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Sample records for sekwencji wieloimpulsowych cz

  1. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  2. Degradation of bulk diffusion length in CZ silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, J.H.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    Commercially-produced, unencapsulated, CZ silicon solar cells can lose 3 to 4% of their initial efficiency after exposure to light. After this initial, rapid ( < 30 min.) decrease, the cell power output remains stable. The cell performance recovers in a matter of hours in the dark at room temperature, and degrades again under light exposure. The different conditions under which CZ silicon cells degrade, and the reverse process, annealing, are characterized with the methods of spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Iron impurities are a possible cause of this effect.

  3. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  4. [Preparation, characterization and three way catalytic performance for Pd/CZ/Al2O3 catalyst].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-Ping; Chen, Hong-De; Tian, Qun; Yao, Qing; Han, Yun

    2005-09-01

    Pd/CZ/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnating a noble metal solution to the support CZ/Al2O3 which was prefabricated by co-impregnation. The investigation results show that Pd/CZ/Al2O3 has a superior three-way catalytic performance, which is comparable to Pd/CZ for the fresh sample and a better one after thermal ageing. Based on the XRD, BET and TPR characterizations, the internal relationship between catalytic performance, composition and structure was discussed. The relatively high activity after thermal ageing is ascribed to the maintenance of the Strong Metal-Support Interaction (SMSI).

  5. First Measurement of Beam-Recoil Observables Cx and Cz

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bradford; R.A. Schumacher; G. Adams; M.J. Amaryan; P. Ambrozewicz; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J.P. Ball; N.A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B.L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A.S. Biselli; B.E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W.J. Briscoe; W.K. Brooks; S. B¨ultmann; V.D. Burkert; C. Butuceanu; J.R. Calarco; S.L. Careccia; D.S. Carman; B. Carnahan; S. Chen; P.L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; † P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; V. Crede; J.P. Cummings; R. De Masi; E. De Sanctis; R. De Vita; P.V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K.V. Dharmawardane; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G.E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O.P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K.S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R.J. Feuerbach; T.A. Forest; H. Funsten; M. Garcon; G. Gavalian; G.P. Gilfoyle; K.L. Giovanetti; F.X. Girod; J.T. Goetz; A. Gonenc; R.W. Gothe; K.A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; R.S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F.W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C.E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D.G. Ireland; B.S. Ishkhanov; E.L. Isupov; M.M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H.S. Jo; K. Joo; H.G. Juengst; N. Kalantarians; J.D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; K.Y. Kim; K. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F.J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L.H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S.E. Kuhn; S.V. Kuleshov; J. Lachniet; J.M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A.C.S. Lima; K. Livingston; H.Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; J.J. Manak; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J.W.C. McNabb; B.A. Mecking; M.D. Mestayer; C.A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; K. Moriya; S.A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G.S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; N. Natasha; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B.B. Niczyporuk; M.R. Niroula; R.A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G.V. O’Rielly; M. Osipenko; A.I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S.A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B.M. Preedom; J.W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L.M. Qin; B.P. Quinn; B.A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B.G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P.D. Rubin; F. Sabatie; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; J.P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; V.S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y.G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; N.V. Shvedunov; S. Simionatto; A.V. Skabelin; E.S. Smith; L.C. Smith; D.I. Sober; D. Sokhan; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S.S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; P. Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D.J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; L. Todor; C. Tur; M. Ungaro; M.F. Vineyard; A.V. Vlassov; K. Wang; D.P. Watts; L.B. Weinstein; H. Weller; D.P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; and Z.W. Zhao

    2007-03-01

    Spin transfer from circularly polarized real photons to recoiling hyperons has been measured for the reactions $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Lambda$ and $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Sigma^0$. The data were obtained using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies $W$ between 1.6 and 2.53 GeV, and for $-0.85<\\cos\\theta_{K^+}^{c.m.}< +0.95$. For the $\\Lambda$, the polarization transfer coefficient along the photon momentum axis, $C_z$, was found to be near unity for a wide range of energy and kaon production angles. The associated transverse polarization coefficient, $C_x$, is smaller than $C_z$ by a roughly constant difference of unity. Most significantly, the {\\it total} $\\Lambda$ polarization vector, including the induced polarization $P$, has magnitude consistent with unity at all measured energies and production angles when the beam is fully polarized. For the $\\Sigma^0$ this simple phenomenology does not hold. All existing hadrodynamic models are in poor agreement with these results.

  6. Multiple batch recharging for industrial CZ silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickett, B.; Mihalik, G.

    2001-05-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth process used in the Siemens Solar Industries’ (SSI) Vancouver, WA facility was non-continuous. Each furnace run's production was limited by the size of the starting charge. Once the charge was depleted, the furnace was shut down, cooled, and set back up for the next run. A recharge system was developed which transforms standard CZ growth into a semi-continuous process. Now when the charge is depleted, the crucible can be refilled in situ as the grown ingot is being removed from the furnace. SSI has demonstrated up to 14 recharge cycles in a single run. The resulting benefits included: significant cost reduction, increased yield, increased throughput, reduced energy consumption, improved process capability, reduced material handling requirements, and reduced labor. The recharge system also enables the use of granular silicon, which requires less than 30% of the energy required when manufacturing silicon-starting materials. This significantly reduces the energy “pay-back” time associated with SSI's finished product, photovoltaic panels.

  7. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CZ Lac multiperiodic Blazhko modulation (Sodor+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodor, A.; Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Varadi, M.; Henden, A.; Vida, K.; Hurta, Zs.; Posztobanyi, K.; Dekany, I.; Szing, A.

    2011-09-01

    CZ Lac was observed with a photometer attached to the 60-cm telescope of the Konkoly Observatory, Svabhegy, Budapest, through B and V filters on seven nights in 1967 (table A1), and 2 seasons between 2004 and 2005. We observed CZ Lac with the same, refurbished and automated 60-cm telescope equipped with a Wright Instruments 750x1100 CCD camera (field of view 17x24arcmin) in 2004 and 2005. About 29 000 frames were obtained in BV(RI)C bands. The data of the two seasons spanned 146 and 84d. (8 data files).

  9. Immobilization of heavy metals by Pseudomonas putida CZ1/goethite composites from solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Chen, LiTao; Shi, JiYan; Wu, WeiXiang; Chen, YingXu

    2008-02-15

    Bacterial-mineral composites are important in the retention of heavy metals due to their large sorption capacity under a wide range of environmental conditions. This study provides the first quantitative comparison of the metal-binding capacities of P. putida CZ1-goethite composite to its individual components. When the same amount (on a dry weight basis) of living and nonliving cells of P. putida CZ1, goethite or their composites was separately exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM Cu(II) and Zn(II) in 0.01 M KNO(3), the living cells removed the largest quantity of heavy metals. The results of calculated metal retention values indicated that the adsorption of goethite to bacteria has not mask or neutralize chemically reactive adsorption sites normally available to metal ions. Moreover, the nonliving cells-goethite composite retained approximately 82% more Zn than that predicted by their individual behavior. The preferential association of Zn with P. putida CZ1 was observed by TEM and EDS analyses of a mixture consisting of the bacteria and goethite. Desorption of Cu and Zn with 1.0M CH(3)COOK solution from P. putida CZ1 and goethite indicated the differences in the functional groups able to bind heavy metals. PMID:17869490

  10. Cz-Silicon Produced from Solar-Grade and Recycled Materials. Part II: Investigating Performances of Solar Cell Produced from Solar-Grade Cz-Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes; Di Sabtino, Marisa; Juel, Mari; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This paper is the second of two, investigating the properties of P-type Cz-silicon materials and solar cells produced with recycled silicon and Elkem Solar Silicon (ESS) materials. While the focus on the first work was on the bulk properties and grown defects of the material, the current study focuses on the solar cell performances. In the processing of the solar cells, the phosphorous diffusion process was optimized to improve the bulk properties and thus to maximize the final solar cell characteristics. Results from the characterization of material defects suggest that the performances of the experimental ingots are limited by the activated grown-in defects, which should be strictly controlled during crystal growth and solar cell processing. The solar cells produced from the investigated ingots showed efficiency values up to 18.5 pct and fill factor values up to 79 pct, comparable to conventional silicon produced from poly silicon. Solar cells produced from mixed recycled and ESS material exhibit a better performance than 100 pct recycled material. Boron and oxygen concentration levels and net doping level showed a concurrent effect on light-induced degradation (LID). Appropriate compensation was finally demonstrated to be an efficient way to improve solar cells efficiency of Cz-silicon produced from recycled silicon, even though higher dopant concentration incurred relatively faster LID.

  11. Non-contact defect diagnostics in Cz-Si wafers using resonance ultrasonic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A.; Kochelap, V. A.; Tarasov, I.; Ostapenko, S.

    2001-01-01

    A new resonance effect of generation of sub-harmonic acoustic vibrations was applied to characterize defects in as-grown and processed Cz-Si wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into standard 8″ wafers using an external ultrasonic transducer and their amplitude recorded in a non-contact mode using a scanning acoustic probe. By tuning the frequency, f, of the transducer we observed generation of intense sub-harmonic acoustic mode ("whistle" or w-mode) with f/2 frequency. The characteristics of the w-mode-amplitude dependence, frequency scans, spatial distribution allow a clear distinction versus harmonic vibrations of the same wafer. The origin of sub-harmonic vibrations observed on 8″ Cz-Si wafers is attributed to a parametric resonance of flexural vibrations in thin silicon circular plates. We present evidence that "whistle" effect shows a strong dependence on the wafer's growth and processing history and can be used for quality assurance purposes.

  12. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of stars in Cz 30 (Hayes+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Friel, E. D.; Slack, T. J.; Boberg, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Cz 30 was observed using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 0.9m telescope with the S2KB imager, a 2048*2048 pixel CCD, with a pixel scale of 0.6"/pixel providing a total field of view of 20.5'*20.5'. Observations were taken on 2012 February 17 in B, V, and I filters with a typical seeing of about 1.5" and the CCD centered near the cluster center. We present our set of photometry in Table3. Cz 30 was also observed with the Hydra multi-object fiber positioner and Bench Spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5m telescope. The cluster was observed on 2014 January 18 and 19 and February 14 (UT) in the echelle mode, giving a dispersion of 0.16Å/pixel and covering the range of ~6060-6380Å. Table4 gives the results of velocity determinations for stars in Cz 30. Table5 gives lines used along with the measured equivalent widths. We obtained [Fe/H] estimates for 10 stars, whose final atmospheric parameters and abundances are given in Table6. (4 data files).

  14. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program concentrated on the areas of crystal growth; wafer technology; and environmental, safety, and health issues.

  15. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  16. Polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 during methane degradation using citrate or propionate as cosubstrates.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under nitrogen limitation with CH4 as carbon source and when either citrate or propionate was added as cosubstrates. The highest PHAs content (yPHA) in closed flasks was obtained in the CH4-citrate and CH4-propionate experiments attaining values of 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. M. organophilum CZ-2 cultivated in bioreactors with citrate and continuous CH4 addition yielded a final PHAs concentration of 143 gm(-3) containing hydroxybutyrate (HB), hydroxyvalerate (HV) and hydroxyoctanoate (HO), in a 55:35:10 ratio, with, yPHA of 0.88 and a CH4 elimination capacity (EC) of 20 gm(-3) h(-1). With propionate, the yPHA was 0.3 and the EC around 8 gm(-3) h(-1). From 1H and 13C NMR experiments it was found that the polymer produced with CH4-citrate contained six different monomers: 3HB, 3HV, 4HV, 4-hydroxyheptanoate (4HH), 3HO and 4HO, showing the great versatility of this PHAs producing bacterium.

  17. The community-driven BiG CZ software system for integration and analysis of bio- and geoscience data in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Richard, S. M.; Cheetham, R.; Meyer, F.; Henry, C.; Berg-Cross, G.; Packman, A. I.; Aronson, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the prototypes of a new scientific software system designed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, https://github.com/UCHIC/ODM2) to substantially enhance integration of biological and Geological (BiG) data for Critical Zone (CZ) science. The CZ science community takes as its charge the effort to integrate theory, models and data from the multitude of disciplines collectively studying processes on the Earth's surface. The central scientific challenge of the CZ science community is to develop a "grand unifying theory" of the critical zone through a theory-model-data fusion approach, for which the key missing need is a cyberinfrastructure for seamless 4D visual exploration of the integrated knowledge (data, model outputs and interpolations) from all the bio and geoscience disciplines relevant to critical zone structure and function, similar to today's ability to easily explore historical satellite imagery and photographs of the earth's surface using Google Earth. This project takes the first "BiG" steps toward answering that need. The overall goal of this project is to co-develop with the CZ science and broader community, including natural resource managers and stakeholders, a web-based integration and visualization environment for joint analysis of cross-scale bio and geoscience processes in the critical zone (BiG CZ), spanning experimental and observational designs. We will: (1) Engage the CZ and broader community to co-develop and deploy the BiG CZ software stack; (2) Develop the BiG CZ Portal web application for intuitive, high-performance map-based discovery, visualization, access and publication of data by scientists, resource managers, educators and the general public; (3) Develop the BiG CZ Toolbox to enable cyber-savvy CZ scientists to access BiG CZ Application Programming Interfaces (APIs); and (4) Develop the BiG CZ Central software stack to bridge data systems developed for multiple critical zone domains into a single

  18. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  19. The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of corrolazine metal complexes (CzM) by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongming; Yang, Chuanlu; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Meishan; Han, Keli

    2006-06-01

    The ground-state geometries, electronic structures and vibrational frequencies of metal corrolazine complexes, CzM (M=Mn, Co, Ni and Fe) have been studied using B3LYP/6-311 g(d) method. The molecular geometries are sensitive to the species of the metal, and the bond length of the MN is increase with the metal atom radii. The ground-state electronic structures indicate that there are strong interactions between dx2-y2 of the metal fragments and the corrolazine fragments. The calculations also indicate that the CzNi is the stabilest among the four metal corrolazine complexes. Vibrational frequencies of these metal corrolazine complexes were also calculated and were assigned to the local coordinates of the corrolazine ring, which reveals the some common feature of the molecular vibrations of the metal corrolazine complexes as four-coordination metallocorrolazines.

  20. Charge distribution and chemical bonding in B-O complexes in Cz-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuliang; Caliste, Damien; Pochet, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Density functional calculations based on wavelet basis set are performed to investigate charge distribution and chemical bonding in possible BiOi (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen), BsO2i (substitutional boron and interstitial oxygen dimer), and BiO2i (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen dimer) complexes in Cz-Si solar cells. It is confirmed that the BsO2ist complex composed by Bs and staggered oxygen dimer (O2ist) at second nearest site to boron has the lowest formation energy, resulting in better agreement with experiment. This is resulted by Coulomb attraction between Si-Oi and Si-Bs and consequently a decreased Coulomb repulsion between Bs-Oi in BsO2ist complex. A more physical description of the localized nature on bonding has been analyzed by maximally localized Wannier functions. It is found through the predicted Wannier centers that a doubly negative charge state of interstitial oxygen exists, which is consistent with our Bader charge analysis.

  1. Determination of copper binding in Pseudomonas putida CZ1 by chemical modifications and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu; Xu, XiangHua; Chen, LiTao; Wang, Hui; Hu, TianDou

    2007-03-01

    Previously performed studies have shown that Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biomass can bind an appreciable amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of Cu- and Zn-binding by P. putida CZ1 were ascertained by chemical modifications of the biomass followed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of the living or nonliving cells. A dramatic decrease in Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-binding resulted after acidic methanol esterification of the nonliving cells, indicating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metal to the biomaterial. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the speciation of Cu ions bound by living and nonliving cells, as well as to elucidate which functional groups were involved in binding of the Cu ions. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra analysis showed that the majority of the Cu was bound in both samples as Cu(II). The fitting results of Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra showed that N/O ligands dominated in living and nonliving cells. Therefore, by combining different techniques, our results indicate that carboxyl functional groups are the major ligands responsible for the metal binding in P. putida CZ1. PMID:17021877

  2. Biosorption of copper(II) and zinc(II) from aqueous solution by Pseudomonas putida CZ1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Cai; Wang, Yuan Peng; Lin, Qi; Shi, Ji Yan; Wu, Wei Xiang; Chen, Ying Xu

    2005-12-10

    To study Pseudomonas putida CZ1, having high tolerance to copper and zinc on the removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions, the biosorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living and nonliving P. putida CZ1 were studied as functions of reaction time, initial pH of the solution and metal concentration. It was found that the optimum pH for Zn(II) removal by living and nonliving cells was 5.0, while it was 5.0 and 4.5, respectively, for Cu(II) removal. At the optimal conditions, metal ion biosorption was increased as the initial metal concentration increased. The adsorption data with respect to both metals provide an excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The binding capacity of living cells is significantly higher than that of nonliving cells at tested conditions. It demonstrated that about 40-50% of the metals were actively taken up by P. putida CZ1, with the remainder being passively bound to the bacterium. Moreover, desorption efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) by living cells was 72.5 and 45.6% under 0.1M HCl and it was 95.3 and 83.8% by nonliving cells, respectively. It may be due to Cu(II) and Zn(II) uptake by the living cells enhanced by intracellular accumulation. PMID:16289732

  3. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  4. CZ415, a Highly Selective mTOR Inhibitor Showing in Vivo Efficacy in a Collagen Induced Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Cansfield, Andrew D; Ladduwahetty, Tammy; Sunose, Mihiro; Ellard, Katie; Lynch, Rosemary; Newton, Anthea L; Lewis, Ann; Bennett, Gavin; Zinn, Nico; Thomson, Douglas W; Rüger, Anne J; Feutrill, John T; Rausch, Oliver; Watt, Alan P; Bergamini, Giovanna

    2016-08-11

    CZ415, a potent ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with unprecedented selectivity over any other kinase is described. In addition to a comprehensive characterization of its activities in vitro, in vitro ADME, and in vivo pharmacokinetic data are reported. The suitability of this inhibitor for studying in vivo mTOR biology is demonstrated in a mechanistic mouse model monitoring mTOR proximal downstream phosphorylation signaling. Furthermore, the compound reported here is the first ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor described to show efficacy in a semitherapeutic collagen induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. PMID:27563401

  5. Responses of unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms to environmental stresses in relation to the EPS composition and surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huirong; Chen, Guangcun; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Xincai

    2014-12-01

    The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and surface properties of unsaturated biofilms of a heavy metal-resistant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida CZ1, in response to aging, pH, temperature and osmotic stress, were studied by quantitative analysis of EPS and atomic force microscope. It was found that EPS production increased approximately linearly with culture time, cells in the air-biofilm interface enhanced EPS production and decreased cell volume to cope with nutrient depletion during aging. Low pH, high temperature and certain osmotic stress (120 mM NaCl) distinctly stimulated EPS production, and the main component enhanced was extracellular protein. In addition to the enhancement of EPS production in response to high osmotic (328 mM NaCl) stress, cells in the biofilm adhere tightly together to maintain a particular microenvironment. These results indicated the variation of EPS composition and the cooperation of cells in the biofilms is important for the survival of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 from environmental stresses in the unsaturated environments such as rhizosphere.

  6. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 with clays and ability of the composite to immobilize copper and zinc from solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Hu, ShaoPing; Shen, ChaoFeng; Dou, ChangMing; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the abilities of the living and nonliving Pseudomonas putida CZ1 cells, clays (goethite, kaolinite, smectite and manganite) and their composites to accumulate copper and zinc from a liquid medium, and elucidate the role of microbes on the mobility of heavy metals. Various mixtures of bacteria and clays were exposed to solutions of 0.025 mM or 0.5mM Cu(II) and Zn(II) in 0.01M KNO(3) to differentiate between so-called "high-affinity" sites and "low-affinity" sites. Clays associated in an edge-on orientation to the cells was observed by electron microscope (EM) examination of these metal-treated bacteria-clay aggregates. Adsorption experiments and desorption with 1.0M CH(3)COOK solution indicated that clays contain more high-affinity copper binding sites and less high-affinity zinc binding sites than that of bacteria, however, bacteria are involved in more low-affinity heavy-metal-binding sites. Carboxyl group activity is more important at weak-binding sites than at strong-binding sites. TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that most of Zn removed from solution was associated with P. putida CZ1 in the composites. These results suggest that bacteria play an important role in regulating the mobility of heavy metals in the soil environment. PMID:18513961

  7. Investigations into B-O defect formation-dissociation in CZ-silicon and their effect on solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnyat, Prakash M.

    About 30% of the total market share of industrial manufacture of silicon solar cells is taken by single crystalline Czochralski (CZ) grown wafers. The efficiency of solar cells fabricated on boron-doped Czochralski silicon degrades due to the formation of metastable defects when excess electrons are created by illumination or minority carrier injection during forward bias. The recombination path can be removed by annealing the cell at about 200° C but recombination returns on exposure to light. Several mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline solar cells have been characterized by methods such as laser beam induced current (LBIC), Four-Probe electrical resistivity etc. to better understand the light induced degradation (LID) effect in silicon solar cells. All the measurements are performed as a function of light soaking time. Annealed states are produced by exposing the cells/wafer to temperature above 200° C for 30 minutes and light soaked state was produced by exposure to 1000 W/m2 light using AM1.5 solar simulator for 72 hours. Dark I-V data are analyzed by a software developed at NREL. This study shows that LID, typically, has two components- a bulk component that arises from boron-oxygen defects and a surface component that appears to be due to the SiNx:H-Si interface. With the analysis of dark saturation current (J02), it is seen that the surface LID increases with an increase in the q/2kT component. Results show that cell performance due to bulk effect is fully recovered upon annealing where as surface LID does not recover fully. This statement is also verified by the study of mc- silicon solar cells. Multi-crystalline silicon solar cell has very low oxygen content and, therefore, recombination sites will not be able to form. This shows that there is no bulk degradation in mc- Si solar cells but they exhibit surface degradation. The results suggest that a typical Cz-silicon solar cell with an initial efficiency of ˜18% could suffer a reduction in efficiency

  8. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance. PMID:27019330

  9. Sorption and distribution of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms as determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangcun; Chen, Xincai; Yang, Yuanqiang; Hay, Anthony G; Yu, Xiaohan; Chen, Yingxu

    2011-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of metals in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms was determined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF). It was found that Fe, Mn, and Ca were mainly distributed near the air-biofilm interface of a biofilm grown on 40 mM citrate, while there were two Fe-, Mn-, and Ca-rich layers within a biofilm grown on 10 mM citrate. The sorption of copper by biofilm grown in medium containing 10 mM citrate was rapid, with copper being found throughout the biofilm after only 1 h of exposure. Copper initially colocalized with Fe and Mn element layers in the biofilm and then precipitated in a 40-μm-thick layer near the air-biofilm interface when exposed for 12 h. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that Cu was primarily bound with citrate within the biofilm, and the precipitate formed in the biofilm exposed to copper for 12 h was most similar to copper phosphate. LIVE/DEAD staining revealed that cells at the biofilm-membrane interface were mostly alive even when the copper concentration reached 80.5 mg copper g(-1) biomass. This suggests that the biofilm matrix provided significant protection for cells in this area. These results significantly improve our understanding of metal acquisition, transportation, and immobilization in unsaturated biofilm systems. PMID:21642411

  10. Integration of bio- and geoscience data with the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem for the CZOData and BiG CZ Data projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a family of solutions to the challenges of integrating diverse data from of biological and geological (BiG) disciplines for Critical Zone (CZ) science. These standards and software solutions have been developed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, http://ODM2.org), which was designed as a profile of the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard. The ODM2 standards and software ecosystem has at it's core an information model that balances specificity with flexibility to powerfully and equally serve the needs of multiple dataset types, from multivariate sensor-generated time series to geochemical measurements of specimen hierarchies to multi-dimensional spectral data to biodiversity observations. ODM2 has been adopted as the information model guiding the next generation of cyberinfrastructure development for the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (http://www.iedadata.org/) and the CUAHSI Water Data Center (https://www.cuahsi.org/wdc). Here we present several components of the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem that were developed specifically to help CZ scientists and their data managers to share and manage data through the national Critical Zone Observatory data integration project (CZOData, http://criticalzone.org/national/data/) and the bio integration with geo for critical zone science data project (BiG CZ Data, http://bigcz.org/). These include the ODM2 Controlled Vocabulary system (http://vocabulary.odm2.org), the YAML Observation Data Archive & exchange (YODA) File Format (https://github.com/ODM2/YODA-File) and the BiG CZ Toolbox, which will combine easy-to-install ODM2 databases (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2) with a variety of graphical software packages for data management such as ODMTools (https://github.com/ODM2/ODMToolsPython) and the ODM2 Streaming Data Loader (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2StreamingDataLoader).

  11. Cz-Silicon Produced from Solar Grade and Recycled Materials. Part I: Bulk Properties and Formation of As-Grown Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes; Juel, Mari; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    The current paper is the first of two, investigating the properties of Czochralski-silicon (Cz-silicon) materials and solar cells produced with recycled and compensated silicon materials. In this work, impurity levels in two experimental Cz-silicon ingots were characterized by glow discharge mass spectroscopy and FTIR. The combined effects of these impurities on recombination properties were investigated by photoluminescence imaging and compared to bulk properties of a reference ingot. Ring pattern distribution of as-grown micro-defects in the ingots, related to elevated carbon and oxygen levels, were delineated based on the results of two steps of dry oxidation. Moreover, the mechanism of defect formation in the experimental Cz-Si during solidification and oxidation is elaborated in light of thermodynamic theories. Meanwhile, the positive effect of phosphorus in compensated feedstock is discussed in relation to the minority carrier lifetime based on the quasi-steady-state photoconductance results, as well as on the restricted formation of oxygen-related defects during solidification by analyzing samples after oxidation and copper decoration.

  12. The route to MBxNyCz molecular wheels: II. Results using accurate functionals and basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthler, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandey, R.; Boustani, I.

    2014-04-01

    Applying ab initio quantum chemical methods, molecular wheels composed of metal and light atoms were investigated. High quality basis sets 6-31G*, TZPV, and cc-pVTZ as well as exchange and non-local correlation functionals B3LYP, BP86 and B3P86 were used. The ground-state energy and structures of cyclic planar and pyramidal clusters TiBn (for n = 3-10) were computed. In addition, the relative stability and electronic structures of molecular wheels TiBxNyCz (for x, y, z = 0-10) and MBnC10-n (for n = 2 to 5 and M = Sc to Zn) were determined. This paper sustains a follow-up study to the previous one of Boustani and Pandey [Solid State Sci. 14 (2012) 1591], in which the calculations were carried out at the HF-SCF/STO3G/6-31G level of theory to determine the initial stability and properties. The results show that there is a competition between the 2D planar and the 3D pyramidal TiBn clusters (for n = 3-8). Different isomers of TiB10 clusters were also studied and a structural transition of 3D-isomer into 2D-wheel is presented. Substitution boron in TiB10 by carbon or/and nitrogen atoms enhances the stability and leads toward the most stable wheel TiB3C7. Furthermore, the computations show that Sc, Ti and V at the center of the molecular wheels are energetically favored over other transition metal atoms of the first row.

  13. Superdiffusion of Carbon by Vacancies Irradiated with Soft X-Rays in CZ Silicon / Superdifūzija Ar Vakancēm Iestarota Ar Mīkstajiem Rentgenstariem CZ Silīcijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Mekys, A.; Purlys, R.; Norgėla, Ž.; Daugėla, S.; Rinkūnas, R.

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray photons absorbed in the inner K, L, M shells of Si atoms produce photoelectrons and Auger electrons, thus generating vacancies, interstitials and metastable oxygen complexes. The samples of Czochralski silicon crystals covered with 0.1 μm thickness layer of carbon have been irradiated by X-rays using different voltages of Cu anode of the Russian diffractometer DRON-3M. The influence of X-rays on the formation of point defects and vacancy complexes, and their dynamics in Cz-Si crystals have been studied by infrared absorption. We have measured and calculated dynamics of concentration of carbon and interstitial oxygen using FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature after irradiation by soft X-rays. Using transmittance measurements and nonlinear diffusion theory we have calculated densities increasing for substitutional carbon and interstitial oxygen by reactions and very fast diffusion. The superdiffusion coefficients of carbon in silicon at room temperature generated by X-rays are about hundred thousand times greater than diffusion coefficients obtained for thermodiffusion. Rezumējums: Rentgena staru fotoni, absorbēti Si atoma iekšējos slāņos, izstaro fotoelektronus un Ožē elektronus, ģenerējot vakances, starpmezglu silīcija atomus, vakanču un skābekļa kompleksus. Čohraļska silīcija kristāli, kas pārklāti ar oglekli 0.1 μm biezuma kārtā, tika apstaroti ar rentgena stariem, izmantojot krievu difraktometru DRON-3M. Oglekļa un skābekļa difūzija un koncentrāciju izmaiņa silīcijā tika izmērīta izmantojot infrasarkano staru FTIR spektroskopiju. Rentgena staru ģenerētās ļoti ātrās oglekļa difūzijas vai superdifūzijas koeficients istabas temperatūrā silīcijā ir simtiem tūkstošu reižu lielāks nekā termodifūzijas gadījumā.

  14. Measurement of the Double Polarization Observables Cx and Cz for Λn Final-state Interactions in γd -->K+ Λn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong

    2015-04-01

    Building a comprehensive picture of the strong interaction is the goal of modern nuclear physics. While considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, we are still far from a complete understanding of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) interaction, which plays a key role in hypernuclear matter and neutron stars. For the YN potential, some parameters can be obtained from the NN potential by using SU(3) symmetry. However, other parameters cannot be obtained from the NN potential due to broken SU(3) and must be obtained from fits to experimental data. One can access the dynamics of the YN interaction by studying nuclear reactions in which hyperons are produced. In this talk we present preliminary results for the polarization transfers Cx and Cz from the photon to the hyperon for final-state interactions in γd -->K+ Λn and discuss their dependence on kinematic variables. We use data taken with the CLAS detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Our results are the first ever obtained for Cx and Cz and will provide stringent constraints on the theoretical models of the YN potential. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under Grant PHY-125782.

  15. The types and function of closed depressions in modern loess landscape of Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, E Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ska-Gawrysiak, Renata Kołodyń; Chabudziński, Łukasz

    2014-06-01

    The Nałęczów Plateau is characterised by the presence of a peculiar complex of loess relief forms, among which closed depressions are the most characteristic features (Maruszczak 1958). 1,761 closed depressions were documented within the Nałęczów Plateau (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012). They are small landforms with peculiar distribution and morphometric characteristics such as the dimensions of their longer axis and their size. The longer axis of more than half of the depressions (51.39%) is within the narrow range from 25 to 50 m. The size of 70% of all forms does not exceed 1,500 m2. These forms are also typified by a characteristic distribution in relation to the elements of loess relief. Their greatest concentration is on the plateau tops where 72% of all forms were documented. Closed depressions also occur in denudation troughs (16% of the forms), bottoms of erosion-denudation valleys (5%) and slopes (7%). Areas of concentration with 30-40 forms per km2 can be clearly distinguished in the spatial arrangement. Eleven areas of concentration, referred to as closed depression microregions, were identified in the study area (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012). So far, the origins of closed depressions in the loess areas in Poland have been linked with the development of piping processes within initial depressions associated with the dynamics of the loess cover sedimentation (Maruszczak 1954). The most recent research indicates that the development of closed depressions may have been determined by cryogenic processes (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak et al. in print). In Poland, closed depressions were studied in the loess areas of the Lublin Upland (Maruszczak 1954; Konecka-Betley, Maruszczak 1993; Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Chabudziński 2012; Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak et al. 2012), Sandomierz Upland (Czarnecki, Lewartowska-Urbańska 1987; Czarnecki, Solnceva 1992) and Carpathian Foothills (Wojtanowicz 1997). Closed depressions were also studied in

  16. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  17. Influence of grown-in defects on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer analyzed by a coupled model with the interaction of point defects, oxygen precipitates, and dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bing; Juel, Mari; Mhamdi, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    To illuminate the role of crystal growth process on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer, a coupled model, including the interaction of oxygen precipitates, point defects, and dislocation loops, has been used to test the influence of grown-in defects generated during crystal growth process. Several grown-in defect parameters such as density and size of oxygen precipitates and concentration of net silicon interstitials were checked. Results show that it is essential to control grown-in oxygen precipitate size and density, and net Si vacancy. By well controlling the three parameters less than some values, it is possible to remove the influence of crystal growth process on the final oxygen precipitates after heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer. Simple 1D results clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to control grown-in oxygen precipitates during crystal growth process.

  18. Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.; Zhang, X. W.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional CZ crystal growth, since formation of a cone tail takes a long time, from such a crystal to have been subject the long heat treatment it is not possible to observe actual distribution of vacancies (Vs) and interstitial atoms (Is) in a straight body of a crystal during growth. This experiment attempted to observe point defect distribution frozen by rapidly cooling a crystal that had been detached from a melt during growth to eliminate the effect of the time delay. Comparison between the experimental results of these specimens and the defect distributions of a conventionally pulled crystals revealed that Vs are introduced at a growth interface and the concentration of the Vs does not depend on the pulling rate. In addition, when the pulling rate is low, Is are generated by thermal stress which increases with increasing thermal gradient G because the amount of heat transfer by mass transfer is decreased and the crystal surface near the growth interface is cooled for longer period. As a result, the generation of Is due to the increase of the thermal stress is observed in an area referred to as an interstitial generation area (IGA) located above the vacancy region on the growth interface, where the crystal temperature is 1300 °C or more. This paper describes the recombination (Rc) mechanism by which these Is created in the IGA are recombined with Vs transformed through the growth interface, thereby creating an observable Rc area at a location where no defect can be detected.

  19. Partial Factors in Modelling of Steel Structures Reliability According to Eurocodes / Współczynniki Częściowe W Eurokodowym Modelu Niezawodności Konstrukcji Stalowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachura, Zbigniew; Giżejowski, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Problems associated with the estimation of partial factors for structural systems, subsystems and buckling of individual elements are dealt with in this paper. Aspects related to resistance factors for the section resistance and member resistance are in particular referred to. The Eurocode's approach of resistance partial factor calibration assisted by experimental data for subframe systems is also summarized. Stan graniczny nośności konstrukcji, projektowanej w tradycyjnym podejściu na podstawie efektów oddziaływań jest oceniany z niezawodnościowego modelu szeregowego. Kalibrację współczynników częściowych do nośności przeprowadza się wówczas na podstawie analizy niezawodności pojedynczego elementu konstrukcji (pręta lub węzła). Eurokod stalowy [4] wprowadził zasady projektowania bazujące na bardziej złożonych modelach nośności niż w [8], gdyż stan graniczny można ocenić na podstawie warunku stateczności technicznej podukładu konstrukcji lub w ogólności, jak przedstawia to warunek (2.1) - na podstawie punktu granicznego na ścieżce równowagi wyznaczonej dla nieidealnego modelu całej konstrukcji. Pojawia się pytanie, czy stosowanie do nośności wyznaczonej na podstawie bardziej złożonych modeli mechaniki konstrukcji współczynników częściowych wyspecyfikowanych do oceny nośności pojedynczych elementów prowadzi do bezpiecznych oszacowań. Kalibracja współczynników częściowych w metodzie stanów granicznych może być dokonana przy różnych założeniach wyjściowych. Model niezawodności i ogólne zasady przyjętego w eurokodach rozdziału docelowego wskaźnika niezawodności na składowe odnoszące się do ustalenia obliczeniowych oddziaływań i ich kombinacji oraz do ustalania nośności obliczeniowej zostały podane w eurokodzie [1]. W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia dotyczące przyjęcia współczynników częściowych do nośności układu lub podukładu konstrukcyjnego. Opisano eurokodową procedur

  20. Measurement of differential cross sections and Cx and Cz for gamma photon-proton going to kaon-lambda baryon and gamma photon-proton going to kaon-sigma baryon using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Robert K., Jr.

    This work presents several observables for the reactions gamma p → K+Λ and gamma p → K+Sigma°. In addition to measuring differential cross sections, we have made first measurements of the double polarization observables Cx and Cz. Cx and C z characterize the transfer of polarization from the incident photon to the produced hyperons. Data were obtained at Jefferson Lab using a circularly polarized photon beam at endpoint energies of 2.4, 2.9, and 3.1 GeV. Events were detected with the CLAS spectrometer. In the Λ channel, the cross sections support the recent observation of new resonant structure at W = 1900 MeV. Studies of the invariant cross section, dsdd show scaling behavior suggesting that the production mechanism becomes t-channel dominated near threshold at forward kaon angles. The double polarization observables show that the recoiling Λ is almost maximally polarized along the direction of the incident photon from mid to forward kaon angles. While Sigmao differential cross sections are of the same magnitude as the Λ differential cross sections, there is evidence of different physics dominating the production mechanism. The Sigma° invariant cross sections do not show the same t-scaling behavior present in the Λ results. The double polarization observables indicate that the Sigma° is not polarized as strongly as the Λ. They also fail to identify one preferred polarization axis. Complete interpretation of these results will rely on model calculations. Currently available isobar models obtain varying degrees of success while attempting to predict the double polarization observables. While the models are in better agreement with the differential cross sections, discrepancies with our cross sections indicate that they must be re-optimized in light of the new data. While the data suggest that a Regge model would provide a good description of K+Λ over most of the range in W, the available Regge calculation overstates the strength of the cross section

  1. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV–vis–NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology–Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission–Department of Atomic Research–Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR–KN/CSR–63/2014–2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  2. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV-vis-NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission-Department of Atomic Research-Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR-KN/CSR-63/2014-2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  3. High resolution studies of gully erosion, sedimentation processes, and land use changes since the late Pleistocene and future trajectories in the Kazimierz Dolny area (Nałęczów Plateau, SE-Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Rodzik, J.; Zgłobicki, W.; Schmitt, A.; Schmidtchen, G.; Bork, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of 30 years of research on the Doły Podmularskie gully system (catchment 0.35 km2 in size), which is situated in the south-western part of the loess-covered Nałęczów Plateau in SE-Poland. Detailed topographic, stratigraphic and pedologic investigations, and monitoring of a tributary gully (gully area: 0.7 ha, catchment: 2.5 ha), combined with historical, archaeological and palaeoecological records reveal a long and complex history in terms of the temporal and spatial extent and the impact of land use on gully erosion, and the long-term feed-back mechanisms between land use changes and natural processes since the end of the Pleistocene are also expressed. Phases of gully erosion and subsequent filling occurred in the Bronze Age and around the 10th to 11th century. The most severe deepening and expansion of the gully took place in the 17th century. The results also show that field structures and land use intensity had a significant influence on the frequency and magnitude of run-off, soil erosion, piping, and landslide events. The last significant erosion phase started in the mid-19th century with renewed headward retreatment and down-cutting into older gully fills. Today, most of the catchment is either forested or the land is covered in berry shrubs. In the future, the area will continue to produce sediments, because of the steep slopes and because there are still areas of bare soil with a low resistance to erosion, a legacy from past land uses, which will remain a factor affecting soil erosion and sedimentation processes in the future. This study is an example of how important it is to observe and understand slow geomorphologic processes, changes and rare extreme events in the light of land use changes when investigating long-term human-environment interactions.

  4. Process research of non-Cz material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1985-06-01

    Efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Lasers and other heat sources were tried. Successful results were gained by two different methods: laser and flash lamp. Polymer dopants were applied to both sides of dendritic web cells. Rapid heating and cooling avoided any cross contamination between two junctions after removal of the dendrites. Both methods required subsequent thermal annealing in an oven to produce maximum efficiency cells.

  5. Progress research of non-Cz silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The simultaneous diffusion of liquid boron and liquid phosphorus dopants into N-type dendritic silicon web for solar cells was investigated. It is planned that the diffusion parameters required to achieve the desired P(+)NN(+) cell structure be determined and the resultant cell properties be compared to cells produced in a sequential differential process. A cost analysis of the simultaneous junction formation process is proposed.

  6. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  7. Measuring Displacement and Contact Forces Among the Particles in Unloading of Slope by PFC2D (Particle Flow Code) / Pomiary przemieszczeń i sił kontaktu pomiędzy cząstkami materialnymi w trakcie wybierania wyrobiska pochyłego przy pomocy programu PFC2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, Seyed Saleh; Moarefvand, Parviz; Ahangari, Kaveh; Goshtasbi, Kamran

    2013-06-01

    przesuwających się mas gruntu i wybierania wyrobiska pochyłego w siedmiu etapach. We wszystkich siedmiu etapach modelowania obliczono maksymalne przemieszczenia i siły kontaktowe pomiędzy cząstkami gruntu. Maksymalne przemieszczenia zarejestrowano w etapie piątym wybierania wyrobiska pochyłego, wyniosło ono 134.8 m. Maksymalna siła kontaktowe, która wystąpiła w etapie pierwszym po ustaniu pierwotnego stanu równowagi, wyniosła 1917 kN. Model wybierania przesuwającej się masy gruntu przedstawiony w pracy jest jedynie przykładem, nie jest to ścisły model mający zastosowanie do modelowania ruchu przesuwających się mas gruntu w trakcie wybierania. Wybieranie przesuwających się mas gruntu zależy od warunków przemieszczania się masy gruntu, jej objętości a także ograniczeń narzuconych przez uwarunkowania górnicze.

  8. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  9. Numerical simulation of oxygen transport during the CZ silicon crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jyh-Chen; Teng, Ying-Yang; Wun, Wan-Ting; Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsueh-I.; Chen, Chi-Yung; Lan, Wen-Chieh

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the flow motion and heat transfer generated by the crystal and crucible rotation on the oxygen distribution inside the melt during Czochralski silicon crystal growth is investigated. When the crucible rotates in a direction opposite to the crystal rotation, Taylor-Proundman vortices appear in the region below the crystal. The diffusion of oxygen impurity from the crucible wall to the crystal-melt interface is suppressed by these Taylor-Proundman vortices, while heat transport from the crucible wall to the crystal-melt interface is blocked by the Taylor-Proundman vortices. With a higher crucible rotation rate, the size of the Taylor-Proundman vortices increases and the size of the buoyancy-thermocapillary vortices decreases. This causes the temperature at the crucible wall to rise and the evaporation of oxygen impurity on the free surface to decrease. Hence, the amount of oxygen impurity that diffuses into the melt towards the crystal-melt interface increases. The suppression from the Taylor-Proundman vortices is dominant for the smaller crucible rotation rate, while the enhancement from the oxygen impurity diffusion prevails for the higher crucible rotation rate. Therefore, there is an optimum combination of crucible and crystal rotation for obtaining the lowest oxygen concentration.

  10. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  11. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  12. Resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Cz-Si wafers as a possible diagnostic technique in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Ostapenko, S.; Anundson, R.; Tvinnereim, M.; Belyaev, A.; Anthony, M.

    2001-07-01

    The semiconductor industry does not have effective metrology for well implants. The ability to measure such deep level implants will become increasingly important as we progress along the technology road map. This work explores the possibility of using the acoustic whistle effect on ion implanted silicon wafers. The technique detects the elastic stress and defects in silicon wafers by measuring the sub-harmonic f/2 resonant vibrations on a wafer induced via backside contact to create standing waves, which are measured by a non-contact ultrasonic probe. Preliminary data demonstrates that it is sensitive to implant damage, and there is a direct correlation between this sub-harmonic acoustic mode and some of the implant and anneal conditions. This work presents the results of a feasibility study to assess and quantify the correspondent whistle effect to implant damage, residual damage after annealing and intrinsic defects.

  13. Assessment of Selected Aspects of Teaching Programming in SK and CZ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Záhorec, Jan; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Authors of this paper carried out a broader international research aimed at assessing the computer science education at upper secondary level of education--ISCED 3A. The assessed school subjects were informatics and programming as the most common school subjects taught at secondary schools within computer sciences. The assessment was based on the…

  14. Dependence of Precipitation Behavior of Cu and Ni in CZ Multicrystalline Silicon on Cooling Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Istratov, A. A.; Buonassisi, T.; Marcus, M. A.; Ciszek, T. F.; Weber, E. R.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the size, chemical state, and spatial distribution of metal clusters formed in substantially different cooling conditions of the samples. All samples were scratched on the back with Fe, Cu, and Ni wires and annealed at 1200 C for 2.5 hours in forming gas (N2+5% H2 ambient).

  15. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  16. MCZ: Striations in CZ silicon crystals grown under various axial magnetic field strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, G. K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Suppression of fluid flow instabilities in the melt by the axial magnetic field in Czochralski silicon crystal growth (AMCZ) is investigated precisely by a high-sensitivity striation etching in conjunction with temperature measurements. The magnetic strength (B) was varied up to 4.0 kG, incremented in 0.5 kG/5 cm crystal length. The convection flow was substantially suppressed at B 1.0 kG. A low oxygen level of 2-3 ppma and a high resistivity of 400 ohm-cm is achieved in the AMCZ silicon crystals at B 1.0 kG. Details of the striation formation as a function of B are presented. Computer simulation of the magnetohydrodynamics of the AMCZ silicon crystal growth are discussed briefly with regard to the solute, especially oxygen segregation at B=0, 1.0, and 2.0 kG. Earlier studies in the inverted Bridgman growth of InSb and Ge, which have established the cause and effect relationship between the convection in the melt and the striation formation as well as the suppression of the convections in the melt by transverse magnetic field are reviewed.

  17. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  18. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  19. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  20. Measurements of C_x and C_z for K^+Lambda and K^+Sigma^o Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bradford; Reinhard Schumacher

    2005-10-10

    The CLAS collaboration has recently completed first measurements of the double polarization observables C{sub x} and C{sub z} for the reactions K{sup +} Lambda and K{sup +} Sigma{sup o} photoproduction. C{sub x} and C{sub z} are the beam-recoil polarization asymmetries measuring the polarization transfer from incoming circularly polarized photons to the outgoing hyperons along two directions in the reaction's production plane. The Lambda is found to be nearly maximally polarized along the direction of the incident photon's polarization for forward-going kaons. Polarization transfer to the Sigma{sup o} is different from the Lambda case.

  1. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-02-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  2. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  3. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  4. Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2016-02-01

    The crystals were grown by a gradually decreased pulling rate method, a special crystal growing method, and detached from a melt during the growth so as to rapidly cool the grown crystal and then to observe the appearance and disappearance of point defects at the moment of the detachment. This observation - nearly in situ observation, as it were - revealed that vacancies (Vs) were introduced through a growth interface, and interstitials (Is) were generated at an interstitial generation area, an area at which the thermal stress was increased through the increased thermal gradient, above the growth interface. In the beginning of the gradually decreased pulling rate method, since the pulling rate was high, the Vs introduced through the growth interface remained in the crystal; as the pulling rate was decreased, the generation of the Is began from the interstitial generation area, and these interstitials were recombined with the Vs introduced through the growth interface, thereby forming a first recombination area. As the concentration of the Is increased due to a lower pulling rate, a dislocation loop region began to be formed. On the growth interface side of this dislocation loop region, a V region from the growth interface and a second recombination area were similarly formed. The formation of these two recombination areas proves that the growth interface was the V region. In this paper, the point defects and secondary defects thereof were observed by our three new observation methods and the etch-pit method used in product inspection. The results of these methods were consistent with all the above phenomenon.

  5. CO detections and IRAS observations of bright radio spiral galaxies at cz equal or less than 9000 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    CO emission has been detected from 20 of 21 bright radio spirals with strong extended nuclear sources, including the most distant (NGC 7674) and the most luminous (IC 4553 = Arp 220, NGC 6240) galaxies yet detected in CO. All of these galaxies are rich in molecular gas, with M total(H2) = 3 x 10 to the 8th - 2 x 10 to the 10th solar masses. IRAS observations show that they have a strong far-infrared (FIR) excess, with L(FIR)/L(B) approximately equal to 1-35 and L(FIR) (40-400 microns) approximately equal to 10 to the 10th - 10 to the 12th L solar masses. The primary luminosity source for these radio cores appears to be star formation in molecular clouds. A strong correlation is found between the FIR and extended 21 cm continuum flux, implying that the fraction of massive stars formed is independent of the star formation rate. The ratio L(FIR)/M(H2) provides a measure of the current rate of star formation, which is found to be a factor 3-20 larger in these galaxies than for the ensemble of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. At these rates their molecular gas will be depleted in about 10 to the 8th yr.

  6. Binary-induced magnetic activity?. Time-series echelle spectroscopy and photometry of HD 123351 = CZ CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Bartus, J.; Oláh, K.; Rice, J. B.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Multi-wavelength time-series observations with high cadence and long duration are needed to resolve and understand the many variations of magnetically active late-type stars, which is an approach often used to observe the Sun. Aims: We present a first and detailed study of the bright and active K0IV-III star HD 123351. Methods: We acquired a total of 955 high-resolution STELLA echelle spectra during the years 2006-2010 and a total of 2260 photometric VIC data points during 1998-2010. These data are complemented by some spectra from CFHT and KPNO. Results: The star is found to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 147.8919 ± 0.0003 days and a large eccentricity of e = 0.8086 ± 0.0001. The rms of the orbital solution is just 47 m s-1, making it the most precise orbit ever obtained for an active binary system. The rotation period is constrained from long-term photometry to be 58.32 ± 0.01 days. It shows that HD 123351 is a very asynchronous rotator, rotating five times slower than the expected pseudo-synchronous value. Two spotted regions persisted throughout the 12 years of our observations. We interpret them as active longitudes on a differentially rotating surface with a ΔP/P of 0.076. Four years of Hα, Ca ii H&K and He i D3 monitoring identifies the same main periodicity as the photometry but dynamic spectra also indicate that there is an intermittent dependence on the orbital period, in particular for Ca ii H&K in 2008. Line-profile inversions of a pair of Zeeman sensitive/insensitive iron lines yield an average surface magnetic-flux density of 542 ± 72 G. The time series for 2008 is modulated by the stellar rotation as well as the orbital motion, such that the magnetic flux is generally weaker during times of periastron and that the chromospheric emissions vary in anti-phase with the magnetic flux. We also identify a broad and asymmetric lithium line profile and measure an abundance of log n(Li) = 1.70 ± 0.05. The star's position in the H-R diagram indicates a mass of 1.2 ± 0.1 M⊙ and an age of 6-7 Gyr. Conclusions: We interpret the anti-phase relation of the magnetic flux with the chromospheric emissions as evidence that there are two magnetic fields present at the same time, a localized surface magnetic field associated with spots and a global field that is oriented towards the (low-mass) secondary component. We suggest that the inter-binary field is responsible for the magnetic-flux dilution at periastron. It is also likely to be responsible for the unexpected slow and asynchronous rotation of the primary star. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC, and the Potsdam Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes (APT) in Arizona, jointly operated by AIP and Fairborn Observatory.

  7. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  8. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  9. Flat-plate solar array project process development area, process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The program is designed to investigate the fabrication of solar cells on N-type base material by a simultaneous diffusion of N-type and P-type dopants to form an P(+)NN(+) structure. The results of simultaneous diffusion experiments are being compared to cells fabricated using sequential diffusion of dopants into N-base material in the same resistivity range. The process used for the fabrication of the simultaneously diffused P(+)NN(+) cells follows the standard Westinghouse baseline sequence for P-base material except that the two diffusion processes (boron and phosphorus) are replaced by a single diffusion step. All experiments are carried out on N-type dendritic web grown in the Westinghouse pre-pilot facility. The resistivities vary from 0.5 (UC OMEGA)cm to 5 (UC OMEGA)cm. The dopant sources used for both the simultaneous and sequential diffusion experiments are commercial metallorganic solutions with phosphorus or boron components. After these liquids are applied to the web surface, they are baked to form a hard glass which acts as a diffusion source at elevated temperatures. In experiments performed thus far, cells produced in sequential diffusion tests have properties essentially equal to the baseline N(+)PP(+) cells. However, the simultaneous diffusions have produced cells with much lower IV characteristics mainly due to cross-doping of the sources at the diffusion temperature. This cross-doping is due to the high vapor pressure phosphorus (applied as a metallorganic to the back surface) diffusion through the SiO2 mask and then acting as a diffusant source for the front surface.

  10. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  11. Low cost solar array project: Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Meniscus coates tests, back junction formation using a new boron containing liquid, tests of various SiO2 and boron containing liquids, pelletized silicon for replenishment during web growth, and ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study are discussed.

  12. Late-Variscan rare metal ore deposition and plume-related magmatism in the eastern European Variscides (D, CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Located at the northwestern border of the Bohemian Massif in the eastern part of the European Variscides, the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in Europe with a 800-year history of mining. The following rare metal resources are associated with late-Variscan (315 - 280 Ma), postmagmatic mineralization pulses in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory and surrounded areas: 900 kt Sn, 230 kt W, 10 kt Mo, 1 kt Ta, 300 kt Li, 200 kt Rb, 2 kt Cs, 1.5 kt In, 230 t Ge, 320 t Sc, 14 kt Sb, 10 kt Bi, and 3 kt Ag. At the end of the Variscan Orogeny the regional tectonic regime in Central Europe changed, indicating the beginning of the break-up of the supercontinent. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian in Europe was a period of widespread basin formation that was associated in many areas with mantle-derived magmatic activity. 300 Ma-old dike swarms in NE England and the Scottish Midland Valley, the Oslo Graben and Scania, radiate from a triple junction in the northernmost part of Jutland. This triple junction marked the axis of a deep-mantle plume centered in this area. In this context it is important to note that the mantle plume center is surrounded by significant lamprophyre intrusions which show in some districts spatial-time relationships to Sn-W-polymetallic, Ag-base metal, and U mineralization. During the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian an extensive magmatic province developed within the present northern and central Europe, intimately with extensional tectonics, in an area stretching from southern Scandinavia, through the North Sea, into Northern Germany. Peak magmatic activity was concentrated in a narrow time-span from 300 to 280 Ma. Simultaneously in Stephanian-Early Permian an intensive bimodal magmatism associated with intra-continental extensional setting occurs in the European Variscides. Permo-Carboniferous volcanism in the Spanish Central System, Iberian Ranges, Cantabrian Chain, Pyrenees and the French Massif Central includes a range of mafic calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rock types, and lamprophyres (spessartites and camptonites) with age data between 300-270 Ma. The Mid-European Variscides show a large number of Permo-Carboniferous magmatic complexes with similar ages (Halle Volcanic Complex, Saar-Nahe Basin, Thuringian Forest, Harz Mts., Northwest-Saxonian Volcanic Complexes, bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and the Rhyolite Complex of Tharandt as well as Li-F-Sn small intrusion granites and lamprophyric intrusions in the Erzgebirge. It is important to note that the late-Variscan W-Mo, Sn-W-Mo, Ag-bearing Sn-In-base metal, Ag-Sb-base metal, and U mineralizations in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory are spatially and temporal associated with intrusion centers of Permo-Carboniferous post-collisional mafic and rhyolitic (sub)volcanic bimodal magmatism (315-290 Ma) along deep-rooted NW-SE fault zones, especially at the intersections with NE-SW, E-W, and N-S major regional structural zones. The bimodal lamprophyre-rhyolite assemblage in the Erzgebirge / Sub-Erzgebirge basin area was formed during intracontinental rifting in a 'Fast Extension' setting by melting of a metasomatic enriched mantle source. The emplacement of fluid-enriched lamprophyres and F-rich rhyolitic intrusions at the same time is probably associated with decompression melting of updoming asthenosphere which is possibly associated with the above mentioned mantle plume.

  13. Overview of new GNSS tropospheric products for GNSS-meteorology and their assessment at Geodetic Observatory Pecny (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousa, J.; Vaclavovic, P.; Gyori, G.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP) has a long-term experience in the estimation of precise tropospheric parameters from GNSS permanent stations, in particular under the limited timelines of near real time. More than a decade, the GOP zenith total delays (ZTD) contributed to various projects in Europe (COST-716, TOUGH, E-GVAP, E-GVAP II) and the operational ZTD hourly updated product flows via the meteorological observation exchange network - GTS - to the end users worldwide. Currently, the GOP regional ZTD product is operationally assimilated in Météo France and UK MetOffice at least and further exploited in various ways at many other meteorological institutions. New developments at GOP over last three years consist of a) implementation and assessment of the global hourly ZTD product of about 170 stations, b) implementation of routine multi-GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) ZTD European product, and c) implementation of ultra-fast/real-time ZTD product. The GOP global ZTD product has been implemented on request of the meteorological institutions running global numerical weather forecasting models. The global ZTD product was seriously evaluated over ten months (Oct 2009 - Aug 2011) when compared to reprocessed EUREF and IGS ZTDs, radiosondes and ZTDs derived from UK MetOffice's global numerical weather model. After the evaluation (and on special request of UK MetOffice) the product has been switched from testing to operational status within the framework of the EUMETNET EIG GPS Water Vapour Programme (E-GVAP) and officially disseminated via the GTS network. The GOP multi-GNSS ZTD solution has been tested since 2009 shortly after developing GOP ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits for the International GNSS Service (IGS). A specific bias of mean value 1.5 mm was identified between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD at that time, and relation to the IGS05 antenna phase centre offset and variation models (PCO+PCV) identified. Consequently, the implementation of a routine operation has been done after the GPS week 1632 together with adopting IGS08 PCO+PCVs, which eliminated the bias and demonstrated an overall general better consistence between GPS- and GLONASS-only ZTD estimates. The multi-GNSS ZTD product runs in parallel to the GPS-only and is going to replace the current official GPS-only product after more than a year assessment. This multi-GNSS product has assesses a satisfactory quality and robustness of unofficial IGS ultra-rapid GPS+GLONASS orbits necessary for multi-GNSS solution. The GOP ultra-fast and real-time ZTD estimation is being developed with in-house software application using own G-Nut library and Precise Point Positioning technique (in contrast to all other GOP ZTD products based on Bernese GPS software and based on double-difference observations). The IGS Real-time Pilot Project orbit and clock corrections are seriously exploited in these ultra-fast and real-time tropospheric products aimed for nowcasting and severe weather monitoring. Our implementation assesses an optimal balance between timelines and product quality required by these applications.

  14. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  15. A Novel Acid-Stable Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028: Purification, Characterization, and Application in the Beverage Industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Xian, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhen; Huang, Ribo

    2016-06-28

    Acidic endo-polygalacturonases are the major part of pectinase preparations and extensively applied in the clarification of fruits juice, vegetables extracts, and wines. However, most of the reported fungal endo-polygalacturonases are active and stable under narrow pH range and low temperatures. In this study, an acidic endo-polygalacturonase (EPG4) was purified and characterized from a mutant strain of Penicillium oxalicum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EPG4 (ATTCTFSGSNGAASASKSQT) was different from those of reported endopolygalacturonases. EPG4 displayed optimal pH and temperature at 5.0 and 60-70°C towards polygalacturonic acid (PGA), respectively, and was notably stable at pH 2.2-7.0. When tested against pectins, EPG4 showed enzyme activity over a broad acidic pH range (>15.0% activity at pH 2.2-6.0 towards citrus pectin; and >26.6% activity at pH 2.2-7.0 towards apple pectin). The Km and Vmax values were determined as 1.27 mg/ml and 5,504.6 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PGA in endo-manner, releasing oligo-galacturonates from PGA, as determined by TLC. Addition of EPG4 (3.6 U/ml) significantly reduced the viscosity (by 42.4%) and increased the light transmittance (by 29.5%) of the papaya pulp, and increased the recovery (by 24.4%) of the papaya extraction. All of these properties make the enzyme a potential application in the beverage industry.

  16. Możliwoœci rozwoju turystyki rowerowej w północnej części Euroregionu Bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piech, Krzysztof; Lukiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Students of the External Faculty in Biała Podlaska during their bike camps have gone for many bike trips to the northern part of Euroregion Bug. They had a possibility to acquaint themselves with recreational and touristic facilities as well as nature and culture resources. Those trips have been a chance to mark new bike routes and create rules to organise bike trips including crossing of Polish-Belarusian border.

  17. Ordering of SiOxHyCz islands deposited by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch on Si(100) substrates patterned by nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landreau, X.; Lanfant, B.; Merle, T.; Laborde, E.; Dublanche-Tixier, C.; Tristant, P.

    2011-12-01

    SiO x H y C z nanometric layers are deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch on Si(100) substrates submitted to temperatures varying on the range [0 °C; 120 °C]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of samples grown at intermediate substrate temperatures (~30 °C) demonstrate a layer-by-layer growth (Frank van der Merwe growth) leading to smooth flat and compact films while films deposited at lower and higher substrates temperatures show an island-like growth (Volmer-Weber growth) generating a high surface roughness. Concomitantly, a detailed infrared spectroscopy analysis of the growing films evidences structural modifications due to changes in the bond types, Si-O-Si conformation and stoichiometry correlated with scanning electron microscopy and AFM characterizations. Then, deposition conditions and specific microstructure are selected with the aim of generating 3-dimensional SiO x H y C z nanostructure arrays on nanoindented Si (100) templates. The first results are discussed.

  18. Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

  19. A Novel Acid-Stable Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028: Purification, Characterization, and Application in the Beverage Industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Xian, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhen; Huang, Ribo

    2016-06-28

    Acidic endo-polygalacturonases are the major part of pectinase preparations and extensively applied in the clarification of fruits juice, vegetables extracts, and wines. However, most of the reported fungal endo-polygalacturonases are active and stable under narrow pH range and low temperatures. In this study, an acidic endo-polygalacturonase (EPG4) was purified and characterized from a mutant strain of Penicillium oxalicum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EPG4 (ATTCTFSGSNGAASASKSQT) was different from those of reported endopolygalacturonases. EPG4 displayed optimal pH and temperature at 5.0 and 60-70°C towards polygalacturonic acid (PGA), respectively, and was notably stable at pH 2.2-7.0. When tested against pectins, EPG4 showed enzyme activity over a broad acidic pH range (>15.0% activity at pH 2.2-6.0 towards citrus pectin; and >26.6% activity at pH 2.2-7.0 towards apple pectin). The Km and Vmax values were determined as 1.27 mg/ml and 5,504.6 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PGA in endo-manner, releasing oligo-galacturonates from PGA, as determined by TLC. Addition of EPG4 (3.6 U/ml) significantly reduced the viscosity (by 42.4%) and increased the light transmittance (by 29.5%) of the papaya pulp, and increased the recovery (by 24.4%) of the papaya extraction. All of these properties make the enzyme a potential application in the beverage industry. PMID:26907758

  20. Comment on "Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 434 (2016) 128-137] and on "Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique" by T. Abe et al. [J. Cryst. Growth 436 (2016) 23-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Jan; Kamiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Kozo; Sueoka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    In the papers mentioned above, Abe et al. published beautiful experimental data on intrinsic point defect related defect distributions in detached growing Czochralski Si crystals with and without additional thermal anneals [1,2]. The new fact compared to the results published before [3] is that the crystals are pulled with decreasing speed before detaching, resulting in crystals that vary along the axis from initially vacancy-rich to interstitial-rich for the slowest pulling speed before detaching.

  1. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, Joon Ching; Jiang Yajie; Meng Xiujuan; Cao Weiliang; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Zhang Jingchang . E-mail: zhangjc1@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-07-03

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid.

  2. CA/CPS: A Communications ZEBRA implementation using CPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.A.

    1991-05-01

    CZ/CPS is an implementation of the Communications ZEBRA distributed computing environment utilizing the CPS communications protocol. CZ/CPS is intended for parallelization of high energy physics application programs using the CERN Program Library memory and data structure management features. CZ/CPS provides transparent communication of ZEBRA data structures among cooperative processes using standard interfaces for ZEBRA I/O. Examples of usage in a CPS HBOOK4 and GEANT3 application are provided.

  3. Rare Earth Elements of Orzeskie Beds of South-West Part Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) / Pierwiastki Ziem Rzadkich Z Pokładów Węgla Warstw Orzeskich Południowo-Zachodniej Części Gzw (Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Białecka, Barbara; Moszko, Joanna Całusz; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the research concerned the coal samples from 360/1, 361 and 362/1 seams of the Orzesze beds in the "Pniówek" coal mine. The obtained samples were characterized by low ash content - 2.22- 6.27% of the mass. The chemical composition of the ash indicates the presence of aluminosilicate minerals in the analyzed coal samples - most likely clay minerals, the presence of which has been confirmed in microscopic tests of the petrographic composition of channel samples of coal. The content of rare earth elements (REE sum) in the ash of the tested coal seams ranged from 364 to 1429 ppm. Variation of the REE content has been observed within a single seam. The fraction of REE indicates a relation with a mineral substance. No relation of the REE fraction and the presence of red beds has been found based on the tested samples. The content of REE found in ash, normalized to chondrites, is characterized by LREE enrichment in relation to HREE. The Eu anomaly is most likely related to tuff and tonstein levels occurring in Orzesze beds, which accompany the coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (i.a., south of the studied area). The research has indicated that LREE in the tested samples are more related to the mineral substance, while HREE have a stronger affinity with organic substances. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów 360/1, 361 i 362/1 warstw orzeskich KWK Pniówek. Próbki te charakteryzują się niewielką zawartością popiołu 2,22-6,27% mas. Skład chemiczny popiołów wskazuje na obecność w analizowanych próbkach węgla minerałów z grupy glinokrzemianów najprawdopodobniej minerałów ilastych, których obecność była stwierdzona w badaniach mikroskopowych składu petrograficznego próbek bruzdowych węgla. Zawartości pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (suma REE) w popiołach badanych pokładów węgla wahają się od 364 do 1429 ppm. Obserwuje się zróżnicowanie zawartości REE w obrębie jednego pokładu. Udział REE wykazuje związek z substancją mineralną. Nie stwierdzono związku udziału REE, w badanych próbkach, z obecnością utworów pstrych w stropie karbonu. Zawartości REE oznaczone w popiołach, znormalizowane do chondrytów, charakteryzują się wzbogaceniem LREE wobec HREE. Anomalia Eu związana jest prawdopodobnie z występującymi w warstwach orzeskich (m.in. na północ od obszaru badań) Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego poziomami tufów i tonsteinów, które towarzyszą pokładom węgla. Badania wykazały, że LREE w badanych próbkach związane są raczej z substancją mineralną, natomiast HREE posiadają silniejsze powinowactwo z substancją organiczną.

  4. Identification of levothyroxine antichagasic activity through computer-aided drug repurposing.

    PubMed

    Bellera, Carolina L; Balcazar, Darío E; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A; Talevi, Alan; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  5. Identification of levothyroxine antichagasic activity through computer-aided drug repurposing.

    PubMed

    Bellera, Carolina L; Balcazar, Darío E; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A; Talevi, Alan; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite.

  6. Identification of Levothyroxine Antichagasic Activity through Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Bellera, Carolina L.; Balcazar, Darío E.; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A.; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  7. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-01

    Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  8. Photodegradation of the azole fungicide climbazole by ultraviolet irradiation under different conditions: Kinetics, mechanism and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Hu, Li-Xin; Yao, Li; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Tian, Fei

    2016-11-15

    Climbazole (CZ) has been known to persist in various environmental media, and may cause potential risks to aquatic organisms. This study investigated the photodegradation of CZ by ultraviolet (UV, 254nm) under different conditions. The results revealed that CZ could be effectively degraded in aqueous solutions under UV-254 irradiation with a half-life of 9.78min (pH=7.5), and the photodegradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. pH had almost no effect on its rate constants and quantum yields; but the water quality of natural waters could affect the photolysis of CZ, and the coexisting constituents such as Fe(3+), NO3(-), and HA obviously inhibited its photolysis. The addition of different radical scavengers also inhibited the photodegradation of CZ due to the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). CZ underwent direct and self-sensitized photolysis involving ROS. Based on the identified photodegradation by-products, the proposed pathways included hydroxylative dechlorination, dechlorination and de-pinacolone. Moreover, toxicity evaluation using duckweed found significant toxicity reduction in the photodegradation system of CZ after the irradiation of UV-254, and the remaining by-products did not pose extra toxicity compared with CZ itself. These findings from present study suggest that CZ in effluent could be further reduced by applying UV photolysis treatment. PMID:27378240

  9. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  10. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation.

  11. Cyclotriveratrylene-carbazole cage for self-assembly of C₆₀.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Caihong; Li, Lifeng; Chao, Jianbin; Han, Yujie; Dong, Chuan; Guo, Yujing; Shuang, Shaomin

    2013-03-15

    A novel open-bowl pyramidal compound cyclotriveratrylene-carbazole (CTV-CZ) was designed and synthesized. Its absorption and emission spectroscopic properties in different organic solvents were characterized. Three absorption peaks of CTV-CZ around 235 nm, 260 nm and 290 nm were observed. The fluorescence emission peaks were at about 353 nm and 368 nm using a solution of ∼10(-7)M CTV-CZ. The intermolecular interaction between CTV-CZ and fullerene (C₆₀) was studied in detail by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. CTV-CZ could associate with C₆₀ to form supramolecular complex with 1:1 molar ratio and the binding constant was estimated to be 5.0(6) × 10(4)M(-1) by fluorimetry. The formation of inclusion complex for CTV-CZ and C₆₀ was further confirmed by (1)H NMR and cyclic voltammetry. The downfield shift of protons of CTV-CZ in its (1)H NMR spectrum and the decrease of redox currents on addition of C₆₀ showed that photo induced electron transfer (PET) occurred from the electron donor CTV and CZ units to the electron acceptor C₆₀. PMID:23598151

  12. A case of imported Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 027 infection within the Czech Republic which has a high prevalence of C. difficile ribotype 176.

    PubMed

    Krutova, Marcela; Nyc, Otakar; Kuijper, Ed J; Geigerova, Lenka; Matejkova, Jana; Bergerova, Tamara; Arvand, Mardjan

    2014-12-01

    The first case of Clostridium difficile RT027 infection in the Czech Republic (CZ) was identified. The patient had been hospitalised in Germany prior to moving to CZ. Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis revealed a genetic relatedness between the patient's isolate and RT027 isolate collected in the German hospital.

  13. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The results of investigation of the associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coals Seams from Chwałowice Trough were presented in this article. The results of researches show that sandstones and mudstones dominate in the investigating profile. Claystones are situated mainly in ceilings and floors of coal seams. Grains of sandstones include mainly quartz, feldspars, micas and also quartzite's and gneiss's fragments. It is also possible to observe small grains of heavy minerals. Some of sandstones present bad compactness and are destroyed during transportation. This feature is connected with presence of little quantity of cement, especially in medium grained sandstones, which include more matrix than typical cement. The cement is built mainly of clay minerals, kaolinite and illite, carbonates and chalcedony but X-ray diffraction confirmed also the presence of halite in the cement of investigated sandstones. Mudstones and claystones are composed mainly of clay minerals. It's also possible to find quartz and micas there. Higher amounts of quartz and micas are possible to find rather in mudstones. The associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coal Seams from Chwałowice Trough include also organic matter. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań skał towarzyszących pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w badanym profilu dominują piaskowce oraz mułowce. Iłowce natomiast występują głównie w stropach i spągach pokładów węgla. Okruchy piaskowców to głównie ziarna kwarcu, skaleni, mik oraz fragmenty kwarcytów i gnejsów. Można tu również zaobserwować drobne okruchy minerałów ciężkich. Niektóre piaskowce charakteryzują się obniżoną zwięzłością i podczas transportu ulegają rozpadowi. Cecha ta związana jest z niewielką ilością spoiwa, szczególnie w piaskowcach średnioziarnistych, w których matrix przeważa nad typowym cementem. Spoiwo zbudowane jest głównie z minerałów ilastych, takich jak kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  14. Optical basicity and polarizability for copper-zinc doped sol-gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, G.; Amjotkaur, Pandey, O. P.; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-05-01

    CaO-SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been studied by varying ratios of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Glasses were prepared using Sol-Gel technique. Opitical Basicity and oxide ion Polarizability were calculated and discussed in relation with non bridging Oxygen ions (NBOs). Optical basicity is average electron donating capability of an oxide atom. All glasses had a little difference in optical basicity and polarizability values but CZ8 glass (20CaO-60SiO2-5B2O3-5P2O5-2CuO-8ZnO) came out to show highest optical basicity and polarizability with value 0.5177 and 0.9798 respectively. This showed the highest electron donating tendency of CZ8 glass and highest number of NBOs. These were minimum for CZ2 glass with 8CuO and 2ZnO. In aspect of optical basicity and polarizability glasses follow the series CZ2 < CZ4 < CZ6 < CZ8. Increasing concentration of ZnO and decreasing concentration of CuO lead to higher optical basicity and oxide ion polarizability.

  15. Cytokinin Activity of cis-Zeatin and Phenotypic Alterations Induced by Overexpression of Putative cis-Zeatin-O-glucosyltransferase in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Toru; Makita, Nobue; Kojima, Mikiko; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    cis-Zeatin (cZ) is generally regarded as a cytokinin with little or no activity, compared with the highly active trans-zeatin (tZ). Although recent studies suggested possible roles for cZ, its physiological significance remains unclear. In our studies with rice (Oryza sativa), cZ inhibited seminal root elongation and up-regulated cytokinin-inducible genes, and its activities were comparable to those of tZ. Tracer experiments showed that exogenously supplied cZ-riboside was mainly converted into cZ derivatives but scarcely into tZ derivatives, indicating that isomerizations of cZ derivatives into tZ derivatives are a minor pathway in rice cytokinin metabolism. We identified three putative cZ-O-glucosyltransferases (cZOGT1, cZOGT2, and cZOGT3) in rice. The cZOGTs preferentially catalyzed O-glucosylation of cZ and cZ-riboside rather than tZ and tZ-riboside in vitro. Transgenic rice lines ectopically overexpressing the cZOGT1 and cZOGT2 genes exhibited short-shoot phenotypes, delay of leaf senescence, and decrease in crown root number, while cZOGT3 overexpressor lines did not show shortened shoots. These results propose that cZ activity has a physiological impact on the growth and development of rice. PMID:22811434

  16. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

  17. Seeking GUTH, the Grand Unified Theory of Hillslopes: Linking Weathering, Erosion and Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Dietrich, W. E.; Rempe, D.; West, N.; Brantley, S. L.; Bacon, A. R.; Buss, H. L.; Fisher, B.; Flinchum, B. A.; Holbrook, W. S.; Klos, P. Z.; Leopold, M.; Moon, S.; Nielson, T.; Pelletier, J. D.; Terry, N.

    2015-12-01

    Critical zone (CZ) architecture—the spatial distribution of soil and weathered bedrock within a landscape—reflects the integrated effects of weathering and erosion. A goal is to predict subsurface CZ architecture from surface observations: such a Grand Unified Theory of Hillslopes (GUTH) would incorporate processes that transport water, solutes and sediment on hillslopes under topographic, tectonic, and climatic drivers. CZ architecture itself exerts strong control on fluxes. Therefore, feedbacks between CZ structure and internal processes play a role in CZ evolution. Development of GUTH is limited by a paucity of data that reveal the full CZ architecture and its spatial distribution, although efforts by the CZ Observatory community and others have advanced our understanding. Subsurface properties can be documented by direct sampling of soil, weathered rock, and fresh rock. Samples allow analysis of chemical and physical properties but generally lack spatial coverage. Geophysical techniques, such as seismic refraction, yield spatially distributed data, but are rarely correlated to sample-based data. Combining distributed and sample data, especially for deep CZ samples, presents an opportunity to advance understanding. Thermal, biological, and hydrological surface drivers tend to decline in intensity with depth. A significant challenge is therefore identifying and modeling processes that extend weathering downward under declining gradients. Significant gaps exist in models of water flux and chemistry in variably fractured media, of biotic processes (physical and chemical), and of fracture generation. Topographic stress and groundwater dynamics have been advanced as important drivers of CZ evolution. In both cases, the full hillslope must be considered, including dynamics of the lower boundary condition, to model development of a weathered profile. We therefore highlight the need for data and models that consider the hillslope from divide to channel, from surface

  18. Simple Bipolar Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue, Green, and White Phosphorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Liu, Di; Jin, Qian

    2016-08-31

    3-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine is used as electron-transporting unit to construct bipolar host materials o-CzPyPz, m-CzPyPz, and p-CzPyPz for application in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). By varying the ortho-, meta-, or para-linking mode between the n-type 3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and the p-type carbazole on phenylene bridge, the optoelectronic parameters are tuned to large extent. The highly twisted o-CzPyPz has high triplet energy of 2.95 eV, while the isomer p-CzPyPz with more coplanar conformation has smaller triplet energy of 2.67 eV. The m-CzPyPz-hosted blue PhOLED exhibits a peak current efficiency of 49.1 cd A(-1) (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 24.5%) and low-efficiency roll-off, while the p-CzPyPz-hosted green PhOLEDs turns on at 2.8 V and exhibits high efficiencies of 91.8 cd A(-1) (96.1 lm W(-1) and 27.3%). Furthermore, two-emitting-layer white OLEDs are fabricated with m-CzPyPz or p-CzPyPz as common hosts for both blue and orange phosphors, which realize high efficiencies of 57.8 cd A(-1) (45.4 lm W(-1) and 23.6%) and 60.7 cd A(-1) (38.1 lm W(-1) and 23.1%). The optimization of host structure for good matching of host and dopant and finally for the ideal performance is discussed. PMID:27517473

  19. Crossing disciplines and scales to understand the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Vala, Ragnarsdottir K.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the system of coupled chemical, biological, physical, and geological processes operating together to support life at the Earth's surface. While our understanding of this zone has increased over the last hundred years, further advance requires scientists to cross disciplines and scales to integrate understanding of processes in the CZ, ranging in scale from the mineral-water interface to the globe. Despite the extreme heterogeneities manifest in the CZ, patterns are observed at all scales. Explanations require the use of new computational and analytical tools, inventive interdisciplinary approaches, and growing networks of sites and people.

  20. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  1. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  2. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  3. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of shower room 216 with original marble surround ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of shower room 2-16 with original marble surround and double sash windows, facing east. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen dresser, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Longitudinal section. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). First floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Front elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Second floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), Right side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Left side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Rear elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. False-positive Chlamydiazyme results during urine sediment analysis due to bacterial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Demaio, J; Boyd, R S; Rensi, R; Clark, A

    1991-01-01

    Our study examined whether urinary tract infections (UTIs) would cause false-positive results when urine sediment was tested with the Chlamydiazyme (CZ) system. Thirty-six infected urine samples and fifteen controls were studied. All controls were negative. Forty-seven percent of Escherichia coli UTIs (n = 30) and 100% of Klebsiella pneumoniae UTIs (n = 4) were positive on CZ testing of urine sediment. Nine E. coli UTIs positive by CZ were negative by direct fluorescent-antibody staining. When suspensions of the pure cultures were analyzed, 47% of E. coli and 100% of K. pneumoniae samples were CZ positive. False-positive results were not related to organism biotype or urine characteristics, including pH, specific gravity, and leukocyte count. We conclude that the presence of a UTI and also bacterial contamination must be ruled out prior to urine sediment testing. PMID:1885739

  14. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. General view of building in context showing row of residences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing row of residences adjacent to golf course, facing northeast. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath fixtures, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Interior detail of original ceilingmounted light fixtures in room 213, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of original ceiling-mounted light fixtures in room 2-13, facing east. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior window opening, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground floor and mission scrolls, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and west bedrooms showing bar transoms, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue Avenue Circle, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser and structural system, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bifold ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bi-fold door to hall, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining area and china dresser in background, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215A. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5A. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Side elevation - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing original steel wall-mounted ladder, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main entry hall showing stairs and original pipe handrails, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in distance, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed window awnings, and decorative parapet coping, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Detail of southwest corner eave with brackets, stringer, and rafters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southwest corner eave with brackets, stringer, and rafters supporting exposed roof decking and tile roof, facing northwest. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative crawl space vents, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Critical Zone Science: a new scientific paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Nord, G.; André, F.

    2014-12-01

    The main merit of the Critical Zone (CZ) Science is to foster multidisciplinary approaches on one of the most important envelopes of our Planet, the zone on which humanity lives and on which humans develop their societies. Policy makers and stakeholders also require a more unified scientific vision on the behavior of the CZ. The CZ science is not new and many communities have been doing CZ science for many decades. CZ-type observatories have been developed in most of the countries for different aims but generally lack of an integrated approach. When hydrologic measurements are made, they are generally not associated to geochemical measurements and the situation is worst for biological parameters. Instrumental geophysics of the CZ has done impressive progresses over the last decades but the misfit between the scientific questions and instrumental development is still a challenging issue. We will take the example of the French initiatives to build up a wide community of CZ scientists ("critical zonists") at the national scale taking into account decades of instrumentation and observation. More than creating new CZOs the French national research agencies helped foster collaboration between existing infrastructures by funding networking activities and developing significant investment programs for new equipment. We will review the main challenges of creating CZ networks based on existing funded research infrastructures and highlight the main instrumental challenges that need to be addressed to explore and understand the CZ in a modern way. The French initiatives mirror the European initiatives and the need for developing the links between the geo-centered initiative CZ concept and the ecology-centered concepts of LTER (and more recently LTSER) at the European scale. This willingness of linking historically separated communities is a stimulating opportunity for the advance of integrated Earth and Life sciences. As quoted by Bruno Latour (2014) the new environmental

  7. Generation of a high-valent iron imido corrolazine complex and NR group transfer reactivity.

    PubMed

    Leeladee, Pannee; Jameson, Guy N L; Siegler, Maxime A; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2013-04-15

    The generation of a new high-valent iron terminal imido complex prepared with a corrolazine macrocycle is reported. The reaction of [Fe(III)(TBP8Cz)] (TBP8Cz = octakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato) with the commercially available chloramine-T (Na(+)TsNCl(-)) leads to oxidative N-tosyl transfer to afford [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] in dichloromethane/acetonitrile at room temperature. This complex was characterized by UV-vis, Mössbauer (δ = -0.05 mm s(-1), ΔE(Q) = 2.94 mm s(-1)), and EPR (X-band (15 K), g = 2.10, 2.00) spectroscopies, and together with reactivity patterns and DFT calculations has been established as an iron(IV) species antiferromagnetically coupled with a Cz-π-cation-radical (S(total) = 1/2 ground state). Reactivity studies with triphenylphosphine as substrate show that [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] is an efficient NTs transfer agent, affording the phospharane product Ph3P═NTs under both stoichiometric and catalytic conditions. Kinetic analysis of this reaction supports a bimolecular NTs transfer mechanism with rate constant of 70(15) M(-1) s(-1). These data indicate that [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] reacts about 100 times faster than analogous Mn terminal arylimido corrole analogues. It was found that two products crystallize from the same reaction mixture of Fe(III)(TBP8Cz) + chloramine-T + PPh3, [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz)(NPPh3)] and [Fe(III)(TBP8Cz)(OPPh3)], which were definitively characterized by X-ray crystallography. The sequential production of Ph3P═NTs, Ph3P═NH, and Ph3P═O was observed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy and led to a proposed mechanism that accounts for all of the observed products. The latter Fe(III) complex was then rationally synthesized and structurally characterized from Fe(III)(TBP8Cz) and OPPh3, providing an important benchmark compound for spectroscopic studies. A combination of Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies led to the characterization of both intermediate spin (S = 3/2 and low spin (S = 1/2) Fe(III) corrolazines, as

  8. Generation of a high-valent iron imido corrolazine complex and NR group transfer reactivity.

    PubMed

    Leeladee, Pannee; Jameson, Guy N L; Siegler, Maxime A; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2013-04-15

    The generation of a new high-valent iron terminal imido complex prepared with a corrolazine macrocycle is reported. The reaction of [Fe(III)(TBP8Cz)] (TBP8Cz = octakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato) with the commercially available chloramine-T (Na(+)TsNCl(-)) leads to oxidative N-tosyl transfer to afford [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] in dichloromethane/acetonitrile at room temperature. This complex was characterized by UV-vis, Mössbauer (δ = -0.05 mm s(-1), ΔE(Q) = 2.94 mm s(-1)), and EPR (X-band (15 K), g = 2.10, 2.00) spectroscopies, and together with reactivity patterns and DFT calculations has been established as an iron(IV) species antiferromagnetically coupled with a Cz-π-cation-radical (S(total) = 1/2 ground state). Reactivity studies with triphenylphosphine as substrate show that [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] is an efficient NTs transfer agent, affording the phospharane product Ph3P═NTs under both stoichiometric and catalytic conditions. Kinetic analysis of this reaction supports a bimolecular NTs transfer mechanism with rate constant of 70(15) M(-1) s(-1). These data indicate that [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz(+•))(NTs)] reacts about 100 times faster than analogous Mn terminal arylimido corrole analogues. It was found that two products crystallize from the same reaction mixture of Fe(III)(TBP8Cz) + chloramine-T + PPh3, [Fe(IV)(TBP8Cz)(NPPh3)] and [Fe(III)(TBP8Cz)(OPPh3)], which were definitively characterized by X-ray crystallography. The sequential production of Ph3P═NTs, Ph3P═NH, and Ph3P═O was observed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy and led to a proposed mechanism that accounts for all of the observed products. The latter Fe(III) complex was then rationally synthesized and structurally characterized from Fe(III)(TBP8Cz) and OPPh3, providing an important benchmark compound for spectroscopic studies. A combination of Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies led to the characterization of both intermediate spin (S = 3/2 and low spin (S = 1/2) Fe(III) corrolazines, as

  9. Photophysical properties and computational investigation on substituent effects on the structural and electronic properties of 3,6-di(thiophene-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriyab, Suwannee; Gleeson, Matthew Paul; Hannongbua, Supa; Suramitr, Songwut

    2016-12-01

    A series of 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives, 3,6-CzTh-(1), 3,6-CzTh-(2), 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4), were synthesized to investigate the influence of structural distortion on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) complexation between the conjugation components and carbazole core unit of the 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives. The 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives were synthesized and analysed using UV-Visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The electron-donating substituents on the carbazole core unit, which was linked by formyl and acetyl at the 3,6-positions of the carbazole core so as to directly involve the electron-donating edge substituents in backbone, exhibited conjugation breaks in the middle of the carbazole core units. The break lead to a planar structure with an extraordinary ability to stabilize on the excited state resulting in a strong fluorescence quantum yield (Vfluo ≈ 0.6-0.7). The results of the Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were in agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that the low fluorescence of 3,6-CzTh-(1) and 3,6-CzTh-(2) is derived not only from intersystem crossing but also from internal conversion due to the proximity effect; this inference was also supported by the measurements of the photoluminescence spectra at low temperatures. In addition, factors leading efficiently to non-radiative processes were shown to be absent in 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4). This work deepens our understanding of 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives and provides insight into the future design of novel materials for improved fluorescence efficiencies and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26256338

  11. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  12. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  13. A striking common O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyl moiety between cruzipain and myosin.

    PubMed

    Acosta, D M; Soprano, L L; Ferrero, M; Landoni, M; Esteva, M I; Couto, A S; Duschak, V G

    2011-07-01

    Single units of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), usually components of nuclear and cytoplasmatic proteins, are present at the C-terminal domain of cruzipain (Cz), a lysosomal major antigen from Trypanosoma cruzi. On the other hand, antibodies directed against some self-antigens like myosin are associated with Chagas heart disease. The participation of O-GlcNAc moieties in the molecular antigenicity of Cz was determined using GlcNAc linked to aprotinin by ELISA. The immune cross-reactivity between Cz and myosin is mainly focused in the C-T domain. ELISA inhibition assays using rabbit sera specific for Cz and C-T in conjunction with immune-gold electron microscopy analysis of heart tissues from mice immunized with C-T confronted with polyclonal rabbit sera specific for Cz and C-T prior and after myosin adsorption provided evidence which indicates that O-GlcNAc moieties constitute a common epitope between Cz and either myosin or other cardiac O-GlcNAc-containing proteins, showing a new insight into the molecular immune pathogenesis of Chagas heart disease. PMID:21426361

  14. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  15. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  16. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on (31)P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  17. Strong Inhibition of O-Atom Transfer Reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(π-Radical-Cation)(Lewis Acid) versus Mn(V)(O) Porphyrinoid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-05-27

    The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity of two valence tautomers of a Mn(V)(O) porphyrinoid complex was compared. The OAT kinetics of Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) reacting with a series of triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates were monitored by stopped-flow UV-vis spectroscopy, and revealed second-order rate constants ranging from 16(1) to 1.43(6) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the OAT transition state analogues Mn(III)(OPPh3)(TBP8Cz) and Mn(III)(OP(o-tolyl)3)(TBP8Cz) was carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). A valence tautomer of the closed-shell Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can be stabilized by the addition of Lewis and Brønsted acids, resulting in the open-shell Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA (LA = Zn(II), B(C6F5)3, H(+)) complexes. These Mn(IV)(O)(π-radical-cation) derivatives exhibit dramatically inhibited rates of OAT with the PAr3 substrates (k = 8.5(2) × 10(-3) - 8.7 M(-1) s(-1)), contrasting the previously observed rate increase of H-atom transfer (HAT) for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA with phenols. A Hammett analysis showed that the OAT reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA is influenced by the Lewis acid strength. Spectral redox titration of Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):Zn(II) gives Ered = 0.69 V vs SCE, which is nearly +700 mV above its valence tautomer Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (Ered = -0.05 V). These data suggest that the two-electron electrophilicity of the Mn(O) valence tautomers dominate OAT reactivity and do not follow the trend in one-electron redox potentials, which appear to dominate HAT reactivity. This study provides new fundamental insights regarding the relative OAT and HAT reactivity of valence tautomers such as M(V)(O)(porph) versus M(IV)(O)(porph(•+)) (M = Mn or Fe) found in heme enzymes.

  18. Calmidazolium evokes high calcium fluctuations in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Budu, Alexandre; Gomes, Mayrim M; Melo, Pollyana M; El Chamy Maluf, Sarah; Bagnaresi, Piero; Azevedo, Mauro F; Carmona, Adriana K; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2016-03-01

    Calcium and calmodulin (CaM) are important players in eukaryote cell signaling. In the present study, by using a knockin approach, we demonstrated the expression and localization of CaM in all erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, calmidazolium (CZ), a potent CaM inhibitor, promoted a transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase in isolated trophozoites, indicating that CZ mobilizes intracellular sources of calcium. In the same extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions, the [Ca(2+)]cyt rise elicited by CZ treatment was ~3.5 fold higher when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store was previously depleted ruling out the mobilization of calcium from the ER by CZ. The effects of the Ca(2+)/H(+) ionophore ionomycin (ION) and the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin (MON) suggest that the [Ca(2+)]cyt-increasing effect of CZ is driven by the removal of Ca(2+) from at least one Ca(2+)-CaM-related (CaMR) protein as well as by the mobilization of Ca(2+) from intracellular acidic calcium stores. Moreover, we showed that the mitochondrion participates in the sequestration of the cytosolic Ca(2+) elicited by CZ. Finally, the modulation of membrane Ca(2+) channels by CZ and thapsigargin (THG) was demonstrated. The opened channels were blocked by the unspecific calcium channel blocker Co(2+) but not by 2-APB (capacitative calcium entry inhibitor) or nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor). Taken together, the results suggested that one CaMR protein is an important modulator of calcium signaling and homeostasis during the Plasmodium intraerythrocytic cell cycle, working as a relevant intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir in the parasite.

  19. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  20. Brunt-Vaisala growth rate and the radial emergence of equipartition fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Silva, S.

    1995-04-01

    It is believed that the dynamo operates in the overshoot region at the base of the solar convection zone (CZ), and the magnetic features we see at the surface are formed when flux tubes rise through the CZ and appear at the photosphere. Studies of dynamics of flux tubes have pointed out that 10 kG tubes, which are nearly in energy equipartition with the velocity field at the base of the CZ, are weakly buoyant and hence overwhelmed by the Coriolis force. They move parallel to the rotation axis and emerge at very high latitudes, well above the sunspot zone, which makes it difficult to explain the formation of sunspots. Influence of the Coriolis force was found to be overcome only if flux tubes were stronger than roughly a 100 kG. The Brunt-Vaisala growth rate (we define as the square root of the absolute value of N2; where N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency) of the CZ plays an imporatnt role in the dynamics of rising flux tubes. In an isothermal rise, when the flux tube is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, absolute value of N2 is shown to play a negligible role. However, in an adiabatic rise the role of absolute value of N2 is dominant; if absolute value of N2 is larger than roughly 10-12/sq sec in the lower CZ, magnetic buoyancy is shown to rise exponentially as the flux tube emerges. Further if absolute value of N2 greater than 4 x 10-11/sq sec, the exponential rise is sufficiently rapid to enable equipartition fields to overcome the influence of the Coriolis force and emerge rapidly. In the CZ of the solar model of Christensen-Dalsgaard, Proffitt, & Thompson (1993; model CPT) equipartition fields are found to emerge at high latitudes. However, an increase of absolute value of N2 in the lower CZ, on average, roughly by a factor of 8 would make them emerge radially to sunspot latitudes. If this is possible, there would be no need for the dynamo to produce extraordinarily strong fields to explain the formation of sunspots. Conversely, if such a large

  1. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy. PMID:26312947

  2. Changes in p300 following two yoga-based relaxation techniques.

    PubMed

    Sarang, S P; Telles, Shirley

    2006-12-01

    Cyclic meditation (CM) is a technique that combines "stimulating" and "calming" practices, based on a statement in ancient yoga texts suggesting that such a combination may be especially helpful to reach a state of mental equilibrium. The changes in the peak latency and peak amplitude of P300 auditory event-related potentials were studied before and after the practice of cyclic meditation compared to an equal duration of supine rest in 42 volunteers (group mean age +/- SD, 27 +/- 6.3 years), from Fz, Cz, and Pz electrode sites referenced to linked earlobes. The sessions were one day apart and the order was alternated. There was reduction in the peak latencies of P300 after cyclic meditation at Fz, Cz, and Pz compared to the "pre" values. A similar trend of reduction in P300 peak latencies at Fz, Cz, and Pz was also observed after supine rest, compared to the respective "pre" values, although the magnitude of change in each case was less after supine rest compared to after cyclic meditation. The P300 peak amplitudes after CM were higher at Fz, Cz, and Pz sites compared to the "pre" values. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the P300 peak amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz after supine rest compared to the respective "pre" state. The present results support the idea that "cyclic" meditation enhances cognitive processes underlying the generation of the P300.

  3. Hydrological partitioning in the critical zone: Recent advances and opportunities for developing transferable understanding of water cycle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Fan, Ying; Godsey, Sarah E.; Maxwell, Reed M.; McNamara, James P.; Tague, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Hydrology is an integrative discipline linking the broad array of water-related research with physical, ecological, and social sciences. The increasing breadth of hydrological research, often where subdisciplines of hydrology partner with related sciences, reflects the central importance of water to environmental science, while highlighting the fractured nature of the discipline itself. This lack of coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines has hindered the development of hydrologic theory and integrated models capable of predicting hydrologic partitioning across time and space. The recent development of the concept of the critical zone (CZ), an open system extending from the top of the canopy to the base of groundwater, brings together multiple hydrological subdisciplines with related physical and ecological sciences. Observations obtained by CZ researchers provide a diverse range of complementary process and structural data to evaluate both conceptual and numerical models. Consequently, a cross-site focus on "critical zone hydrology" has potential to advance the discipline of hydrology and to facilitate the transition of CZ observatories into a research network with immediate societal relevance. Here we review recent work in catchment hydrology and hydrochemistry, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology that highlights a common knowledge gap in how precipitation is partitioned in the critical zone: "how is the amount, routing, and residence time of water in the subsurface related to the biogeophysical structure of the CZ?" Addressing this question will require coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines and interfacing sciences, and catalyze rapid progress in understanding current CZ structure and predicting how climate and land cover changes will affect hydrologic partitioning.

  4. Results from Coalbed Methane Drilling in Winn Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Richard, Troy E.; Ross, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    A coalbed methane (CBM) well in Winn Parish, Louisiana, named CZ Fee A No. 114, was drilled by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., in January 2004. The CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well was drilled to a total depth of 3,114 ft and perforated at 2,730-2,734 ft in a Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal bed. Analytical data from the drilling project have been released by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., and by the current well operator, Hilcorp Energy Corporation (see Appendix) to the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for publication. General information about the CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well is compiled in Table 1, and analytical data from the well are included in following sections. The CZ Fee A No. 114 well is located in eastern Winn Parish, approximately 30 mi east of where Wilcox Group strata crop out on the Sabine Uplift (fig. 1). In the CZ Fee A No. 114 well, lower Wilcox Paleocene coal beds targeted for CBM production occur at depths of 2,600-3,000 ft (fig. 2). Average monthly gas production for the reporting period August 1, 2004, through May 1, 2005, was 450 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) (Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 2005).

  5. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy. PMID:26312947

  6. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; Brooks, Paul D.; Troch, Peter A.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Craig

    2016-03-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high-elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment-scale discharge, and satellite-derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). Although we do not know the timescales of CZ change, these results suggest an upward migration of CZ/ecosystem structure on the order of 100 m decade-1, and that decadal-scale differences in EEMT are similar to the differences between convergent/hydrologically subsidized and planar/divergent landscapes, which have been shown to be very different in vegetation and CZ structure.

  7. Enhancement of carotenoids biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by nuclear transformation using a phytoene synthase gene isolated from Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Baldo F; Couso, Inmaculada; León, Rosa; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, M Angeles

    2011-07-01

    The isolation and characterization of the phytoene synthase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (CzPSY), involved in the first step of the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway, have been performed. CzPSY gene encodes a polypeptide of 420 amino acids. A single copy of CzPSY has been found in C. zofingiensis by Southern blot analysis. Heterologous genetic complementation in Escherichia coli showed the ability of the predicted protein to catalyze the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) to form phytoene. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the deduced protein forms a cluster with the rest of the phytoene synthases (PSY) of the chlorophycean microalgae studied, being very closely related to PSY of plants. This new isolated gene has been adequately inserted in a vector and expressed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The overexpression of CzPSY in C. reinhardtii, by nuclear transformation, has led to an increase in the corresponding CzPSY transcript level as well as in the content of the carotenoids violaxanthin and lutein which were 2.0- and 2.2-fold higher than in untransformed cells. This is an example of manipulation of the carotenogenic pathway in eukaryotic microalgae, which can open up the possibility of enhancing the productivity of commercial carotenoids by molecular engineering. PMID:21519934

  8. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  9. Novel conjugated polymers based on dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b]carbazole for solution processed thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yagang; Liu, Chengfang; Tian, Hongkun; Bao, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojie; Yan, Donghang; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2012-10-26

    Two conjugated polymers (CPs) P-tCzC12 and P-tCzC16 comprising alternating dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b]carbazole and 4,4'-dihexadecyl-2,2'-bithiophene units have been designed and synthesized. Upon thermal annealing, they can form ordered thin films in which the polymer backbones dominantly adopted an edge-on orientation respective to the substrate with a lamellar spacing of ≈24 Å and a π-stacking distance of ≈3.7 Å. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated by solution casting. A hole mobility of 0.39 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) has been demonstrated with P-tCzC16. This value is the highest among the CPs containing heteroacenes larger than 4 rings.

  10. Influences of p- and n-Doped Czochralski Base Material on the Performance of Silicon Based Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Johannes; Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada; Platt, Dominik; Hohage, Stefan; Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo; Borchert, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    In this work we present a cell process for amorphous crystalline silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells based on process steps well known in the photovoltaic industry. All amorphous silicon layers are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a one chamber direct plasma reactor working at a radio frequency of 13.56 MHz. The main focus of this work is to study the influence of p- and n-doped Czochralski (Cz) silicon base material with different surface morphology on the cell results of amorphous crystalline SHJ solar cells with intrinsic thin layers. Open circuit voltages Voc of up to 700 mV are obtained on n-type Cz based SHJ cells (area 100 cm2) with rough surfaces. On p-type Cz based SHJ cells open circuit voltages were limited by the minority carrier bulk lifetime of the used base material.

  11. Impact of BaB2O4 growth method on frequency conversion to the deep ultra-violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyra, L.; Maillard, A.; Maillard, R.; Sangla, D.; Salin, F.; Balembois, F.; Kokh, A. E.; Georges, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report how the growth method used for barium beta-borate β-BaB2O4 (BBO) impacts its high power second harmonic generation properties in the deep-UV. We compared a BBO crystal grown by flux (Top Seeded Solution Growth or TSSG) and a BBO crystal grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method. We first characterized their transparency properties, then we measured their single-pass second harmonic conversion efficiencies with both a low average power and a high average power nanosecond pulsed lasers. We show that both crystals have comparable linear absorption and conversion efficiencies at low power, whereas in a high power experiment, the CZ-grown BBO yields higher conversion efficiency than the TSSG grown BBO. With a 30 W, 150 kHz, 8 ns green laser, the use of a CZ BBO led at best to a 40% increase in available average output power at 257 nm.

  12. High-efficiency cell structures and processes applied to photovoltaic-grade Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1996-12-01

    The authors performed a detailed study to examine the limiting performance available using photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon. Photovoltaic-grade silicon refers to silicon produced by the photovoltaic industry, which may differ from the silicon used in the semiconductor device industry in impurity and defect concentrations.The study included optimization of fabrication processes, development of advanced device structures, and detailed model calculations to project future performance improvements. Process and device optimization resulted in demonstration of 75-{micro}s bulk lifetimes and 17.6%-efficient large-area cells using photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon. Detailed calculations based on the material and device evaluation of the present work project efficiencies of 20% for photovoltaic-grade Cz silicon with properly optimized processing and device structures.

  13. Modulation of the Bifidobacterial Communities of the Dog Microbiota by Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Sabbioni, Alberto; Ferrario, Chiara; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Riccardi, Enzo; Di Ianni, Francesco; Beretti, Valentino; Superchi, Paola; Ossiprandi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    During last decades canine health and well being is becoming an important issue for human owners. In dogs, several factors including diet, pathogenic bacterial and stress conditions can affect the composition of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary chabazitic zeolitite (CZ) supplementation on the contribution of bifidobacteria to the fecal microbiota in training hunting dogs. Fecal microbiota cataloging based on 16S rRNA microbial profiling analyses highlighted an increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in animals treated with CZ, with a simultaneous decrease of pathogens associated with dog gastrointestinal infections, such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter. A detailed profiling of the bifidobacterial population of dogs receiving CZ based on the ITS-based sequencing approach, revealed an enhancement bifidobacterial of species typical of animals such as Bifidobacterium animalis and B. pseudolongum. Moreover, these analyses identified the occurrence of putative new bifidobacterial taxa in both treated and untreated samples. PMID:27713735

  14. Silicon-solar-cell process development, fabrication, and analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Minahan, J.A.

    1981-03-09

    Solar cells have been fabricated from unconventional silicon materials in the second and final phase of the contract. In the most recent period of work, EFG, Web, Hem, and Continuous CZ silicon materials were fabricated into solar cells, measured and analyzed. Current-voltage measurements under AM1 conditions, in addition to those under AMO conditions, were introduced in Phase II. Several low-cost fabrication steps were included in that phase. Both Hem and Continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to what had been provided in Phase I. Correlation between quality of starting materials and cell conversion efficiency was observed for Hem-grown silicon. Correlation between position in the crystal growth sequence and cell quality was observed for Continuous CZ.

  15. Chinese space and aviation industries score major breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the current status of China's aviation and aerospace industries is presented, as well as planned future development and areas of importance for China's future space programs. The development of China's CZ-1, CZ-2 and CZ-3 rocket program is discussed, as well as China's satellite launch capabilities. China's first geostationary communications satellite STW-1 is also mentioned, and further development of the second and third communications satellites to be launched in 1987 are shown. Other developments include a seventh low Earth orbiting photographic reconnaissance satellite, plans for an image transmitting remote sensing satellite to be launched in 1988 to 1990, and other satellite developments. The Chinese-designed Y-10 transport aircraft is discussed, as well as the TU-16 bomber aircraft and the co-production agreement with McDonnell Douglas for the MD-82 passenger aircraft.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of Cetirizine dihydrochloride orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Sankar, V; Manakadan, Asha Asokan; Ismail, Sareena; Andhuvan, G

    2010-04-01

    Cetirizine orodispersible tablets were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using cetirizine along with camphor and mannitol in the proportion of 1:1:1, 1:1:3, and 1:1:6. The flow property of granules was found to be good for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3). The hardness and friability of all the formulations were found to be within the standard limit for orodispersible tablets. Disintegration time was found to be rapid in formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).The in vitro dissolution time was found to be 100% in 11 minutes for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).

  17. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  18. Preparation of ceria-zirconia by modified coprecipitation method and its supported Pd-only three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Chen, Shanhu; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Maochu; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2015-07-15

    A CeO2-ZrO2 compound with mixed phase composition (CZ4) was prepared by modified co-precipitation method, and for comparison, single-phase Ce(0.2)Zr(0.8)O2, Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O2 and Ce(0.8)Zr(0.2)O2 were synthesized via simultaneous co-precipitation method. The textural, structural and redox properties, together with the catalytic performance of the supported Pd-only three-way catalysts were investigated systematically. The results revealed that the generation of numerous interface sites in Pd/CZ4 due to its mixed phase composition (as confirmed by TEM observation) had a positive influence on modifying its structural, redox properties and thermal stability. The XRD and Raman results revealed that the highest structural stability was obtained by Pd/CZ4 with negligible lattice variation and slightest grain growth after aging treatment. The XPS analysis demonstrated that the compositional heterogeneity of Pd/CZ4 could facilitate the formation of Ce(3+), and was beneficial to preserve high dispersion of Pd as well as maintain Pd at a more oxidized state. The H2-TPR and oxygen storage capacity measurements indicated that Pd/CZ4 possessed highest reduction ability as well as largest oxygen storage capacity regardless of thermal aging treatment. And consequently Pd/CZ4 exhibited improved three-way catalytic activity compared with the catalysts supported on single-phase Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O2 both before and after thermal aging treatment.

  19. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation.

  20. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. PMID:26641333

  1. Multi scale imaging of the Cloudy Zone in the Tazewell IIICD Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Blukis, R.; Midgley, P. A.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Bagot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of iron and stony iron meteorites suggest that many small planetary bodies possessed molten cores resulting in the generation of a magnetic field. As these bodies cooled, Fe-Ni metal trapped within their mantle underwent a series of low-temperature transitions, leading to the familiar Widmanstatten intergrowth of kamacite and taenite. Adjacent to the kamacite/taenite interface is the so-called "cloudy zone" (CZ): a nanoscale intergrowth of tetrataenite islands in an Fe-rich matrix phase formed via spinodal decomposition. It has recently been shown (Bryson et al. 2015, Nature) that the CZ encodes a time-series record of the evolution of the magnetic field generated by the molten core of the planetary body. Extracting meaningful paleomagnetic data from the CZ relies, on a thorough understanding of the 3D chemical and magnetic properties of the intergrowth focsusing on the interactions between the magnetically hard tetrataenite islands and the magnetically soft matrix. Here we present a multi scale study of the chemical and crystallographic make up of the CZ in the Tazewell IIICD meteorite, using a range of advanced microscopy techniques. The results provide unprecedented insight into the architecture of the CZ, with implications for how the CZ acquires chemical transformation remanance during cooling on the parent body. Previous 2D transmission electron microscope studies of the CZ suggested that the matrix is an ordered Fe3Ni phase with the L12 structure. Interpretation of the electron diffraction patterns and chemical maps in these studies was hindered by a failure to resolve signals from overlapping island and matrix phases. Here we obtain high resolution electron diffraction and 3D chemical maps with near atomic resolution using a combination of scanning precession electron diffraction, 3D STEM EDS and atom probe tomography. Using this combined methodology we reslove for the first time the phenomena of secondary precipitation in the

  2. Celestite in the Weathering Crust on Limestone Exposed to an Urban Atmosphere in Cracow (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczyńska-Michalik, Wanda; Michalik, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Celestite containing very low amounts of barium occurs in weathering reaction zones developed on the Pińczów limestone exposed to the polluted atmosphere of Cracow. The mineral occurs both in limestone pore spaces filled with gypsum and in black gypsum crust. The Pińczów limestone contains ca 500 ppm strontium which was released during the reaction with atmospheric pollutants. The nucleation and growth of celestite, requiring significant concentration of components in evaporating solutions, is associated with gypsum crystallization.

  3. Axial vibration control of melt structure of sodium nitrate in crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Andrey; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Belov, Stanislav; Kostikov, Vladimir; Zykova, Marina; Artyushenko, Maxim; Zharikov, Evgeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The melt structure evolution under the action of the low-frequency axial vibration control (AVC) technique was studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy for several complex chemical compound melts: sodium nitrate, margarine acid, paraffin mixture (C17-C20). The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from the melting point up to 60 °C above. Comparison of crystallization heats for AVC activated and steady melts with melting heats of AVC-CZ and conventional CZ produced powders allowed to propose the energy diagram of NaNO3 states for activated and non-activated melts and crystals based on DTA, XRD, DSC and Raman experimental data.

  4. Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed.

  5. Precipitation output of INCA system: evaluation and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyznarova, Hana; Novak, Petr; Brezkova, Lucie; Janal, Petr; Salek, Milan

    2013-04-01

    INCA is a system that provides detailed analysis of current weather and improves NWP forecasts by using latest information from meteorological stations, radars, sounding and satellite data. It was developed by the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik in Austria and provided for use by other countries. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) uses adapted version of the INCA system (INCA-CZ) in the frame of INCA-CE project. This contribution presents the first results of use of INCA-CZ precipitation module for quantitative precipitation analysis (QPE) and forecast (QPF) and their comparison with the algorithms currently used by the CHMI. Testing of the INCA-CZ precipitation output is focused on QPE and QPF up to 3 hours, since INCA is tested and used as an input into hydrological model for flash flood forecasting. INCA-CZ QPE was compared with algorithms used by the CHMI for QPE (based on conditional merging (CM) and on kriging with external drift (KED)). The comparison was carried out on 10 minute and 1 hour precipitation data. Generally 10 minute precipitation sums are burdened by higher uncertainties than 1 hour precipitation data, still they are very useful when used in convective situations and when we try to forecast highly localized flash floods. Preliminary results suggest that INCA-CZ QPE is comparable with QPEs used by the CHMI. As expected, the performance of the algorithms when using 10 minute data is generally worse than for 1 hour precipitation sums. INCA-CZ QPF was compared with the QPF made by the CHMI implementation of the COTREC algorithm. COTREC algorithm is operatively applied on the CHMI radar data. 1 hour QPEs computed by KED algorithm and INCA-CZ were used as the true values. QPFs of average 1hour precipitation sums computed over 119 operative catchments were compared. The forecasted sums were computed over 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 hour. Quality indices CSI, FAR and POD for 0.1mm and 1.0mm thresholds were used. CSI values of both INCA

  6. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  7. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the Earth's outer shell where all the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes critical for sustaining life occur and interact. As microbes in the CZ drive many of these biogeochemical cycles, understanding their impact on life-sustaining processes starts with an understanding of their biodiversity. In this review, we summarize the factors controlling where terrestrial CZ microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live and what is known about their diversity and function. Microbes are found throughout the CZ, down to 5 km below the surface, but their functional roles change with depth due to habitat complexity, e.g. variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients. Abundances of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decrease from 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 or rock-1, or ml water-1 by up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Although symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers have been studied extensively in soil habitats, where they occur up to 103 cells g soil-1, little is known regarding their identity or impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that they are limited in space, nutrients, are unable to cope with oxygen limitations, or some combination thereof. Since deep regions of the CZ have limited access to recent photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes there depend on deposited organic material or a chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for a complete food chain, independent from the surface, although limited energy flux means cell growth may take tens to thousands of years. Microbes are found in all regions of the CZ and can mediate important biogeochemical processes, but more work is needed to understand how microbial populations influence the links between different regions of the CZ and weathering processes. With the recent development of "omics" technologies, microbial ecologists have new methods that

  8. A container closure system that allows for greater recovery of radiolabeled peptide compared to the standard borosilicate glass system

    PubMed Central

    Leece, Alicia K; Heidari, Pedram; Yokell, Daniel L; Mahmood, Umar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Often peptides used in synthesis of radiopharmaceutical PET tracers are lipophilic and adhere to the walls of container closure systems (CCS) such that costly peptide and product are not fully recoverable after synthesis occurs. This investigation compares a standard United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Type I borosilicate glass CCS to a cyclic polyolefin copolymer Crystal Zenith® (CZ) CCS, for 68Ga-chloride and 68Ga-DOTATOC ([68Ga] Ga-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide) retention in the reaction vial after labeling. Methods 68Gallium labeling of DOTATOC was conducted by adding 68Ga-chloride, 2M HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid) or 0.75M sodium acetate, and 1µg to 30µg of DOTATOC into the CZ or glass CCS. The reaction mixture was heated for 15 minutes and cooled to room temperature. The crude reaction mixture was then withdrawn via syringe, for final processing. The CCS was then assayed using a dose calibrator to determine the amount of retained 68Ga-DOTATOC. Statistical significance was assessed using an unpaired Student's t-test. Results In all experiments (n=72) with various amounts of peptide and different buffering systems, the CZ CCS retained less activity than the glass CCS. Using 2M HEPES and 15µg or 30µg of DOTATOC, the CZ CCS retained approximately 10% less of the labeled DOTATOC compared to the glass CCS (p<0.05). Utilizing either a sodium acetate or a HEPES buffering system with 15µg or 30µg of DOTATOC, the CZ CCS retained approximately 2.5% less of the total reaction activity compared to the glass CCS (p<0.05). Product yield was equivalent in glass and CZ CCS under the same reaction conditions. Both the CZ and glass vials showed no retention of 68Ga-chloride. Conclusion For applications involving the labeling of peptides such as 68Ga-DOTATOC, the CZ CCS compared to the glass CCS, results in an improved recovery of product. PMID:23860127

  9. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  10. Molecular topology tuning of bipolar host materials composed of fluorene-bridged benzimidazole and carbazole for highly efficient electrophosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ejabul; Hung, Wen-Yi; Chen, Yang-Huei; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2013-08-01

    Two new molecules, CzFCBI and CzFNBI, have been tailor-made to serve as bipolar host materials to realize high-efficiency electrophosphorescent devices. The molecular design is configured with carbazole as the hole-transporting block and N-phenylbenzimidazole as the electron-transporting block hybridized through the saturated bridge center (C9) and meta-conjugation site (C3) of fluorene, respectively. With structural topology tuning of the connecting manner between N-phenylbenzimidazole and the fluorene core, the resulting physical properties can be subtly modulated. Bipolar host CzFCBI with a C connectivity between phenylbenzimidazole and the fluorene bridge exhibited extended π conjugation; therefore, a low triplet energy of 2.52 eV was observed, which is insufficient to confine blue phosphorescence. However, the monochromatic devices indicate that the matched energy-level alignment allows CzFCBI to outperform its N-connected counterpart CzFNBI while employing other long-wavelength-emitting phosphorescent guests. In contrast, the high triplet energy (2.72 eV) of CzFNBI imparted by the N connectivity ensures its utilization as a universal bipolar host for blue-to-red phosphors. With a common device configuration, CzFNBI has been utilized to achieve highly efficient and low-roll-off devices with external quantum efficiency as high as 14 % blue, 17.8 % green, 16.6 % yellowish-green, 19.5 % yellow, and 18.6 % red. In addition, by combining yellowish-green with a sky-blue emitter and a red emitter, a CzFNBI-hosted single-emitting-layer all-phosphor three-color-based white electrophosphorescent device was successfully achieved with high efficiencies (18.4 %, 36.3 cd A(-1) , 28.3 lm W(-1) ) and highly stable chromaticity (CIE x=0.43-0.46 and CIE y=0.43) at an applied voltage of 8 to 12 V, and a high color-rendering index of 91.6.

  11. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  12. Defects and device performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Armstrong, R.; Johnson, S.; Lin, H. C.; Regnault, W.; Yoo, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for a low-cost crystalline silicon sheet material for photovoltaics has generated a number of alternative crystal growth techniques that would replace Czochralski (Cz) and float-zone (FZ) technologies. Efficiencies of devices fabricated from low resistivity FZ silicon are approaching 20%, and it is highly likely that this value will be superseded in the near future. However, FZ silicon is expensive, and is unlikely ever to be used for photovoltaics. Cz silicon has many of the desirable qualities of FZ except that minority-carrier lifetimes at lower resistivities are significantly less than those of FZ silicon. Even with Cz silicon, it is unlikely that cost goals can be met because of the poor-material yield that results from sawing and other aspects of the crystal rowth. Although other silicon sheet technologies have been investigated, almost all have characteristics that limit efficiency to approx. 16%. In summary, 20% efficient solar cells can likely be fabricated from both FZ and Cz silicon, but costs are likely to be ultimately unacceptable. Alternate silicon technologies are not likely to achieve this goal, but cost per watt figures may be eventually better than either of the single crystal technologies and may rival any thin-film technology.

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in the Construction Inventory Book at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). East front. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  15. The Application of PECS in a Deaf Child with Autism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Okalidou, Areti

    2007-01-01

    A 10-year-old nonverbal Greek boy, C.Z., who had been diagnosed with both bilateral sensorineural profound hearing loss and autism, was taught to use the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), with some modifications and extensions, over a 4-month intensive intervention period. C.Z.'s original communication and behavioral status as well as…

  16. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Fort Amador - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Balboa Heights with Balboa Elementary School in background center. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41981 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-1 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Foundation plan, floor plan and roof plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Details of bookshelves and pilasters. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OPTIMIZATION: SELECTIVE PROTEIN SAMPLE ON-COLUMN RETENTION IN REVERSE-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why work was done?

    To be able to identify, on a proteomic level, cytochromes P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) in mouse liver microsomes for the conazole exposure study IRP # NHEERL-ECD-SCN-CZ-2002-01-R1_Addendum 1. The new enrichment method was necessary beca...

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  6. A Novel Application of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method for Estimating the Critical Zone Thicknes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S.; Yaede, J.; McBride, J. H.; Park, C.; Turnbull, S. J.; Tingey, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    MASW approaches are suitable for the accurate measurement of variably thick weathering profiles by producing shear-wave (Vs) profiles. The critical zone (CZ) base is usually a transitional boundary, which is captured by MASW but not by conventional seismic reflection techniques. Modified MASW methods were used in Hawaii, USA to extend the investigative depth of saprolite (kaolin clays, Fe-oxides) thickness calibrated against wells with geologic logs. Active-source ± passive dispersion curves produced improved low-frequency fundamental modes by combining records with varying source-receiver offsets, enabling the generation of Vs profiles to >50 m depth. The top of unaltered bedrock occurs at a Vs of >~500 m/s. Intra-saprolite high Vs zones probably represent aa flow interiors with fewer primary discontinuities (vesicles and fractures), therefore imparting higher secondary stiffness than altered pahoehoe and pyroclastic material. The MASW approach permits measuring CZ thicknesses at discrete locations rapidly, inexpensively, and without drilling. For example, employed on slopes of the Koolau Volcano (neither aggrading nor degrading), the downward rate of advance of the weathering front of the CZ varies from 0.02 to 0.03 mm/yr in wet and ~0.01 mm/yr in dry areas. This compares well with recent work based on solute mass fluxes averaged over large areas. MASW can be deployed in a variety of settings where rapid estimation of the CZ thickness at particular locations is desired.

  7. Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations used a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.

  9. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANTHRAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (CzCLj), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 “C in aqueous solutions containing ei- ther (1) 500 pM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 pM Fe2+, or (3) 250 pM HS-. The pH ranged ...

  10. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  11. WAViS server for handling, visualization and presentation of multiple alignments of nucleotide or amino acids sequences.

    PubMed

    Zika, Radek; Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Paces, Václav

    2004-07-01

    Web Alignment Visualization Server contains a set of web-tools designed for quick generation of publication-quality color figures of multiple alignments of nucleotide or amino acids sequences. It can be used for identification of conserved regions and gaps within many sequences using only common web browsers. The server is accessible at http://wavis.img.cas.cz.

  12. HERVd: the Human Endogenous RetroViruses Database: update.

    PubMed

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Zika, Radek; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Paces, Václav

    2004-01-01

    An elaboration of HERVd (http://herv.img.cas.cz) is being carried out in two directions. One of them is the integration and better classification of families that diverge considerably from typical retroviral genomes. This leads to a more precise identification of members with individual families. The second improvement is better accessibility of the database and connection with human genome annotation.

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413116 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section looking west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413115 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking north. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413112 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Elevation on prado - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413110 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413114 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-14 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking south. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). New Ancon Hospital general layout - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at the Office of the 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, Republic of Panama). Photographer unknown. View of U.S. Army Air Corps over Fort Amador. - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41376 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413113 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413118 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of doors and sash. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Second floor wiring plan - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413111 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing Lbeams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view at top of parachute drying tower showing L-beams and holes for hanging parachutes, and wooden roof construction, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #453, Washington, D.C.). Aerial view of Quarry Heights and Balboa from Sosa Hill - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among adults in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tichopad, Ales; Roberts, Craig; Gembula, Igor; Hajek, Petr; Skoczynska, Anna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Prymula, Roman; Solovič, Ivan; Kolek, Vitězslav

    2013-01-01

    We estimate and describe the incidence rates, mortality, and cost of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia), in both inpatient and outpatient settings, in the Czech Republic (CZ), Slovakia (SK), Poland (PL), and Hungary (HU). A retrospective analysis was conducted on administrative data from the health ministry and insurance reimbursement claims with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia in 2009 to determine hospitalization rates, costs, and mortality in adults ≥50 years of age. Patient chart reviews were conducted to estimate the number of outpatient cases. Among all adults ≥50 years, the incidence of hospitalized CAP per 100,000 person years was: 456.6 (CZ), 504.6 (SK), 363.9 (PL), and 845.3 (HU). The average fatality rate for all adults ≥50 is 19.1%, and for each country; 21.7% (CZ), 20.9% (SK), 18.6% (PL), 17.8% (HU). Incidence, fatality, and likelihood of hospitalization increased with advancing age. Total healthcare costs of CAP in EUR was 12,579,543 (CZ); 9,160,774 (SK); 22,409,085 (PL); and 18,298,449 (HU); with hospitalization representing over 90% of the direct costs of treatment. The burden of CAP increases with advancing age in four CEE countries, with hospitalizations driving the costs of CAP upwards in the elderly population. Mortality rates are generally higher than reported in Western EU countries.

  14. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    DOE PAGES

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations usedmore » a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.« less

  15. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before…

  17. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  18. German, Polish, and Czech School Cooperation in the Neisse-Nisa-Nysa EuroRegion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeck, Kirsti; Schulz, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The Euroregions are a form of border and cross-border cooperation. The Euroregion Neisse (D)-Nisa (CZ)-Nysa (PL) is one of four Euroregions along the German-Polish border. It was established in 1991 by the Union of Polish Communities (ERN), The Union of German communities (ERN), and the Regional Community Union of the Cities and Communities of the…

  19. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  20. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VII. A dense filament with extremely long H I streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.; Minchin, R. F.; Herbst, H.; Davies, J. I.; Rodriguez, R.; Vazquez, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present completed observations of the NGC 7448 galaxy group and background volume as part of the blind neutral hydrogen Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. Our observations cover a region spanning 5°× 4°, over a redshift range of approximately -2000 <cz < 20 000 km s-1. A total of 334 objects are detected, mostly in three overdensities at cz ˜ 7500, cz ˜ 9600 and cz ˜ 11 400 km s-1. The galaxy density is extremely high (15 deg-2) and many (˜24 per cent) show signs of extended H I emission, including some features as much as 800 kpc in projected length. We describe the overall characteristics of this environment: kinematics, typical galaxy colours and mass-to-light ratios, and substructure. To aid in the cataloguing of this data set, we present a new FITS viewer (FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension). This incorporates interactive source cataloguing tools which increase our source extraction speed by approximately a factor of 50.

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402113 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-13 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOD Honda HON Husqvarna HUS JAWA/CZ JAW Kawasaki KAW KTM KTM Laverda LAV Moto Benilli BEN Moto Guzzi GUZ Moto Morini MOR MV Agusta MVA Norton Triumph TRI Rokon ROK Suzuki SUZ Yamaha YAM (8) Moped... MAL Morini MOI Motobecane/Solex MBE Moto Guzzi GUZ Negrini NEG Odyssey ODY Pacer PAC Pack-A-Way...

  3. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  4. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  5. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-03-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the critical, outer shell of the Earth that provides an arena for the interplay of diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes that are fundamental for sustaining life. As microbes are the principle drivers of biogeochemical cycles, it is necessary to understand the biodiversity of the CZ unseen majority and their impact on life-sustaining processes. This review aims to summarize the factors controlling where microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live within the CZ and what is known to date about their diversity and function. Microbes live in all regions of the CZ down to 5 km depth, but due to changing habitat complexity, e.g., variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients, their functional role changes with depth. The abundance of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decreases from a maximum of 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers are best understood in soil habitats, where they are up to 103 cells g soil-1. However, little is known about their identity and impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that these organisms are either limited in space or nutrients or unable to cope with oxygen limitations. Since deep regions of the CZ are limited in the recent input of photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes are dependent on deposited organic material or on chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for the establishment of a complete food chain independent from the surface. However, the energy flux available might only allow cell growth over tens to thousands of years. The recent development of "omics" technologies has provided microbial ecologists with methods to link the composition and function of in situ microbial communities. We should expect new metabolic discoveries as we have a closer look utilizing a polyphasic approach into the

  6. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai; Trumbore, Susan; Lehmann, Robert; Steinhäuser, Christine; Herrmann, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future

  7. Weathering, Fractures and Water in the deep Critical Zone: Geophysical investigations in the U.S. Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Hayes, J. L.; Flinchum, B. A.; St Clair, J. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Leone, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is Earth's breathing skin: the thin layer from treetop to bedrock that supports most terrestrial life. Key hydrological, biogeochemical, and physical processes occur in the CZ, including physical and chemical weathering, soil production, erosion, nutrient cycling, and surface/groundwater exchange. These processes in turn influence subsurface water storage capacity, landscape evolution, ecological stability, aquifer recharge and stream flow. Because the deep CZ is hidden from direct observation, it can only be studied by drilling and/or geophysical measurements. Given the relative scarcity of such data, we lack a complete understanding of the architecture of the CZ, how it varies across landscapes, and what controls that variation. We present geophysical data that address these questions at six Critical Zone Observatories (CZO): Calhoun, Boulder Creek, Eel River, Reynolds Creek, Catalina-Jemez, and Southern Sierra. Conclusions include: (1) Regolith depth is influenced by the opening of fractures due to the release of regional and topographic stress as rocks are exhumed toward the surface. Stress models at Calhoun and Boulder Creek show remarkable agreement with seismic velocities in the shallow subsurface, suggesting that stress release controls the development of fracture porosity in the CZ. (2) Chemical weathering (plagioclase dissolution) begins at depths where fractures open (~40 m at Calhoun), implying that fracturing and chemical weathering are intimately paired in the deep CZ. (3) Volumetric strain is an underappreciated contributor to porosity in the CZ. In the Southern Sierra, strain dominates over chemical weathering in the upper 10 m, consistent with the stress-release model. (4) Geological structure and lithology can trump environmental controls (e.g., aspect and climate) on regolith development. At Catalina, strongly contrasting regolith thickness on north- and south-facing slopes, is not due to "northness", but rather to

  8. Rapid-onset intranasal delivery of anticonvulsants: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Gorukanti, S; Choi, Y M; Kim, K H

    2000-04-10

    Intranasal (IN) administration is a promising approach for rapid-onset delivery of medications. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach for the emergency treatment of status epilepticus, three anticovulsants, i.e. diazepam (DZ), clonazepam (CZ), and a monocarbamate-based new compound (MCA) were studied in rabbits for the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) response following intravenous (IV) and IN administrations. The animals were intranasally dosed with DZ (1 mg/kg), CZ (0.2 mg/kg), and MCA (5 mg/kg), dissolved in 200 microl of vehicle consisting of propylene glycol (PG), ethanol (EtOH), and water in the presence or absence of 1% sodium glycocholate (SGC) using single and repeated dosing schedules. Both DZ and CZ were absorbed very rapidly from 1% SGC/60% PG-30% EtOH-10% Water after IN single application; the T(max)'s were less than 2 min. The absorption rate of MCA was relatively slower with the peak time of 13-32 min. The bioavailability of single IN administration for DZ, CZ, and MCA determined over the first 2 or 4 h was found to be 77, 45, and 79%, respectively. The peak plasma level of DZ increased linearly with increasing the volume fraction of EtOH in the ternary cosolvent (20% to 60%). A repeated IN application of DZ, 5 min after the first dose, doubled the C(max) and AUC(0-2 h) values of the first one, whereas those of CZ and MCA resulted in an increase of 73-94% of the first dose. A single IN application of DZ- and CZ-containing formulations produced a PD response within 1.5 min, which was comparable to that of an IV injection. These results suggest that single or repeated IN applications of DZ, CZ, and MCA in a hydroalcohol-glycolic formulation might represent a viable approach to achieving a rapid systemic absorption of these anticonvulsants during the emergency treatment of status epilepticus and other types of seizures.

  9. Application of magnetic fields in industrial growth of silicon single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ammon, W.; Gelfgat, Yu.; Gorbunov, L.; Mulbauer, A.; Muiznieks, A.; Makarov, Y.; Virbulis, J.; Muller, G.

    2006-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields for the growth of semiconductor crystals has already been considered many decades ago. As early as in 1966, Chedzey et al te{1} and Utech et al te{2} reported about InSb crystals grown in a horizontal boat under the influence of a magnetic field. They found a suppression of temperature fluctuations in the InSb melt and a decrease of growth variations (striations) in the crystal. In 1970, Witt et al te{3} applied a static transverse (horizontal) magnetic field to the Czochralski (CZ) growth of InSb crystals. 10 years later, in 1980, the transverse field was also used for the CZ growth of silicon single crystals te{4,5}. Since then, the method has received considerable attention over the years. One of the major driving forces for introducing magnetic fields in the industrial CZ growth of silicon crystals was the request by the semiconductor industry to replace floating zone (FZ) grown crystals, which had been the preferred substrate material for the manufacturing of high power devices, by low oxygen CZ crystals te{6}. The reason for this changeover was the fact that the FZ method in the early 80's could not follow the rapid crystal diameter increase as required by the industry, namely, the switch from 4" to 5" diameter in the early 80's. The application of magnetic fields to the CZ technique (MCZ) allowed the growth of low oxygen crystals with the required diameter and having similar properties as the FZ grown crystals. Figs 12, Refs 59.

  10. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781

  11. Oxygen aggregation kinetics, thermal donors and carbon-oxygen defect formation in silicon containing carbon and tin

    SciTech Connect

    Angeletos, T.; Sgourou, E. N.; Andrianakis, A.; Diamantopoulou, A.; Londos, C. A.; Chroneos, A.

    2015-07-07

    Localized vibrational mode spectroscopy measurements on Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) samples subjected to isothermal annealing at 450 °C are reported. First, we studied the effect of carbon (C) and tin (Sn) isovalent dopants on the aggregation kinetics of oxygen. It is determined that the reduction rate of oxygen is described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation in accordance with previous reports. The activation energy related with the reaction rate constant of the process is calculated to increase from Cz-Si, to C-doped Cz-Si (CCz-Si), to Sn-doped Cz-Si contained C (SnCz-Si). This is attributed to the presence of the isovalent dopants that may impact both the kinetics of the oxygen atoms and also may lead to the formation of other oxygen-related clusters. Second, we studied the effect of Sn on the formation and evolution of carbon-oxygen (C-O) defects. It was determined that the presence of Sn suppresses the formation of the C-O defects as indicated by the reduction in the strength of the 683, 626, and 586 cm{sup −1} well-known bands of C{sub s}O{sub i} defect. The phenomenon is attributed to the association of Sn with C atoms that may prevent the pairing of O with C. Third, we investigated the effect of C and Sn on the formation of thermal donors (TDs). Regarding carbon our results verified previous reports that carbon suppresses the formation of TDs. Interestingly, when both C and Sn are present in Si, very weak bands of TDs were observed, although it is known that Sn alone suppress their formation. This may be attributed to the competing strains of C and Sn in the Si lattice.

  12. Scale up aspects of directional solidification and Czochralski silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropka, Natasha; Ervik, Torunn; Czupalla, Matthias; Kiessling, Frank M.

    2016-10-01

    We performed 3D simulations of directional solidification (DS) and Czochralski (Cz) silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields (TMFs) and verified them with the experimental data that were available. Particularly, we studied silicon DS growth in real G1, G2 and G5 size setups and Cz growth in 6″ and 24″ crucibles in furnaces provided with KRISTMAG® heater magnet modules (HMMs). TMFs were used for a solid/liquid interface shaping and for a melt stirring. Based on our simulation findings, we discussed scale up challenges and proposed a method for safe upscaling. The method related all present driving forces using dimensionless numbers: Grashof (Gr), Stephan (Ste), Reynolds (Re), Shielding (S) and magnetic forcing number (F).

  13. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.

  14. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  15. Nonlinear aerodynamic modeling using multivariate orthogonal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1993-01-01

    A technique was developed for global modeling of nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients using multivariate orthogonal functions based on the data. Each orthogonal function retained in the model was decomposed into an expansion of ordinary polynomials in the independent variables, so that the final model could be interpreted as selectively retained terms from a multivariable power series expansion. A predicted squared-error metric was used to determine the orthogonal functions to be retained in the model; analytical derivatives were easily computed. The approach was demonstrated on the Z-body axis aerodynamic force coefficient (Cz) wind tunnel data for an F-18 research vehicle which came from a tabular wind tunnel and covered the entire subsonic flight envelope. For a realistic case, the analytical model predicted experimental values of Cz very well. The modeling technique is shown to be capable of generating a compact, global analytical representation of nonlinear aerodynamics. The polynomial model has good predictive capability, global validity, and analytical differentiability.

  16. Identification of lifetime limiting defects by temperature- and injection-dependent photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Jonas; Youssef, Amanda; Park, Sungeun; Mundt, Laura E.; Niewelt, Tim; Mack, Sebastian; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Murai, Ryota; Jensen, Mallory A.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Schubert, Martin C.

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the lifetime limiting defects in silicon plays a key role in systematically optimizing the efficiency potential of material for solar cells. We present a technique based on temperature and injection dependent photoluminescence imaging to determine the energy levels and capture cross section ratios of Shockley-Read-Hall defects. This allows us to identify homogeneously and inhomogeneously distributed defects limiting the charge carrier lifetime in any silicon wafer. The technique is demonstrated on an n-type wafer grown with the non-contact crucible (NOC) method and an industrial Czochralski (Cz) wafer prone to defect formation during high temperature processing. We find that the energy levels for the circular distributed defects in the Cz wafer are in good agreement with literature data for homogeneously grown oxide precipitates. In contrast, the circular distributed defects found in NOC Si have significantly deeper trap levels, despite their similar appearance.

  17. Process design and simulation for optimizing the oxygen concentration in Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, W. K.; Jung, Jae Hak

    2014-08-01

    The highest-concentration impurity in a single-crystal silicon ingot is oxygen, which infiltrates the ingot during growth stage. This oxygen adversely affects the wafer is quality. This study was aimed at finding an optimal design for the Czochralski (Cz) process to enable high-quality and lowcost (by reducing power consumption) wafer production by controlling the oxygen concentration in the silicon ingots. In the Cz process, the characteristics of silicon ingots during crystallization are greatly influenced by the design and the configuration of the hot zone, and by crystallization rate. In order to identify process conditions for obtaining an optimal oxygen concentration of 11-13 ppma (required for industrial-grade ingots), designed two shield shapes for the hot zone. Furthermore, oxygen concentrations corresponding to these two shapes were compared by evaluating each shape at five different production speeds. In addition, simulations were performed to identify the optimal shield design for industrial applications.

  18. Potential productivity benefits of float-zone versus Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient mass production of single-crystal silicon is necessary for the efficient silicon solar arrays needed in the coming decade. However, it is anticipated that there will be difficulty growing such volumes of crystals using conventional Czochralski (Cz) methods. While the productivity of single crystals might increase with a crystal diameter increase, there are two obstacles to the mass production of large diameter Czochralski crystals, the long production cycle due to slow growth rate and the high heat requirements of the furnaces. Also counterproductive would be the large resistivity gradient along the growth direction of the crystals due to impurity concentration. Comparison between Float zone (FZ) and Cz crystal growth on the basis of a crystal 150 mm in diameter is on an order of two to four times in favor of the FZ method. This advantage results from high growth rates and steady-state growth while maintaining a dislocation-free condition and impurity segregation.

  19. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  20. Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.

    2000-04-01

    A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.

  1. Analysis of Dissimilar Material Defect Based on Eddy Current Conductivity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Lifu

    In this experiment, the conductivity distribution of lack of penetration (LOP) in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials has been tested, and has been compared with the conductivity distribution of the same kind of material, by using eddy current conductivity meter. CZ state and M state LY12 aluminum alloy has been studied. The results show that when the depth of LOP is small, the conductivity of M state is the highest, the conductivity decreases gradually to the weld center, reduce to the minimum until reach the CZ state base metal. When the depth of LOP is larger, the conductivity of the weld center decreases sharply with the depth of LOP increases gradually. Scilicet, the larger the depth of LOP, the lower the conductivity. The conductivity distribution of other areas is similar to the distribution when the depth of LOP is small.

  2. Influence of monomer concentration on polycarbazole-polyindole (PCz-PIn) copolymer properties: Application in Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Singh, Arun Kumar; Melvin, Ambrose A.; Prakash, Rajiv

    2014-09-01

    Copolymerization of carbazole (Cz) and indole (In) is successfully performed through potentiostatic polymerization; and the influence of the monomer concentrations ratio on copolymer formation, is investigated. It is found that 1:2 ratio of Cz to In monomer is optimum for the synthesis of a copolymer with high electroactivity. The structural, optical, thermal and morphological analysis of the copolymers are carried out with UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning coulometry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. Electrochemical and thermal studies, further support better redox activity and thermal stability of the copolymer, respectively. We also report fabrication and characterizations of the electrochemically synthesized copolymer in organic Schottky diode with configuration metal Al/copolymer/indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO). The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristic of the Schottky diode is consequential in extracting the electronic parameters and the charge transport mechanism of the devices.

  3. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  4. On the nature of striations in n-type silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Donne, Alessia; Binetti, Simona; Folegatti, Valerio; Coletti, Gianluca

    2016-07-01

    In n-type Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafer, swirl shaped regions with low lifetime (known as striations) can cause degradation up to 1% absolute or even more in homojunction industrial solar cells. Nevertheless, the nature of the defects responsible for the occurrence of these striations is still unclear. In this work, n-type Cz-Si solar cell precursors cut from industrial size ingots with different feedstock quality and oxygen content were analyzed by microwave photo-conductance decay and photoluminescence in order to investigate the nature of such defects. The results demonstrate that the defects responsible for the occurrence of striations are oxide nanoprecipitates formed during the high temperature steps for the solar cell realization, due to the presence of grown-in oxygen nuclei.

  5. Comments on the tectonism of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozak, R. C.; Schaber, G. G.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tectonic mapping of Venus from Venera 15/16 images shows unquestionable evidence of at least limited horizontal tectonism. The majority of tectonic features on Venus have no relation to topography. In fact, many axes of disruption interconnect, and cross sharp topographic boundaries at large angles, thereby discounting gravity as the driving force. Compressional zones (CZ's), unlike Extensional zones (EZ's), tend to be discontinuous, and, whereas EZ's cross tectonic and topographic boundaries at various angles, many CZ's on Venus are subparallel to these boundaries. Strike-like faulting is curiously lacking from the mapping, possible due to the steep incidence angle of the radar, which is far from optimal for detecting faults of small throw. A chronology of horizontal crustal movements, and hence the analysis of Venus' thermal development, is large dependent on understanding the crater form features. Regardless of their uncertain origin, the craters still could hold the answer to whether, and to what extent, crustal shuffling is occurring on Venus.

  6. Effect of oxygen and associated residual stresses on the mechanical properties of high growth rate Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Khaled; Shi, Meirong; Radue, Chantelle; Good, Ethan; Rozgonyi, George

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) crystals grown in vacancy rich regimes with elevated axial oxygen concentrations ranging from ˜6 × 1017 to ˜12 × 1017 atoms/cm3 have been investigated using nano- and micro-indentation techniques. Both hardness and fracture toughness were found to decrease with increasing oxygen concentration, while major differences in mechanical properties were found between the central core and the edge of the high oxygen concentration wafers. Photoluminescence imaging and Nomarski optical microscopy of high-oxygen wafers revealed the presence of a ring and swirl-like distributions of micro defects, including oxidation induced stacking faults. Micro-Raman analysis was used to measure local residual stress profiles associated with these characteristic defects. These results provide a quantitative understanding of the influence of the oxygen content and the associated defects resulting from the sub-optimal growth regimes within the Cz-Si process.

  7. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence properties in a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Niwa, Akitsugu; Kobayashi, Takashi Nagase, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Goushi, Kenichi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-05-26

    Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we have investigated the temperature dependence of PL properties of 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyano-benzene (4CzIPN), which have a small energy gap between its singlet and triplet excited states and thus exhibits efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence [H. Uoyama et al., Nature 492, 235 (2012)]. Below around 100 K, PL quantum efficiency of 4CzIPN thin films is largely suppressed and strong photoexcitation intensity dependence appears. These features can be explained by using rate equations for the densities of singlet and triplet excited states considering a triplet-triplet annihilation process.

  8. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  9. Notes on quantum weighted projective spaces and multidimensional teardrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeziński, Tomasz; Fairfax, Simon A.

    2015-07-01

    It is shown that the coordinate algebra of the quantum 2 n + 1-dimensional lens space O(Lq2n+1 (∏i=0nmi ;m0, …, mn)) is a principal CZ-comodule algebra or the coordinate algebra of a circle principal bundle over the weighted quantum projective space WPqn (m0, …, mn) . Furthermore, the weighted U(1) -action or the CZ-coaction on the quantum odd dimensional sphere algebra O(Sq2n+1) that defines WPqn (1, m1, …, mn) is free or principal. Analogous results are proven for quantum real weighted projective spaces RPq2n (m0, …, mn) . The K-groups of WPqn (1, …, 1, m) and RPq2n (1, …, 1, m) and the K1-group of Lq2n+1 (N ;m0, …, mn) are computed.

  10. Performance of ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Central Europe using various metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtanová, Eva; Mikšovský, Jiří; Kalvová, Jaroslava; Pišoft, Petr; Motl, Martin

    2012-05-01

    We show the evaluation of ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis ERA40 over a region centered at the Czech Republic. Attention is paid especially to the model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ, being used as the basis of the new climate change scenarios simulation for the Czech Republic. The validation criteria used here are based on monthly or seasonal mean air temperature and precipitation. We concentrate not only on spatiotemporal mean values but also on temporal standard deviation, inter-annual variability, the mean annual cycle, and the skill of the models to represent the observed spatial patterns of these quantities. Model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ performs quite well in comparison to the other RCMs; we find its performance satisfactory for further use for impact studies. However, it is also shown that the results of evaluation of the RCMs' skill in simulating observed climate strongly depend on the criteria incorporated for the evaluation.

  11. MOLEonline 2.0: interactive web-based analysis of biomacromolecular channels.

    PubMed

    Berka, Karel; Hanák, Ondrej; Sehnal, David; Banás, Pavel; Navrátilová, Veronika; Jaiswal, Deepti; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Svobodová Vareková, Radka; Koca, Jaroslav; Otyepka, Michal

    2012-07-01

    Biomolecular channels play important roles in many biological systems, e.g. enzymes, ribosomes and ion channels. This article introduces a web-based interactive MOLEonline 2.0 application for the analysis of access/egress paths to interior molecular voids. MOLEonline 2.0 enables platform-independent, easy-to-use and interactive analyses of (bio)macromolecular channels, tunnels and pores. Results are presented in a clear manner, making their interpretation easy. For each channel, MOLEonline displays a 3D graphical representation of the channel, its profile accompanied by a list of lining residues and also its basic physicochemical properties. The users can tune advanced parameters when performing a channel search to direct the search according to their needs. The MOLEonline 2.0 application is freely available via the Internet at http://ncbr.muni.cz/mole or http://mole.upol.cz.

  12. Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Voorhis, S.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to sequences of flashes delivered to the right and left visual fields while subjects responded promptly to designated stimuli in one field at a time (focused attention), in both fields at once (divided attention), or to neither field (passive). Three stimulus schedules were used: the first was a replication of a previous study (Eason, Harter, and White, 1969) where left- and right-field flashes were delivered quasi-independently, while in the other two the flashes were delivered to the two fields in random order (Bernoulli sequence). VEPs to attended-field stimuli were enhanced at both occipital (O2) and central (Cz) recording sites under all stimulus sequences, but different components were affected at the two scalp sites. It was suggested that the VEP at O2 may reflect modality-specific processing events, while the response at Cz, like its auditory homologue, may index more general aspects of selective attention.

  13. Isolation of dengue virus with a human promonocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Liu, W T; Chen, C L; Lee, S S; Chan, C C; Lo, F L; Ko, Y C

    1991-05-01

    In October-November, 1988 there was an outbreak of dengue fever in the Kaoshiung area of southern Taiwan. We collected 100 serum samples from 96 patients at the onset of their fever for virus cultures and identification. A human promonocyte cell line (HL-CZ) established in our laboratory was used and proved to be susceptible for dengue virus propagation. Type 1 dengue virus in the HL-CZ cell culture was identified by immunofluorescence tests using monoclonal antibodies, and also by hemagglutination tests with goose red blood cells. The density of the virus particles, as measured by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, ranged from 1.186 to 1.224 g/ml. The virus yield from this cell culture is comparable with that from the C6/36 mosquito cell line. There was a significant correlation between the antibody responses tested with Western dot blots and hemagglutination inhibition techniques.

  14. Dependence of electrically detected magnetic resonance signal shape from iron-contaminated silicon wafers on the thermal treatment of the samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlidze, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Lin, T.-C.; Suezawa, M.

    1999-12-01

    The shape of the electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) signal from iron-contaminated Czochralski-grown silicon (CZ-Si) samples strongly depends on the thermal treatments applied to the samples before and after the contamination procedure, although the average g-value of the spectra apparently does not vary. A signal from an iron-contaminated float-zone grown silicon (FZ-Si) sample was detected employing an EDMR signal detection unit with enhanced sensitivity. For similar contamination levels, the signal from the FZ-Si sample has amplitude about {1}/{45} that of the CZ-Si signal and has specific shape. Further study of the EDMR signals from iron-contaminated Si samples will be useful for the investigation of gettering and recombination processes in Si wafers. Besides that, dependence of the EDMR spectrum shape on the thermal processes employed can help to pinpoint the process responsible for wafer contamination during semiconductor device fabrication.

  15. Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

  16. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Yolanda I.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-01-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively. PMID:26217815

  17. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively.

  18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE IN A SPHERICAL SHELL: INFLUENCE OF TURBULENT CONVECTION AND ASSOCIATED MEAN FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, Laurene; Brun, Allan Sacha E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr

    2009-08-20

    We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics study in spherical geometry of the nonlinear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone (CZ). These numerical simulations use the anelastic spherical harmonic code. We seek to understand the mechanism of emergence of strong toroidal fields through a turbulent layer from the base of the solar CZ to the surface as active regions. To do so, we study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modeled CZ up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behavior of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation (MC) and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the CZ: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflows control the rising velocity of particular regions of the rope and could in principle favor the emergence of flux through {omega}-loop structures. For these latter cases, we focus on the orientation of bipolar patches and find that sufficiently arched structures are able to create bipolar regions with a predominantly east-west orientation. Meridional flow seems to determine the trajectory of the magnetic rope when the field strength has been significantly reduced near the top of the domain. Appearance of local magnetic field also feeds back on the horizontal flows thus perturbing the MC via Maxwell stresses. Finally differential rotation makes it more difficult for tubes introduced at low latitudes to

  19. Effect of diets supplemented with different sources of astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value.

  20. Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles provide long duration sustained-release effect for a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Hanley, Tracey; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2011-07-30

    This study is the first to demonstrate the ability of nanostructured liquid crystal particles to sustain the absorption of a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration. Cubic (V(2)) liquid crystalline nanostructured particles (cubosomes) formed from phytantriol (PHY) were shown to sustain the absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) beyond 48h after oral administration to rats. Plasma concentrations were sustained within the range of 21.5±1.5ng/mL from 12 to 48h. In stark contrast, cubosomes prepared using glyceryl monooleate (GMO) did not sustain the absorption of CZ and drug concentrations fell below quantifiable levels after 24h. Sustained absorption of CZ from PHY cubosomes lead to a significant enhancement (p<0.05) in oral bioavailability (F%=21%) compared to a CZ suspension (9%) and oleic acid emulsion (12%). Analysis of the nanostructured particles in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the V(2)Pn3m nanostructure of PHY cubosomes was maintained for extended periods of time, in contrast to GMO cubosomes where the V(2)Im3m nanostructure was lost within 18h after exposure, suggesting that degradation of the LC nanostructure may limit sustained drug release. In addition, PHY cubosomes were shown to be extensively retained in the stomach (>24h) leading to the conclusion that in the case of non-digestible PHY cubosomes, the stomach may act as a non-sink reservoir that facilitates the slow release of poorly water soluble drugs, highlighting the potential use of non-digestible LC nanostructured particles as novel sustained oral drug delivery systems.

  1. Preference for Sucrose Solutions Modulates Taste Cortical Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Piques, Agnès; Mouillot, Thomas; Gigot, Vincent; Meillon, Sophie; Leloup, Corinne; Penicaud, Luc; Brondel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution is required to reliably measure neuronal activity in the gustatory cortex in response to taste stimuli. Hedonic aspects of gustatory processing have never been explored using gustatory evoked potentials (GEPs), a high-time-resolution technique. Our aim was to study cerebral processing of hedonic taste in humans using GEPs in response to sucrose solutions in subjects with different ratings of pleasantness regarding sucrose. In this exploratory study, 30 healthy volunteers were randomly stimulated with 3 sucrose solutions. The sucrose stimulus was presented to the tongue for 1s 20 times. GEPs were recorded from 9 cortical sites with EEG sensors at Cz, Fz, Pz, C3, C4, F3, F4, Fp1, and Fp2 (10/20 system). The main result was that subjects who preferred the high-concentration (20g/100mL) sucrose solution had higher GEP amplitudes on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes than did subjects who preferred the low-concentration (5g/100mL) or the moderate-concentration (10g/100mL) solutions regardless of stimulus intensity. The difference in P1N1 amplitude on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to sucrose preference of the subjects was described with stronger significance with stimulation by the 20 g-sucrose solution than by the 5 and 10g sucrose solutions. Using the reliable and safe GEP technique, we provide an original demonstration of variability of the gustatory response on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to a sweet preference in humans. Further studies are needed to correlate the electric signal recorded by surface electrodes to the neural generator. PMID:27235187

  2. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR.

  3. Mojave Compliant Zone Structure and Properties: Constraints from InSAR and Mechanical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.; Fialko, Y.; Finzi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Long-lived zones with significantly lower elastic strength than their surroundings are associated with active Mojave faults (e.g., Li et al., 1999; Fialko et al., 2002, 2004). In an earthquake these weak features concentrate strain, causing them to show up as anomalous, short length-scale features in SAR interferograms (Fialko et al., 2002). Fault-zone trapped wave studies indicate that the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake caused a small reduction in P- and S-wave velocities in a compliant zone along the Landers earthquake rupture (Vidale and Li, 2003). This suggests that coseismic strain concentration, and the resulting damage, in the compliant zone caused a further reduction in its elastic strength. Even a small coseismic strength drop should make a compliant zone (CZ) deform, in response to the total (not just the coseismic) stress. The strain should be in the sense which is compatible with the orientations and values of the region's principal stresses. However, as indicated by Fialko and co-workers (2002, 2004), the sense of coseismic strain of Mojave compliant zones was consistent with coseismic stress change, not the regional (background) stress. Here we use finite-element models to investigate how InSAR measurements of Mojave compliant zone coseismic strain places limits on their dimensions and on upper crustal stresses. We find that unless the CZ is shallow, narrow, and has a high Poisson's ratio (e.g., 0.4), CZ contraction under lithostatic stress overshadows deformation due to deviatoric background stress or coseismic stress change. We present ranges of CZ dimensions which are compatible with the observed surface deformation and address how these dimensions compare with new results from damage-controlled fault evolution models.

  4. The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Yppärilä, Heidi; Nunes, Silvia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Partanen, Juhani; Ruokonen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. Methods Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. Results Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients. PMID:15566595

  5. Oral Vaccination with Salmonella enterica as a Cruzipain-DNA Delivery System Confers Protective Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi▿

    PubMed Central

    Cazorla, Silvia I.; Becker, Pablo D.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Ebensen, Thomas; Sartori, María J.; Corral, Ricardo S.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    To stimulate both local and systemic immune responses against Trypanosoma cruzi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA was exploited as a DNA delivery system for cruzipain (SCz). In a murine model we compared SCz alone (GI) or coadministered with Salmonella carrying a plasmid encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GII), as well as protocols in which SCz priming was followed by boosting with recombinant cruzipain (rCz) admixed with either CpG-ODN (GIII) or MALP-2, a synthetic derivative of a macrophage-activating lipopeptide of 2 kDa from Mycoplasma fermentans (GIV). The results showed that protocols that included four oral doses of SCz (GI) elicited mainly a mucosal response characterized by immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue cells, with weak systemic responses. In contrast, the protocol that included a boost with rCz plus CpG (GIII) triggered stronger systemic responses in terms of Cz-specific serum IgG titers, splenocyte proliferation, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, and delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Trypomastigote challenge of vaccinated mice resulted in significantly lower levels of parasitemia compared to controls. Protection was abolished by depletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Parasite control was also evident from the reduction of tissue damage, as revealed by histopathologic studies and serum levels of enzymes that are markers of muscle injury in chronic Chagas' disease (i.e., creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase). Enhanced release of IFN-γ and interleukin-2 was observed in GI and GII upon restimulation of splenocytes in the nonparasitic phase of infection. Our results indicate that Salmonella-mediated delivery of Cz-DNA by itself promotes the elicitation of an immune response that controls T. cruzi infection, thereby reducing parasite loads and subsequent damage to muscle tissues. PMID:17967857

  6. Mu Wave Suppression during the Perception of Meaningless Syllables: EEG Evidence of Motor Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew; Harkrider, Ashley; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Motor involvement in speech perception has been recently studied using a variety of techniques. In the current study, EEG measurements from Cz, C3 and C4 electrodes were used to examine the relative power of the mu rhythm (i.e., 8-13 Hz) in response to various audio-visual speech and non-speech stimuli, as suppression of these rhythms is…

  7. Distinct isoprenoid origins of cis- and trans-zeatin biosyntheses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Takei, Kentaro; Ueda, Nanae; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2004-04-01

    Plants produce the common isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in plastids and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway in the cytosol. To assess which pathways contribute DMAPP for cytokinin biosynthesis, metabolites from each isoprenoid pathway were selectively labeled with (13)C in Arabidopsis seedlings. Efficient (13)C labeling was achieved by blocking the endogenous pathway genetically or chemically during the feed of a (13)C labeled precursor specific to the MEP or MVA pathways. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that the prenyl group of trans-zeatin (tZ) and isopentenyladenine is mainly produced through the MEP pathway. In comparison, a large fraction of the prenyl group of cis-zeatin (cZ) derivatives was provided by the MVA pathway. When expressed as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis cells, four adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferases (AtIPT1, AtIPT3, AtIPT5, and AtIPT8) were found in plastids, in agreement with the idea that the MEP pathway primarily provides DMAPP to tZ and isopentenyladenine. On the other hand, AtIPT2, a tRNA isopentenyltransferase, was detected in the cytosol. Because the prenylated adenine moiety of tRNA is usually of the cZ type, the formation of cZ in Arabidopsis seedlings might involve the transfer of DMAPP from the MVA pathway to tRNA. Distinct origins of large proportions of DMAPP for tZ and cZ biosynthesis suggest that plants are able to separately modulate the level of these cytokinin species.

  8. Ultrasound imaging in the general practitioner's office - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Genc, Alicja; Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonografia, będąca bezpieczną i nieinwazyjną metodą diagnostyczną, wykorzystującą coraz bardziej udoskonalone techniki obrazowania, stała się badaniem pierwszego wyboru w wielu schorzeniach. Coraz częściej stosowana jest w gabinecie lekarza rodzinnego jako metoda uzupełniająca badania podmiotowe i przedmiotowe.

  9. Highly Efficient Organic Hole Transporting Materials for Perovskite and Organic Solar Cells with Long-Term Stability.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Saripally Sudhaker; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Moon, Jong Hun; Lee, Jin Yong; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-27

    Small molecules based on N-atom-linked phenylcarbazole-fluorene as the main scaffold, end-capped with spirobifluorene derivatives, are developed as organic hole-transporting materials for highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The CzPAF-SBF-based devices show remarkable device performance with excellent long-term stability in PSCs and BHJ IOSCs with a maximum PCE of 17.21% and 7.93%, respectively.

  10. A Novel High-Resolution Mapping Method of d-Spacing And Lattice Plane Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Okada, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2004-05-12

    We have developed a fast and stable measuring system of lattice spacing with precision of 10-8 for a silicon crystal at the Photon Factory. Using a combination of this system with an autocollimator, we can not only measure d-spacing, but also can determine lattice plane orientation with sub-arcsec resolution in the same measurement process. We report a mapping measurement of a Boron-doped CZ silicon wafer with 1mm2 spatial resolution.

  11. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR. PMID:25504814

  12. Involvement of sulfates from cruzipain, a major antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the interaction with immunomodulatory molecule Siglec-E.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Heins, Anja M; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; Esteva, Mónica I; Jacobs, Thomas; Duschak, Vilma G

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the involvement of sulfated groups in the Trypanosoma cruzi host-parasite relationship, we studied the interaction between the major cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi, cruzipain (Cz), a sulfate-containing sialylated molecule and the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin like lectin-E (Siglec-E). To this aim, ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assays and flow cytometry, using mouse Siglec-E-Fc fusion molecules and glycoproteins of parasites, were performed. Competition assays verified that the lectins, Maackia amurensis II (Mal II) and Siglec-E-Fc, compete for the same binding sites. Taking into account that Mal II binding remains unaltered by sulfation, we established this lectin as sialylation degree control. Proteins of an enriched microsomal fraction showed the highest binding to Siglec-E as compared with those from the other parasite subcellular fractions. ELISA assays and the affinity purification of Cz by a Siglec-E column confirmed the interaction between both molecules. The significant decrease in binding of Siglec-E-Fc to Cz and to its C-terminal domain (C-T) after desulfation of these molecules suggests that sulfates contribute to the interaction between Siglec-E-Fc and these glycoproteins. Competitive ELISA assays confirmed the involvement of sulfated epitopes in the affinity between Siglec-E and Cz, probably modified by natural protein environment. Interestingly, data from flow cytometry of untreated and chlorate-treated parasites suggested that sulfates are not primary receptors, but enhance the binding of Siglec-E to trypomastigotic forms. Altogether, our findings support the notion that sulfate-containing sialylated glycoproteins interact with Siglec-E, an ortholog protein of human Siglec-9, and might modulate the immune response of the host, favoring parasitemia and persistence of the parasite. PMID:26047932

  13. Immune Modulation as an Effective Adjunct Post-exposure Therapeutic for B. pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Maryam F.; Cummings, Jason E.; Legare, Marie E.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Allen, Christopher P.; Slayden, Richard A.; Hanneman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei and is potentially fatal. Despite a growing global burden and high fatality rate, little is known about the disease. Recent studies demonstrate that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition is an effective post-exposure therapeutic for pulmonary melioidosis, which works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This treatment, while effective, was conducted using an experimental COX-2 inhibitor that is not approved for human or animal use. Therefore, an alternative COX-2 inhibitor needs to be identified for further studies. Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) COX-2 inhibitor marketed outside of the United States for the treatment of migraines. While this drug was developed for COX-2 inhibition, it has been found to modulate other aspects of inflammation as well. In this study, we used RAW 264.7 cells infected with B pseudomallei to analyze the effect of TA on cell survival, PGE2 production and regulation of COX-2 and nuclear factor- kappaB (NF-ĸB) protein expression. To evaluate the effectiveness of post-exposure treatment with TA, results were compared to Ceftazidime (CZ) treatments alone and the co-treatment of TA with a sub-therapeutic treatment of CZ determined in a study of BALB/c mice. Results revealed an increase in cell viability in vitro with TA and were able to reduce both COX-2 expression and PGE2 production while also decreasing NF-ĸB activation during infection. Co-treatment of orally administered TA and a sub-therapeutic treatment of CZ significantly increased survival outcome and cleared the bacterial load within organ tissue. Additionally, we demonstrated that post-exposure TA treatment with sub-therapeutic CZ is effective to treat melioidosis in BALB/c mice. PMID:27792775

  14. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  15. Human factors of target detection tasks within heavily cluttered video scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Samuel; Wellig, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Background: Algorithms show difficulties in distinguishing weak signals of a target from a cluttered background, a task that humans tend to master relatively easily. We conducted two studies to identify how various degrees of clutter influence operator performance and search patterns in a visual target detection task. Methods: First, 8 male subjects had to look for specific female targets within a heavily cluttered public area. Subjects were supported by differing amounts of markings that helped them to identify females in general. We presented video clips and analyzed the search patterns. Second, 18 subject matter experts had to identify targets on a heavily frequented motorway intersection. We presented them with video material from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveillance mission. The video image was subdivided in three zones: The central zone (CZ), a circle area of 10°. The peripheral zone (PZ) corresponding to a 4:3 format and the hyper peripheral zone (HPZ) which represented the lateral region specific to the 16:9 format. We analyzed fixation densities and task performance. Results: We found an approximately U-shaped correlation between the number of markings in a video and the degree of structure in search patterns as well as performance. For the motorway surveillance task we found a difference in mean detection time for CZ vs. HPZ (p=0.01) and PZ vs. HPZ (p=0.003) but no difference for CZ vs. PZ (p=0.491). There were no differences in detection rate for the respective zones. We found the highest fixation density in CZ decreasing towards HPZ. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that markings could increase surveillance operator performance in a cluttered environment as long as their number is kept in an optimal range. When performing a search task within a heavily cluttered environment, humans tend to show rather erratic search patterns and spend more time watching central picture areas.

  16. Substructure and Dynamics of the Fornax Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, Michael J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Colless, Matthew

    2001-02-01

    We present the first dynamical analysis of a galaxy cluster to include a large fraction of dwarf galaxies. Our sample of 108 Fornax Cluster members measured with the UK Schmidt Telescope FLAIR-II spectrograph contains 55 dwarf galaxies (15.5>bJ>18.0 or -16>MB>-13.5). Hα emission shows that 36%+/-8% of the dwarfs are star forming, twice the fraction implied by morphological classifications. The total sample has a mean velocity of 1493+/-36 km s-1 and a velocity dispersion of 374+/-26 km s-1. The dwarf galaxies form a distinct population: their velocity dispersion (429+/-41 km s-1) is larger than that of the giants (308+/-30 km s-1) at the 98% confidence level. This suggests that the dwarf population is dominated by infalling objects whereas the giants are virialized. The Fornax system has two components, the main Fornax Cluster centered on NGC 1399 with cz=1478 km s-1 and σcz=370 km s-1 and a subcluster centered 3° to the southwest including NGC 1316 with cz=1583 km s-1 and σcz=377 km s-1. This partition is preferred over a single cluster at the 99% confidence level. The subcluster, a site of intense star formation, is bound to Fornax and probably infalling toward the cluster core for the first time. We discuss the implications of this substructure for distance estimates of the Fornax Cluster. We determine the cluster mass profile using the method of Diaferio, which does not assume a virialized sample. The mass within a projected radius of 1.4 Mpc is (7+/-2)×1013 Msolar, and the mass-to-light ratio is 300+/-100 Msolar/Lsolar. The mass is consistent with values derived from the projected mass virial estimator and X-ray measurements at smaller radii.

  17. Organic photoredox catalysis for the oxidation of silicates: applications in radical synthesis and dual catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Christophe; Chenneberg, Ludwig; Corcé, Vincent; Ollivier, Cyril; Fensterbank, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Metal free photooxidation of alkyl bis(catecholato)silicates with the organic dye 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyano-benzene (4CzIPN) allows the smooth formation of alkyl radicals. The latter can be efficiently engaged either with radical acceptors to provide homolytic addition products or in photoredox/nickel dual catalysis reactions to obtain cross-coupling products.

  18. Controlling charge balance and exciton recombination by bipolar host in single-layer organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xianfeng; Tao, Youtian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo; Wang, Lixiang; Qin, Jingui; Wang, Fosong

    2010-08-01

    Highly efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off are demonstrated by using a bipolar host material of 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) doped with iridium complexes as the emissive layer. For example, the green single-layer device, employing fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium Ir(ppy)3 as dopant, shows a peak current efficiency of 45.57 cd A-1, corresponding to external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 12.42%, and still exhibits efficiencies of 45.26 cd A-1 and 40.42 cd A-1 at luminance of 1000 and 10 000 cd m-2, respectively. In addition, the yellow and red single-layer devices, with bis(2-(9,9- diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-benzoimidazol-N ,C3)iridium(acetylacetonate) (fbi)2Ir(acac) and bis(1-phenylisoquinolinolato-C2,N)iridium(acetylacetonate) (piq)2Ir(acac) as emitter, also show high EQE of 7.04% and 7.28%, respectively. The transport properties of o-CzOXD film are well investigated by current-voltage measurement, from which both hole and electron mobility are determined. It is found that the o-CzOXD shows appealing bipolar transport character, which is favor for the balanced charge distribution in the whole doped zone. More importantly, the multifunctional role of hole trapping and electron transporting of the iridium complex in o-CzOXD further balances the charge carriers and broadens the recombination zone. As a result, the recombination of electrons and holes is significantly improved and the triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching processes are effectively suppressed, eventually leading to the high efficiency as well as the reduced efficiency roll-off.

  19. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Restructuring research objectives from a technical readiness demonstration program to an investigation of high risk, high payoff activities associated with producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material is reported. Deletion of the module frame in favor of a frameless design, and modification in cell series parallel electrical interconnect configuration are reviewed. A baseline process sequence was identified for the fabrication of modules using the selected dendritic web sheet material, and economic evaluations of the sequence were completed.

  20. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  1. ao~~~- a~ c5

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... V1,>-1k 5~181: OcxIC+ 2e,-rb-1- N -c)Z--~~2 P-1 N f~l 1 U ' / ff ~~ f4!)V200 .:• PM I T ~ ' .., ry o~'~~~ i~~ . , v 1~G~~s~Q cA ^--T-1, Ii -FD M ...

  2. HERVd: database of human endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Paces, Václav

    2002-01-01

    The human endogenous retroviruses database (HERVd) is maintained at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, and is accessible via the World Wide Web at http://herv.img.cas.cz. The HERVd provides complex information on and analysis of retroviral elements found in the human genome. It can be used for searches of individual HERV families, identification of HERV parts, graphical output of HERV structures, comparison of HERVs and identification of retrovirus integration sites.

  3. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  4. ON THE AMPLITUDE OF CONVECTIVE VELOCITIES IN THE DEEP SOLAR INTERIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Rempel, Matthias; Trampedach, Regner

    2012-10-01

    We obtain lower limits on the amplitude of convective velocities in the deep solar convection zone (CZ) based only on the observed properties of the differential rotation and meridional circulation together with simple and robust dynamical balances obtained from the fundamental magnetohydrodynamics equations. The linchpin of the approach is the concept of gyroscopic pumping whereby the meridional circulation across isosurfaces of specific angular momentum is linked to the angular momentum transport by the convective Reynolds stress. We find that the amplitude of the convective velocity must be at least 30 m s{sup -1} in the upper CZ (r {approx} 0.95R) and at least 8 m s{sup -1} in the lower CZ (r {approx} 0.75R) in order to be consistent with the observed mean flows. Using the base of the near-surface shear layer as a probe of the rotational influence, we are further able to show that the characteristic length scale of deep convective motions must be no smaller than 5.5-30 Mm. These results are compatible with convection models but suggest that the efficiency of the turbulent transport assumed in advection-dominated flux-transport dynamo models is generally not consistent with the mean flows they employ.

  5. Childhood physical neglect promotes development of mild cognitive impairment in old age - A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age.

  6. SEP Montage Variability Comparison during Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Christine; Lolis, Athena Maria; Beric, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring is performed to provide real-time assessment of the neural structures that can be at risk during spinal surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most commonly used modality for intraoperative monitoring. SEP stability can be affected by many factors during the surgery. This study is a prospective review of SEP recordings obtained during intraoperative monitoring of instrumented spinal surgeries that were performed for chronic underlying neurologic and neuromuscular conditions, such as scoliosis, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. We analyzed multiple montages at the baseline, and then followed their development throughout the procedure. Our intention was to examine the stability of the SEP recordings throughout the surgical procedure on multiple montages of cortical SEP recordings, with the goal of identifying the appropriate combination of the least number of montages that gives the highest yield of monitorable surgeries. Our study shows that it is necessary to have multiple montages for SEP recordings, as it reduces the number of non-monitorable cases, improves IOM reliability, and therefore could reduce false positives warnings to the surgeons. Out of all the typical montages available for use, our study has shown that the recording montage Cz-C4/Cz-C3 (Cz-Cc) is the most reliable and stable throughout the procedure and should be the preferred montage followed throughout the surgery. PMID:27445969

  7. Changes in absolute theta power in bipolar patients during a saccadic attention task.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Consuelo; Diniz, Claudia; Di Girogio, Luiza; Bittencourt, Juliana; Gongora, Mariana; Ken Tanaka, Guaraci; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Novis, Fernanda; Angélica Silveira, Luciana; da Silva, Rafael de Assis; Cagy, Mauricio; Cheniaux, Elie; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-08-30

    The present study analyzed absolute theta power (ATP) in brain areas involved with attention in the three phase of BD while the patients performing a saccadic attention task. We hypothesized that patients in depression and mania states show a higher ATP compared to euthymic patients, since a higher ATP is indicative of attention deficit. We analyzed the frontal (F7, F3, Fz, F4 and F8) and central (C3, Cz and C4) areas. Thirty bipolar patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed a saccadic attention task while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography (20 channels). Our results showed a main effect for group over C3, C4, Cz, F7, F4, F8 electrodes, and a main effect for moment over Cz, F7, F8 electrodes. These results indicate that both task and groups produce changes in theta activity in distinct cortical areas that participate in the organization of attention. Our results therefore demonstrate that, although it is well established in the literature that theta has a relevant role in the attention process, it is necessary to deepen the investigations to better understand the specifics of theta during visual processing tasks that have a demand for attention.

  8. The effects of bromazepam over the central and frontal areas during a motor task: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Suzete; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Araújo, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Juliana; Aprigio, Danielle; Gongora, Mariana; Teixeira, Silmar; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis F; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the influence of bromazepam while executing a motor task. Specifically, we intend to analyze the changes in alpha absolute power under two experimental conditions, bromazepam and placebo. We also included analyses of theta and beta frequencies. We collected electroencephalographic data before, during, and after motor task execution. We used a Two Way ANOVA to investigate the condition (PL × Br6 mg) and moment (pre and post) variables for the following electrodes: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, C3, CZ and C4. We found a main effect for condition on the electrodes FP1, F7, F3, Fz, F4, C3 and CZ, for alpha and beta bands. For beta band we also found a main effect for condition on the electrodes Fp2, F8 and C4; for theta band we identified a main effect for condition on C3, Cz and C4 electrodes. This finding suggests that the motor task did not have any influence on the electrocortical activity in alpha, and that the existing modifications were a consequence due merely to the drug use. Despite its anxiolytic and sedative action, bromazepam did not show any significant changes when the individuals executed a finger extension motor task. PMID:25992523

  9. Parkinsonism and other movement disorders in outpatients in chronic use of cinnarizine and flunarizine.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Giorgio; Pastro, Paulo C; Froehner, Carolina

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and the patterns of movement disorders (MD) in outpatients submitted to the chronic use of cinnarizine (cz) or flunarizine (fz), and to establish the main risk factors for MD development. Over a period of 3 months, data were collected from outpatients who were chronic users of cz or fz in a municipal health institute. A total of 26 outpatients were included and all of them were submitted to a protocol that included DSM-4 diagnosis criteria for drug-induced movement disorders, parkinsonism (PK) and depression. Parkinsonism was diagnosed in 34% of the patients, PK plus akathisia, PK plus akathisia and bucco-linguo-masticatory syndrome (BLMS), isolated BLMS and dystonia were found in 4% patients each. Patients with BLMS had the highest median age and the longest average period in which they used the drugs. The affected group, when compared to the non-affected one, presented with higher rates of depression. This study demonstrates the existence of a direct relationship between the time of use of cz and fz, the age and the prevalence of PK and other MD. It also suggests that these drugs increase the incidence of depression. PMID:15476069

  10. The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-02-01

    The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered. PMID:23242691

  11. Future application of Czochralski crystal pulling for silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlcok, J. H.

    1985-08-01

    Czochralski (Cz) crystal pulling has been the predominant method used for preparing silicon single crystal for the past twenty years. The fundamental technology used has changed little. However, great strides have been made in learning how to make the crystals bigger and of better quality at ever increasing productivity rates. Currently charge sizes of 50 kg of polycrystal silicon are being used for production and crystals up to ten inches in diameter have been grown without major difficulty. The largest material actually being processed in silicon wafer form is 150 mm (6 inches) in diameter. Growing of crystals in a magnetic field has proved to be particularly useful for microscopic impurity control. Major developments in past years on equipment for Cz crystal pulling have included the automatic growth control of the diameter as well as the starting core of the crystal, the use of magnetic fields and around the crystal puller to supress convection, various recharging schemes for dopant control and the use of continuous liquid feed in the crystal puller. The latter, while far from being a reliable production process, is ideal in concept for major improvement in Cz crystal pulling. The Czochralski process will maintain its dominance of silicon crystal production for many years.

  12. Future application of Czochralski crystal pulling for silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlcok, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Czochralski (Cz) crystal pulling has been the predominant method used for preparing silicon single crystal for the past twenty years. The fundamental technology used has changed little. However, great strides have been made in learning how to make the crystals bigger and of better quality at ever increasing productivity rates. Currently charge sizes of 50 kg of polycrystal silicon are being used for production and crystals up to ten inches in diameter have been grown without major difficulty. The largest material actually being processed in silicon wafer form is 150 mm (6 inches) in diameter. Growing of crystals in a magnetic field has proved to be particularly useful for microscopic impurity control. Major developments in past years on equipment for Cz crystal pulling have included the automatic growth control of the diameter as well as the starting core of the crystal, the use of magnetic fields and around the crystal puller to supress convection, various recharging schemes for dopant control and the use of continuous liquid feed in the crystal puller. The latter, while far from being a reliable production process, is ideal in concept for major improvement in Cz crystal pulling. The Czochralski process will maintain its dominance of silicon crystal production for many years.

  13. Thalassobaculum salexigens sp. nov., a new member of the family Rhodospirillaceae from the NW Mediterranean Sea, and emended description of the genus Thalassobaculum.

    PubMed

    Urios, Laurent; Michotey, Valérie; Intertaglia, Laurent; Lesongeur, Françoise; Lebaron, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacteria, named CZ41_10a(T), was isolated from coastal surface waters of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Cells were motile, pleomorphic rods, 1.6 mum long and 0.7 mum wide and formed cream colonies on marine agar medium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 65 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolate in the genus Thalassobaculum, a member of the family Rhodospirillaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria. Unlike Thalassobaculum litoreum CL-GR58(T), its closest relative, strain CZ41_10a(T) was unable to grow anaerobically and did not exhibit nitrate reductase activity. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid content and physiological and biochemical characteristics, this isolate represents a novel species for which the name Thalassobaculum salexigens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CZ41_10a(T) (=DSM 19539(T)=CIP 109604(T)=MOLA [corrected] 84(T)). An emended description of the genus Thalassobaculum is also given.

  14. An eight-dimensional quantum mechanical Hamiltonian for X + YCZ3 system and its applications to H + CH4 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Xiong, Hongwei; Yang, Minghui

    2012-11-01

    An eight-dimensional quantum mechanical Hamiltonian has been proposed based on Palma and Clary's model in which the non-reacting CZ3 group keeps a C3v symmetry in the X + YCZ3 ↔ XY + CZ3 reaction J. Palma and D. C. Clary [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1859 (2000), 10.1063/1.480749]. By transforming the original Cartesian coordinate system (x, s) into a scaled polar coordinate system (q, γ), the vibrational Hamiltonian of CZ3 group is expressed in a simple form with a clear physical picture. This Hamiltonian is used to investigate the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction on the Jordan-Gilbert potential energy surface. The total reaction probabilities are calculated for the initial ground state, and umbrella, bending, symmetric, and asymmetric stretching excited states of CH4 with total angular momentum J = 0. The integral cross sections for the reaction are also studied for these initial vibrational states with a centrifugal-sudden approximation. The total integral cross sections for the asymmetric stretching vibrational excited state are in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results also showed the difference of dynamical behavior between reactions from symmetric and asymmetric stretching excited states. The thermal rate constants are calculated for the temperature range T = 250-2000 K and compared with the experimental and other theoretical results.

  15. Study and optimization of gas flow and temperature distribution in a Czochralski configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Jin, Z. L.; Huang, X. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Czochralski (Cz) method has virtually dominated the entire production of bulk single crystals with high productivity. Since the Cz-grown crystals are cylindrical, axisymmetric hot zone arrangement is required for an ideally high-quality crystal growth. However, due to three-dimensional effects the flow pattern and temperature field are inevitably non-axisymmetric. The grown crystal suffers from many defects, among which macro-cracks and micro-dislocation are mainly related to inhomogeneous temperature distribution during the growth and cooling processes. The task of the paper is to investigate gas partition and temperature distribution in a Cz configuration, and to optimize the furnace design for the reduction of the three-dimensional effects. The general design is found to be unfavorable to obtain the desired temperature conditions. Several different types of the furnace designs, modified at the top part of the side insulation, are proposed for a comparative analysis. The optimized one is chosen for further study, and the results display the excellence of the proposed design in suppression of three-dimensional effects to achieve relatively axisymmetric flow pattern and temperature distribution for the possible minimization of thermal stress related crystal defects.

  16. Cilostazol inhibits leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in murine microvessels after transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Hayashi, Takeshi; Hirayama, Makiko; Maruyama, Hajime; Tanahashi, Norio

    2014-01-16

    Leukocyte behavior in the cerebral microvasculature following vessel occlusion has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cilostazol on leukocyte behavior (rolling and adhesion) in murine cerebral microvessels following transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Four groups of mice were assigned: a sham group (n=16); an ischemia (induced by 15-min occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries) and reperfusion (I/R) group (n=13); I/R+cilostazol (I/R+CZ3 mg/kg) group (I/R after oral administration of cilostazol at 3 mg/kg) (n=8); and I/R+cilostazol (I/R+CZ30 mg/kg) group (I/R after oral administration of cilostazol at 30 mg/kg) (n=12). Leukocytes labeled with 0.05% acridine orange were administered intravenously and their behavior was investigated at 3 and 6 h after reperfusion. Numbers of rolling or adherent leukocytes were expressed as the count per square millimeter per 30s. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes at 3 and 6h after reperfusion were significantly higher in the I/R group than in the sham or I/R+CZ30 mg/kg groups in both pial veins (P<0.05) and pial arteries (P<0.05). Cilostazol (30 mg/kg) inhibited leukocyte-endothelial interactions following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

  17. Different Culture Metabolites of the Red Sea Fungus Fusarium equiseti Optimize the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease (HCV PR)

    PubMed Central

    Hawas, Usama W.; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T.; Turki, Adnan J.

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek’s (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM. The Cz culture extract exhibited high-level inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 27.6 μg/mL) compared to the biomalt culture extract (IC50 56 μg/mL), and the most potent HCV PR isolated compound (Griseoxanthone C, IC50 19.8 μM) from the bio-malt culture extract showed less of an inhibitory effect compared to isolated ω-hydroxyemodin (IC50 10.7 μM) from the optimized Cz culture extract. Both HCV PR active inhibitors ω-hydroxyemodin and griseoxanthone C were considered as the lowest selective safe constituents against Trypsin inhibitory effect with IC50 48.5 and 51.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27775589

  18. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of three herbal irrigants in reducing intracanal E. faecalis populations: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Jitesh; Duhan, Jigyasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the intracanal bacterial reduction promoted by chemomechanical preparation using three different herbal extracts named Ocimum sanctum (OS), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ), Syzygium aromaticum (SA) against Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods Root canals from extracted teeth were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 for 7 days and then randomly distributed into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: which includes conventional irrigation with OS, CZ and SA. The control groups included 5 teeth each consisting of NaOCl (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). Samples taken before and after chemomechanical procedures were cultured, and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. Bacterial identification was performed using Polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analyses were performed with various tests. Results Reduction in the intracanal bacterial populations was highly significant for all the experimental groups. CZ and SA showed 80 to 85% intracanal bacterial reduction while O. Sanctum revealed only 70 to 75 % reduction. NaOCl showed 96 to 100 % bacterial reduction on the other hand distilled water showed very minimal bacterial reduction i.e 10 to 16%. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and Ocimum sanctum showed intracanal bacterial reduction against Enterococcus faecalis. The 3 experimental groups were less effective in terms of intracanal bacterial reduction as compare to NaOCl but more effective than distilled water. Key words:Antimicrobial activity, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Enterococcus faecalis, Ocimum sanctum, Syzygium aromaticum, herbal extracts. PMID:27398170

  19. Titanium in silicon: Lattice positions and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markevich, V. P.; Leonard, S.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Marinopoulos, A. G.; Coutinho, J.

    2014-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were carried out on Czochralski (Cz)- and float-zone-grown (FZ) Si crystals, which were implanted with Ti ions and annealed in the temperature range 600-900 °C. The electrical behavior of Ti atoms is found to be different in Cz- and FZ-Si annealed at 650 °C, although the Ti SIMS profiles are similar. It is argued that interstitial Ti atoms (Tii) in FZ-Si crystals interact with implantation-induced vacancies and take a substitutional position (Tis). No energy levels which can be assigned to Tis have been detected in this work or in previous experimental literature. However, previous calculations suggest that Tis is a deep acceptor in Si. We show from density functional calculations that by taking proper account of interactions within the d-shell of the Ti impurity the electronic structure of Tis has no levels in the band gap. The calculations show that Tii is more energetically favorable than Tis and that Tii binds more strongly to the silicon vacancy than interstitial oxygen does, explaining the observed differences between FZ- and Cz-irradiated materials.

  20. Event-related potentials reflect the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatments in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Uratani, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Naoko; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-08-30

    Few objective biological measures of pharmacological treatment efficacy exist for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although we have previously demonstrated that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect the effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate in treatment of naïve pediatric patients with ADHD, whether this is true for the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine (ATX) is unknown. Here, we used the Japanese version of the ADHD rating-scale IV to evaluate 14 patients with ADHD, and compared their ERP data with 14 age- and sex-matched controls. We measured P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task before treatment (treatment naïve) and after 2 months of ATX treatment. Compared with controls, P300 components at baseline were attenuated and prolonged in the ADHD group at Fz (fronto-central), Cz (centro-parietal), Pz (parietal regions), C3 and C4 electrodes. ATX treatment reduced ADHD symptomology, and after 2 months of treatment, P300 latencies at Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4 electrodes were significantly shorter than those at baseline. Moreover, MMN amplitudes at Cz and C3 electrodes were significantly greater than those at baseline. Thus, ERPs may be useful for evaluating the pharmacological effects of ATX in pediatric and adolescent patients with ADHD. PMID:27318633

  1. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    DOE PAGES

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; Fanto, Michael L.; Kaplan, Lev; Smith, Amos Matthew

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally,more » we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.« less

  2. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jens K.; Pihl, Rasmus; Møller, Anders H.; Madsen, Anne T.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Andersen, Kell K.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL) and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ), the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT) and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ). Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction toward the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the enzyme well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries) to SZ. Furthermore, all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant enzymes. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications. PMID:25941516

  3. The effects of bromazepam over the central and frontal areas during a motor task: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Suzete; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Araújo, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Juliana; Aprigio, Danielle; Gongora, Mariana; Teixeira, Silmar; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis F; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the influence of bromazepam while executing a motor task. Specifically, we intend to analyze the changes in alpha absolute power under two experimental conditions, bromazepam and placebo. We also included analyses of theta and beta frequencies. We collected electroencephalographic data before, during, and after motor task execution. We used a Two Way ANOVA to investigate the condition (PL × Br6 mg) and moment (pre and post) variables for the following electrodes: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, C3, CZ and C4. We found a main effect for condition on the electrodes FP1, F7, F3, Fz, F4, C3 and CZ, for alpha and beta bands. For beta band we also found a main effect for condition on the electrodes Fp2, F8 and C4; for theta band we identified a main effect for condition on C3, Cz and C4 electrodes. This finding suggests that the motor task did not have any influence on the electrocortical activity in alpha, and that the existing modifications were a consequence due merely to the drug use. Despite its anxiolytic and sedative action, bromazepam did not show any significant changes when the individuals executed a finger extension motor task.

  4. Growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes: a nano Czochralski model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been under intense investigations during the past two decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties; however, there is still no commonly accepted growth mechanism to describe the growth behavior of CNTs. Here, we propose a nano Czochralski (CZ) model which regards the catalytic growth of a CNT as a CZ process taking place on the nano scale. The main idea is that, during the CNT growth, each catalyst particle acts as a nano crucible to nucleate and maintain the CNT growth, and the extruding CNT rotates relative to the nano crucible, leading to a chirality-dependent growth rate. In this case, the structural quality gradually changes along the CNT due to the dynamic generation-reconstruction-diffusion of defects during the CNT growth. The nano CZ mechanism may also apply to the catalytic growth of many other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (including various nanotubes and nanowires), thus further efforts will be stimulated in the quality and property control, as well as application explorations of these 1D nanomaterials. PMID:22747835

  5. Spontaneous cortical DC-potential shifts: modulation stereotypy; relationships to higher EEG-frequencies.

    PubMed

    Etlinger, S C; Guttmann, G; Bauer, H

    1986-07-01

    A description of scalp-recorded, spontaneous, cerebral DC-potential shifts is given independent of other variables (shift stereotypy), in relationship to higher frequencies (theta, alpha 1, alpha 2: 4-13 Hz) and as analyzed pairwise across the median sagittal line (Fz, Cz, Pz) separately according to frequency and condition (relaxation and moderate mental load). Spontaneous DC-shifts are shown to behave unpredictably. Whether measured jointly (up to triads) or as dyad and triad context entropy, the frontal DC-shifts are calculated as being random, whereby their definition as such within the context of the Principle Component Analysis is supported by the analysis of longitudinal registrations. Cross-correlation analysis of the cerebral slow potential's relationship to each of the higher frequencies (theta, alpha 1, alpha 2) reveals it to be highly independent, the highest correlation accounting for merely 11% of the common variance, the average being 9% (R congruent to 0.3). By matching the conjoint activity of the DC-potential between Fz-Cz, Cz-Pz, and Fz-Pz to that of theta, alpha 1, alpha 2 at the same paired sites, the DC-activity is shown to be operating at higher levels of synchronous activity than the higher frequencies, regardless of pairing and/or condition, although the general level of synchronous activity (DC, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2) is remarkably high along the median sagittal line, 75% of the correlation averages of all analysis-pairings being above 0.60.

  6. Cytokinin metabolism in maize: Novel evidence of cytokinin abundance, interconversions and formation of a new trans-zeatin metabolic product with a weak anticytokinin activity.

    PubMed

    Hluska, Tomáš; Dobrev, Petre I; Tarkowská, Dana; Frébortová, Jitka; Zalabák, David; Kopečný, David; Plíhal, Ondřej; Kokáš, Filip; Briozzo, Pierre; Zatloukal, Marek; Motyka, Václav; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are an important group of phytohormones. Their tightly regulated and balanced levels are essential for proper cell division and plant organ development. Here we report precise quantification of CK metabolites and other phytohormones in maize reproductive organs in the course of pollination and kernel maturation. A novel enzymatic activity dependent on NADP(+) converting trans-zeatin (tZ) to 6-(3-methylpyrrol-1-yl)purine (MPP) was detected. MPP shows weak anticytokinin properties and inhibition of CK dehydrogenases due to their ability to bind to an active site in the opposite orientation than substrates. Although the physiological significance of tZ side-chain cyclization is not anticipated as the MPP occurrence in maize tissue is very low, properties of the novel CK metabolite indicate its potential for utilization in plant in vitro tissue culture. Furthermore, feeding experiments with different isoprenoid CKs revealed distinct preferences in glycosylation of tZ and cis-zeatin (cZ). While tZ is preferentially glucosylated at the N9 position, cZ forms mainly O-glucosides. Since O-glucosides, in contrast to N9-glucosides, are resistant to irreversible cleavage catalyzed by CK dehydrogenases, the observed preference of maize CK glycosyltransferases to O-glycosylate zeatin in the cis-position might be a reason why cZ derivatives are over-accumulated in different maize tissues and organs. PMID:27095406

  7. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of high-grade host rocks to the Venetia kimberlite diatremes, Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Creus, P. K.; Anthonissen, C. J.; Stoch, B.; Ekkerd, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Beit Bridge Complex of the Central Zone (CZ) of the Limpopo Belt hosts the 519 ± 6 Ma Venetia kimberlite diatremes. Deformed shelf- or platform-type supracrustal sequences include the Mount Dowe, Malala Drift and Gumbu Groups, comprising quartzofeldspathic units, biotite-bearing gneiss, quartzite, metapelite, metacalcsilicate and ortho- and para-amphibolite. Previous studies define tectonometamorphic events at 3.3-3.1 Ga, 2.7-2.5 Ga and 2.04 Ga. Detailed structural mapping over 10 years highlights four deformation events at Venetia. Rules-based implicit 3D modelling in Leapfrog Geo™ provides an unprecedented insight into CZ ductile deformation and sheath folding. D1 juxtaposed gneisses against metasediments. D2 produced a pervasive axial planar foliation (S2) to isoclinal F2 folds. Sheared lithological contacts and S2 were refolded into regional, open, predominantly southward-verging, E-W trending F3 folds. Intrusion of a hornblendite protolith occurred at high angles to incipient S2. Constrictional-prolate D4 shows moderately NE-plunging azimuths defined by elongated hornblendite lenses, andalusite crystals in metapelite, crenulations in fuchsitic quartzite and sheath folding. D4 overlaps with a: 1) 2.03-2.01 Ga regional M3 metamorphic overprint; b) transpressional deformation at 2.2-1.9 Ga and c) 2.03 Ga transpressional, dextral shearing and thrusting around the CZ and d) formation of the Avoca, Bellavue and Baklykraal sheath folds and parallel lineations.

  8. New high performance Si for optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenma, T.; Matsuzaka, M.; Sako, R.; Takase, K.; Chiba, K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the backdrop of a growing demand in the areas of smart buildings, security, vehicle installation, and other applications, the market for far infrared cameras is expected to grow significantly in the future. However, since germanium (Ge) and chalcogenide glass, which have been used as the lens materials of far infrared cameras, are very expensive or highly toxic, there are some problems supporting the growing demand. We have therefore focused attention on silicon, which is inexpensive and less toxic. Although silicon has been used as a lens material of far infrared cameras, there are some problems remaining to be solved: Cz silicon is inexpensive but delivers low transmittance, and Fz silicon delivers sufficient transmittance but is expensive. We have developed New Cz silicon, which delivers high transmittance as Fz silicon does, and is inexpensive as conventional Cz silicon is. We have already started its sample work at both companies in Japan and overseas and have obtained excellent performance results. Mass production is scheduled to start in this fiscal year.

  9. Highly sensitive gas-phase explosive detection by luminescent microporous polymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Räupke, André; Palma-Cando, Alex; Shkura, Eugen; Teckhausen, Peter; Polywka, Andreas; Görrn, Patrick; Scherf, Ullrich; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We propose microporous networks (MPNs) of a light emitting spiro-carbazole based polymer (PSpCz) as luminescent sensor for nitro-aromatic compounds. The MPNs used in this study can be easily synthesized on arbitrarily sized/shaped substrates by simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition. The resulting MPN afford an extremely high specific surface area of 1300 m2/g, more than three orders of magnitude higher than that of the thin films of the respective monomer. We demonstrate, that the luminescence of PSpCz is selectively quenched by nitro-aromatic analytes, e.g. nitrobenzene, 2,4-DNT and TNT. In striking contrast to a control sample based on non-porous spiro-carbazole, which does not show any luminescence quenching upon exposure to TNT at levels of 3 ppm and below, the microporous PSpCz shows a clearly detectable response even at TNT concentrations as low as 5 ppb, clearly demonstrating the advantage of microporous films as luminescent sensors for traces of explosive analytes. This level states the vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature. PMID:27373905

  10. Behavior of nitrogen in Si crystal during irradiation and post-annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naohisa; Oyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kaori; Seki, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2014-02-21

    Radiation induced complexes in nitrogen (N) -doped silicon crystal was investigated by highly sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The absorption by N{sub 2} pair was reduced by the electron irradiation in FZ crystals. The absorptions appeared on both sides of N{sub 2} line at 766 cm{sup −1}, at about 725 and 778 cm{sup −1}. By the annealing, N{sub 2} lines recovered a little at 600 °C and mostly at 800 °C. The above new absorption lines reduced by the annealing at lower temperatures and other absorption appeared. In CZ silicon, N{sub 2} lines did not change by the irradiation. Dominant absorption in low carbon FZ silicon was that of C-rich type complexes, VO and I{sub n}C{sub i}O{sub im}(n=0–3, m=0,1). Dominant absorption in the irradiated low carbon CZ silicon was that of C-lean type complexes I{sub n}O{sub 2+mi}(n=1, 2, m=0, 1), and the decrease of C-lean type O{sub 2i} and TDD was observed. By the annealing of CZ Si, VO{sub n} (n=2–4) formation and annihilation was observed.

  11. Highly sensitive gas-phase explosive detection by luminescent microporous polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räupke, André; Palma-Cando, Alex; Shkura, Eugen; Teckhausen, Peter; Polywka, Andreas; Görrn, Patrick; Scherf, Ullrich; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We propose microporous networks (MPNs) of a light emitting spiro-carbazole based polymer (PSpCz) as luminescent sensor for nitro-aromatic compounds. The MPNs used in this study can be easily synthesized on arbitrarily sized/shaped substrates by simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition. The resulting MPN afford an extremely high specific surface area of 1300 m2/g, more than three orders of magnitude higher than that of the thin films of the respective monomer. We demonstrate, that the luminescence of PSpCz is selectively quenched by nitro-aromatic analytes, e.g. nitrobenzene, 2,4-DNT and TNT. In striking contrast to a control sample based on non-porous spiro-carbazole, which does not show any luminescence quenching upon exposure to TNT at levels of 3 ppm and below, the microporous PSpCz shows a clearly detectable response even at TNT concentrations as low as 5 ppb, clearly demonstrating the advantage of microporous films as luminescent sensors for traces of explosive analytes. This level states the vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature.

  12. The quantum superstring as a WZNW model with N=2 superconformal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, P. A.; Policastro, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new development in our approach to the covariant quantization of superstrings in 10 dimensions which is based on a gauged WZNW model. To incorporate worldsheet diffeomorphisms we need the quartet of ghosts ( bzz, cz, βzz, γz) for topological gravity. The currents of this combined system form an N=2 superconformal algebra. The model has vanishing central charge and contains two anticommuting BRST charges, QS= QW+∮ γzbzz and QV=∮ cz( TWzz+(1/2) Ttopzz)+ γz( BWzz+(1/2) Btopzz-(1/2) czFzzz-(1/4) γzΦzzz). Physical states form the cohomology of QS+ QV+∮ ηz, where ηz is obtained by the usual fermionization of βzz, γz, have non-negative grading, and are annihilated by b0 and β0. We no longer introduce any ghosts by hand, and the formalism is completely Lorentz covariant.

  13. SEP Montage Variability Comparison during Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Christine; Lolis, Athena Maria; Beric, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring is performed to provide real-time assessment of the neural structures that can be at risk during spinal surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most commonly used modality for intraoperative monitoring. SEP stability can be affected by many factors during the surgery. This study is a prospective review of SEP recordings obtained during intraoperative monitoring of instrumented spinal surgeries that were performed for chronic underlying neurologic and neuromuscular conditions, such as scoliosis, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. We analyzed multiple montages at the baseline, and then followed their development throughout the procedure. Our intention was to examine the stability of the SEP recordings throughout the surgical procedure on multiple montages of cortical SEP recordings, with the goal of identifying the appropriate combination of the least number of montages that gives the highest yield of monitorable surgeries. Our study shows that it is necessary to have multiple montages for SEP recordings, as it reduces the number of non-monitorable cases, improves IOM reliability, and therefore could reduce false positives warnings to the surgeons. Out of all the typical montages available for use, our study has shown that the recording montage Cz-C4/Cz-C3 (Cz-Cc) is the most reliable and stable throughout the procedure and should be the preferred montage followed throughout the surgery. PMID:27445969

  14. On the Amplitude of Convective Velocities in the Deep Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Rempel, Matthias; Trampedach, Regner

    2012-10-01

    We obtain lower limits on the amplitude of convective velocities in the deep solar convection zone (CZ) based only on the observed properties of the differential rotation and meridional circulation together with simple and robust dynamical balances obtained from the fundamental magnetohydrodynamics equations. The linchpin of the approach is the concept of gyroscopic pumping whereby the meridional circulation across isosurfaces of specific angular momentum is linked to the angular momentum transport by the convective Reynolds stress. We find that the amplitude of the convective velocity must be at least 30 m s-1 in the upper CZ (r ~ 0.95R) and at least 8 m s-1 in the lower CZ (r ~ 0.75R) in order to be consistent with the observed mean flows. Using the base of the near-surface shear layer as a probe of the rotational influence, we are further able to show that the characteristic length scale of deep convective motions must be no smaller than 5.5-30 Mm. These results are compatible with convection models but suggest that the efficiency of the turbulent transport assumed in advection-dominated flux-transport dynamo models is generally not consistent with the mean flows they employ.

  15. Highly sensitive gas-phase explosive detection by luminescent microporous polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Räupke, André; Palma-Cando, Alex; Shkura, Eugen; Teckhausen, Peter; Polywka, Andreas; Görrn, Patrick; Scherf, Ullrich; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We propose microporous networks (MPNs) of a light emitting spiro-carbazole based polymer (PSpCz) as luminescent sensor for nitro-aromatic compounds. The MPNs used in this study can be easily synthesized on arbitrarily sized/shaped substrates by simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition. The resulting MPN afford an extremely high specific surface area of 1300 m(2)/g, more than three orders of magnitude higher than that of the thin films of the respective monomer. We demonstrate, that the luminescence of PSpCz is selectively quenched by nitro-aromatic analytes, e.g. nitrobenzene, 2,4-DNT and TNT. In striking contrast to a control sample based on non-porous spiro-carbazole, which does not show any luminescence quenching upon exposure to TNT at levels of 3 ppm and below, the microporous PSpCz shows a clearly detectable response even at TNT concentrations as low as 5 ppb, clearly demonstrating the advantage of microporous films as luminescent sensors for traces of explosive analytes. This level states the vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature. PMID:27373905

  16. Water Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed dynamic pore-network model is presented [1]. The model explicitly solves for both water pressure and capillary pressure. A semi-implicit scheme is used in updating water saturation in each pore body, which considerably increases the numerical stability at low capillary number values. Furthermore, a multiple-time-step algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational effort. A number of case studies of water transport in the micro porous layer (MPL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are conducted. We illustrate the role of MPL in reducing water flooding in the GDL. Also, the dynamic water transport through the MPL-GDL interface is explored in detail. This information is essential to the reduced continua model (RCM), which was developed for multiphase flow through thin porous layers [2, 3]. C.Z. Qin, Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: dynamic pore-network modeling, J Electrochimical. Soci., 162, F1036-F1046, 2015. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: general balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, 693-708, 2014. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, A new approach to modeling water flooding in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40, 3348-3358, 2015.

  17. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    SciTech Connect

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; Fanto, Michael L.; Kaplan, Lev; Smith, Amos Matthew

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally, we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.

  18. Towards an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Banwart, S. A.; Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Richter, D., Jr.; Trumbore, S.; Vereecken, H.; Voelkel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) concept provides a holistic and unifying framework to understand diverse Earth surficial processes, encompassing the hydrologic cycle, the geochemical cycle, the carbon cycle, the nutrient cycle, gas exchange (major and trace gases), erosion and deposition, weathering, lithification (diagenesis), soil formation and evolution (pedogenesis), life processes (macro- and microbial communities), and human impacts (land use and management). Among the complexity of the CZ are the integration of abiotic and biotic processes, the linkage between belowground and aboveground systems, and the unification of time and space dimensions. Three aspects unique to CZ can be used to differentiate Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) from other terrestrial environmental observing systems : 1) Deep time, including geologic timescale to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth's surficial environment and the reconciliation of long- and short-time scale processes; 2) Deep depth into weathered bedrock, which is much deeper than the classical perception of soils perceived as 1-2 m root zone; and 3) Deep coupling of diverse processes, including interactions and feedbacks among geologic, pedologic, hydrologic, biologic, geochemical, atmospheric, and anthropogenic processes. These "three deeps" can be used to guide the development of the international network of CZOs. The US, EU, Germany, UK, China, and Australia are leading the way to establish such an international network, which can serve the international scientific community through interdisciplinary research, common infrastructure, shared databases, integrated models, and the education of new generations of earth and environmental scientists.

  19. Childhood physical neglect promotes development of mild cognitive impairment in old age - A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age. PMID:27236588

  20. Resolving the Multi-scale Behavior of Geochemical Weathering in the Critical Zone Using High Resolution Hydro-geochemical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates hydrologic and geochemical interactions in the Critical Zone (CZ) using high-resolution reactive transport modeling. Reactive transport models can be used to predict the response of geochemical weathering and solute fluxes in the CZ to changes in a dynamic environment, such as those pertaining to human activities and climate change in recent years. The scales of hydrology and geochemistry in the CZ range from days to eons in time and centimeters to kilometers in space. Here, we present results of a multi-dimensional, multi-scale hydro-geochemical model to investigate the role of subsurface heterogeneity on the formation of mineral weathering fronts in the CZ, which requires consideration of many of these spatio-temporal scales. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN, an open source subsurface flow and reactive transport code that utilizes parallelization over multiple processing nodes and provides a strong framework for simulating weathering in the CZ. The model is set up to simulate weathering dynamics in the mountainous catchments representative of the Colorado Front Range. Model parameters were constrained based on hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical observations from the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO). Simulations were performed in fractured rock systems and compared with systems of heterogeneous and homogeneous permeability fields. Tracer simulations revealed that the mean residence time of solutes was drastically accelerated as fracture density increased. In simulations that include mineral reactions, distinct signatures of transport limitations on weathering arose when discrete flow paths were included. This transport limitation was related to both advective and diffusive processes in the highly heterogeneous systems (i.e. fractured media and correlated random permeability fields with σlnk > 3). The well-known time-dependence of mineral weathering rates was found to be the most

  1. Designing a suite of measurements to understand the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, Susan L.; DiBiase, Roman A.; Russo, Tess A.; Shi, Yuning; Lin, Henry; Davis, Kenneth J.; Kaye, Margot; Hill, Lillian; Kaye, Jason; Eissenstat, David M.; Hoagland, Beth; Dere, Ashlee L.; Neal, Andrew L.; Brubaker, Kristen M.; Arthur, Dan K.

    2016-03-01

    Many scientists have begun to refer to the earth surface environment from the upper canopy to the depths of bedrock as the critical zone (CZ). Identification of the CZ as an integral object worthy of study implicitly posits that the study of the whole earth surface will provide benefits that do not arise when studying the individual parts. To study the CZ, however, requires prioritizing among the measurements that can be made - and we do not generally agree on the priorities. Currently, the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) is expanding from a small original focus area (0.08 km2, Shale Hills catchment), to a larger watershed (164 km2, Shavers Creek watershed) and is grappling with the prioritization. This effort is an expansion from a monolithologic first-order forested catchment to a watershed that encompasses several lithologies (shale, sandstone, limestone) and land use types (forest, agriculture). The goal of the project remains the same: to understand water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment (WEGSS) fluxes that are occurring today in the context of the record of those fluxes over geologic time as recorded in soil profiles, the sedimentary record, and landscape morphology. Given the small size of the Shale Hills catchment, the original design incorporated measurement of as many parameters as possible at high temporal and spatial density. In the larger Shavers Creek watershed, however, we must focus the measurements. We describe a strategy of data collection and modeling based on a geomorphological and land use framework that builds on the hillslope as the basic unit. Interpolation and extrapolation beyond specific sites relies on geophysical surveying, remote sensing, geomorphic analysis, the study of natural integrators such as streams, groundwaters or air, and application of a suite of CZ models. We hypothesize that measurements of a few important variables at strategic locations within a geomorphological framework will allow

  2. The effect of reference choices on the spatio-temporal analysis of brain evoked potentials: the use of infinite reference.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dezhong; Wang, Li; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Chen, Andrew C N

    2007-11-01

    Reference is a very virtual issue in EEG and ERP. Understanding the difference of various references will make the applications more confident. In this work, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) with stimulation on the right hand was studied. The SEP spatio-temporal analysis was conducted comparatively on six references, left mastoid (contralateral mastoid reference, CM), right mastoid (ipsilateral mastoid reference, IM), linked mastoids (LM), average reference (AR), vertex reference (Cz) and the infinity reference (IR) newly proposed in 2001. Among the six, CM is the one used in actual recordings, and the other five are obtained by off-line re-referencing. The comparison is conducted on four selected components (P30 ms, P40 ms, N90 ms and P230 ms) in both temporal and spatial aspects. The results show that references may have a distinct influence on the amplitudes of the scalp potentials, with relative error at some electrodes larger than 500%, and for some electrodes it may even change the polarity. Pair-wise multiple comparison (Tukey test) shows that the differences of peak values among various references are very significant (P<0.001) between Cz and IR\\CM\\IM\\LM, and significant (P<0.01) between Cz and AR for component N90 ms; very significant (P<0.001) between Cz and IR\\CM\\IM\\LM\\AR, significant between IMLM and AR (P<0.01), CM and AR (P<0.05) for component P230 ms. The amplitude value order is CM/IM> or =LM>IR>AR>Cz. The two-ways (the six references vs. the four Peaks) repeated measures ANOVA test shows the effect of different references depends on various components; there is a statistically significant interaction between reference and the peak (P=<0.001). While for the spatial map of the potential amplitude, references will not affect the amplitude map shape if the color-bar is selected automatically, but if a fixed color-bar is chosen for data of various references, they may show some differences. These results mean a common reference is important

  3. Contributions of electron microscopy to understanding CO adsorption on powder Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cíes, José María; Delgado, Juan José; López-Haro, Miguel; Pilasombat, Ratchaneekorn; Pérez-Omil, José Antonio; Trasobares, Susana; Bernal, Serafin; Calvino, José Juan

    2010-08-16

    The influence of the highly dispersed gold phase on the CO-support interaction occurring in two 2.5 wt % Au/Ce(0.62)Zr(0.38)O(2) catalysts with medium (Au/CZ-MD) and high (Au/CZ-HD) metal dispersion is quantitatively assessed. For this purpose, we have followed an approach in which high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), computer modelling, volumetric adsorption and FTIR spectroscopy studies are combined. This approach has already been fruitfully applied to the investigation of the specific CO-metal adsorption in Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts. As deduced from the experimental studies reported herein, the presence of gold dramatically increases the amount of CO strongly chemisorbed on the support. Moreover, this amount is sensitive to the metal dispersion, thus suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism in which the CO molecules that are initially adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles are further transferred to the support by means of a spillover process. An annular model is proposed for the growth of the CO phase adsorbed on the ceria-zirconia mixed oxide in the presence of Au. By assuming this model, we have estimated the width of the annulus, Delta r, of the adsorbed CO grown around the Au nanoparticles in Au/CZ-MD and Au/CZ-HD catalysts. This value is found to be very close to Delta r approximately 2 nm in both cases, the coincidence lending some additional support to the model. To further confirm this proposal, we have investigated the influence of CO pre-adsorption on the D(2)-Au/CZ-MD interaction, at 298 K. As revealed by FTIR spectroscopy, the kinetics of the deuterium spillover is significantly disturbed by the pre-adsorbed CO, which is fully consistent with an annular model for the CO adsorption. We conclude from the global analysis of the results reported here and those already available on CO-Au adsorption that the appropriate combination of nanostructural, computer modelling and chemical techniques is a powerful

  4. Designing a suite of measurements to understand the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; DiBiase, R.; Russo, T.; Shi, Y.; Lin, H.; Davis, K. J.; Kaye, M.; Hill, L.; Kaye, J.; Neal, A. L.; Eissenstat, D.; Hoagland, B.; Dere, A. L.

    2015-09-01

    Many scientists have begun to refer to the earth surface environment from the upper canopy to the depths of bedrock as the critical zone (CZ). Identification of the CZ as a worthy object of study implicitly posits that the study of the whole earth surface will provide benefits that do not arise when studying the individual parts. To study the CZ, however, requires prioritizing among the measurements that can be made - and we do not generally agree on the priorities. Currently, the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) is expanding from a small original study area (0.08 km2, Shale Hills catchment), to a much larger watershed (164 km2, Shavers Creek watershed) and is grappling with the necessity of prioritization. This effort is an expansion from a monolithologic first-order forested catchment to a watershed that encompasses several lithologies (shale, sandstone, limestone) and land use types (forest, agriculture). The goal of the project remains the same: to understand water, energy, gas, solute and sediment (WEGSS) fluxes that are occurring today in the context of the record of those fluxes over geologic time as recorded in soil profiles, the sedimentary record, and landscape morphology. Given the small size of the original Shale Hills catchment, the original measurement design resulted in measurement of as many parameters as possible at high temporal and spatial density. In the larger Shavers Creek watershed, however, we must focus the measurements. We describe a strategy of data collection and modelling based on a geomorphological framework that builds on the hillslope as the basic unit. Interpolation and extrapolation beyond specific sites relies on geophysical surveying, remote sensing, geomorphic analysis, the study of natural integrators such as streams, ground waters or air, and application of a suite of CZ models. In essence, we are hypothesizing that pinpointed measurements of a few important variables at strategic locations will allow

  5. A Balancing Act: Stability versus Reactivity of Mn(O) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Neu, Heather M; Baglia, Regina A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-10-20

    A large class of heme and non-heme metalloenzymes utilize O2 or its derivatives (e.g., H2O2) to generate high-valent metal-oxo intermediates for performing challenging and selective oxidations. Due to their reactive nature, these intermediates are often short-lived and very difficult to characterize. Synthetic chemists have sought to prepare analogous metal-oxo complexes with ligands that impart enough stability to allow for their characterization and an examination of their inherent reactivity. The challenge in designing these molecules is to achieve a balance between their stability, which should allow for their in situ characterization or isolation, and their reactivity, in which they can still participate in interesting chemical transformations. This Account focuses on our recent efforts to generate and stabilize high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complexes and tune their reactivity in the oxidation of organic substrates. Dioxygen can be used to generate a high-valent Mn(V)(O) corrolazine (Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz)) by irradiation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) with visible light in the presence of a C-H substrate. Quantitative formation of the Mn(V)(O) complex occurs with concomitant selective hydroxylation of the benzylic substrate hexamethylbenzene. Addition of a strong H(+) donor converted this light/O2/substrate reaction from a stoichiometric to a catalytic process with modest turnovers. The addition of H(+) likely activates a transient Mn(V)(O) complex to achieve turnover, whereas in the absence of H(+), the Mn(V)(O) complex is an unreactive "dead-end" complex. Addition of anionic donors to the Mn(V)(O) complex also leads to enhanced reactivity, with a large increase in the rate of two-electron oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to thioether substrates. Spectroscopic characterization (Mn K-edge X-ray absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies) revealed that the anionic donors (X(-)) bind to the Mn(V) ion to form six-coordinate [Mn(V)(O)(X)](-) complexes. An unusual "V

  6. Temporal correlation between two channels EEG of bipolar lead in the head midline is associated with sleep-wake stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjun; Tang, Xiaoying; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Weifeng; Li, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Whether the temporal correlation between inter-leads Electroencephalogram (EEG) that located on the boundary between left and right brain hemispheres is associated with sleep stages or not is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of correlation coefficients between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz for automatic classification of sleep stages. A total number of 39 EEG recordings (about 20 h each) were selected from the expanded sleep database in European data format for temporal correlation analysis. Original waveform of EEG was decomposed into sub-bands δ (1-4 Hz), θ (4-8 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (13-30 Hz). The correlation coefficient between original EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz within frequency band 0.5-30 Hz was defined as r(EEG) and was calculated every 30 s, while that between the two leads EEG in sub-bands δ, θ, α and β were defined as r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. Classification of wakefulness and sleep was processed by fixed threshold that derived from the probability density function of correlation coefficients. There was no correlation between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz during wakefulness (|r| < 0.1 for r(θ), r(α) and r(β), while 0.3 > r > 0.1 for r(EEG) and r(δ)), while low correlation existed during sleep (r ≈ -0.4 for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β)). There were significant differences (analysis of variance, P < 0.001) for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β) during sleep when in comparison with that during wakefulness, respectively. The accuracy for distinguishing states between wakefulness and sleep was 94.2, 93.4, 89.4, 85.2 and 91.4% in terms of r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. However, no correlation index between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz could distinguish all five types of wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N1 sleep, N2 sleep and N3 sleep. In conclusion, the temporal correlation between EEG bipolar leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz are highly associated with sleep

  7. Improvement of neurofeedback therapy for improved attention through facilitation of brain activity using local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Zandi Mehran, Yasaman; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Rostami, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Traditional neurofeedback (NF) is a training approach aimed at altering brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms as feedback. In NF training, external factors such as the subjects' intelligence can have an effect. In contrast, a low-energy NF system (LENS) does not require conscious effort from the subject, which results in fewer attendance sessions. However, eliminating the subject role seems to eliminate an important part of the NF system. This study investigated the facilitating effect on the theta-to-beta ratio from NF training, using a local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field (LSELF-MF) versus traditional NF. Twenty-four healthy, intelligent subjects underwent 10 training sessions to enhance beta (15-18 Hz), and simultaneously inhibit theta (4-7 Hz) and high beta (22-30 Hz) activity, at the Cz point in a 3-boat-race video game. Each session consisted of 3 statuses, PRE, DURING, and POST. In the DURING status, the NF training procedure lasted 10 minutes. Subjects were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field during NF training; however, 16 of the subjects who were assigned to the experimental group were really exposed to 45 Hz-360 µT LSELF-MF at Cz. For the 8 other subjects, only the coil was located at the Cz point with no exposure. The duty cycle of exposure was 40% (2-second exposure and 3-second pause). The results show that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of each group differs significantly from the PRE and POST statuses. Between-group analysis shows that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of the experimental group is significantly (P < .001) lower than in the sham group. The result shows the effect of LSELF-MF on NF training.

  8. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  9. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  10. Flash visual evoked potential monitoring of optic tract function during macroelectrode-based pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Bonaroti, E A; Rose, R D; Kondziolka, D; Baser, S; Lunsford, L D

    1997-03-15

    Posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) has received renewed interest as an ablative procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In previous reports, the proximity of the optic tract to the lesion target in the globus pallidus internus has resulted in the occurrence of visual field deficits in as much as 14% of patients. The authors have used intraoperative visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during PVP to reduce this risk. All procedures were performed in awake patients. Flash stimuli were delivered to each eye via fiberoptic sources. Baseline flash VEPs were recorded at O1/Cz (left visual cortex to vertex), Oz/Cz (midline visual cortex to vertex), and O2/Cz (right visual cortex to vertex) for OS, OU, and OD stimulation. Epochs were acquired before and after localization, after macroelectrode stimulation, after temporary thermal lesioning, and after permanent thermal lesioning. Forty-seven patients underwent a total of 59 procedures. Visual evoked potentials were recorded reproducibly in all patients. In 11 procedures, VEP changes were reported, including six amplitude changes (10-80%), six latency shifts (3-10 msec), and one report of "variability." In four procedures, VEP changes prompted a change in target coordinates. One false-positive and one false-negative VEP change were encountered. The only confirmed visual deficit was a superior quadrantanopsia, present on formal fields, but clinically asymptomatic. The authors conclude that VEPs may be useful for procedures performed in the awake patient because of the lack of anesthetic-induced variability. The 1.7% visual morbidity reported here (one in 59 patients) compares favorably with other series using microelectrodes. Visual evoked potentials may be a useful monitoring technique to reduce the incidence of clinically significant visual morbidity during pallidotomy, especially during formal lesioning of the ventral pallidum adjacent to the optic tract.

  11. Changes in ethylene signaling and MADS box gene expression are associated with banana finger drop.

    PubMed

    Hubert, O; Piral, G; Galas, C; Baurens, F-C; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D

    2014-06-01

    Banana finger drop was examined in ripening banana harvested at immature (iMG), early (eMG) and late mature green (lMG) stages, with contrasting ripening rates and ethylene sensitivities. Concomitantly, 11 ethylene signal transduction components (ESTC) and 6 MADS box gene expressions were comparatively studied in median (control zone, CZ) and pedicel rupture (drop zone DZ) areas in peel tissue. iMG fruit did not ripen or develop finger drop while eMG and lMG fruits displayed a similar finger drop pattern. Several ESTC and MADS box gene mRNAs were differentially induced in DZ and CZ and sequentially in eMG and lMG fruits. MaESR2, 3 and MaEIL1, MaMADS2 and MaMADS5 had a higher mRNA level in eMG and acted earlier, whereas MaERS1, MaCTR1, MaEIL3/AB266319, MaEIL4/AB266320 and MaEIL5/AB266321, MaMADS4 and to a lesser extent MaMADS2 and 5 acted later in lMG. In this fruit, MaERS1 and 3, MaCTR1, MaEIL3, 4 and MaEIL5/AB266321, and MaMADS4 were enhanced by finger drop, suggesting their specific involvement in this process. MaEIL1, MaMADS1 and 3, induced at comparable levels in DZ and CZ, are probably related to the overall fruit ripening process. These findings led us to consider that developmental cues are the predominant finger drop regulation factor. PMID:24767119

  12. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  13. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  14. Impact of the reference choice on scalp EEG connectivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Several scalp EEG functional connectivity studies, mostly clinical, seem to overlook the reference electrode impact. The subsequent interpretation of brain connectivity is thus often biased by the choice of a non-neutral reference. This study aims at systematically investigating these effects. Approach. As EEG reference, we examined the vertex electrode (Cz), the digitally linked mastoids (DLM), the average reference (AVE), and the reference electrode standardization technique (REST). As a connectivity metric, we used the imaginary part of the coherency. We tested simulated and real data (eyes-open resting state) by evaluating the influence of electrode density, the effect of head model accuracy in the REST transformation, and the impact on the characterization of the topology of functional networks from graph analysis. Main results. Simulations demonstrated that REST significantly reduced the distortion of connectivity patterns when compared to AVE, Cz, and DLM references. Moreover, the availability of high-density EEG systems and an accurate knowledge of the head model are crucial elements to improve REST performance, with the individual realistic head model being preferable to the standard realistic head model. For real data, a systematic change of the spatial pattern of functional connectivity depending on the chosen reference was also observed. The distortion of connectivity patterns was larger for the Cz reference, and progressively decreased when using the DLM, the AVE, and the REST. Strikingly, we also showed that network attributes derived from graph analysis, i.e. node degree and local efficiency, are significantly influenced by the EEG reference choice. Significance. Overall, this study highlights that significant differences arise in scalp EEG functional connectivity and graph network properties, in dependence on the chosen reference. We hope that our study will convey the message that caution should be used when interpreting and comparing

  15. The WSRT ZoA Perseus-Pisces filament wide-field H I imaging survey - I. H I catalogue and atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Schröder, A. C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Elson, E. C.; van Driel, W.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Henning, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present results of a blind 21cm H I-line imaging survey of a galaxy overdensity located behind the Milky Way at ℓ, b ≈ 160°, 0.5°. The overdensity corresponds to a zone-of-avoidance crossing of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster filament. Although it is known that this filament contains an X-ray galaxy cluster (3C 129) hosting two strong radio galaxies, little is known about galaxies associated with this potentially rich cluster because of the high Galactic dust extinction. We mapped a sky area of ˜9.6 deg2 using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in a hexagonal mosaic of 35 pointings observed for 12 h each, in the radial velocity range cz = 2400-16 600 km s-1. The survey has a sensitivity of 0.36 mJy beam-1 rms at a velocity resolution of 16.5 km s-1. We detected 211 galaxies, 62 per cent of which have a near-infrared counterpart in the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We present a catalogue of the H I properties and an H I atlas containing total intensity maps, position-velocity diagrams, global H I profiles and UKIDSS counterpart images. For the resolved galaxies we also present H I velocity fields and radial H I surface density profiles. A brief analysis of the structures outlined by these galaxies finds that 87 of them lie at the distance of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster (cz ˜ 4000-8000 km s-1) and seem to form part of the 3C 129 cluster. Further 72 detections trace an overdensity at a velocity of cz ≈ 10 000 km s-1 and seem to coincide with a structure predicted from mass density reconstructions in the first 2MASS Redshift Survey.

  16. Czochralski silicon crystal growth: Modeling and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Massoud

    Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth process is a widely used technique in the manufacturing of silicon crystals and other semiconductor materials such as germanium (Ge) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). The ultimate goal for the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry is to have the highest quality substrate. There is a huge interest to manipulate the thermal field in both the melt and crystal and control the melt convection and crystal-annealing rate in order to reduce growth striations, impurity and dopant inhomogeneity concentrations, excess point defects generation at interface, and micro defects nucleation and growth within the growing crystal. The objective of this investigation has been to facilitate and spearhead the development of a simple/efficient simulation tool for the accurate prediction of global thermal and flow fields and the melt-crystal interface position in the CZ process. The numerical algorithm employs a rectangular (fixed or non-uniform) mesh for enhanced computational efficiency and an enthalpy-based technique for interface tracking. Turbulent flow in the melt is accounted for by utilizing a K-ε model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled in a lumped parameter sense without appreciably compromising on solution accuracy to further allow for CPU times savings. The simulation tool is validated in a number of benchmark flows such as Wheeler's problem. For the CZ crystal growth process, an entire growth cycle has been computed and reliable predictions for the evolution of interface position, and flow/thermal field characteristics have been obtained. The enhanced CPU efficiency of the approach developed here could help integrate it into on-line control strategies.

  17. Adamantane-based wide-bandgap host material: blue electrophosphorescence with high efficiency and very high brightness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhu, Liping; Li, Yifan; Yu, Ling; Wu, Kailong; Chen, Tianheng; Huang, Manli; Wang, Feng; Gong, Shaolong; Ma, Dongge; Qin, Jingui; Yang, Chuluo

    2015-05-26

    An adamantane-based host material, namely, 4-{3-[4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]adamantan-1-yl}benzonitrile (CzCN-Ad), was prepared by linking an electron-donating carbazole unit and an electron-accepting benzonitrile moiety through an adamantane bridge. In this approach, two functional groups were attached to tetrahedral points of adamantane to construct an "sp(3)" topological configuration. This design strategy endows the host material with a high triplet energy of 3.03 eV due to the disruption of intramolecular charge transfer. Although CzCN-Ad has a low molecular weight, the rigid nonconjugated adamantane bridge results in a glass transition temperature of 89 °C. These features make CzCN-Ad suitable for fabricating blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The devices based on sky-blue phosphor bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2')](picolinato)iridium(III) (FIrpic) achieved a high maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.1%, which is among the best results for blue PhOLEDs ever reported. Furthermore, blue PhOLEDs with bis(2,4-difluorophenylpyridinato)-tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate iridium(III) (FIr6) as dopant exhibited a maximum EQE of 14.2% and a maximum luminance of 34 262 cd m(-2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest luminance ever reported for FIr6-based PhOLEDs. PMID:25900890

  18. Redox-sensitive Akt and Src regulate coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reed, Ryan; Potter, Barry; Smith, Erika; Jadhav, Rashmi; Villalta, Patricia; Jo, Hanjoong; Rocic, Petra

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown that the inability of repetitive ischemia (RI) to activate p38 MAPK (p38) and Akt in metabolic syndrome [JCR:LA-cp (JCR)] rats was associated with impaired coronary collateral growth (CCG). Furthermore, Akt and p38 activation correlated with optimal O(2)(-). levels and were altered in JCR rats, and redox-sensitive p38 activation was required for CCG. Here, we determined whether the activation of Src, a possible upstream regulator, was altered in JCR rats and whether redox-dependent Src and Akt activation were required for CCG. CCG was assessed by myocardial blood flow (microspheres) and kinase activation was assessed by Western blot analysis in the normal zone and collateral-dependent zone (CZ). RI induced Src activation (approximately 3-fold) in healthy [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] animals but not in JCR animals. Akt inhibition decreased (approximately 50%), and Src inhibition blocked RI-induced CCG in WKY rats. Src inhibition decreased p38 and Akt activation. Myocardial oxidative stress (O(2)(-). and oxidized/reduced thiols) was measured quantitatively (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance). An antioxidant, apocynin, reduced RI-induced oxidative stress in JCR rats to levels induced by RI in WKY rats versus the reduction in WKY rats to very low levels. This resulted in a significant restoration of p38 (approximately 80%), Akt (approximately 65%), and Src (approximately 90%) activation in JCR rats but decreased the activation in WKY rats (p38: approximately 45%, Akt: approximately 65%, and Src: approximately 100%), correlating with reduced CZ flow in WKY rats (approximately 70%), but significantly restored CZ flow in JCR rats (approximately 75%). We conclude that 1) Akt and Src are required for CCG, 2) Src is a redox-sensitive upstream regulator of RI-induced p38 and Akt activation, and 3) optimal oxidative stress levels are required for RI-induced p38, Akt, and Src activation and CCG.

  19. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Gardner, C. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two monochromatic gravity wave events were observed in the 25 to 55 km altitude region during 16 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Poker Flat, Alaska and Urbana, Illinois. The measured wave parameters were compared to previous radar and lidar measurements of gravity wave activity. Vertical wavelengths, lambda(z), between 2 and 11.5 km with vertical phase velocities, c(z), between 0.1 and 1 m/s were observed. Measured values of lambda(z) and c(z) were used to infer observed wave periods, T(ob), between 50 and 1000 minutes and horizontal wavelengths, lambda(x), from 25 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No seasonal variations were evident in the observed wave parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with T(ob), which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of monochromatic wave events near the mesopause. Measured power law relationships between the wave parameters were lambda(z) varies as T(ob) sup 0.96, lambda(x) varies as T(ob) sup 1.8, and c(z) varies as T(ob) sup -0.85. The kinetic energy calculated for the monochromatic wave events varied as k(z) sup -2, k(x) sup -1, and f(ob) sup -1.7. The atmospheric scale heights calculated for each observation date range from 6.5 to 7.6 km with a mean value of 7 km. The increase of rms wind perturbations with altitude indicated an amplitude growth length of 20.9 km. The altitude profile of kinetic energy density decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  20. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of high-grade host rocks to the Venetia kimberlite diatremes, Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Creus, P. K.; Anthonissen, C. J.; Stoch, B.; Ekkerd, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Beit Bridge Complex of the Central Zone (CZ) of the Limpopo Belt hosts the 519 ± 6 Ma Venetia kimberlite diatremes. Deformed shelf- or platform-type supracrustal sequences include the Mount Dowe, Malala Drift and Gumbu Groups, comprising quartzofeldspathic units, biotite-bearing gneiss, quartzite, metapelite, metacalcsilicate and ortho- and para-amphibolite. Previous studies define tectonometamorphic events at 3.3-3.1 Ga, 2.7-2.5 Ga and 2.04 Ga. Detailed structural mapping over 10 years highlights four deformation events at Venetia. Rules-based implicit 3D modelling in Leapfrog Geo™ provides an unprecedented insight into CZ ductile deformation and sheath folding. D1 juxtaposed gneisses against metasediments. D2 produced a pervasive axial planar foliation (S2) to isoclinal F2 folds. Sheared lithological contacts and S2 were refolded into regional, open, predominantly southward-verging, E-W trending F3 folds. Intrusion of a hornblendite protolith occurred at high angles to incipient S2. Constrictional-prolate D4 shows moderately NE-plunging azimuths defined by elongated hornblendite lenses, andalusite crystals in metapelite, crenulations in fuchsitic quartzite and sheath folding. D4 overlaps with a: 1) 2.03-2.01 Ga regional M3 metamorphic overprint; b) transpressional deformation at 2.2-1.9 Ga and c) 2.03 Ga transpressional, dextral shearing and thrusting around the CZ and d) formation of the Avoca, Bellavue and Baklykraal sheath folds and parallel lineations.

  1. Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Shields, G. A.; Blanc, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of abundances in spiral galaxies of the Pegasus I cluster (cz = 4000 km/s), motivated by evidence for high interstellar abundances in the spirals of the Virgo cluster. Spectra of H II regions in six galaxies with a range of H I deficiency were obtained with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph on the 2.7-meter telescope at McDonald Observatory. The results suggest a pattern of higher abundances in more hydrogen deficient galaxies. This resembles the case for Virgo, despite the lower velocity dispersion and higher spiral fraction in the Pegasus cluster.

  2. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Truong, Dennis Q.; DosSantos, Marcos F.; Toback, Rebecca L.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2015-01-01

    Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes’ placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10–20 or 10–10 electroencephalogram (EEG) landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4), vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz), HD-tDCS 4 × 1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3) and HD-tDCS 2 × 2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5). M1-SO produced a large current flow in the PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain disorder. PMID

  3. Small molecular glasses based on multiposition encapsulated phenyl benzimidazole iridium(III) complexes: toward efficient solution-processable host-free electrophosphorescent diodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Yu, Dong-Hui; Liu, Le-Le; Yan, Peng-Fei; Jia, Li-Wei; Li, Guang-Ming; Yue, Zheng-Yu

    2010-01-14

    Three electrophosphorescent small molecular Ir(3+) complexes, Ir(HexPhBI)(3) 1 (HexPhBI = 1-Hexyl-2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole), Ir(CzPhBI)(3) 2 (CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)hexyl)-9H-carbazole), and Ir(Cz(2)PhBI)(3) 3 (Cz(2)PhBI = 9-(6-(4-(1-(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)hexyl)-9H-carbazole), were synthesized in which 3 was designed with the structure of multiposition encapsulation. Compared to the hexyl-substituted 1, 2 and 3 end-capped with the conjugated carbazole moieties have improved thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis proved the amorphous state of 2 and 3. High-photoluminescent efficiencies of 3 are achieved as 72% in solution and 61% in solid. It indicates that the peripheral carbazoles not only facilitate the separation of triplet-emission cores and reduce the intermolecular aggregation but also supply a routine for the intermolecular energy transfer. Electrochemical analysis showed the more oxidation states of 3, which might be anticipated to make it superior to 1 and 2 in hole injection and transporting. The important role of the peripheral carbazole moieties in carrier injection/transporting and the optical properties of the complexes were further investigated by Gaussian simulation. A dramatic electroluminescent (EL) performance, including external quantum efficiency of nearly 6%, low turn-on voltage of 2.5 V, and high brightness over 6000 cd m(-2), from the host-free spin-coated device of 3 was achieved. The superiority of multiencapsulation in EL was proved by comparing the EL performance of 2 and 3. By making comparison between the host-free and phosphor-doping devices, it indicated that the combined modification of the aliphatic chains and functional groups in multipositions is a feasible approach to realize the high-efficiency small molecular phosphorescent materials. PMID:19954149

  4. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained <10 μg Se L-1 - the safe limit for drinking purpose except one location each in SWZ and CZ and three locations in NSFZ. Only at one location, water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  5. Exterior view of submarine with survey crew posed in front. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of submarine with survey crew posed in front. From left to right: Todd Croteau - U.S. National Park Service, Joshua Price - U.S. Navy, Bert Ho - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Michael McCarthy - Western Australia Maritime Museum, Larry Murphy - U.S. National Park Service, Don Johnson- University of Nebraska Engineering School, James Delgado- Institute for Nautical Archeology, Jacinto Ahmendra - Government of Panama. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  7. Study of the Hyperon-Nucleon (YN) Interaction in Exclusive Λ Photoproduction off the Deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong; Ilieva, Yordanka; Zachariou, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to extract the polarization observables Cx, Cz, ∑, Ox, and Oz for final-state interactions (FSI) in overrightarrow γ d to {K^ + }overrightarrow Λ n. The data were taken with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) during the E06-103 experiment. These are the very first results for FSI observables in hyperon photoproduction and are expected to constrain the free parameters of YN potentials. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under grant PHY-125782.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies and QSOs FIR size and surface brightness (Lutz+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use 70, 100, and 160um images from scan maps obtained with PACS on board Herschel, collecting archival data from various projects. In order to cover a wide range of galaxy properties, we first obtain an IR-selected local sample ranging from normal galaxies up to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. For that purpose, we searched the Herschel archive for all cz>=2000km/s objects from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS, Sanders et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/1607). (1 data file).

  9. Structural and luminescent properties of electron-irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Aruev, P. N.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Zabrodskiy, V. V.; Shtel'makh, K. F.; Vdovin, V. I.; Xiang, Luelue; Yang, Deren

    2014-02-21

    Structural defects induced by electron irradiation of p-Cz-Si wafers were identified. The influence of the annealing conditions in a chlorine-containing atmosphere on the structural and luminescent properties of the samples was examined. Light-emitting diodes based on electron-irradiated and high-temperature-annealed wafers were fabricated by a vapour-phase epitaxy technique and their luminescence properties were studied. A high-intensity dislocation-related D1 line was observed at 1.6 μm in the room-temperature electroluminescence spectrum.

  10. CU Trianguli - ein EA-Stern mit verdoppelter Periode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2016-02-01

    CU Tri was obseved at my private observatory. It was found that the period given by Antipin 2008 must be doubled. New elements are given as: 2456948.4491 + 5.156766 * E. The secundary minimum is 0.07 mag less bright than the primary. It is at phase 0.5. This paper makes use of data from the DR1 of the WASP data (Butters et al. 2010) as provided by the WASP consortium, and the computing and storage facilities at the CERIT Scientific Cloud, reg. no. CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144

  11. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, Alexandre F; Truong, Dennis Q; DosSantos, Marcos F; Toback, Rebecca L; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2015-01-01

    Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes' placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10-20 or 10-10 electroencephalogram (EEG) landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4), vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz), HD-tDCS 4 × 1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3) and HD-tDCS 2 × 2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5). M1-SO produced a large current flow in the PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain disorder.

  12. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    PubMed

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  13. Yb 3+-doped oxide crystals for diode-pumped solid state lasers: crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, new criteria of evaluation and combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulon, G.

    2003-04-01

    Our recent scientific program has involved the general evaluation of Yb 3+-doped oxide crystals for diode-pumped solid state lasers. Among crystalline families which provide the best expected performances, some have been grown: sesquioxide, oxyapatite, niobate and garnet fibres pulled either from the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG) or the Micro-Pulling Down ( μ-PD) technique, tungstates by the top nucleated floating crystal (TNFC) and garnet and oxiapatite by the Czochralski (CZ) technique. Optical spectra of all crystals have been performed. In addition, a combinatorial chemistry approach has been pointed out to study the radiative lifetime and the concentration quenching processes in these laser crystals.

  14. Use of low-energy hydrogen ion implants in high-efficiency crystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Sigh, R.; Mu, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of low-energy hydrogen implants in the fabrication of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. Low-energy hydrogen implants result in hydrogen-caused effects in all three regions of a solar cell: emitter, space charge region, and base. In web, Czochralski (Cz), and floating zone (Fz) material, low-energy hydrogen implants reduced surface recombination velocity. In all three, the implants passivated the space charge region recombination centers. It was established that hydrogen implants can alter the diffusion properties of ion-implanted boron in silicon, but not ion-implated arsenic.

  15. High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with single emissive layer using phosphorescent red, green, and blue dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, You-Hyun; Wai Cheah, Kok; Young Kim, Woo

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with single emissive layer were fabricated by co-doping phosphorescent blue, green, and red emitters with different concentrations. WOLEDs using Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3 as red and green dopants along with 8% of Firpic as blue dopant with host materials of 4CzPBP in the emissive layer were compared under various doping ratio between Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3. Triplet-triplet Dexter energy transfer in single emissive PHWOLEDs including three primary colors was saturated from higher triplet energy levels to lower triplet energy levels directly.

  16. Fragmentation of positively-charged biological ions activated with a beam of high-energy cations.

    PubMed

    Chingin, Konstantin; Makarov, Alexander; Denisov, Eduard; Rebrov, Oleksii; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    First results are reported on the fragmentation of multiply protonated polypeptide ions produced in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with a beam of high-energy cations as a source of activation. The ion beam is generated with a microwave plasma gun installed on a benchtop Q Exactive mass spectrometer. Precursor polypeptide ions are activated when trapped inside the collision cell of the instrument (HCD cell), and product species are detected in the Orbitrap analyzer. Upon exposure to the beam of air plasma cations (∼100 μA, 5 s), model precursor species such as multiply protonated angiotensin I and ubiquitin dissociated across a variety of pathways. Those pathways include the cleavages of C-CO, C-N as well as N-Cα backbone bonds, accordingly manifested as b/y, a, and c/z fragment ion series in tandem mass spectra. The fragmentation pattern observed includes characteristic fragments of collision-induced dissociation (CID) (b/y/a fragments) as well as electron capture/transfer dissociation (ECD, ETD) (c/z fragments), suggesting substantial contribution of both vibrational and electronic excitation in our experiments. Besides backbone cleavages, notable amounts of nondissociated precursor species were observed with reduced net charge, formed via electron or proton transfer between the colliding partners. Peaks corresponding to increased charge states of the precursor ions were also detected, which is the major distinctive feature of ion beam activation.

  17. Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant

    2015-05-01

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a σ+ /σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in <10 μs with error probability of order 10-3. We generalize this protocol to exploit the multi-body nature of the Rydberg blockade and go beyond two qubits. We show how one can implement a three-qubit Toffoli gate in a single-step. Finally, we consider encoding in collective states of small ensembles of atoms, and show how such a scheme can allow for scalable, robust, quantum logic.

  18. Oral multicomponent DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella elicited immunoprotection against American trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Silvia I; Matos, Marina N; Cerny, Natacha; Ramirez, Carolina; Alberti, Andrés Sanchez; Bivona, Augusto E; Morales, Celina; Guzmán, Carlos A; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2015-03-01

    We have reported that attenuated Salmonella (S) carrying plasmids encoding the cysteine protease cruzipain (Cz) protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Here, we determined whether immunoprotection could be improved by the oral coadministration of 3 Salmonella carrying the plasmids that encode the antigens Cz, Tc52, and Tc24. SCz+STc52+STc24-immunized mice presented an increased antibody response against each antigen compared with those in the single antigen-immunized groups, as well as higher trypomastigotes antibody-mediated lyses and cell invasion inhibition compared with controls. SCz+STc52+STc24-immunized and -challenged mice rendered lower parasitemia. Weight loss after infection was detected in all mice except those in the SCz+STc52+STc24 group. Moreover, cardiomyopathy-associated enzyme activity was significantly lower in SCz+STc24+STc52-immunized mice compared with controls. Few or no abnormalities were found in muscle tissues of SCz+STc24+STc52-immunized mice, whereas controls presented with inflammatory foci, necrosis, and amastigote nests. We conclude that a multicomponent approach that targets several invasion and metabolic mechanisms improves protection compared with single-component vaccines.

  19. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Okada, Koji; Kishimoto, Naoko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits. Methods The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured. Results Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment. Conclusion ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. PMID:27713631

  20. Behavior of Neutral Hydrogen in the NGC 877/6 Galaxy Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning Hall, Porter; Minchin, Robert F.; Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    We observed a 5 square degree area centered on -02:17:31, 14:32:00 at 21-cm as part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) with the NGC 877/6 galaxy group at a velocity of 4000 km/s as the primary target. Our observations covered the redshift range -5,000 < cz < 20,000 km/s allowing for a large volume in front and behind the complex to be analyzed. The NGC 877/6 group contains 8 galaxies inside a common HI envelope with a total neutral hydrogen mass of LogMHI = 10.73. HI is detected outside of the optically-identified galaxies and there are a number of tidal features within the complex. These include AGC 749170, a possible tidal remnant identified by ALFALFA and whose detection we confirm here. Another, smaller group associated with UGC 1742 (LogMHI = 9.95; cz = 6900 km/s) was identified as showing signs of galaxy interaction as well as the possibility of a tidal formation not catalogued in NED as a galaxy. Of the 44 HI sources identified in the data cube, 12 (27%) were not previously recorded in the NED database as galaxies. We will continue our analysis with data from the Mock spectrometers which will extend the redshift range to 45000 km/s.

  1. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    DOE PAGES

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less

  2. Gas-powder flow in blast furnace with different shapes of cohesive zone

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X.F.; Pinson, D.; Zhang, S.J.; Yu, A.B.; Zulli, P.

    2006-11-15

    With high PCI rate operations, a large quantity of unburned coal/char fines will flow together with the gas into the blast furnace. Under some operating conditions, the holdup of fines results in deterioration of furnace permeability and lower production efficiency. Therefore, it is important to understand the behaviour of powder (unburnt coal/char) inside the blast furnace when operating with different cohesive zone (CZ) shapes. This work is mainly concerned with the effect of cohesive zone shape on the powder flow and accumulation in a blast furnace. A model is presented which is capable of simulating a clear and stable accumulation region in the lower central region of the furnace. The results indicate that powder is likely to accumulate at the lower part of W-shaped CZs and the upper part of V- and inverse V-shaped CZs. For the same CZ shape, a thick cohesive layer can result in a large pressure drop while the resistance of narrow cohesive layers to gas-powder flow is found to be relatively small. Implications of the findings to blast furnace operation are also discussed.

  3. Photospheric Magnitude Diagrams for Type II Supernovae: A Promising Tool to Compute Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Ósmar; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-12-01

    We develop an empirical color-based standardization for Type II supernovae (SNe II), equivalent to the classical surface brightness method given in Wesselink. We calibrate this standardization using SNe II with host galaxy distances measured using Cepheids, and a well-constrained shock breakout epoch and extinction due to the host galaxy. We estimate the reddening with an analysis of the B - V versus V - I color-color curves, similar to that of Natali et al. With four SNe II meeting the above requirements, we build a photospheric magnitude versus color diagram (similar to an H-R diagram) with a dispersion of 0.29 mag. We also show that when using time since shock breakout instead of color as the independent variable, the same standardization gives a dispersion of 0.09 mag. Moreover, we show that the above time-based standardization corresponds to the generalization of the standardized candle method of Hamuy & Pinto for various epochs throughout the photospheric phase. To test the new tool, we construct Hubble diagrams for different subsamples of 50 low-redshift (cz < 104 km s-1) SNe II. For 13 SNe within the Hubble flow (cz CMB > 3000 km s-1) and with a well-constrained shock breakout epoch we obtain values of 68-69 km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant and a mean intrinsic scatter of 0.12 mag or 6% in relative distances.

  4. Spontaneous Formation of Surface Magnetic Structure from Large-scale Dynamo in Strongly Stratified Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masada, Youhei; Sano, Takayoshi

    2016-05-01

    We report the first successful simulation of spontaneous formation of surface magnetic structures from a large-scale dynamo by strongly stratified thermal convection in Cartesian geometry. The large-scale dynamo observed in our strongly stratified model has physical properties similar to those in earlier weakly stratified convective dynamo simulations, indicating that the α 2-type mechanism is responsible for the dynamo. In addition to the large-scale dynamo, we find that large-scale structures of the vertical magnetic field are spontaneously formed in the convection zone (CZ) surface only in cases with a strongly stratified atmosphere. The organization of the vertical magnetic field proceeds in the upper CZ within tens of convective turnover time and band-like bipolar structures recurrently appear in the dynamo-saturated stage. We consider several candidates to be possibly be the origin of the surface magnetic structure formation, and then suggest the existence of an as-yet-unknown mechanism for the self-organization of the large-scale magnetic structure, which should be inherent in the strongly stratified convective atmosphere.

  5. Survey for δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries and new correlations between pulsation frequency and fundamental stellar characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P.; Soydugan, E.; Zasche, P.

    2012-05-01

    CCD observations of 68 eclipsing binary systems, candidates for containing δ Scuti components, were obtained. Their light curves are analysed using the PERIOD04 software for possible pulsational behaviour. For the systems QY Aql, CZ Aqr, TY Cap, WY Cet, UW Cyg, HL Dra, HZ Dra, AU Lac, CL Lyn and IO UMa, complete light curves were observed due to the detection of a pulsating component. All of them, except QY Aql and IO UMa, are analysed with modern astronomical softwares in order to determine their geometrical and pulsational characteristics. Spectroscopic observations of WY Cet and UW Cyg were used to estimate the spectral class of their primary components, while for HZ Dra radial velocities of its primary were measured. O - C diagram analysis was performed for the cases showing peculiar orbital period variations, namely CZ Aqr, TY Cap, WY Cet and UW Cyg, with the aim of obtaining a comprehensive picture of these systems. An updated catalogue of 74 close binaries including a δ Scuti companion is presented. Moreover, a connection between orbital and pulsation periods, as well as a correlation between evolutionary status and dominant pulsation frequency for these systems, is discussed.

  6. Low temperature phase transformations in the metallic phases of iron and stony-iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, K. B.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1988-03-01

    The nickel content and the structure of kamacite and decomposed taenite (clear taenite 1, CT-1; the cloudy zone, CZ; and clear taenite 2, CT-2) in the metallic phases of meteorites were determined using X-ray microanalysis techniques in the AEM. The kamacite near the CT-1 interface was found to contain about 4 wt pct Ni. The CT-1 structure contains 51.4-45.6 wt pct Ni; it is ordered FeNi with the L1(0) superstructure. The CZ structure consists of two phases: a globular phase (ordered FeNi containing 50.9 wt pct Ni) and a surrounding honeycomb martensitic phase containing 11.7 wt pct Ni. The CT-2 was found in all of the iron meteorite groups studied and in the pallasites, but not in the mesosiderites. Based on the preliminary evidence, this region is believed to be ordered Fe3Ni. Possible mechanisms for the decomposition of taenite are discussed.

  7. Assessment of Human Sleep Depth Is Being De-Standardized by Recently Advised EEG Electrode Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Bob; van Someren, Paul; Roessen, Marco; van Dijk, J. Gert

    2013-01-01

    Human sleep depth was traditionally assessed by scoring electro-encephalographic slow-wave amplitudes at the globally standardized C4-M1 electrode derivation. Since 2007, the American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM) has accepted three additional derivations for the same purpose. These might well differ in slow wave amplitudes which would bias the scorings. Some derivations might also introduce large inter-individual variability. We compared mean and variability of slow wave amplitudes between six derivations including the four AASM ones. Slow wave amplitudes in those derivations were simultaneously measured using automated analysis in 29 patients. Each amplitude was divided by the average from the six derivations, thus removing shared factors such as age, gender and sleep depth while retaining factors that differ between the derivations such as caused by local skull characteristics, electrode distance and neuronal dipole orientation. The remaining inter-individual variability differed significantly and up to a factor of two between the AASM derivations. The amplitudes differed significantly and up to 60% between the AASM derivations, causing substantial scoring bias between centres using different derivations. The resulting de-standardization most likely affects any patient group because the amplitude differences were consistent over diagnoses, genders, and age. Derivation-dependent amplitude thresholds were proposed to reduce the scoring bias. However, it would be better to settle on just one derivation, for instance Cz-Oz or Fpz-Cz because these have lowest variability while matching the traditional C4-M1 amplitudes. PMID:23940727

  8. Electro-vibronic Coupling Effects on ``Intrinsic Friction'' in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarata, Antonio; Polcar, Tomas

    One of the main difficulties in understanding and predicting frictional response is the intrinsic complexity of highly non-equilibrium processes in any tribological contact, which include breaking and formation of multiple interatomic bonds between surfaces in relative motion. To understand the physical nature of the microscopic mechanism of friction and design new tribologic materials, we conducted a systematic quantum mechanic investigation at the atomic scale on prototipical Van der Waals MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) Transition Metal Dichalcogenides under variable load. We combined the structural and dynamic information from group theoretical analysis and phonon band structure calculations with the characterisation of the electronic features using non-standard methods like orbital polarization and the recently formulated bond covalency and cophonicity analyses. We formulated guidelines on how to engineer macroscopic friction at nanoscale, and finally applied them to design a new Ti-doped MoS2 phase. The formulated protocol can be promptly used for the design of new materials with diverse applications beyond tribology. This work has been done with the support of projects CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0034, CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0070 and LM2011033.

  9. Summary of trends in photovoltaic patent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.

    1984-06-01

    This report presents information on patent activity for inventions concerning photovoltaic cell technology. Such information can aid in the assessment of the status and direction of technological development. A total of 729 US patents that issued between mid-1962 and the end of 1982, were individually examined and classified into several technical categories for this study. Computerized analysis of trends in patent activity among major technical categories was performed. The level of inventive activity increased dramatically in the mid-1970's. It appears to have peaked in 1978 and remained steady through 1980. The data indicates that, beginning in 1978, an increasing proportion of inventions were among approaches other than the conventional Cz type cells, specifically thin film and concentrator cells. Thin film and Cz type photovoltaic cells represent two-thirds of the patents analyzed. Among thin film patents, silicon and cadmium containing cells represent about two-thirds of the patents analyzed. Further insight into recent trends could be obtained by adding more recently issued patents to the database.

  10. Physical characterization of deep bulk levels by the MOS conductance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, M.; Fischetti, M. V.; Gastaldi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The a.c. response of SRH centers in the bulk silicon of an MOS capacitor is reconsidered in the case of traps far from midgap for which the dominant dissipative process is the a.c. delay in capture and emission of majority carriers. Following the Nicollian and Goetzberger's scheme the MOS admittance is calculated in the whole range of biases starting from a model equivalent circuit in which minority carriers are supposed to be disconnected from the bulk. Henceforth the conductance technique can be employed to characterize the deep bulk levels not only in strong inversion, as previously done by others Authors, but also in the depletion-weak inversion mode. This extension is accomplished without the need of extensive numerical computation and makes it possible to obtain from measurements performed at room temperature the physical parameters of the SRH centers, including their energy level and, in principle, their degeneracy factor. Results of measurements performed on <1, 0, 0>-oriented, CZ and FZ grown wafers are presented. Good correlation is obtained between theory and experiment for the trap conductance as a function of frequency at different values of the surface potential. The deduced density of SRH centers and energy level are also confirmed by DLTS and transient current measurements. Finally, evidence is reported for the existence of a two level trap, probably related to oxygen, in commercial CZ wafers.

  11. Event-related potentials in drug-naïve pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Naoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most common mental health disorders, characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, which may involve specific disorders in cognition and/or information processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function as they are easily measured and noninvasive. In the present study, 20 drug-naïve pediatric patients with OCD were compared with 20 healthy control participants who were age- and sex-matched to perform the ERP. Based on the guidelines for evoked potential measurement, the P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) were obtained by auditory odd-ball tasks. We found that the amplitudes of the P300 components in the Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4 regions were significantly smaller in the OCD group compared with the control group. There were no between-group differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency. Moreover, we found significant correlations between scores on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) and P300 amplitudes at Cz, Pz, and C3. The present study is the first to report smaller P300s and the associations between P300 abnormalities and CY-BOCS scores.

  12. [Frequency analytic EEG study on the topic of temporal function disorders in transsexuality].

    PubMed

    Grasser, T; Keidel, M; Kockott, G

    1989-06-01

    A high rate of (temporal) EEG abnormalities within the group of transsexual patients has been previously described. These reports however were based on visual EEG analyses, which were not sufficiently statistically supported. It therefore seemed necessary to test this observations by utilizing quantitative frequency EEG analysis by using a larger group of transsexuals (n = 33). Fourier transformed data were recordings from T3-A1, T3-P3, T5-Cz, 01-Cz. The power of the delta-, theta-, alpha, and beta-bands were calculated as the percent of the total power (1,00-30,00 Hz). Different ratios of the absolute power values were computed. No significant differences of frequency-band related power, global power or power ratios between patients and normal subjects were found. There was also no separation on the basis of the genotypic sex of the subjects (Mann-Whitney-test). However 7 EEG's (21%) of the transsexual patients showed according to our interpretation temporo-parietal abnormalities.

  13. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.

  14. Contingent negative variation in childhood migraine.

    PubMed

    Besken, E; Pothmann, R; Sartory, G

    1993-02-01

    Adult migraineurs without aura have an increased amplitude of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) between attacks. Given the potential diagnostic importance of this finding and the difficulties associated with diagnosing migraine in childhood it seemed important to assess CNV in children suffering from this disorder. Ninety-seven children aged between 8 and 14 years were recruited. Forty-two suffered from migraine, 34 from tension-type headache. Twenty-one healthy controls were also studied. CNV was recorded from Fz, Cz and Pz referenced to linked earlobes during 20 trials consisting of two tones of moderate intensity with an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 4 sec and an intertrial interval (ITI) of 10 to 14 sec. The second tone of each trial required a button press. EOG was recorded from the left eye. The 10 CNV responses with the least EOG artefact were selected and averaged. Children with migraine had a highly significantly more negative mean CNV amplitude at all three electrode sites than children with tension-type headache and also a more pronounced Post-Imperative-Negative-Variation (PINV). Migrainous children differed from controls only at Cz (ISI). There was also a highly significant increase of mean CNV amplitude and PINV at all three electrode sites in the control group compared to the tension headache group.

  15. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  16. Oral multicomponent DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella elicited immunoprotection against American trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Silvia I; Matos, Marina N; Cerny, Natacha; Ramirez, Carolina; Alberti, Andrés Sanchez; Bivona, Augusto E; Morales, Celina; Guzmán, Carlos A; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2015-03-01

    We have reported that attenuated Salmonella (S) carrying plasmids encoding the cysteine protease cruzipain (Cz) protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Here, we determined whether immunoprotection could be improved by the oral coadministration of 3 Salmonella carrying the plasmids that encode the antigens Cz, Tc52, and Tc24. SCz+STc52+STc24-immunized mice presented an increased antibody response against each antigen compared with those in the single antigen-immunized groups, as well as higher trypomastigotes antibody-mediated lyses and cell invasion inhibition compared with controls. SCz+STc52+STc24-immunized and -challenged mice rendered lower parasitemia. Weight loss after infection was detected in all mice except those in the SCz+STc52+STc24 group. Moreover, cardiomyopathy-associated enzyme activity was significantly lower in SCz+STc24+STc52-immunized mice compared with controls. Few or no abnormalities were found in muscle tissues of SCz+STc24+STc52-immunized mice, whereas controls presented with inflammatory foci, necrosis, and amastigote nests. We conclude that a multicomponent approach that targets several invasion and metabolic mechanisms improves protection compared with single-component vaccines. PMID:25160983

  17. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol. PMID:25269264

  18. Structure-Performance Investigation of Thioxanthone Derivatives for Developing Color Tunable Highly Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiheng; Li, Yunchuan; Cai, Xinyi; Chen, Dongcheng; Xie, Gaozhan; Liu, KunKun; Wu, Yuan-Chun; Lo, Chang-Cheng; Lien, A; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-04-01

    Thioxanthone derivatives consisting of undecorated carbazole as an electron donor and thioxanthone (TXO) or 9H-thioxanthen-9-one-S,S-dioxide (SOXO) as an electron acceptor in a donor-acceptor (D-A) or donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structure were developed as thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters to fabricate highly efficient fluorescent organic light emitting diodes. Their emission color was successfully tuned from blue to yellow by changing the sulfur atom valence state of the thioxanthone unit to tune intramolecular charge transfer effect. Their thermal, electrochemical, photophysical, and electroluminescent properties, and theoretical calculations were systematically investigated to illustrate the molecular structure and property relationships. Maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 13.6% with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.37, 0.57) was achieved for green light emission CzSOXO consisting of SOXO and carbazole in a D-A structure. Blue light emission CzTXO and DCzTXO consisting of TXO and carbazole in a D-A and D-A-D structure could also give EQE values exceeding 11%. Their efficiency roll-off with increasing current density was simulated by adopting triplet-triplet annihilation model, indicating that the TXO derivatives suffer more severe efficiency roll-off because of their relatively long delayed fluorescence lifetime (τ(D)).

  19. Liquid immiscibility in a CTGS (Ca3TaGa3Si2O14) melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Zhao, Hengyu; Koyama, Chihiro; Maeda, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Uda, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have indicated that Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) grows congruently from a stoichiometric melt when using the Czochralski (Cz) technique, the occurrence of a secondary phase during growth when using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique has been reported. We have examined the detailed growth mechanism of μ-PD grown CTGS as well as its congruency. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) at an elevated temperature up to 1650 °C shows no peaks associated with the presence of a secondary phase, whereas a secondary phase related peak was detected at an elevated temperature up to 1490 °C with the same heating rate. Back-scattered electron images (BEIs) revealed the occurrence of Ca3Ta2Ga4O14 (CTG) as a secondary phase. The secondary phase appears at the very early stage of growth, which is not possible to explain by a eutectic reaction. The experimental results suggest that liquid immiscibility was present in the melt at around 1490 °C during the growth of s-CTGS. Liquid immiscibility produces Si-rich and Si-poor melts, from which different phases with different compositions are solidified. The μ-PD technique poses a more static environment in the melt than that of Cz technique due to low melt convection and the lack of stirring, which enables liquid immiscibility to emerge.

  20. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  1. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  2. Creep-Environment Interactions in Dwell-Fatigue Crack Growth of Nickel Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly; Dahal, Jinesh; Sun, Yaofeng; Ghonem, Hamouda

    2014-05-01

    A multi-scale, mechanistic model is developed to describe and predict the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate in the P/M disk superalloy, ME3, as a function of creep-environment interactions. In this model, the time-dependent cracking mechanisms involve grain boundary sliding and dynamic embrittlement, which are identified by the grain boundary activation energy, as well as, the slip/grain boundary interactions in both air and vacuum. Modeling of the damage events is achieved by adapting a cohesive zone (CZ) approach which considers the deformation behavior of the grain boundary element at the crack tip. The deformation response of this element is controlled by the surrounding continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) regions and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which defines the mobility of the element by scaling up the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. This intergranular cracking process is characterized by the rate at which the grain boundary sliding reaches a critical displacement. A damage criterion is introduced by considering the grain boundary mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. Results of simulated intergranular crack growth rate using the CZ model are generated for temperatures ranging from 923 K to 1073 K (650 °C to 800 °C), in both air and vacuum. These results are compared with those experimentally obtained and analysis of the model sensitivity to loading conditions, particularly temperature and oxygen partial pressure, are presented.

  3. Suppression of Inflammatory cytokine production by ar-Turmerone isolated from Curcuma phaeocaulis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sera; Han, A Rheum; Park, Hye Ryeon; Jang, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Song, Hyuna; Park, Gun Hwa; Seo, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2014-07-01

    Rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton (Zingiberaceae) have traditionally been used for controlling inflammatory conditions. Numerous studies have aimed to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents of C. phaeocaulis. It has been reported that its anti-inflammatory properties are a result of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition; however, its effect on the T-cell function remains to be elucidated. In this study, four known sesquiterpenoids, viz., ar-turmerone (TM), germacrone (GM), (+)-(4S,5S)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (GE), and curzerenone (CZ), were isolated from C. phaeocaulis rhizomes and evaluated for their effects on the CD4(+) T-cell function. While GM, GE, and CZ had no effect on the activation of splenic T cells or CD4(+) T cells, TM suppressed the interferon (IFN)-γ production, without affecting the interleukin (IL)-4 expression. TM also decreased the expression of IL-2 in CD4(+) T cells, but did not change their cell-division rates upon stimulation. These results suggest that TM, a major constituent of C. phaeocaulis rhizomes selectively exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects via suppression of the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2.

  4. The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups of galaxies. 1: The data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We have selected 36 loose groups of galaxies (RGH89) with at least five members, and with mean redshift average value of CZ is greater than 3200 km/s. These groups all lie within the first two slices of the CfA redshift survey 8(sup h) less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 17(sup h) and 26.5 deg less than or equal to delta less than or equal to 38.5 deg). For each of these groups, we define the redshift-space neighborhood as a region centered on the group coordinates and delimited by a circle of projected radius R(sub cir) = 1.5/h Mpc on the sky, and by a velocity interval delta (sub cz) = 3000 km/s. Here we give the redshifts of 334 galaxies in these redshift-space neighborhoods. For completeness, we also give the redshifts of the 232 original members. These data include 199 new redshifts. We demonstrate that these samples of fainter galaxies significantly increase the number of members.

  5. Effects of prefrontal activity during the preparatory period on success or failure of response inhibition in the stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Takayose, Masaki; Koshizawa, Ryo; Oki, Kazuma; Kikuchi, Toshiki

    2016-06-15

    We examined the mechanism by which contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude in the prefrontal cortex during the preparatory period of a stop-signal task affected the accuracy of response inhibition in the task. The participants were required to press a button when a go signal was presented and withhold the response when the go signal was followed by a stop signal. Continuous electroencephalograms were recorded of the six electrodes (Fz, F3, F4, Cz, C3, and C4) in the regions of interest during the performance of the task. First, the fast and slow go responses in the preparatory periods were compared. The activities in the preparatory periods of the successful and failed inhibitions were then compared and analyzed. The late CNV amplitudes of F4 and Cz were significantly larger for fast go responses than for slow go responses. Moreover, the late CNV amplitudes of almost all of the channels, with the exception of C3 and C4, were significantly larger for failed inhibitions than for successful inhibitions. These findings suggested that increased prefrontal activity during the preparatory period facilitated the execution process after the presentation of the go signal. Because execution processing is completed more quickly than stop processing, the response inhibition then failed. PMID:27159416

  6. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.

  7. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    SciTech Connect

    Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.

  8. Highly efficient phosphorescent materials based on Ir(iii) complexes-grafted on a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane core.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzhi; Xu, Zixuan; Su, Wenming; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Bao, Yanjun

    2016-09-14

    A new iridium(iii) complex containing a coumarin derivative as the cyclometalated ligand (L) and a carbazole-functionalized β-diketonate (Cz-acac-allyl) as the ancillary ligand, namely, Ir(iii) bis(3-(pyridin-2-yl)coumarinato-N,C(4))(1-(9-butyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)hept-6-ene-1,3-dionato-O,O) [Ir(L)2(Cz-acac-allyl)], was firstly synthesized as the emissive iridium(iii) complex. Then three new phosphorescent polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) materials, consisting of the emissive Ir(iii) complex and carbazole moieties covalently attached to a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core were successfully synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction in the presence of platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (Pt-dvs) as the catalyst. These phosphorescent POSS materials offer many advantages including amorphous properties, good thermal stabilities, and good solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. The photoluminescence spectra of the POSS materials in solution and in the solid state indicate a reduction in the degrees of interactions among the Ir(iii) complex units and concentration quenching due to the bulky POSS core. Solution processed light-emitting devices based on these phosphorescent POSS materials exhibit a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9.77%. PMID:27501335

  9. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-11-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime ( τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  10. Simplified manual fabrication of cubic-zirconia gem anvils for extended energy-range spectroscopic studies to routine high pressures of 100-150 kbar (10-15 GPa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. R.; Erasmus, R. M.; Hearne, G. R.

    2010-07-01

    Methodology has been developed so as to attain routine extreme conditions as high as 10-15 GPa in a gem anvil optical pressure cell using hand (manual) processed gem anvils. The anvils polished by a simplified hand held tool are inexpensive single crystal cubic zirconia (CZ) gems that have various optical advantages over diamond anvils. Appreciable pressures are attained with culet and corresponding sample cavity dimensions that are relatively convenient to load with sample material. Some technical details are provided as regards the simplified manual fabrication process, thus emphasizing the relative ease and cost effectiveness of the hand polishing technique for fabricating such high pressure anvils. Raman spectroscopy measurements, in triple subtractive mode with a confocal pinhole geometry, are used to exemplify the usefulness of the CZ gem anvil cell methodology in pressure tuning experiments. This is particularly convenient for conventional low wave-number (lattice mode regime) Raman high pressure studies, which have not been reported previously in this context. Various other applications of such anvils are suggested.

  11. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  12. Contingent negative variation elicited before jaw and tongue movements.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Iizuka, T

    2005-12-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) is a negative brain potential occurring between two successive stimuli when the first stimulus is a warning and the second stimulus requires a motor response. The CNV is interpreted as an expression of the cognitive processes in preparation for a response directed to a purpose. Using 19 electrodes we recorded CNVs for mouth opening, closing and lateral movements, tongue protrusion and hand extension in 10 healthy subjects. The aim of the study was to examine the motor control mechanism underlying jaw and tongue movements in a cognitive paradigm. The first stimulus (S1) served as a preparatory warning signal for the imperative stimulus (S2) 2 s after the S1. The subject performed the experimental tasks after the S2. The grand average CNVs for jaw and tongue movements showed a bilaterally widespread negativity with the maximum in the vertex region (Cz). The early CNV was identified about 400 ms after the S1 and its amplitude was highest at the midline-frontal area. The late CNV started approximately 1000 ms after the S1 with the maximum at Cz. The mean amplitude was significantly lower for hand extension than for the other tasks, and significantly higher for lateral movement than for mouth closing, suggesting that the CNV amplitude can be affected by the complexity of the task. The CNV recording may provide a means to study the neuronal activity necessary for the sensorimotor integration of jaw and tongue movements.

  13. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  14. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  15. Fall of the iron curtain: male life expectancy in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir; Wsolova, Ladislava

    2009-12-01

    Year 1989, the fall of communism, represents a dramatic watershed. Changes and reforms reflected also upon the quality of health care and the health of populations living on eastern side of the divide. Until then, Eastern Europe had free socialized medicine, albeit troubled by lack of up-to-date medications and absence of modern diagnostic equipment. Noting the admirable progress in health in some regions of the former Soviet empire during its transformation provides invaluable sociological lesson. Furthermore, focusing on health trends in two Central European countries, the Czech republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK), brings about another quality to such evaluation. Dramatic improvement in the life expectancy (LE) is represented mainly in the decrease of cardiovascular mortality, more in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. Favorable trend of male LE in the Czech Republic exceeded several established West European countries, while in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine the life expectancy actually deteriorated. When life expectancy in Slovakia is compared with the Czech Republic, its poorer outcome results from a higher cardiovascular mortality, as well as from liver, digestive and respiratory disorders. Root causes of this difference are possibly in a marked difference in funding of health care between SK and CZ, higher consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as in a sizeable disadvantaged Roma minority in Slovakia.

  16. The effect of a single session of short duration heart rate variability biofeedback on EEG: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Gabriell E; Rauch, H G Laurie; Karpul, David; Derman, Wayne E

    2013-03-01

    This pilot study examines the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on measures of electroencephalogram (EEG) during and immediately after biofeedback. Eighteen healthy males exposed to work-related stress, were randomised into an HRV biofeedback (BIO) or a comparative group (COM). EEG was recorded during the intervention and during rest periods before and after the intervention. Power spectral density in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands and theta/beta ratios were calculated. During the intervention, the BIO group had higher relative theta power [Fz and Pz (p < 0.01), Cz (p < 0.05)], lower fronto-central relative beta power (p < 0.05), and higher theta/beta [Fz and Cz (p < 0.01), Pz (p < 0.05)] than the COM group. The groups showed different responses after the intervention with increased posterior theta/beta (p < 0.05) in the BIO group and altered posterior relative theta (p < 0.05), central relative beta (p = 0.06) and central-posterior theta/beta (p < 0.01) in the post-intervention rest period. The findings of this study suggest that a single session of HRV biofeedback after a single training session was associated with changes in EEG suggestive of increased internal attention and relaxation both during and after the intervention. However, the comparative intervention was associated with changes suggestive of increased mental effort and possible anxiety during and after the intervention. PMID:23129056

  17. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-07-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime (τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  18. Synthesis of benzofurazan derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Ichibangase, Tomoko; Fukushima, Takeshi; Rashed, Mohamed S; Funatsu, Takashi; Imai, Kazuhiro

    2007-11-01

    The applicability of benzofurazan derivatization regents to carboxylic acids analysis in LC/ESI-MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry) was examined. The product ion spectra of DAABD-AE {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(2-aminoethylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-PZ {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-N-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-PiCZ {4-[4-carbazoylpiperidin-1-yl]-7-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, DAABD-ProCZ {4-[2-carbazoylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-7-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino) ethylaminosulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole} and DAABD-Apy {4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(3-aminopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole}, and their acetylated compounds were obtained. An intense fragment ion at m/z 151 corresponding to (dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl moiety was observed in each spectra, suggesting that these reagents were suitable for ESI-MS/MS analysis. DAABD-AE, DAABD-APy and DAABD-PZ were applied to the analysis of octanoic acid and it was found that DAABD-AE and DAABD-APy gave high signal intensity suitable for LC/ESI-MS/MS.

  19. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  20. Optimization of zofimarin production by an endophytic fungus, Xylaria sp. Acra L38

    PubMed Central

    Chaichanan, Jirapan; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Isarangkul, Duangnate; Meevootisom, Vithaya

    2014-01-01

    To optimize the medium for high zofimarin production, sucrose maltose, glucose, tryptone and peptone were used in an orthogonal array design experiment, where the highest value of zofimarin produced was 25.6 μg/mL. This value was about 3 times higher than that obtained with Czapek yeast extract (CzYE) culture medium. A study with Plackett-Burman design showed that sucrose, maltose, glucose and NaNO3 were significant factors in zofimarin production. Further studies using central composite design (CCD) showed the significance of glucose and the interactions of these critical components affecting zofimarin production. Multiple regression analysis of the data yielded a poor fit as shown by the mismatch of the model with these variable factors. When a polynomial equation was applied, the maximum zofimarin production was predicted to be 201.9 μg/mL. Experimental verification yielded a much lower amount of zofimarin, at around 70 μg/mL. Reconsideration of the CCD data and repetition of some runs with high zofimarin production resulted in reproducible zofimarin yield at 79.7 μg/mL. Even though the amount was lower than the predicted value, the medium optimization study was considered to be quite successful as the yield increased to around 8 times that obtained with the original CzYE culture medium. PMID:24948947

  1. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatani, Y.; Tomita, T.; Nagai, K.; Harada, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Ni-Cr weld overlay alloys with dispersed carbide particles were prepared by a plasma transferred arc welding process. The corrosion behavior of the 40 vol% carbide/Ni-Cr materials was studied in sodium chloride solution by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. The materials under investigation were powder blends of Ni-50 mass % Cr powder mixed with NbC, TaC, TiC, WC, O3C2, or VC. The NbC, TaC, TiC, and WC particles partially dissolved in the molten alloy, causing the crystallization of M23C6. Blends with Cr3C2 and VC particles produced the crystallization of M7C3, VxCryCz and M23C6. The VC/Ni-Cr alloy combination caused preferential localized corrosion and the carbide remained as VxCryCz. The Cr3C2/Ni-Cr alloy combination became studded with the Cr-Cl corrosion product compound. With the WC/Ni-Cr alloy combination, the WC particles became oxidized and corrosion product spread over the matrix. Other carbides were not oxidized, but the matrix of the alloys with these dispersed particles did become covered with Cr-rich corrosion products. The NbC/Ni-Cr material exhibited the best corrosion resistance.

  2. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities.

  3. Cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1), ERK1/2 activation, and cytoskeletal remodeling are associated with the senescence-like phenotype after airborne particulate matter (PM(10)) exposure in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Chirino, Yolanda I; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Imelda; Miranda, Javier; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2014-02-10

    The exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) from urban zones is considered to be a risk factor in the development of cancer. The aim of this work was to determine if PM10 exposure induces factors related to the acquisition of a neoplastic phenotype, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, changes in the subcellular localization of p21(CIP1/WAF1), an increase in β-galactosidase activity and changes in cell cycle. To test our hypothesis, PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and a commercial zone (CZ) were collected, and human adenocarcinoma lung cell cultures (A549) were exposed to a sublethal PM10 concentration (10 μg/cm(2)) for 24 h and 48 h. The results showed that PM10 exposure induced an increase in F-actin stress fibers and caused the cytoplasmic stabilization of p21(CIP1/WAF1) via phosphorylation at Thr(145) and Ser(146) and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 on Thr(202). Changes in the cell cycle or apoptosis were not observed, but an increase in β-galactosidase activity was detected. The PM10 from CZ caused more dramatic effects in lung cells. We conclude that PM10 exposure induced cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1) retention, ERK1/2 activation, cytoskeleton remodeling and the acquisition of a senescence-like phenotype in lung cells. These alterations could have mechanistic implications regarding the carcinogenic potential of PM10.

  4. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    DOE PAGES

    Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneousmore » detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.« less

  5. A Geometric Computational Model for Calculation of Longwall Face Effect on Gate Roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Ebrahimi Farsangi, Mohammad Ali; Jalalifar, Hossein; Ahmadi, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a geometric computational model (GCM) has been developed for calculating the effect of longwall face on the extension of excavation-damaged zone (EDZ) above the gate roadways (main and tail gates), considering the advance longwall mining method. In this model, the stability of gate roadways are investigated based on loading effects due to EDZ and caving zone (CZ) above the longwall face, which can extend the EDZ size. The structure of GCM depends on four important factors: (1) geomechanical properties of hanging wall, (2) dip and thickness of coal seam, (3) CZ characteristics, and (4) pillar width. The investigations demonstrated that the extension of EDZ is a function of pillar width. Considering the effect of pillar width, new mathematical relationships were presented to calculate the face influence coefficient and characteristics of extended EDZ. Furthermore, taking GCM into account, a computational algorithm for stability analysis of gate roadways was suggested. Validation was carried out through instrumentation and monitoring results of a longwall face at Parvade-2 coal mine in Tabas, Iran, demonstrating good agreement between the new model and measured results. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out on the effect of pillar width, bearing capacity of support system and coal seam dip.

  6. EEG correlates of P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Joseph N.; McFarland, Dennis J.; Vaughan, Theresa M.; McCane, Lynn M.; Tsui, Phillippa Z.; Zeitlin, Debra J.; Sellers, Eric W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify electroencephalography (EEG) features that correlate with P300-based brain-computer interface (P300 BCI) performance in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty people with ALS used a P300 BCI spelling application in copy-spelling mode. Three types of EEG features were found to be good predictors of P300 BCI performance: (1) the root-mean-square amplitude and (2) the negative peak amplitude of the event-related potential to target stimuli (target ERP) at Fz, Cz, P3, Pz, and P4; and (3) EEG theta frequency (4.5-8 Hz) power at Fz, Cz, P3, Pz, P4, PO7, PO8 and Oz. A statistical prediction model that used a subset of these features accounted for >60% of the variance in copy-spelling performance (p < 0.001, mean R2 = 0.6175). The correlations reflected between-subject, rather than within-subject, effects. The results enhance understanding of performance differences among P300 BCI users. The predictors found in this study might help in: (1) identifying suitable candidates for long-term P300 BCI operation; (2) assessing performance online. Further work on within-subject effects needs to be done to establish whether P300 BCI user performance could be improved by optimizing one or more of these EEG features.

  7. Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan.

    PubMed

    Sendid, B; Dotan, N; Nseir, S; Savaux, C; Vandewalle, P; Standaert, A; Zerimech, F; Guery, B P; Dukler, A; Colombel, J F; Poulain, D

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan (ASCA) and antibodies against synthetic disaccharide fragments of glucans (ALCA) and chitin (ACCA) are biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). We previously showed that Candida albicans infection generates ASCA. Here, we explored ALCA and ACCA as possible biomarkers of invasive C. albicans infection (ICI). ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Candida mannan antigen and antibody detection tests were performed on 69 sera obtained sequentially from 18 patients with ICIs proven by blood culture, 59 sera from CD patients, 47 sera from hospitalized subjects colonized by Candida species (CZ), and 131 sera from healthy controls (HC). ASCA, ALCA, and ACCA levels in CD and ICI patients were significantly different from those in CZ and HC subjects (P<0.0001). In ICI patients, these levels increased as infection developed. Using ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Platelia Candida tests, 100% of ICIs were detected, with the kinetics of the antibody response depending on the patient during the time course of infection. A large number of sera presented with more than three positive tests. This is the first evidence that the detection of antibodies against chitin and glucans has diagnostic value in fungal infections and that these tests can complement more specific tests. Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance.

  8. Toward understanding and modeling of impurity gettering in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Teh Y.; Gafiteanu, R.; Goesele, U.M.

    1995-08-01

    Gettering of harmful impurities away from the device active regions has already become an integral part of manufacturing integrated circuits (IC) using Czochralski (CZ) Si wafers, and is experiencing an increasing importance in Si solar cell fabrications for improving the cell efficiency. Gettering consists of (1) the creation of suitable gettering sites; and (2) the gettering processes of contaminants. Requirements for successful gettering differ between the IC and solar cell cases, because ICs are monolithic devices situated at the Si wafer surfaces while solar cells are bulk devices, and because the Si substrate materials used are different. For IC fabrications, the method used is that of intrinsic or internal gettering (IG) which utilizes oxygen precipitates and their associated defects in the CZ Si wafer bulk as gettering sites. Because of the bulk nature of IG sites, the scheme cannot be used also for solar cells. Only some kind of extrinsic or external gettering (EG) schemes with gettering sites located at the wafer surface regions can be used for solar cells. The gettering of the harmful contaminants, usually metals, to the gettering region involves the metal dissolution from precipitated state, the metal atom diffusion to and the stabilization at the gettering sites. A mathematical model of the gettering process is presented.

  9. One- and two-qubit logic using silicon-MOS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurak, Andrew

    Spin qubits in silicon are excellent candidates for scalable quantum information processing due to their long coherence times and the enormous investment in silicon CMOS technology. While our Australian effort in Si QC has largely focused on spin qubits based upon phosphorus dopant atoms implanted in Si, we are also exploring spin qubits based on single electrons confined in SiMOS quantum dots. Such qubits can have long spin lifetimes T1 = 2 s, while electric field tuning of the conduction-band valley splitting removes problems due to spin-valley mixing. In isotopically enriched Si-28 these SiMOS qubits have a control fidelity of 99.6%, consistent with that required for fault-tolerant QC. By gate-voltage tuning the electron g*-factor, the ESR operation frequency can be Stark shifted by >10 MHz, allowing individual addressability of many qubits. Most recently we have coupled two SiMOS qubits to realize a CNOT gate using exchange-based controlled phase (CZ) operations. The speed of the two-qubit CZ-operations is controlled electrically via the detuning energy and over 100 two-qubit gates can be performed within a coherence time of 8 μs. We acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council (CE11E0001017), the US Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0024) and the Australian National Fabrication Facility.

  10. Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with

  11. Effects of fluid-assisted diffusion on texture strength in a mylonitised metagabbro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joseph; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Most rocks are polyphase materials yet many studies of rock texture tend to isolate the behaviour of individual phases. Characterisation of interaction between phases can yield useful information about the deformation behaviour of real rocks. Our work focuses on a broadly two phase mixture of albite and clinozoisite in mylonitised metagabbros, and how these two phases may have interacted to create, maintain and/or weaken the variable strength CPOs observed in each phase. Intriguingly, the rocks have deformed primarily by diffusion-accommodated processes, which are traditionally thought to weaken or destroy an existing CPO. Our data suggest that diffusion can preserve strong textures. Plagioclase in metamorphosed gabbros from a km-scale extensional shear zone in the NW Italian Alps (Gressoney Shear Zone) has undergone (to a first order) breakdown to albite (Ab) + clinozoiste (Cz) at greenschist facies. Grain size reduction via nucleation of product grains, plus the effects of Zener pinning, lead to an average grain size of <50 μm in the matrix (promoting grain size sensitive creep). As clinozoisite is heterogeneously distributed in the matrix this study compares grain morphology of each phase in regions of variable Cz-content to determine any influence Cz volume fraction may have exerted on grain size/shape and grain boundary evolution. A key question is why CPO domains in albite should retain discrete boundaries if deformation is primarily diffusion accommodated. We have used electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to characterise texture within each phase. Matrix albite exhibits CPO domains that form discrete bands. These domains do not correlate to any recognised slip systems in plagioclase, so are thought to have been inherited from parent grains and subsequently modified by fluid assisted diffusion plus grain boundary sliding. Albite precipitates in pressure shadows and fractures show it was the more mobile phase and deformed by pressure solution. Clinozoisite

  12. Transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates spontaneous low frequency fluctuations as measured with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Calderin, Yuranny; Williams, Kathleen A; Opitz, Alexander; Dechent, Peter; Wilke, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for modulating brain oscillations. Combining tACS with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we recently showed that tACS applied over the occipital cortex did not exert its strongest effect on regions below the electrodes, but mainly on more distant fronto-parietal regions. Theoretically, this effect could be explained by tACS-induced modulation of functional connectivity between directly stimulated areas and more distant but anatomically and functionally connected regions. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the effect of tACS on low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations. We employed simultaneous fMRI-tACS in 20 subjects during resting state (eyes open with central fixation for ~8min). Subjects received tACS at different frequencies (10, 16, 40Hz) and with different electrode montages (Cz-Oz, P5-P6) previously used in behavioral studies. Electric field simulations showed that tACS over Cz-Oz directly stimulates occipital cortex, while tACS over P5-P6 primarily targets parietal cortices. Group-level simulation-based functional connectivity maps for Cz-Oz and P5-P6 resembled the visual and fronto-parietal control resting-state networks, respectively. The effects of tACS were frequency and partly electrode montage dependent. In regions where frequency-dependent effects of tACS were observed, 10 and 40Hz tACS generally induced opposite effects. Most tACS effects on functional connectivity were observed between, as opposed to within, resting-state networks. The left fronto-parietal control network showed the most extensive frequency-dependent modulation in functional connectivity, mainly with occipito-parietal regions, where 10Hz tACS increased and 40Hz tACS decreased correlation values. Taken together, our results show that tACS modulates local spontaneous low frequency fluctuations and their correlations with more distant regions, which should be taken into account when

  13. Crystalline Bedrock Geology, Faulting, and Crustal Architecture in the Larse Region of the Transverse Ranges, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Spanning the Transverse Ranges (TR) between the northern Los Angeles Basin and the western Mojave Desert (MD), the LARSE lines transect several distinct crystalline blocks: western Transverse Ranges (WTR), San Gabriel Mts-Soledad Basin (SGM), Sierra Pelona (SP), and Liebre Mtn. Juxtaposition of disparate blocks evolved during late Cenozoic (Cz) plate-margin reorganization of early Miocene and older paleogeologic and paleotectonic patterns. Crystalline basement rocks, ranging in age from Proterozoic to mid-Cz, constrain tectonic and near-surface crustal evolution of the region in various ways: (1) by their spatial distribution, (2) by basement-derived clast-types in Cz deposits, and (3) by the age and distribution of weathered zones developed on exhumed basement. Reassembly of paleogeologic patterns in the crystalline terrane of S California provides measurements of overall displacement on strike-slip faults of the San Andreas system. In the LARSE region, right-lateral displacements are demonstrable for the San Gabriel fault (SGF) in the SGM (22-23 km), the Vasquez Creek fault (5-15 km), and the SGF NW of the SGM (42-43 km). Displacement on the San Andreas fault NW of the TR (295 km) is partitioned onto the San Andreas-San Francisquito-Fenner-Clemens Well fault (100 km) and the SGF in the TR, and the post-5 Ma San Andreas fault in and south of the TR (ranging from 160 km along the MD-TR segment to 180 km along the Salton Trough segment). Left-lateral displacement has been demonstrated for the Santa Monica-Raymond fault (11-15 km), the Santa Ynez fault (0 km at its E end to as much as 37 km), and the Garlock fault (48-64 km along its central reach and perhaps as little as 12 km along its western reach). The Vasquez Creek and Santa Monica-Raymond faults are conjugate. Pre-Late Miocene extensional deformation is associated with exhumation of the Pelona Schist in SP and the Chocolate Mts and with ENE-trending left-separation faults in SGM. Reverse displacements are

  14. The impact of congestion charging on vehicle speed and its implications for assessing vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beevers, Sean D.; Carslaw, David C.

    Previous analysis of London's congestion charging scheme (CCS) has shown that changes in vehicle speed are an important factor in reducing vehicle emissions. Therefore, a detailed investigation of network average vehicle speed in both central and inner London has been undertaken using a combination of the non-parametric Wilcoxon sign ranks test and a method for calculating the cumulative difference between mean speeds pre- and post-CCS, or cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. Within the charging zone (CZ), the Wilcoxon test has shown that the difference in speed between pre- and post-CCS periods has increased on average by 2.1 km h -1 and that these changes are significant at the p=0.05 level. The CUSUM analysis has provided evidence of the timing of this change in mean speed in the CZ and this agrees well with the introduction of the CCS on the 17 February 2003. In combination, these results provide compelling evidence that the introduction of congestion charging has significantly increased vehicle speed in the CZ and by comparison with the results in inner London, that these changes are not part of a wider trend. To examine one impact of this change we used an instantaneous emissions model, the Vehicle Transient Emissions Simulation Software, to undertake a comparison between the change in vehicle emissions associated with changing driving characteristics, between pre- and post-charging periods, and those associated with a change in average speed. The analysis was limited to three vehicle types: a Euro II LGV, a Euro III diesel car and a Euro IV petrol car, but showed that driving characteristics in central London have a relatively small effect on emissions of NO X and CO 2 compared with the average vehicle speed. However, for PM 10 emissions from the Euro II LGV the opposite was found and for this vehicle the driving characteristics were more important than the average speed in estimating exhaust emissions. For this vehicle, emissions increased between pre- and post

  15. Tuning magnetization, blocking temperature, cation distribution of nanosized Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 by mechanical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Mondal, R.; Dey, S. K.; Majumder, S.; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Reddy, V. R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-09-01

    The study on structural, microstructural, magnetic, and hyperfine properties of nanosized Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 having particle size ˜18 nm (CZM) synthesized by high energy ball milling of Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticles of size ˜20 nm (CZ) produced by flow rate controlled coprecipitation method has revealed that the inclusion of strain induced anisotropy produced by mechanical treatment and escalation of oxygen mediated intersublattice exchange interaction of spinel ferrites by tuning cation distribution properly, can improve the magnetic quality of nanosized ferrites significantly. This upshot will be of immense help in promoting the technological application of nanostructured ferrites. The Rietveld refinement of powder x-ray diffraction pattern and the analysis of transmission electron micrographs, energy dispersive x-ray spectrum, and FTIR spectrum of the sample have confirmed that CZM is single phase cubic nanometric spinel ferrite of Fd 3 ¯ m symmetry and it possesses large microstrain within its crystal lattice. The dc magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies together with indicate that the particles in the sample are composed of ferrimagnetically aligned core and spin-glass like shell and the system behaves superparamagnetically at 300 K. The saturation magnetization (44 and 87 emu g-1 at 300 and 10 K) and hyperfine field of the sample are substantially higher than its counterparts reported earlier. In spite of its lower size compared to CZ, the blocking temperature (˜220 K) of CZM is higher than that of CZ (70 K) and also that of its counterparts synthesized by chemical methods. The strengthening of the intersublattice A-O-B superexchange interaction because of migration of Fe3+ ions from octahedral [B] to tetrahedral (A) sites in lieu of the relocation of Zn2+ among (A) and [B] sites helps in enhancement of magnetization and hyperfine field of CZM. The giant coercivity (HC ˜ 5600 Oe at 10 K) of CZM is accounted by the presence of spin glass like surface

  16. The ghost component of the mass balances at the Critical Zone scale: the chemical reactivity of immobile water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsir, K.; Mercury, L.; Azaroual, M.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is characterized by the duality between mass transport processes such as diffusion and flow of gases, fluids, and solids and localized bio-geochemical interactions especially linked to the "immobile" capillary/adsorbed water. Open questions are towards the role of capillarity onto reactive mechanisms: is there a geochemical signature of capillary water that can change the bio-geochemical balance? The research efforts focused on this issue to develop modeling tools integrating capillary effects at the soil-profile or CZ scale. Water suction gains geochemical significance when ranging from 20 to 200 MPa, meaning high tension and low amount of stretched water with its specific thermophysical properties (Mercury and Tardy, 2001; Mercury et al., 2003; 2004; Pettenati et al., 2008). Therefore, our interest is directed to the dry end of the water retention curve (WRC). The recent model from Silva and Grifoll (2007) proposed a full-range soil-water retention functions, extending the description to the adsorbed films down to the monolayer thickness. At this stage, it becomes possible to evaluate the role of both capillary pockets and adsorbed films at all water content in the geochemical dynamics of non-saturated soils. We developed from that point by fitting the WRC not through a continuous porous network, but through a decomposition into two porous domains (immobile/mobile domains), each with its own potential-water content law. This amounts to treat the WRC according to an intrinsic dual porosity scheme, and make easier to involve chemical effects at each potential-water content couple. A simple test simulation is developed with calcite rock kinetically interacting with immobile and mobile water, themselves connected by diffusive and advective gradients in the limits of the immobile-mobile contact area. The reactive transport simulations are run with HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005). The mass balance exporting toward groundwater is calculated with

  17. Effect of germanium doping on the annealing characteristics of oxygen and carbon-related defects in Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Andrianakis, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Emtsev, V.; Ohyama, H.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the annealing studies of defects produced in carbon-rich Ge-doped Czochralski-grown Si (Cz-Si) by 2 MeV electron irradiation. The annealing temperature of vacancy-oxygen (VO) complexes, carbon interstitial-oxygen interstitial (C{sub i}O{sub i}), and carbon interstitial-carbon substitutional (C{sub i}C{sub s}) pairs as well as the formation temperature of vacancy-two oxygen (VO{sub 2}) complexes are monitored as a function of Ge concentration. It has been established that the annealing of C{sub i}O{sub i} and C{sub i}C{sub s} defects remains practically unaffected by the Ge presence, whereas the annealing temperature of VO defects and the formation temperature of VO{sub 2} complexes are substantially lowered at Ge concentrations larger than 1x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The hydrostatic component of elastic strains introduced by Ge atoms in the Si crystal lattice was calculated. It appears to be very small, at least insufficient to exert a pronounced effect upon the annealing behavior of radiation-produced defects. This conclusion is in line with what is observed for the C{sub i}O{sub i} and C{sub i}C{sub s} species. In the case of VO, whose annealing process in Cz-Si is concurrently conducted by two reaction paths VO+O{sub i}{yields}VO{sub 2} and VO+Si{sub I}{yields}O{sub i}, we suggest that the latter reaction in Ge-doped Cz-Si is enhanced by emitting self-interstitials (Si{sub I}) from loosely bound self-interstitial clusters predominantly formed around Ge impurity atoms. As a result, the liberation of self-interstitials at lower annealing temperatures leads to an enhanced annealing of VO defects. An enhanced formation of VO{sub 2} complexes at lower temperatures is also discussed in terms of other reactions running in parallel with the reaction VO+Si{sub I}{yields}O{sub i}.

  18. Radiation effects on the behavior of carbon and oxygen impurities and the role of Ge in Czochralski grown Si upon annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Andrianakis, A.; Emtsev, V.; Ohyama, H.

    2009-06-15

    The annealing behavior of the oxygen and carbon impurities in Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si) was investigated in electron- and neutron-irradiated materials. The irradiated samples were subjected to isochronal anneals of up to approx1000 deg. C, and the evolution of oxygen and carbon concentrations was monitored by means of infrared spectroscopy from the amplitudes of the 1106 and 605 cm{sup -1} bands of the two impurities correspondingly. It was found that the electron irradiation does not affect the temperature of annealing of oxygen, although in the neutron-irradiated samples the oxygen band begins to decay in the spectra at a lower temperature than that in the nonirradiated samples. This behavior could be determined by supersaturation of vacancies mainly liberated from disordered regions in the latter material. This assists the oxygen aggregation process. Regarding carbon evolution, it was found that in the irradiated samples the annealing out of the 605 cm{sup -1} band occurs at a lower temperature than that of the nonirradiated samples. Prior to the onset of decay of the 605 cm{sup -1} band an inverse annealing stage was observed in the irradiated samples, indicating partial restoration of substitutional carbon. The general behavior was discussed with respect to the supersaturation of intrinsic defects, mainly self-interstitials. As a result, large C{sub N}(Si{sub I}){sub M} complexes are formed. There are two processes running in parallel: the recovery of substitutional carbon from carbon-related defects and C{sub N}(Si{sub I}){sub M} complexes and the transformation of C{sub N}(Si{sub I}){sub M} complexes to SiC-based precipitates. Noticeably, in electron-irradiated Ge-doped Si the inverse annealing stage of substitutional carbon is suppressed. Furthermore, our results showed that the Ge doping of Cz-Si of up to 2x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} does not practically affect the temperature at which oxygen and carbon are completely lost in irradiated Cz-Si:Ge.

  19. Vibration Problems of an Example of Temporary Steel Grandstand under Human-Induced Excitation / Problemy Drgań Przykładowej Tymczasowej Trybuny Stalowej Poddanej Oddziaływaniom Dynamicznym Wywołanym Przez Ludzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasowicz, Natalia; Jankowski, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Lighter and slender structural members of a typical grandstand leads to a significant reduction in the frequencies, that is why such structures are more easily induced to vibrations. The aim of the present paper is to show the results of the experimental tests and the numerical analyses focused on the behaviour of a part of a typical temporary steel grandstand under dynamic loads. The peak values of accelerations of a steel scaffolding grandstand under human-induced excitation have been determined and compared with the limit values concerning the perception of vibrations by people. The results of the study indicate that the human-induced excitation may induce structural vibrations which substantially exceed the allowable limits. Coraz bardziej powszechne staje się stosowanie trybun stalowych podczas różnego rodzaju koncertów i imprez sportowych, podczas których konstrukcje te są narażone na oddziaływania dynamiczne wywołane przez przebywających na nich ludzi. Lekkie i smukłe elementy, z jakich wykonane są trybuny stalowe przyczyniają się do niskich wartości częstotliwości drgań własnych konstrukcji, przez co łatwiej wzbudzić je do drgań. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań eksperymentalnych i analiz numerycznych dotyczące zachowania się przykładowej tymczasowej trybuny stalowej poddanej oddziaływaniom dynamicznym wywołanym przez ludzi. Podczas eksperymentalnych badań polowych, analizowany fragment konstrukcji wzbudzano do drgań poprzez poziome wychylenie górnej części konstrukcji celem wyznaczenia wartości dominującej częstotliwości drgań własnych. Z kolei, przeprowadzone analizy numeryczne obejmowały analizę modalną oraz analizę dynamiczną trybuny stalowej obciążonej tłumem skaczących widzów. Maksymalne wartości przyspieszeń konstrukcji poddanej dynamicznym oddziaływaniom ludzi porównano z wartościami granicznymi określonymi w literaturze. Na tej podstawie przeanalizowano wpływ drgań konstrukcji

  20. Effects of implanting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal beef yields of fed cows.

    PubMed

    Neill, S; Unruh, J A; Marston, T T; Jaeger, J R; Hunt, M C; Higgins, J J

    2009-02-01

    Sixty crossbred cull cows were used to determine the combined effects of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal yields of mature cows fed for 70 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: 1) grazing native grass pasture (G); 2) concentrate-fed (C) a grain sorghum-sorghum silage diet; 3) concentrate-fed and implanted (CI) with Revalor-200 (trenbolone acetate-estradiol); 4) concentrate-fed and fed Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride) beginning on d 38 of the feeding period (CZ); and 5) concentrate-fed, implanted, and fed Zilmax beginning on d 38 (CIZ). The concentrate diet consisted primarily of ground grain sorghum and sorghum silage. During the last 34 d of the feeding trial, concentrate-fed (C, CI, CZ, and CIZ) cows had greater (P < 0.05) gains than G cows. Hot carcass weights and dressing percentages were greater (P < 0.05) for the concentrate-fed cows than for G cows. Longissimus muscle area was largest (P < 0.05) for CIZ cows, whereas subprimal weights from the chuck were heavier (P < 0.05) from CIZ cows than C and G cows, and carcasses from CI and CZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) chuck subprimal weights than G cows. Rib and round subprimal weights were heavier (P < 0.05) for concentrate-fed cows compared with G cows. In addition, carcasses from CIZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) total subprimal weights, and total subprimals were a greater percentage of their initial BW than C cows. Rib cut-out and total soft tissue weights from the 9-10-11th rib were less (P < 0.05) for G cows than concentrate-fed cows. Feeding cull cows a concentrate diet increased carcass weight, dressing percentage, and subprimal yields compared with feeding cows a grass-based pasture diet, and the combination of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride can maximize trimmed beef yields from cull cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  1. Phases of gully erosion in the Lublin Upland and Roztocze region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgłobicki, Wojciech; Rodzik, Jan; Superson, Jó Zef; Dotterweich, Markus; Schmitt, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Gullies represent one of the most characteristic features of loess relief and an important feature of the cultural landscape of areas used for agriculture. In extensive parts of the Lublin region, the average gully density exceeds 2 km·km-2, and in the vicinity of Kazimierz Dolny (Nałęczów Plateau) and Szczebrzeszyn (Szczebrzeszyn Roztocze), it reaches 10 km·km-2, which is unique on the European scale (Maruszczak 1973). The natural conditions in some loess areas (the western part of the Nałęczów Plateau, the Szczebrzeszyn Roztocze) are exceptionally conducive to the development of gullies. These conditions include primarily the occurrence of thick loess covers, considerable elevation differences and quite frequent torrential rainfall events in morphological escarpment areas. The prevailing view, however, is that these natural determinants were not sufficient to trigger the intensive processes of gully erosion (Maruszczak 1988; Bork 1989; Vanwalleghem et al. 2003). It was the deforesting (broad-leaved and mixed) linked with the development of agricul ture that led to the dynamic development of gullies (Vanwalleghem et al. 2006; Dotterweich 2008). Until recently, studies on historical gully erosion in the Lublin region had been conducted on a small scale. Estimations of the age of the gullies were based on the analysis of changes in population density (level of anthropogenic pressure on the environment) and climate changes (frequency of torrential rains). On that basis, Maruszczak (1973; 1988) and Buraczyński (1991) conclude that most gullies in the loess areas are not older than 1,000 years. Cartographic materials do not provide any information on the age of gullies. Relatively accurate maps are not older than 100 years while older topographical measurements conducted in forested areas with varied relief are not reliable. Only a few sites located within the loess covers have been examined in detail, i.e. by analysing sediments (including 14C dating) within

  2. Central NGC 2146: A Firehose-Type Bending Instability in the Disk of Newly Formed Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Chiueh, Tzihong

    1998-08-01

    is driven by an excess of plane kinetic energy of random motions of stars, when the ratio of the dispersion of radial velocities of stars in the plane cr to the velocity dispersion in the perpendicular direction cz is large enough, cr >~ 0.6cz, in other words, if the thickness of the stellar disk h ~ cz is small enough. The extent to which our results on the stability of the disk can have a bearing on observable spiral galaxies with a high star formation rate in the central parts is discussed.

  3. Deposition and Properties of the Pseudobinary Alloy (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x and Its Application for Silicon Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Alexieva, Z.; Agostinelli, G.

    2006-07-01

    The electrical properties of (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x thin films, obtained from sol solution by spin coating on Si substrates (c-Si or mc-Si), have been studied. By varying the ratios between Al2O3 and TiO2 components, the optical and dielectric characteristics can be changed. This deposition method can be used for effective engineering of physical properties of the dielectric layer. Surface recombination velocities as low as 150 cm/s have been obtained using (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x layers on 1 Ω\\cdotcm Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. Low surface recombination is achieved by field induced surface passivation due to a high density of negative fixed charges.

  4. A new technique for quantification of platelet thrombosis on bovine pericardial valve prostheses (Ionescu-Shiley) in calves with indium-111 labeled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Solis, E.E.; Mackey, S.; Chesebro, J.H.; Didisheim, P.; Edwards, W.D.; Zollman, P.E.; Kaye, M.P.

    1985-05-01

    Platelet thrombosis on components of tissue valve prosthesis explanted from Holstein calves was quantified with In-111-labeled autologous platelets. Twenty-eight calves were implanted with 25 mm bovine pericardial valve prostheses in mitral annulus and killed 1, 14, 30 and 90 days post-implantation. Twenty-four hours before killing 350-450 ..mu..Ci of autologous In-111 platelets were administered intravenously. Components of the explanted valve were imaged with a gamma camera. Mean (+- SD) value of platelet deposition (PlX10/sup 5//mm/sup 2/) on four sections of each leaflet (free edge: FE, central zone: CZ, flexion zone: FZ, attachment zone: AZ) was calculated from platelet count, radioactivity in blood, leaflet sections and area of leaflet sections. With fibrous ingrowth in sewing ring the tissue valve becomes less thrombogenic at 30 days post-implantation; with increase in calcification platelet thrombosis also increases in central zone of leaflet at 30 and 90 days.

  5. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  6. Optimal detection and concentration estimation of vapor materials using range-resolved lidar with frequency-agile lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; D'Amico, Francis M.

    1999-10-01

    In previous work, we presented a methodology for optimally processing data from lidar with frequency-agile wavelength capability using techniques of multivariate statistics. Among the applications considered was the case of range- resolved lidar with short (delta function) transmitter pulses. This paper extends that analysis by deriving a method for estimating range-dependent vapor concentration for arbitrary pulse shapes. A Bayesian statistical approach leads to a MAP (maximum a posteriori) estimator for C(z), the concentration at range z. The estimates are computed iteratively for a given set of multiwavelength lidar return data using an approximation to the Gauss-Newton method. The concentration estimates are then used as the basis for a detection algorithm for the leading edge of the vapor plume based on the CUSUM approach. The detection and estimation approaches are illustrated on a combination of synthetic and field test data collected by SBCCOM at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory test site.

  7. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    PubMed

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  8. Multiple 3D RNA Structure Superposition Using Neighbor Joining.

    PubMed

    Hoksza, David; Svozil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA research and the steady growth of available RNA structures call for bioinformatics methods for handling and analyzing RNA structural data. Recently, we introduced SETTER-a fast and accurate method for RNA pairwise structure alignment. In this paper, we describe MultiSETTER, SETTER extension for multiple RNA structure alignment. MultiSETTER combines SETTER's decomposition of RNA structures into non-overlapping structural subunits with the multiple sequence alignment algorithm ClustalW adapted for the structure alignment. The accuracy of MultiSETTER was assessed by the automatic classification of RNA structures and its comparison to SCOR annotations. In addition, MultiSETTER classification was also compared to multiple sequence alignment-based and secondary structure alignment-based classifications provided by LocARNA and RNADistance tools, respectively. MultiSETTER precompiled Windows libraries, as well as the C++ source code, are freely available from http://siret.cz/multisetter.

  9. Effects of Implantation Sequence on the Micro-defects in H and O Implanted Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Zhu; Shi, Shao-Bo; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Bao-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Cz n-type Si (100) wafers are implanted with 190 keV O and 40 keV H ions in different implantation sequences. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy are used to study the formation and evolution of micro-defects. Our results clearly show that the defect morphology depends strongly on the implantation sequence. Large cavities are observed in O preimplanted samples, while only platelets are observed in H preimplanted samples. The change regularity of the S parameter is the same for the Si samples co-implanted at different sequences. But in H preimplanted samples, the S parameter is a little higher. The effects of the implantation sequence on the micro-defects have been discussed in combination with H and O implantation-induced defects as well as their interactions upon annealing.

  10. Selective attention in the presence of music: an event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Dalbokova, D; Kolev, P; Kristeva, R

    1988-06-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating selective attention in the presence of music as expressed by ERPs. The experiments were performed with 7 subjects. A two-channel auditory frequency discrimination task (target - 1000 Hz, standard - 1550 Hz tones) in a dichotic listening environment was employed. The EEG was recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz, C3 and C4. The EOG and performance data were also collected. A smaller and delayed N1 amplitude as well as changes in the two components of the processing negativity in the presence of music were found. N2 and P3 components only delay with music was observed. The changes in the level of performance were not significant.

  11. Discovery of a luminous water megamaser in the FRII radiogalaxy 3C 403

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, A.; Henkel, C.; Chiaberge, M.; Menten, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    We report the first detection of a water megamaser in a radio-loud galaxy, 3C 403. This object has been observed as part of a small sample of FRIIs with evidence of nuclear obscuration. The isotropic luminosity of the maser is ~ 1200 solar luminosities. With a recessional velocity of cz ~ 17 680 km s-1 it is the most distant H2O maser so far reported. The line arises from the densest interstellar gas component ever observed in a radio-loud galaxy. Two spectral features are observed, likely bracketing the systemic velocity of the galaxy. These may either arise from the tangentially seen parts of a nuclear accretion disk or from dense warm gas interacting with the radio jets.

  12. Effect of MeV nitrogen ion implantation on the resistivity transition in Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, In-Ji; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-12-01

    We investigated how MeV nitrogen ion implantation affects the resistivity transition in Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. After annealing at 800 °C for 20 h and again at 1000 °C for 10 h, the implanted nitrogen atoms accumulated in the projected range (R P ) for ion doses less than 5 × 1014 cm-2 whereas they accumulated at both R P /2 and R P at ion doses above 3 × 1015 cm-2. These results indicate that no resistivity transition was found at nitrogen ion doses less than 5 × 1013 cm-2 whereas n-/p or n+/p resistivity transition was shown at ion doses higher than 5 × 1014 cm-2. Many fewer than 1% of the implanted nitrogen atoms were ionized after the heat treatment. Thus, the resistivity of nitrogen-doped silicon wafers is more than 100 times higher than that of phosphorous-doped silicon wafers.

  13. Passivated Tunneling Contacts to N-Type Wafer Silicon and Their Implementation into High Performance Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stradins, P.; Essig, S.; Nemeth, W.; Lee, B. G.; Young, D.; Norman, A.; Liu, Y.; Luo, J.-W.; Warren, E.; Dameron, A.; LaSalvia, V.; Page, M.; Rohatgi, A.; Upadhyaya, A.; Rounsaville, B.; Ok, Y.-W.; Glunz, S.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case that passivated contacts based on a thin tunneling oxide layer, combined with a transport layer with properly selected work function and band offsets, can lead to high efficiency c-Si solar cells. Passivated contacts contribute to cell efficiency as well as design flexibility, process robustness, and a simplified process flow. Material choices for the transport layer are examined, including transparent n-type oxides and n+-doped poly-Si. SiO2/n+-poly-Si full-area, induced-junction back surface field contacts to n-FZ and n-Cz Si are incorporated into high efficiency cells with deep, passivated boron emitters.

  14. Crystal defects in silicon integrated circuits with respect to very large scale integration (VLSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, G.; Kolbesen, B.

    1982-04-01

    The impact of process induced crystal defects on single bit refresh loss in dynamic MOS memory devices (bipolar and MOS technology) was investigated. Analytical techniques for detection of crystal defects were preferential etching, X-ray topography, and high voltage electron microscopy. Impurity levels were determined by infrared spectroscopy (carbon and oxygen) and neutron activation analysis (metals). Device characteristics and measurements of the MOS relaxation time were utilized as electrical results for quality control. Nuclei, sources and driving forces were analyzed, correlated to special technology steps, and measures for elimination were determined. Results show that metallic impurities introduced during wafer processing influence the generation as well as the electrical activity of crystal defects. The gettering ability of defects, due to the precipitation of oxygen in liquid (CZ) silicon, is explained.

  15. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. S.; Qiu, S. R.; Zheng, L. L.; Schaffers, K. I.; Tassano, J. B.; Caird, J. A.; Zhang, H.

    2008-08-01

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb 3+:Sr 5(PO 4) 3F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF 2-rich melts often encounters cracks during the post-growth cool-down stage. To suppress cracking during cool-down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool-down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented, which produced high-quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  16. In-flight measurements of propeller blade deformation on a VUT100 cobra aeroplane using a co-rotating camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, F.; Stasicki, B.; Szypuła, M.; Ružička, P.; Tvrdik, Z.; Ludwikowski, K.

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of propeller or rotor blade behaviour under real operating conditions is crucial for optimizing the performance of a propeller or rotor system. A team of researchers, technicians and engineers from Avia Propeller, DLR, EVEKTOR and HARDsoft developed a rotating stereo camera system dedicated to in-flight blade deformation measurements. The whole system, co-rotating with the propeller at its full speed and hence exposed to high centrifugal forces and strong vibration, had been successfully tested on an EVEKTOR VUT 100 COBRA aeroplane in Kunovice (CZ) within the project AIM2—advanced in-flight measurement techniques funded by the European Commission (contract no. 266107). This paper will describe the work, starting from drawing the first sketch of the system up to performing the successful flight test. Apart from a description of the measurement hardware and the applied IPCT method, the paper will give some impressions of the flight test activities and discuss the results obtained from the measurements.

  17. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Electrical characterization of defects induced in FZ and CZ silicon stress in four-point bending above 1200 C was started. Techniques to study electrical activity that will permit correlation of defect activity with diffusion length and with room and low temperature EBIC are being developed. Preliminary characterization of defects in ribbon grown at very low speeds of less than 1 cm/min shows that the dislocation density is very low over significant regions of cross section, while regions of high dislocation density (approx. 5 x 10(6)/cm(2)) occur in bands in a number of places. Addition measurements of stress distributions in EFG material were obtained at the University of Illinois using shadow-Moire interferometry.

  18. Faraday effect improvement by Dy3+-doping of terbium gallium garnet single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Lei; Hang, Yin; Wang, Xiangyong

    2016-01-01

    Highly transparent Dy3+-doped terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal was grown by Czochralski (Cz) method. Phase composition of the crystal was tested by XRD measurements. The distribution coefficient of Dy3+ in the crystal was obtained. The optical and magneto-optical properties were analyzed in detail, and magnetic properties of the Dy3+-TGG crystal were studied. The paramagnetic behavior is observed down to 10 K. The as-grown crystal exhibited high optical transmittance, particularly in the visible region. The Faraday rotation was investigated over visible and near-infrared regions (VIS-NIR) at room temperature. The Verdet constants increase at measured wavelengths and high thermal stability was found in Dy3+-doped TGG, as compared to the properties of pure TGG, indicating that Dy3+-doped crystals are preferable for magneto-active materials used in Faraday devices at VIS-NIR wavelengths.

  19. High magneto-optical characteristics of Holmium-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiangyong; Yin, Hang

    2016-06-01

    Magneto-optical characteristics of a new magneto-active material, (Tb(1-x)Hox)3Ga5O12 crystal, have been grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. A high value of the Verdet constant was obtained at room temperature-namely, 214.9 and 77.8  rad·m-1 T-1 for 632.8 and 1064 nm, respectively. The Verdet constant of the Ho-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal at 1064 nm is about 2 times higher than that of terbium gallium garnet crystal. High value of magneto-optical figure-of-merit makes it an attractive next-generation magneto-optics material for high-power Faraday isolators.

  20. Growth behavior of nonpolar GaN on the nearly lattice-matched (1 0 0) γ-LiAlO 2 substrate by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Mitch M. C.; Chang, Liuwen; Chen, Chenlong; Yang, Wen-Fu; Li, Chu-An; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Nonpolar gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial film was grown on a nearly lattice-matched (1 0 0) γ-LiAlO 2 substrate by a versatile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. LiAlO 2 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. Epi-ready LiAlO 2 single-crystal substrate with RMS roughness of 0.24-0.32 nm were used for all experiments. The dependence of growth characteristics on the growth temperatures and deposition time was investigated. The orientation of GaN film was identified as (1 0 1¯ 0) m-plane by X-ray diffraction pattern. The characterization of detailed structure of the nonpolar GaN epilayer was done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties examined by photoluminescence spectra exhibit a strong near-band-edge emission peak at 3.37 eV and a weak yellow band emission.

  1. Reducing PEC uncertainty in coastal zones: a case study on carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fenet, Hélène; Arpin-Pont, Lauren; Vanhoutte-Brunier, Alice; Munaron, Dominique; Fiandrino, Annie; Martínez Bueno, Maria-Jesus; Boillot, Clotilde; Casellas, Claude; Mathieu, Olivier; Gomez, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine (Cbz), oxcarbazepine (OxCz) and their main metabolites were predicted in a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and in the vicinity of its submarine outfall located in a Mediterranean coastal zone. Refined predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated in effluents based on consumption data and human excretion rates. PECs were estimated in the sea using the hydrodynamic MARS 3D model integrating meteorological data, oceanic conditions (wind, tide, atmospheric pressure), freshwater and sewage inputs. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) were compared to PECs to assess the estimation relevance. In the coastal zone, PEC and MEC were in the same magnitude range. Modeling of Cbz diffusion and advection just above the submarine outfall showed the influence of the thermocline during summer, with low diffusion of Cbz from the bottom to the surface. This work allowed understanding the dispersion of target compounds and deserved further development for a better acknowledgement of vulnerability at local scales.

  2. LPM Interference and Cherenkov-like Gluon Bremsstrahlung in DenseMatter

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple parton scattering in a finite dense medium has a unique angular distribution with respect to the initial parton direction. A dead-cone structure with an opening angle; theta2{sub 0}; approx 2(1-z)/(zLE) for gluons with fractional energy z arises from the Landau-Pomeran chuck-Migdal (LPM) interference. In a medium where the gluon's dielectric constant is; epsilon>1, the LPM interference pattern is shown to become Cherenkov-like with an increased opening angle determined by the dielectric constant$/cos2/theta{sub c}=z+(1-z)//epsilon$. For a large dielectric constant/epsilon; gg 1+2/z2LE, the corresponding total radiative parton energy loss is about twice that from normal gluon bremsstrahlung. Implications of this Cherenkov-like gluon bremsstrahlung to the jet correlation pattern in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  3. Study of the defects in oxygen implanted silicon subjected to neutron irradiation and high pressure annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Kaniewska, M.; Misiuk, A.; Londos, C. A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports on capacitance measurements on Czochralski-grown and float-zone silicon subjected to oxygen implantation, subsequent neutron irradiation and finally high pressure thermal anneals. The purpose of this work was the study of the effect of irradiation on the formation of thermal donors in silicon. The observed changes in the C-V characteristic curves and profiles are discussed. We found that oxygen-ion implantation followed by neutron irradiation results in shallow and deep level acceptor-like defects formation. Prolonged heat treatment leads to thermal donor generation as usual in Cz-Si annealed at 450°C. The most striking result of the study is finding that high pressure thermal anneals result in extra donor formation. The effects mentioned above may lead to changes in the type of conductivity depending on oxygen content in the material, hydrostatic pressure and an extent of damage caused by the irradiation.

  4. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.

    2014-10-01

    This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy-efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4) and they plan to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed.

  5. High magneto-optical characteristics of Holmium-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiangyong; Yin, Hang

    2016-06-01

    Magneto-optical characteristics of a new magneto-active material, (Tb(1-x)Hox)3Ga5O12 crystal, have been grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. A high value of the Verdet constant was obtained at room temperature-namely, 214.9 and 77.8  rad·m-1 T-1 for 632.8 and 1064 nm, respectively. The Verdet constant of the Ho-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal at 1064 nm is about 2 times higher than that of terbium gallium garnet crystal. High value of magneto-optical figure-of-merit makes it an attractive next-generation magneto-optics material for high-power Faraday isolators. PMID:27244419

  6. Auditory evoked potential P300 in adults: reference values

    PubMed Central

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; da Silva, Thalisson Francisco Finamôr; dos Santos, Sinéia Neujahr; Bruno, Rúbia Soares; Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins dos Santos; Cóser, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To establish reference intervals for cognitive potential P300 latency using tone burst stimuli. Methods This study involved 28 participants aged between 18 and 59 years. P300 recordings were performed using a two-channel device (Masbe, Contronic). Electrode placement was as follows: Fpz (ground electrode), Cz (active electrode), M1 and M2 (reference electrodes). Intensity corresponded to 80 dB HL and frequent and rare stimulus frequencies to 1,000Hz and 2,000Hz, respectively. Stimuli were delivered binaurally. Results Mean age of participants was 35 years. Average P300 latency was 305ms. Conclusion Maximum acceptable P300 latency values of 362.5ms (305 + 2SD 28.75) were determined for adults aged 18 to 59 years using the protocol described. PMID:27462895

  7. Contribution to the acoustic study of theater auditoriums transformable for different types of productions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belea, R.; Harastaseanu, E.

    1974-01-01

    The auditorium of the Bucharest National Theater has been equipped with devices permitting it to be transformed into three functional types of rooms for different types of productions. In view of the purpose of the room (spoken theater) and the volume of the room (3,000-3,600 cu m 3) the optimum reverberation time is 0.95 sec at a frequency of 1,000 Hz. By applying the different types of acoustic treatment, a reverberation time ranging from 0.96 to 1.06 sec was obtained. The problem of flutter echoes in the arena was solved by applying semispherical bodies to the fixed ceiling. The level of noise transmitted to the auditorium was reduced down to the Cz25 curve.

  8. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise.

  9. [Are children from resort spa healthy? The overweight and obesity in children from Kudowa-Zdrój].

    PubMed

    Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa

    2015-12-15

    Nadwaga i otyłość jest coraz częstszym problemem również wśród dzieci i młodzieży. Cel pracy. Celem pracy jest ocena rozwoju dzieci i młodzieży z Kudowy-Zdroju oraz ocena częstości występowania nadwagi i otyłości w badanej populacji w zależności od zastosowanego wskaźnika. Materiały i metody. Grupę badaną stanowiło 545 osób w wieku 5–16 lat (śr. 10,06±2,68), uczniów Szkoły Podstawowej oraz Gimnazjum w Kudowie Zdrój. Oceniono następujące parametry antropometryczne: masę i wysokość ciała, BMI, wskaźnik Queteleta, wskaźnik Rohrera, obwód talii, obwód bioder, wskaźnik talia/wysokość (WHtR). Badane parametry przedstawiono w wartościach SDS ze względu na rozpiętość wieku. Wyniki. Nadwagę lub otyłość na podstawie BMI SDS ( wartość >1,6) stwierdzono u 26,7% dzieci z klas 0–3, 22,02% dzieci z klas 4–6 oraz 22,52% gimnazjalistów. Średnie wyższe wartości BMI SDS wykazywali uczniowie klas 0–3 (śr. 0,95±2,17) w porównaniu do uczniów klas 4–6 (śr. 0,37±1,71) oraz gimnazjalistów (śr.0,65±1,61),(p=0,023). Wartości wskaźnika Rohrera SDS wskazujące na nadwagę lub otyłość stwierdzono u 22,84% dzieci, natomiast dla wskaźnika Queteleta SDS u 17,13% dzieci. Podwyższone wartości dla obwodu bioder SDS stwierdzono u 19,48% dzieci, a dla obwodu talii SDS u 17,5% dzieci. W grupie dzieci z nadwagą i otyłością u 59,4% stwierdzono podwyższone wartości obwodu talii SDS oraz u 53,4% podwyższone wartości obwodu bioder SDS. Wskaźnik WHtR był podwyższony u 8,3% dzieci, częściej u chłopców (p<0,001), odpowiednio u 3,1% dziewczynek oraz u 13,07% chłopców. Wnioski. BMI jest najczulszym wskaźnikiem określającym nadwagę i otyłość. Nadwaga i otyłość jest częstym zaburzeniem wśród dzieci z Kudowy Zdroju. Zalecana jest edukacja uczniów i ich rodzin w zakresie zdrowego stylu życia w celu zredukowania występowania nadwagi i otyłości.

  10. THE SMALL ISOLATED GAS-RICH IRREGULAR DWARF (SIGRID) GALAXY SAMPLE: DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Jerjen, Helmut; Meurer, Gerhardt R.

    2011-09-15

    Using an optically unbiased selection process based on the HIPASS neutral hydrogen survey, we have selected a sample of 83 spatially isolated, gas-rich dwarf galaxies in the southern hemisphere with cz between 350 and 1650 km s{sup -1}, and with R-band luminosities and H I masses less than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. The sample is an important population of dwarf galaxies in the local universe, all with ongoing star formation, and most of which have no existing spectroscopic data. We are measuring the chemical abundances of these galaxies, using the integral-field spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope, the Wide-Field Spectrograph. This paper describes our survey criteria and procedures, lists the survey sample, and reports on initial observations.

  11. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup −1}, which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup −1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα3 V. Coma cluster (Gavazzi+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Viscardi, E.; Fossati, M.; Savorgnan, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Gutierrez, L.; Hernandez-Toledo, H.; Boselli, A.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    Our sample is drawn from the 360-square degree region 10hcz<9000km/s, covering the Coma supercluster, including half of the Coma cluster. This region has been fully mapped by ALFALFA (Haynes et al., 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/170), which provides us with a complete sample of HI selected galaxies, with HI masses as low as 109-9.5M⊙. The goal of the Hα3 survey is to follow up with Hα imaging observations the ALFALFA targets with high signal-to-noise ratio (typically S/N>6.5), and with consistent detection between two independent polarizations (code=1 sources in Haynes et al., 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/170). We will refer to these targets as the HI or radio targets. (3 data files).

  13. Development of Low-Cost High Efficiency Commercial Ready Advanced Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Zimbardi, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    As a result of the work within this project manufacturing ready devices were developed using 4 different promising Si material technologies with final efficiencies between 20.1% and 21.2%. The starting efficiencies for the FPACE I project were based on best manufactured p-type and n-type cells at the start of the project in 2011. Target efficiencies proposed for the project were 21% for p-type CZ, 20% for p-type cast Si, 21% for n-type and 20% for epi. All Target efficiencies were met or exceeded by the end of the project in 2014. The figure below list displays the 4 highest performing structures for each material with corresponding achieved efficiencies.

  14. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  15. Optimization of the cooling profile to achieve crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H; Qiu, S; Kheng, L; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Caird, J; Zhang, H

    2007-08-20

    Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals are an important gain medium for diode-pumped laser applications. Growth of 7.0 cm diameter Yb:S-FAP crystals utilizing the Czochralski (CZ) method from SrF{sub 2}-rich melts often encounter cracks during the post growth cool down stage. To suppress cracking during cool down, a numerical simulation of the growth system was used to understand the correlation between the furnace power during cool down and the radial temperature differences within the crystal. The critical radial temperature difference, above which the crystal cracks, has been determined by benchmarking the simulation results against experimental observations. Based on this comparison, an optimal three-stage ramp-down profile was implemented and produced high quality, crack-free Yb:S-FAP crystals.

  16. Electrocatalysis: A direct alcohol fuel cell and surface science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Braunchweig, B; Neurock, Matthew; Wieckowski, A.; Hibbitts, David D

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have ena bled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis.More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation ofC1 and Cz alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the innuence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis.Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields.

  17. Cuby: An integrative framework for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Cuby is a computational chemistry framework written in the Ruby programming language. It provides unified access to a wide range of computational methods by interfacing external software and it implements various protocols that operate on their results. Using structured input files, elementary calculations can be combined into complex workflows. For users, Cuby provides a unified and userfriendly way to automate their work, seamlessly integrating calculations carried out in different computational chemistry programs. For example, the QM/MM module allows combining methods across the interfaced programs and the builtin molecular dynamics engine makes it possible to run a simulation on the resulting potential. For programmers, it provides high-level, object-oriented environment that allows rapid development and testing of new methods and computational protocols. The Cuby framework is available for download at http://cuby4.molecular.cz. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841135

  18. Low magnification EBSD mapping of texture distribution in a fine-grained matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joseph; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    The study of texture (CPO) in rocks is often restricted to individual phases within a given sample or specific area of said sample. Large scale EBSD mapping of the matrix of a greenschist facies albite mylonite has shown that an overall significant CPO within albite grains is strongly domainal, and each domain has a unique CPO that is independent of both common slip systems in plagioclase and the specimen geometry (i.e. foliation and lineation). Observational evidence suggests the metamorphic breakdown of plagioclase to albite (Ab) plus a Ca-bearing phase (clinozoisite, Cz) has produced a two phase mixture in which each phase has a contrasting solubility. New grains of albite are thought to nucleate epitaxially from original plagioclase as a reaction front passes through parent grains. A pseudomorphic region of Ab plus Cz after an original plagioclase crystal, protected from intense deformation by enclosure in a cm-scale augite clast, gives insight into pre-deformation daughter grain distributions. The albite in the region inherits a strong CPO and 180° misorientation peak from a relict twin pattern due to epitaxial growth while clinozoisite is randomly distributed and oriented (despite some grains nucleating from the plagioclase parent twin boundary). In the deformed matrix, daughter Ab is seen to be the more mobile phase, having undergone obvious dissolution, transport and reprecipitation into fractures and pressure shadows, whereas Cz grains are relatively insoluble and rotate into parallelism with the foliation, forming bands that anastamose around Cpx porphyroclasts. Despite this modification, albite in the matrix retains significant CPOs that comprise distinct domains with sharp boundaries. A 180° misorientation peak thought to be a signature of twinning inherited from parent plagioclase is also observed in each domain. Why a CPO should be preserved under these conditions (contrary to our traditional understanding that CPOs are a signature of dislocation

  19. China's moon project change: Stratagem and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Sibing

    2003-06-01

    Underlying China's decision to explore the Moon is the assumption that space powers will soon contend for strategic resources on the lunar surface and China does not want to lag behind in the new Moon race. According to the 3-stage plan, a lunar orbiter based on DFH-3 Earth communications satellite platform could be launched by CZ-3A rocket from Xichang in three years to obtain 3-D topographic maps of the Moon and investigate the global distribution of resources through remote sensing. A soft landing mission is scheduled for 2010 to start the second stage of exploration using robotic rovers to survey the lunar surface. Sample return missions will follow. It will take more than ten years to complete the 3-step plan. Human missions to the Moon are not China's near-term goals although principal lunar scientists envision an international lunar base in 2030.

  20. Modeling Island-Growth Capture Zone Distributions (CZD) with the Generalized Wigner Distribution (GWD): New Developments in Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.; González, Diego Luis; Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.

    2011-03-01

    Earlier we showed [PRL 99, 226102 (2007)] that the CZD in growth could be well described by P (s) = asβ exp (-bs2) , where s is the CZ area divided by its average value. Painstaking simulations by Amar's [PRE 79, 011602 (2009)] and Evans's [PRL 104, 149601 (2010)] groups showed inadequacies in our mean field Fokker-Planck argument relating β to the critical nucleus size. We refine our derivation to retrieve their β ~ i + 2 [PRL 104, 149602 (2010)]. We discuss applications of this formula and methodology to experiments on Ge/Si(001) and on various organics on Si O2 , as well as to kinetic Monte Carlo studies homoepitaxial growth on Cu(100) with codeposited impurities of different sorts. In contrast to theory, there can be significant changes to β with coverage. Some experiments also show temperature dependence. Supported by NSF-MRSEC at UMD, Grant DMR 05-20471.

  1. Differential evolution based on the node degree of its complex network: Initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skanderova, Lenka; Zelinka, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is reported our progress in the synthesis of two partially different areas of research: complex networks and evolutionary computation. Ideas and results reported and mentioned here are based on our previous results and experiments. The main core of our participation is an evolutionary algorithm performance improvement by means of complex network use. Complex network is related to the evolutionary dynamics and reflect it. We report here our latest results as well as propositions on further research that is in process in our group (http://navy.cs.vsb.cz/). Only the main ideas and results are reported here, for more details it is recommended to read related literature of our previous research and results.

  2. Evaluation of all dose components in the LVR-15 reactor epithermal neutron beam using Fricke gel dosimeter layers.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, G; Burian, J; Gambarini, G; Marek, M; Negri, A; Viererbl, L

    2009-07-01

    Fricke gel dosimeters in the form of layers are suitable to reconstruct bidimensional distributions of the absorbed dose; in accordance with their chemical composition and applying suitably developed algorithms, they can provide dose images of the different radiation components in a BNCT field. After the description of the applied method, this work presents the results obtained at the epithermal column of the BNCT facility at the NRI in Rez (CZ). The measured dose distributions are shown in comparison with data taken by means of other dosimeters thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and with calculations carried out with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The agreement with the results obtained by means of the different techniques is satisfying.

  3. Efficiency of TTAC's ORTEC IDM

    SciTech Connect

    Livesay, Jake; Combs, Jason C; Margrave, Timothy E; Miller, Ian J

    2012-08-01

    ORNL's Technical Testing and Analysis Center (TTAC) acquired a High Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe) from ORTEC - a variant called an Interchangeable Detection Module (IDM). This detector has excellent energy resolution as well as high intrinsic efficiency. The purpose of this report is to detail the determination of the efficiency curve of the IDM, so future measurements can quantify the (otherwise unknown) activity of sources. Without such a curve, the activity cannot be directly reported by use of the IDM alone - a separate device such as an ion chamber would be required. This builds upon the capability of TTAC. The method for determining the energy-dependent intrinsic efficiency is laid-out in this report. It's noteworthy that this basic technique can be applied to any spectroscopic radiation detector, independent of the specific type (e.g. NaI, CzT, ClYC).

  4. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise. PMID:17435598

  5. Light emission from rare-earths in dislocation engineered silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço, Manon A.; Ludurczak, Willy; Prins, Andrew D.; Milosavljević, Momir; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Homewood, Kevin P.

    2015-07-01

    We report and compare the luminescence, both photo- and electroluminescence, in the near-infrared of a wide range of rare earths (Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) doped dislocation engineered silicon light emitting devices. The rare earths are introduced using ion implantation into standard Czochralski (CZ) n-type silicon wafers pre-implanted with boron to form both the p-n junction and an engineered dislocation loop array. Rare earth internal transitions are observed in samples co-doped with Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm. We show that for each rare earth optimizing the optical activity depends critically on the rare earth implant parameters and post-implant process conditions. Room temperature operation in the 1.5 and 2.0 µm spectral regions is observed from the internal rare earth transitions in Er and Tm.

  6. Temperature dependences of the photoluminescence intensities of centers in silicon implanted with erbium and oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Shtel’makh, K. F.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.

    2015-12-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence in n-Cz-Si after the implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature and subsequent implantation of oxygen ions at room temperature is studied. So-called X and W centers formed from self-interstitial silicon atoms, H and P centers containing oxygen atoms, and Er centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The energies of enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence for these centers are determined. These energies are determined for the first time for X and H centers. In the case of P and Er centers, the values of the energies practically coincide with previously published data. For W centers, the energies of the enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence depend on the conditions of the formation of these centers.

  7. A DLTS study of hydrogen doped czochralski-grown silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, M.; Laven, J. G.; Kirnstoetter, S.; Schustereder, W.; Schulze, H.-J.; Rommel, M.; Frey, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we examine proton implanted and subsequently annealed commercially available CZ wafers with the DLTS method. Depth-resolved spreading resistance measurements are shown, indicating an additional peak in the induced doping profile, not seen in the impurity-lean FZ reference samples. The additional peak lies about 10-15 μm deeper than the main peak near the projected range of the protons. A DLTS characterization in the depth of the additional peak indicates that it is most likely not caused by classical hydrogen-related donors known also from FZ silicon but by an additional donor complex whose formation is assisted by the presence of silicon self-interstitials.

  8. Distinguishing shyness and sociability in adults: An event-related electrocortical-neuroendocrine study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alva; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schulkin, Jay; Schmidt, Louis A

    2016-09-01

    Shyness and sociability are orthogonal personality dimensions, but little is known about how the two traits are instantiated in the brain and body. Using a 3-stimulus auditory oddball task, we examined whether shyness and sociability were distinguishable on P300 event-related potentials (ERPs) in processing task-relevant, novel, and standard auditory tones in 48 young adults. ERP amplitudes were measured at four midline scalp sites (Fz, FCz, Cz, Pz). We found that shyness, but not sociability, was related to reduced frontal novelty P300 amplitudes and to high emotionality. We also found that low baseline salivary cortisol levels mediated the relation between: (a) high shyness and reduced frontal P300 amplitudes to novel tones, and (b) high shyness and high scores of emotionality. We speculate that low baseline cortisol may serve as a putative mechanism influencing central attentional states of avoidance to threat and novelty and emotional arousal in adults who are shy.

  9. Cost comparison of wastewater treatment in Danubian countries.

    PubMed

    Zessner, Matthias; Lampert, Christoph; Kroiss, H; Lindtner, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the costs of wastewater treatment (including sludge management) within the Danube catchment countries A, CZ, SK, HU, SL, RO, BG and UA. TK is considered as well. Additionally, the paper compares the total costs of wastewater management (including sewage) with the incomes in the different countries. The annual costs of wastewater treatment in Austria are about 30 euro/p.e. y for large plants with nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In low income countries of the Danube and Black Sea catchment areas they are at a maximum 30% lower than in Austria. However, the incomes in countries like Bulgaria, Romania or Ukraine are 85% to 90% lower. The total annual costs for wastewater management (sewer development plus treatment) amount at least to 90 euro/p.e. y. Considering the level of income in those countries, financing of wastewater management completely by charges of the population equivalents connected is not feasible. Therefore other approaches for financing wastewater treatment are required.

  10. Cuby: An integrative framework for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Cuby is a computational chemistry framework written in the Ruby programming language. It provides unified access to a wide range of computational methods by interfacing external software and it implements various protocols that operate on their results. Using structured input files, elementary calculations can be combined into complex workflows. For users, Cuby provides a unified and userfriendly way to automate their work, seamlessly integrating calculations carried out in different computational chemistry programs. For example, the QM/MM module allows combining methods across the interfaced programs and the builtin molecular dynamics engine makes it possible to run a simulation on the resulting potential. For programmers, it provides high-level, object-oriented environment that allows rapid development and testing of new methods and computational protocols. The Cuby framework is available for download at http://cuby4.molecular.cz. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Electrical Activity of Defects Induced by Oxygen Precipitation in Czochralski-Grown Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlidze, Teimouraz; Matsumoto, Kei; Asano, Eiichi

    1999-06-01

    Majority and minority carrier traps introduced in p-type Czochralski-grown silicon (CZ-Si) wafers during two-step low-high temperature annealing procedures were investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). It was determined that the platelike silicon oxide precipitate surface and the punch-out dislocations introduce majority carrier traps having deep energy levels (EV+0.43 eV and EV+0.26 eV, repectively) in the Si band gap in concentrations proportional to the relevant defect density. The minority carrier traps are positioned at EC-0.42 eV and EC-0.22 eV. The majority carrier trap density on the surface of the platelikeprecipitate was estimated as ˜3×109 cm-2 and thelinear trap density for the punch-out dislocations as ˜ 4×104 cm-1.

  12. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hai-Qing; Zhou, Chun-Lan; Cao, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hai-Ling; Diao, Hong-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Al2O3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 1012 cm-2 is detected in the Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiNx:H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al2O3.

  13. Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy due to a novel EGR2 gene mutation with mild phenotype--usefulness of human mapping chip linkage analysis in a Czech family.

    PubMed

    Safka Brožková, Dana; Nevšímalová, Soňa; Mazanec, Radim; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Seeman, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies (CMT) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Selection of candidate disease genes for mutation analysis is sometimes difficult since more than 40 genes and loci are known to be associated with CMT neuropathies. Hence a Czech family Cz-CMT with demyelinating type of autosomal dominant CMT disease was investigated by genome-wide linkage analysis by means of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Among 35 regions with linkage, five carried known CMT genes. In the final result a novel early growth response 2 - missense mutation c.1235 A>G, p.Glu412Gly was found. Surprisingly, the more severely affected proband carried an additional heterozygous myelin protein zero variant p.Asp246Asn detected previously, which may modify the phenotype. However, this MPZ variant is benign in heterozygous state alone, because it is also carried by the patient's healthy father. PMID:22546699

  14. The reactor ALLEGRO and the sustainable nuclear energy in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadó, János

    2014-09-01

    The Visegrád-4 countries (CZ, HU, PL and SK) would like to use nuclear energy on the long run. The construction of new Generation 3+ nuclear units probably belong in each country to this realm. These reactors will provide safe and cheap electric energy approximately until the end of the 21st century. In order to use nuclear energy in the 22nd century, sustainability of fuel supply shall be achieved by applying Generation 4 breeder reactors with fast spectrum. The corresponding research and development is organized now in the framework of the V4G4 Centre of Excellence establshed by the nuclear research institutes of the region with a strong technical support from the French CEA. The most important milestone of these efforts is the start-up of the ALLEGRO reactor that shall demonstrate the viability of the gas cooled fast reactor technology.

  15. Normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdong; Liu, Tieyan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Jingyi; Chen, Yuefeng; Sun, Pengyu; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this research, the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males has been studied. Methods: The sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted non-fat suppressed fast spin-echo images of pelvic cavities of 86 Chinese young males were studied. Result: Urethral sphincter complex threaded through the prostate and divided it into 2 parts: transition zone (TZ), periurethral glands internal to the urethral sphincter and peripheral zone (PZ), central zone (CZ), anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFS) zone external to the urethral sphincter. The length of urethral striated sphincter is 12.26-20.94 mm (mean 16.59 mm) at membranous urethra. Conclusions: In this paper, we summarized the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males with no urinary control problems. PMID:26629244

  16. Heralded quantum gates with integrated error detection in optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Borregaard, J; Kómár, P; Kessler, E M; Sørensen, A S; Lukin, M D

    2015-03-20

    We propose and analyze heralded quantum gates between qubits in optical cavities. They employ an auxiliary qubit to report if a successful gate occurred. In this manner, the errors, which would have corrupted a deterministic gate, are converted into a nonunity probability of success: once successful, the gate has a much higher fidelity than a similar deterministic gate. Specifically, we describe that a heralded, near-deterministic controlled phase gate (CZ gate) with the conditional error arbitrarily close to zero and the success probability that approaches unity as the cooperativity of the system, C, becomes large. Furthermore, we describe an extension to near-deterministic N-qubit Toffoli gate with a favorable error scaling. These gates can be directly employed in quantum repeater networks to facilitate near-ideal entanglement swapping, thus greatly speeding up the entanglement distribution.

  17. Evaluation of a microchannel-plate PMT as a potential timing detector suitable for positron lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosev, K.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Cowan, T.; Hartmann, A.; Heidel, K.; Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of a microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) as a candidate detector, suitable for positron lifetime studies. Several properties of MCP-PMTs, such as their fast time response, compact size, low susceptibility to magnetic fields, relatively high gain and the low power consumption make them attractive for positron lifetime spectroscopy. The preliminary tests were performed with a 85001-501 Burle Planacon TM photomultiplier tube assembly. Initial measurements were conducted with a pulsed Picosecond Injection Laser (PiLas) system. The engineering sample of the 85001 exhibits a transit-time-spread (TTS) of 110 ps (FWHM). Further timing experiments showing the suitability of the device as Cherenkov detector are presented. For the first time, a conventional positron lifetime spectrum of a Cz-Si probe measured with a spectrometer, where an MCP-PMT detector is included, has been demonstrated.

  18. Self-focusing of electromagnetic pulsed beams in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Faisal, Mohammad; Verma, M. P.; Sodha, Mahendra Singh

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, the self-focusing of an electromagnetic pulsed beam in a collisional plasma has been investigated in the paraxial approximation, following the formalism developed by Akhmanov. The energy balance equation for electrons, the equation expressing the equality of pressure gradient (of electrons and ions) to the force due to space charge field, and the equation for the beam width parameter f (obtained by following Akhmanov's approach) have been simultaneously solved for given initial (z=0) time profile of the pulse to obtain f as a function of {xi} (cz/{omega}r{sub 0}{sup 2}) and t{sup '}=t-z/V{sub g}, where V{sub g} is the group velocity. Both Gaussian and sine time profiles of the pulse have been investigated.

  19. Crystal Field Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Ng, Betty

    2007-09-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction; 1. Crystal field splitting mechanisms D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 2. Empirical crystal fields D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 3. Fitting crystal field parameters D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 4. Lanthanide and actinide optical spectra G. K. Liu; 5. Superposition model D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 6. Effects of electron correlation on crystal field splitting M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; 7. Ground state splittings in S-state ions D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 8. Invariants and moments Y. Y. Yeung; 9. Semiclassical model K. S. Chan; 10. Transition intensities M. F. Reid; Appendix 1. Point symmetry D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 2. QBASIC programs D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 3. Accessible program packages Y. Y. Yeung, M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; Appendix 4. Computer package CST Cz. Rudowicz; Bibliography; Index.

  20. Reducing PEC uncertainty in coastal zones: a case study on carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fenet, Hélène; Arpin-Pont, Lauren; Vanhoutte-Brunier, Alice; Munaron, Dominique; Fiandrino, Annie; Martínez Bueno, Maria-Jesus; Boillot, Clotilde; Casellas, Claude; Mathieu, Olivier; Gomez, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine (Cbz), oxcarbazepine (OxCz) and their main metabolites were predicted in a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and in the vicinity of its submarine outfall located in a Mediterranean coastal zone. Refined predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated in effluents based on consumption data and human excretion rates. PECs were estimated in the sea using the hydrodynamic MARS 3D model integrating meteorological data, oceanic conditions (wind, tide, atmospheric pressure), freshwater and sewage inputs. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) were compared to PECs to assess the estimation relevance. In the coastal zone, PEC and MEC were in the same magnitude range. Modeling of Cbz diffusion and advection just above the submarine outfall showed the influence of the thermocline during summer, with low diffusion of Cbz from the bottom to the surface. This work allowed understanding the dispersion of target compounds and deserved further development for a better acknowledgement of vulnerability at local scales. PMID:24742703