortants obtained were examined for replication in mammalian hosts in vitro and in vivo by infecting MDCK cells and by intranasal administration to hamsters, respectively. A 2-6 gene reassortant with both surface glycoproteins of HK1073 origin and the rest of Dk/Cz origin, HK/CZ-13, was shown to replicate poorly in the mammalian hosts both in vivo and in vitro comparing with HK1073, although this reassortant replicated as efficiently as each parental strain in embryonated eggs. No sequence difference was observed in the HA1 region between HK1073 and HK/CZ-13, indicating that the reassortant would be equivalent in its immunogenicity to the parental HK1073 strain when it is used as an inactivated vaccine. A virus strain with attenuation in mammalian hosts is preferable for production of an H9 vaccine, since it should reduce the risk of manufacturing-related infections of employees during the vaccine production. HK/CZ-13 can therefore be a surrogate strain for production of an inactivated vaccine as well as diagnostic antigens in case of a possible future pandemic caused by an HK1073-like H9 influenza virus.

  8. The increase in mannose receptor recycling favors arginase induction and Trypanosoma cruzi survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Vanina V; Dulgerian, Laura R; Stempin, Cinthia C; Cerbán, Fabio M

    2011-01-01

    The macrophage mannose receptor (MR) is a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system that binds to microbial structures bearing mannose, fucose and N-acetylglucosamine on their surface. Trypanosoma cruzi antigen cruzipain (Cz) is found in the different developmental forms of the parasite. This glycoprotein has a highly mannosylated C-terminal domain that participates in the host-antigen contact. Our group previously demonstrated that Cz-macrophage (Mo) interaction could modulate the immune response against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway. In this work, we have studied in Mo the role of MR in arginase induction and in T. cruzi survival using different MR ligands. We have showed that pre-incubation of T. cruzi infected cells with mannose-Bovine Serum Albumin (Man-BSA, MR specific ligand) biased nitric oxide (NO)/urea balance towards urea production and increased intracellular amastigotes growth. The study of intracellular signals showed that pre-incubation with Man-BSA in T. cruzi J774 infected cells induced down-regulation of JNK and p44/p42 phosphorylation and increased of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results are coincident with previous data showing that Cz also modifies the MAPK phosphorylation profile induced by the parasite. In addition, we have showed by confocal microscopy that Cz and Man-BSA enhance MR recycling. Furthermore, we studied MR behavior during T. cruzi infection in vivo. MR was up-regulated in F4/80+ cells from T. cruzi infected mice at 13 and 15 days post infection. Besides, we investigated the effect of MR blocking antibody in T. cruzi infected peritoneal Mo. Arginase activity and parasite growth were decreased in infected cells pre-incubated with anti-MR antibody as compared with infected cells treated with control antibody. Therefore, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, Cz may contact with MR, increasing MR recycling which leads to arginase activity up-regulation and intracellular

  9. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2015-09-21

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  10. Intrinsic point defect behavior in silicon crystals during growth from the melt: A model derived from experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takao; Takahashi, Toru

    2011-11-01

    During the growth of float-zoning (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ) Si crystals, the temperature distributions from the growth interface were measured using a two-color infrared thermometer for the FZ crystal surfaces and three thermocouples within the CZ bulk crystals. The results showed that the thermal gradient is a decreasing function of the growth rate, which forms the basis of this work. In a comparison of the shape variations in the growth interfaces observed in both FZ and CZ crystals of three different diameters, all of the results were in agreement with the above premise. In consideration of Stefan's condition the premise above is discussed. One of the most important observations is that the region of increasing thermal gradient extends not only to the region grown before but also to the region afterward by stopping the pulling in FZ crystals or lowering the growth rate in CZ crystals. This phenomenon is termed the “BA (before and after) effect”. The growing CZ crystals are detached from the melt and rapidly cooled so that the point defects are frozen. Using the anomalous oxygen precipitation (AOP) phenomenon obtained by the above detaching, which demonstrates the existence of vacancies in the crystal, we found that the growth interface is always filled with vacancies. By increasing the thermal gradient, which can be controlled by lowering the growth rate, the vacancy (AOP) region is reduced, due to the generation of a silicon interstitial-rich region. The ratio of vacancies from the growth interface and silicon interstitials generated by the thermal gradient ultimately determines the nature of the bulk silicon crystal grown from the melt, i.e., with voids, defect-free or with dislocation loops.

  11. Oxygen aggregation kinetics, thermal donors and carbon-oxygen defect formation in silicon containing carbon and tin

    SciTech Connect

    Angeletos, T.; Sgourou, E. N.; Andrianakis, A.; Diamantopoulou, A.; Londos, C. A.; Chroneos, A.

    2015-07-07

    Localized vibrational mode spectroscopy measurements on Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) samples subjected to isothermal annealing at 450 °C are reported. First, we studied the effect of carbon (C) and tin (Sn) isovalent dopants on the aggregation kinetics of oxygen. It is determined that the reduction rate of oxygen is described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation in accordance with previous reports. The activation energy related with the reaction rate constant of the process is calculated to increase from Cz-Si, to C-doped Cz-Si (CCz-Si), to Sn-doped Cz-Si contained C (SnCz-Si). This is attributed to the presence of the isovalent dopants that may impact both the kinetics of the oxygen atoms and also may lead to the formation of other oxygen-related clusters. Second, we studied the effect of Sn on the formation and evolution of carbon-oxygen (C-O) defects. It was determined that the presence of Sn suppresses the formation of the C-O defects as indicated by the reduction in the strength of the 683, 626, and 586 cm{sup −1} well-known bands of C{sub s}O{sub i} defect. The phenomenon is attributed to the association of Sn with C atoms that may prevent the pairing of O with C. Third, we investigated the effect of C and Sn on the formation of thermal donors (TDs). Regarding carbon our results verified previous reports that carbon suppresses the formation of TDs. Interestingly, when both C and Sn are present in Si, very weak bands of TDs were observed, although it is known that Sn alone suppress their formation. This may be attributed to the competing strains of C and Sn in the Si lattice.

  12. Bifacial low concentrator argentum free crystalline silicon solar cells based on ARC of TCO and current collecting grid of copper wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untila, G. G.; Kost, T. N.; Chebotareva, A. B.; Zaks, M. B.; Sitnikov, A. M.; Solodukha, O. I.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained in frame of an innovative approach for fabrication of the bifacial low concentrator Ag free Cz silicon solar cells based on Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)/(p+nn+)Cz-Si/Indium-Fluorine-Oxide (IFO) structure (n-type cell) as well as on IFO/(n+pp+)Cz-Si/ITO structure (p-type cell) are presented in this work. The (p+nn+)Cz-Si and (n+pp+)Cz-Si structures were produced by diffusion of boron and phosphorus from deposited B- and P-containing glasses followed by an etch-back step. The n+ surface of the structures was textured, whereas the p+ surface remained planar. Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, which act as passivating and antireflection electrodes, were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method on both sides. The contact pattern of copper wire was attached by the low-temperature (160 °C) lamination method simultaneously to the front and rear TCO layers as well as to the interconnecting ribbons arranged outside the structure. The shadowing from the contacts is in the range of ˜4%. The resulting solar cells showed front/rear efficiencies of 18.6-19.0%/14.9-15.3% (p-type cell) and 17.5-17.9%/16.5-17.0% (n-type cell) respectively at 1-5 suns. Even for 1 sun illumination at 20-50% albedo, similar energy production corresponds to 21.6-26.1% (p-type cell) and 20.8-25.8% (n-type cell) efficiency of a monofacial cell.

  13. Elevating the triplet energy levels of dibenzofuran-based ambipolar phosphine oxide hosts for ultralow-voltage-driven efficient blue electrophosphorescence: from D-A to D-π-A systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunmiao; Zhang, Zhensong; Xu, Hui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yi; Yan, Pengfei; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-01-21

    A series of donor (D)-π-acceptor (A)-type phosphine-oxide hosts (DBF(x) POPhCz(n)), which were composed of phenylcarbazole, dibenzofuran (DBF), and diphenylphosphine-oxide (DPPO) moieties, were designed and synthesized. Phenyl π-spacer groups were inserted between the carbazolyl and DBF groups, which effectively weakened the charge transfer and triplet-excited-state extension. As the result, the first triplet energy levels (T(1)) of DBF(x)POPhCz(n) are elevated to about 3.0 eV, 0.1 eV higher than their D-A-type analogues. Nevertheless, the electrochemical analysis and DFT calculations demonstrated the ambipolar characteristics of DBF(x)POPhCz(n). The phenyl π spacers hardly influenced the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy levels and the carrier-transporting ability of the materials. Therefore, these D-π-A systems are endowed with higher T(1) states, as well as comparable electrical properties to D-A systems. Phosphorescent blue-light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) that were based on DBF(x)POPhCz(n) not only inherited the ultralow driving voltages (2.4 V for onset, about 2.8 V at 200 cd m(-2), and <3.4 V at 1000 cd m(-2)) but also had much-improved efficiencies, including about 26 cd A(-1) for current efficiency, 30 Lm W(-1) for power efficiency, and 13% for external quantum efficiency, which were more than twice the values of devices that are based on conventional unipolar host materials. This performance makes DBFDPOPhCz(n) among the best hosts for ultralow-voltage-driven blue PHOLEDs reported so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rapid synthesis of Fe-doped CuO-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts for CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich streams: Effect of iron source and the ratio of Fe/Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Caiyun; Gao, Xiaoya; Lu, Jichang; Wan, Gengpin; He, Dedong; Chen, Ran; Chen, Kezhen; He, Sufang; Luo, Yongming

    2017-03-01

    A facile route (urea grind combustion method) is described for the rapid synthesis of Fe-doped Cu-Ce-Zr catalysts within 30 min through simple grinding and combustion. The effects of iron source and Fe/Cu mass ratio on the performances of the catalysts for CO preferential oxidation (CO-PROX) are evaluated. The influences of H2O, CO2, and their mixture on the activity as well as stability of the catalysts are also investigated. The samples are characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, H2-TPR, TEM, Raman and XPS. Fe(NO3)3 is found to be superior to FeCl3 and Fe2(SO4)3 as the iron source for Fe-CuCZ catalyst. Among the different synthesized catalysts, 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ is found to be the most active catalyst, indicating that the optimal Fe/Cu mass ratio is 1/10. The influences of H2O, CO2, and H2O + CO2 on the catalytic performance of 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ are in the order of CO2 < CO2 + H2O < H2O. 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ exhibits excellent stability during a 228 h time-on-stream test. 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ shows the highest catalytic activity and excellent stability even in the presence of H2O and CO2. The excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergy between the highly dispersed copper species and ceria, as well as the formation of more oxygen vacancies and reduced copper species.

  15. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Seema; Sangma, Tultul; Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) is commonly known as cinnamon in traditional system of medicine having antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and other activities. The present study was designed to assess the effect of extract of CZ bark on cognitive performance of scopolamine (SCOP)-treated rats and on associated altered oxidative stress markers in the brain of rats. The extract was administered orally in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. SCOP was administered in the dose of 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance step-down tasks were performed to assess cognitive functions. At the end of the study, oxidative stress parameters namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also analyzed in the brain tissue of rats. SCOP-treated group showed significantly impaired acquisition and retention of memory as compared to the saline- and vehicle-treated groups. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 21 days significantly reversed SCOP-induced amnesia as evidenced by increased step-down latency in passive avoidance and decreased latency in Morris water maze test compared to the SCOP-treated group. SCOP administration also caused the increase of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and increase in GSH levels as compared to the SCOP-treated animals. The results suggest that CZ can induce cognitive improvement in SCOP-treated rats and this effect can be attributed to a certain extent to decreased oxidative stress.

  16. Structural characterization of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) mixed oxide catalysts by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, HREM, and other techniques.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción

    2005-02-10

    Structural characteristics of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (CZ/T) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (V/CZ/T) mixed oxide catalysts have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques. The CeO(2)-ZrO(2) (1:1 mole ratio) solid solution was deposited over a finely powdered TiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method. A nominal 5 wt % V(2)O(5) was impregnated over the calcined (773 K) CZ/T mixed oxide carrier by a wet impregnation technique. The obtained CZ/T and V/CZ/T samples were further subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K to understand the dispersion and temperature stability of these materials. In the case of CZ/T samples, the XRD results suggest the formation of different cubic and tetragonal Ce-Zr-oxide phases, Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2), and Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) in varying proportions depending on the treatment temperature. With increasing calcination temperature from 773 to 1073 K, the intensity of the lines pertaining to cubic Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) phases increased at the expense of cubic Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), indicating more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice. The TiO(2) was mainly in the anatase form whose crystallite size also increased with increasing treatment temperature. A better crystallization and more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice was noted when CZ/T was impregnated with V(2)O(5). However, no crystalline V(2)O(5) could be seen from both XRD and RS measurements. In particular, a preferential formation of CeVO(4) compound and an intense tetragonal Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) phase were noted beyond 873 K. The HREM results indicate, in the case of CZ/T samples, a well-dispersed Ce-Zr-oxide of the size approximately 5 nm over the bigger crystals ( approximately 40 nm) of TiO(2) when treated at 873 K. The exact structural features of these

  17. Radiative heat transfer in curved specular surfaces in Czochralski crystal growth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Maruyama, Shigenao; Tsukada, Takao

    1997-11-07

    A numerical investigation of radiative heat transfer constructed by curved surfaces with specular and diffuse reflection components is carried out. The ray tracing method is adopted for the calculation of view factors, in which a new ray emission model is proposed. The second-degree radiation ring elements are introduced, which are of engineering importance and numerical efficiency. The accuracy of the method is analyzed and verified using a simple configuration. The present computation using the proposed ray emission model is in good agreement with the analytical solution. As a numerical example and engineering application, the effects of the specular reflection and the meniscus of the melt surface in Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth are investigated. A marked temperature decrease in the melt surface is found by introducing specular reflection and the meniscus. The combined effects of the specular reflection and the meniscus should be considered in precision heat transfer control of a CZ apparatus.

  18. Single-axis gyroscopic motion with uncertain angular velocity about spin axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A differential game approach is presented for studying the response of a gyro by treating the controlled angular velocity about the input axis as the evader, and the bounded but uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis as the pursuer. When the uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis desires to force the gyro to saturation a differential game problem with two terminal surfaces results, whereas when the evader desires to attain the equilibrium state the usual game with single terminal manifold arises. A barrier, delineating the capture zone (CZ) in which the gyro can attain saturation and the escape zone (EZ) in which the evader avoids saturation is obtained. The CZ is further delineated into two subregions such that the states in each subregion can be forced on a definite target manifold. The application of the game theoretic approach to Control Moment Gyro is briefly discussed.

  19. Down syndrome and hyperthyroidism - two case reports.

    PubMed

    Szatkowska, Marta; Zimny, Dominika; Barg, Ewa

    2016-02-18

    Trisomia 21 pary chromosomów (Zespół Downa, DS) jest jednym z częściej występujących zaburzeń chromosomalnych w praktyce pediatrycznej. Zaburzenia funkcji tarczycy często występują u tych pacjentów. Niedoczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana u blisko 50% pacjentów z ZD, a liczba ta wzrasta wraz z wiekiem. Nadczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana znaczniej rzadziej u dzieci z ZD. Odpowiednia strategia leczenia nadczynności tarczycy jest bardzo istotna ze względu na możliwość zaburzenia rozwoju dzieci. Przedstawiamy dwa przypadki dzieci z zespołem Downa i nadczynnością tarczycy. Proces leczenia tych pacjentów był odmienny.

  20. Chemo- and Regioselective Organo-Photoredox Catalyzed Hydroformylation of Styrenes via a Radical Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Yu, Chenguang; Zhang, Yueteng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Mariano, Patrick S; Wang, Wei

    2017-07-26

    An unprecedented, chemo- and regioselective, organo-photoredox catalyzed hydroformylation reaction of aryl olefins with diethoxyacetic acid as the formylation reagent is described. In contrast to traditional transition metal promoted ionic hydroformylation reactions, the new process follows a unique photoredox promoted, free radical pathway. In this process, a formyl radical equivalent, produced from diethoxacetic acid through a dye (4CzIPN) photocatalyzed, sequential oxidation-decarboxylation route, regio- and chemoselectively adds to a styrene substrate. Importantly, under the optimized reaction conditions the benzylic radical formed in this manner is reduced by SET from the anion radical of 4CzIPN to generate a benzylic anion. Finally, protonation produces the hydroformylation product. By using the new protocol, aldehydes can be generated regioselectively in up to 90% yield. A broad array of functional groups is tolerated in the process, which takes place under mild, metal-free conditions.

  1. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  2. Profiles of dark matter haloes at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.

    2001-08-01

    I study the evolution of halo density profiles as a function of time in the SCDM and ΛCDM cosmologies. Following Del PopoloQ1, I calculate the concentration parameter c=rv /a and study its time evolution. For a given halo mass, I find that c(z)~1/(1+z) in both the ΛCDM and SCDM cosmology, in agreement with the analytic model of Bullock et al.Q1 and N-body simulations. In both models, a(z) is roughly constant. The present model predicts a stronger evolution of c(z) with respect to the Navarro, Frenk & WhiteQ1 model. Finally I show some consequences of the results on galaxy modelling.

  3. The electronic transport characteristics of hybridized hexagon beryllium sulfide and graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Ding, Bingjun; Guo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Hybridized Z-BexSyCz (x + y + z = 16) systems connected by zigzag beryllium-sulfide (BeS) and graphene nanoribbons are theoretically designed, and their electronic transport characteristics are explored by first-principles approach. For the hybridized systems with unequal number of x and y, i.e. z is an odd number, an exceptional negative differential resistance (NDR) property occurs. However, for the hybridized systems including an even number of zigzag carbon chains, namely x equal to y, an interesting current-limited behavior happens. Meanwhile, the NDR phenomenon disappears. The spin transport properties of these hybridized Z-BexSyCz systems with parallel magnetism configuration also reveal the above odd-even dependence conductance behavior.

  4. Field Tests of Plastic Pipe for Airport Drainage Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    viously, the surface rutting, the size of tie tesi site, and mechanical diff’iculties made maneuvering, of the C-1l assembly in a specific load pattern...0 H0 (1) Lrl Q) S. N 0 0 ’~l ~A I: H Hi H H a) f HH HH -4 4 1 0 I II 0 - 0 COI H HC 0) \\’D \\A tI CZ H LIN 0 N CM CMj Im Cc$~ tN ’: I, I 1 -i N2 H c-H...0cZ0 00 0 0 0 ’I’, z -j im 700 backfill had very small permanent deflections (less than 2 percent) after 400,000 applications of equivalent 18-kip axle

  5. MOLEonline 2.0: interactive web-based analysis of biomacromolecular channels.

    PubMed

    Berka, Karel; Hanák, Ondrej; Sehnal, David; Banás, Pavel; Navrátilová, Veronika; Jaiswal, Deepti; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Svobodová Vareková, Radka; Koca, Jaroslav; Otyepka, Michal

    2012-07-01

    Biomolecular channels play important roles in many biological systems, e.g. enzymes, ribosomes and ion channels. This article introduces a web-based interactive MOLEonline 2.0 application for the analysis of access/egress paths to interior molecular voids. MOLEonline 2.0 enables platform-independent, easy-to-use and interactive analyses of (bio)macromolecular channels, tunnels and pores. Results are presented in a clear manner, making their interpretation easy. For each channel, MOLEonline displays a 3D graphical representation of the channel, its profile accompanied by a list of lining residues and also its basic physicochemical properties. The users can tune advanced parameters when performing a channel search to direct the search according to their needs. The MOLEonline 2.0 application is freely available via the Internet at http://ncbr.muni.cz/mole or http://mole.upol.cz.

  6. Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Voorhis, S.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to sequences of flashes delivered to the right and left visual fields while subjects responded promptly to designated stimuli in one field at a time (focused attention), in both fields at once (divided attention), or to neither field (passive). Three stimulus schedules were used: the first was a replication of a previous study (Eason, Harter, and White, 1969) where left- and right-field flashes were delivered quasi-independently, while in the other two the flashes were delivered to the two fields in random order (Bernoulli sequence). VEPs to attended-field stimuli were enhanced at both occipital (O2) and central (Cz) recording sites under all stimulus sequences, but different components were affected at the two scalp sites. It was suggested that the VEP at O2 may reflect modality-specific processing events, while the response at Cz, like its auditory homologue, may index more general aspects of selective attention.

  7. Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Narimatsu, S; Suzuki, T

    1992-10-06

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-piperazine] to 1-(diphenylmethyl)piperazine (M-1), 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine (M-2), benzophenone (M-3) and 1-[4'-hydroxyphenyl)-phenylmethyl]-4-(3- phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine (M-4) has been studied in rat liver microsomes. In Wistar rats, kinetic analysis revealed sex differences (male > female) in the Km values for formation of all the metabolites and the Vmax values for the formation of M-1, M-3 and M-4. The reactions required NADPH, and were inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF 525-A. Only M-2 formation was suppressed by sparteine or metoprolol, and was significantly lower in female Dark Agouti rats than in Wistar rats of both sexes. The results suggest that CZ is oxidized by cytochrome P450, and M-2 formation is related to debrisoquine/sparteine-type polymorphic drug oxidation.

  8. D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Brücke, T; Wöber, C; Podreka, I; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Asenbaum, S; Aull, S; Wenger, S; Ilieva, D; Harasko-van der Meer, C; Wessely, P

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-six patients under treatment with the calcium channel blockers flunarizine (Fz) or cinnarizine (Cz) were examined-with single-photon emission computed tomography using [123I]iodobenzamide as a ligand. The striatal dopamine D2 receptor-binding potential was determined and found to be reduced by 14 to 63% (39.5 +/- 15.0%; p < 0.0001) in patients compared with age-matched control values. This reduction was larger in 12 patients with extrapyramidal symptoms and was only slowly reversible after discontinuation of treatment. Patients treated for > 6 months had significantly larger reductions than patients treated for a shorter period. Parkinsonian symptoms were only seen in patients older than 50 years. Our findings prove a neuroleptic-like action of Fz and Cz, which seems to be the major reason for their extrapyramidal side effects. Older age and long-term treatment are predisposing factors for these effects.

  9. Optimization of energy extraction in transverse galloping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribes-Palmer, F.; Sanz-Andres, A.

    2013-11-01

    A numerical method to analyse the stability of transverse galloping based on experimental measurements, as an alternative method to polynomial fitting of the transverse force coefficient Cz, is proposed in this paper. The Glauert-Den Hartog criterion is used to determine the region of angles of attack (pitch angles) prone to present galloping. An analytic solution (based on a polynomial curve of Cz) is used to validate the method and to evaluate the discretization errors. Several bodies (of biconvex, D-shape and rhomboidal cross sections) have been tested in a wind tunnel and the stability of the galloping region has been analysed with the new method. An algorithm to determine the pitch angle of the body that allows the maximum value of the kinetic energy of the flow to be extracted is presented.

  10. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively.

  11. Potential productivity benefits of float-zone versus Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient mass production of single-crystal silicon is necessary for the efficient silicon solar arrays needed in the coming decade. However, it is anticipated that there will be difficulty growing such volumes of crystals using conventional Czochralski (Cz) methods. While the productivity of single crystals might increase with a crystal diameter increase, there are two obstacles to the mass production of large diameter Czochralski crystals, the long production cycle due to slow growth rate and the high heat requirements of the furnaces. Also counterproductive would be the large resistivity gradient along the growth direction of the crystals due to impurity concentration. Comparison between Float zone (FZ) and Cz crystal growth on the basis of a crystal 150 mm in diameter is on an order of two to four times in favor of the FZ method. This advantage results from high growth rates and steady-state growth while maintaining a dislocation-free condition and impurity segregation.

  12. Identification of lifetime limiting defects by temperature- and injection-dependent photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Jonas; Youssef, Amanda; Park, Sungeun; Mundt, Laura E.; Niewelt, Tim; Mack, Sebastian; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Murai, Ryota; Jensen, Mallory A.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Schubert, Martin C.

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the lifetime limiting defects in silicon plays a key role in systematically optimizing the efficiency potential of material for solar cells. We present a technique based on temperature and injection dependent photoluminescence imaging to determine the energy levels and capture cross section ratios of Shockley-Read-Hall defects. This allows us to identify homogeneously and inhomogeneously distributed defects limiting the charge carrier lifetime in any silicon wafer. The technique is demonstrated on an n-type wafer grown with the non-contact crucible (NOC) method and an industrial Czochralski (Cz) wafer prone to defect formation during high temperature processing. We find that the energy levels for the circular distributed defects in the Cz wafer are in good agreement with literature data for homogeneously grown oxide precipitates. In contrast, the circular distributed defects found in NOC Si have significantly deeper trap levels, despite their similar appearance.

  13. Scale up aspects of directional solidification and Czochralski silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropka, Natasha; Ervik, Torunn; Czupalla, Matthias; Kiessling, Frank M.

    2016-10-01

    We performed 3D simulations of directional solidification (DS) and Czochralski (Cz) silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields (TMFs) and verified them with the experimental data that were available. Particularly, we studied silicon DS growth in real G1, G2 and G5 size setups and Cz growth in 6″ and 24″ crucibles in furnaces provided with KRISTMAG® heater magnet modules (HMMs). TMFs were used for a solid/liquid interface shaping and for a melt stirring. Based on our simulation findings, we discussed scale up challenges and proposed a method for safe upscaling. The method related all present driving forces using dimensionless numbers: Grashof (Gr), Stephan (Ste), Reynolds (Re), Shielding (S) and magnetic forcing number (F).

  14. Shape-controlled crystal growth of Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 and Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 piezoelectric crystals by the micro-pulling-down method.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuui; Sato, Masato; Futami, Yoshisuke; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-09-01

    We grew column-shaped Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS) and Sr(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. 3-mm-diameter SNGS and STGS crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die. According to X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals had crystallinity equivalent to that of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. The crystals were single-phase materials with langasite-type crystal structure. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were almost consistent with those of crystals grown by the Cz method.

  15. Czochralski growth of crystals - Simple models for growth rate and interface shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Dudukovic, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    A simple model for the crystal growth by the Czochralski (CZ) process has been proposed based on semiquantitative arguments. The model provides empirical relationships for the dependence of the pulling rate and the interface shape on the important process variables such as crystal radius, crucible temperature, height of the melt level, and the height of the exposed portion of the crucible wall. The parameters of the model can be evaluated by matching the results obtained from a detailed mathematical model of the CZ process or from extensive experimental data. The model has, therefore, the potential application for determining the best process conditions and for on-line control and optimization of the crystal puller to grow crystals with constant diameter and nearly planar interface.

  16. Numerical calculation of view factors for an axially symmetrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1995-12-01

    A new numerical method for calculating the view factors for an axially symmetrical geometry has been developed. The assumption is that each object can be approximated by a truncated hollow cone. The method consists of two parts. One is to determine the accepting region and the other the integration over that region. It is accurate and fast since the determination and the integration are analytical. It was compared with the area integration and Monte Carlo methods for concentric coaxial cylinders, and was seen to be 19 times and 3 times faster than them, respectively. It was applied to a CZ puller. The Czochralski (CZ) method, by which a round single crystal is pulled up from melt, is widely used in industry today for growing single crystals of Si.

  17. Changes in P300 following alternate nostril yoga breathing and breath awareness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of alternate nostril yoga breathing (nadisuddhi pranayama) on P300 auditory evoked potentials compared to a session of breath awareness of equal duration, in 20 male adult volunteers who had an experience of yoga breathing practices for more than three months. Peak amplitudes and peak latencies of the P300 were assessed before and after the respective sessions. There was a significant increase in the P300 peak amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz and a significant decrease in the peak latency at Fz alone following alternate nostril yoga breathing. Following breath awareness there was a significant increase in the peak amplitude of P300 at Cz. This suggests that alternate nostril yoga breathing positively influences cognitive processes which are required for sustained attention at different scalp sites (frontal, vertex and parietal), whereas breath awareness brings about changes at the vertex alone. PMID:23721252

  18. The distances to five Type II supernovae using the expanding photosphere method, and the value of H(sub 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario; Maza, Jose; Aviles, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    We have used observations gathered at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) to measure distances by the expanding photosphere method (EPM) to five Type II supernovae. These supernovae lie at redshifts from cz = 1100 km/s to cz = 5500 km/s, and increase to 18 the number of distances measured using EPM. We compare distances derived to 11 Type II supernovae with distances to their galaxies measured using the Tully-Fisher method. We find that the Tully-Fisher distances average 11% +/- 7% smaller. The comparison shows no significant evidence of any large distance-dependent bias in the Tully-Fisher distances. We employ the sample of EPM distances from 4.5 Mpc to 180 Mpc to derive a value for the Hubble constant. We find H(sub 0) = 73 +/- 6 (statistical) +/- 7 (systematic) km/s/Mpc.

  19. Low temperature iron gettering by grown-in defects in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Yu, Xuegong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yichao; He, Jian; Vanhellemont, Jan; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature iron gettering in as-grown boron doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) at temperatures between 220 and 500 °C is studied using microwave-photoconductive decay based minority carrier lifetime measurements. Scanning infrared microscopy technique is used to study the defect density/size distribution in the samples before and after anneal. It is found that the decrease of interstitial iron (Fei) concentration shows a double exponential dependence on annealing time at all temperatures. This suggests the existence of two sinks for Fei. Meanwhile, the observed bulk defect densities and sizes in contaminated and as-grown samples are nearly the same, implying that the grown-in defects could be the gettering centers in this process. The results are important for understanding and controlling low temperature Fei gettering during processing of Cz-Si based devices.

  20. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.