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Sample records for sekwencji wieloimpulsowych cz

  1. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  2. CZ: Multimethods and Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Then, we would use the Scala solution for ensuring that C ’ s constructor is called only once. 15 To solve the multiple dispatch problem, if methods m(B...CZ:Multimethods andMultiple Inheritance Without Diamonds 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,School of Computer

  3. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, T.

    1995-09-01

    This describes work done in the final phase of a 3-y, 3-phase contract to demonstrate cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects in the SSI (Siemens Solar Industries) Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, CA; the final phase was concentrated in areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this period: (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with increased growth capacity; (2) Wafer processing with wire saws continued to progress; the wire saws yielded almost 50 percent more wafers per inch in production. The wire saws needs less etching, too; (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better handling and higher mechanical yield. The cell electrical distribution improved with a smaller standard deviation in the distribution; and (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs continued, with focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing techniques. Two modules demonstrating these cost reductions were delivered during this phase.

  4. Degradation of bulk diffusion length in CZ silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, J.H.; King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    Commercially-produced, unencapsulated, CZ silicon solar cells can lose 3 to 4% of their initial efficiency after exposure to light. After this initial, rapid ( < 30 min.) decrease, the cell power output remains stable. The cell performance recovers in a matter of hours in the dark at room temperature, and degrades again under light exposure. The different conditions under which CZ silicon cells degrade, and the reverse process, annealing, are characterized with the methods of spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Iron impurities are a possible cause of this effect.

  5. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  6. First Measurement of Beam-Recoil Observables Cx and Cz

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bradford; R.A. Schumacher; G. Adams; M.J. Amaryan; P. Ambrozewicz; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J.P. Ball; N.A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B.L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A.S. Biselli; B.E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W.J. Briscoe; W.K. Brooks; S. B¨ultmann; V.D. Burkert; C. Butuceanu; J.R. Calarco; S.L. Careccia; D.S. Carman; B. Carnahan; S. Chen; P.L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; † P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; V. Crede; J.P. Cummings; R. De Masi; E. De Sanctis; R. De Vita; P.V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K.V. Dharmawardane; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G.E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O.P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K.S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R.J. Feuerbach; T.A. Forest; H. Funsten; M. Garcon; G. Gavalian; G.P. Gilfoyle; K.L. Giovanetti; F.X. Girod; J.T. Goetz; A. Gonenc; R.W. Gothe; K.A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; R.S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F.W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C.E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D.G. Ireland; B.S. Ishkhanov; E.L. Isupov; M.M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H.S. Jo; K. Joo; H.G. Juengst; N. Kalantarians; J.D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; K.Y. Kim; K. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F.J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L.H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S.E. Kuhn; S.V. Kuleshov; J. Lachniet; J.M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A.C.S. Lima; K. Livingston; H.Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; J.J. Manak; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J.W.C. McNabb; B.A. Mecking; M.D. Mestayer; C.A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; K. Moriya; S.A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G.S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; N. Natasha; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B.B. Niczyporuk; M.R. Niroula; R.A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G.V. O’Rielly; M. Osipenko; A.I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S.A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B.M. Preedom; J.W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L.M. Qin; B.P. Quinn; B.A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B.G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P.D. Rubin; F. Sabatie; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; J.P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; V.S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y.G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; N.V. Shvedunov; S. Simionatto; A.V. Skabelin; E.S. Smith; L.C. Smith; D.I. Sober; D. Sokhan; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S.S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; P. Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D.J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; L. Todor; C. Tur; M. Ungaro; M.F. Vineyard; A.V. Vlassov; K. Wang; D.P. Watts; L.B. Weinstein; H. Weller; D.P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; and Z.W. Zhao

    2007-03-01

    Spin transfer from circularly polarized real photons to recoiling hyperons has been measured for the reactions $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Lambda$ and $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Sigma^0$. The data were obtained using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies $W$ between 1.6 and 2.53 GeV, and for $-0.85<\\cos\\theta_{K^+}^{c.m.}< +0.95$. For the $\\Lambda$, the polarization transfer coefficient along the photon momentum axis, $C_z$, was found to be near unity for a wide range of energy and kaon production angles. The associated transverse polarization coefficient, $C_x$, is smaller than $C_z$ by a roughly constant difference of unity. Most significantly, the {\\it total} $\\Lambda$ polarization vector, including the induced polarization $P$, has magnitude consistent with unity at all measured energies and production angles when the beam is fully polarized. For the $\\Sigma^0$ this simple phenomenology does not hold. All existing hadrodynamic models are in poor agreement with these results.

  7. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  8. THE OLD ENVIRONMENT OF THE FAINT CALCIUM-RICH SUPERNOVA SN 2005cz

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Gal-yam, Avishay; Crockett, R. Mark; Sullivan, Mark; Anderson, Joseph P.; James, Phil A.; Neill, James D.; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2011-02-20

    The supernova SN 2005cz has recently attracted some attention due to the fact that it was spectroscopically similar to type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib), a class that is presumed to result from the core collapse of massive stars, yet it occurred in an elliptical galaxy, where one expects very few massive stars to exist. Two explanations for this remarkable event were put forward. Perets et al. associate SN 2005cz with the class of Ca-rich, faint SNe Ib, which likely result from old double-white-dwarf systems with an He-rich secondary. On the other hand, Kawabata et al. suggest that SN 2005cz is indeed a core-collapse event (in a binary system), albeit of a star at the lower end of the mass range, 10-12 M{sub sun}. The existence of this star in its elliptical host is explained as resulting from low-level star formation (SF) activity in that galaxy. Here we present extensive observations of the location of SN 2005cz, sensitive to a variety of SF tracers, including optical spectroscopy, H{alpha} emission, UV emission, and Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We show that NGC 4589, the host galaxy of SN 2005cz, does not show any signatures of a young stellar population or recent SF activity either close to or far from the location of SN 2005cz.

  9. Selection and preparation of hand and foot movements: Cz activity as a marker of limb system preparation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Event-related potentials were used to examine the preparation of hand and foot responses in tasks using both limb systems. As in tasks using only one system, opposite lateralized readiness potentials were observed for hand and foot responses (Experiment 1). Furthermore, movement-related activity at Cz was more positive prior to hand than foot responses, revealing that Cz activity can be used to index selective movement preparation by one limb system. In Experiment 2, two responses were cued prior to stimulus onset. Cue-related activity at Cz was more positive with hand than foot cuing, reinforcing the conclusion that Cz activity is sensitive to selective preparation for one of these limb systems. Overall, the results show that it is possible to carry out motor preparation of two responses within the same limb system and that differential Cz activity is a useful index of this preparation in tasks with hand versus foot movements.

  10. Cz-Silicon Produced from Solar-Grade and Recycled Materials. Part II: Investigating Performances of Solar Cell Produced from Solar-Grade Cz-Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes; Di Sabtino, Marisa; Juel, Mari; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This paper is the second of two, investigating the properties of P-type Cz-silicon materials and solar cells produced with recycled silicon and Elkem Solar Silicon (ESS) materials. While the focus on the first work was on the bulk properties and grown defects of the material, the current study focuses on the solar cell performances. In the processing of the solar cells, the phosphorous diffusion process was optimized to improve the bulk properties and thus to maximize the final solar cell characteristics. Results from the characterization of material defects suggest that the performances of the experimental ingots are limited by the activated grown-in defects, which should be strictly controlled during crystal growth and solar cell processing. The solar cells produced from the investigated ingots showed efficiency values up to 18.5 pct and fill factor values up to 79 pct, comparable to conventional silicon produced from poly silicon. Solar cells produced from mixed recycled and ESS material exhibit a better performance than 100 pct recycled material. Boron and oxygen concentration levels and net doping level showed a concurrent effect on light-induced degradation (LID). Appropriate compensation was finally demonstrated to be an efficient way to improve solar cells efficiency of Cz-silicon produced from recycled silicon, even though higher dopant concentration incurred relatively faster LID.

  11. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  12. Advanced chemical model for analysis of Cz and DS Si-crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorob'ev, A. N.; Sid'ko, A. P.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    In growing bulk crystals from the melt, impurities contained in silicon feedstock, generated due to the melt-to-crucible contact and transported by the gas flow from graphite elements strongly affect the efficiency of mono and multicrystalline silicon solar cells. The present paper is aimed at developing an advanced coupled chemical model accounting for such phenomena as oxygen and nitrogen solution at crucible wall, oxygen and carbon transport through the melt free surface, formation of Si3N4-, Si2N2O- and SiC-particles in the melt, mass transport of SiO-, CO- and Si-species in argon carrier gas and, finally, formation of parasitic deposits on the furnace units. The model is verified by simulation of DS and Cz Si-crystal growth. It is shown that the computational results agree well with available experimental data, and the model can be used for optimization of Cz and DS processes.

  13. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the Cz increases joint flexibility.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takamasa; Aramaki, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Joint flexibility depends on both mechanical and neural factors. However, the contribution of neural factors is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that the sensorimotor cortex is involved in joint flexibility, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Cz modifies ankle and wrist flexibility in healthy human participants. In eight male participants, range of motion of the left ankle and wrist were measured during a passive-dorsiflexion test. We also assessed passive torque, which represents involuntary resistance to dorsiflexion at the ankle. Participants performed passive-dorsiflexion tests before and after anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the Cz. The current was applied for 10min with an intensity of 2.0mA during anodal and cathodal tDCS. Cathodal tDCS resulted in a 10.5% increase in range of motion of the ankle, but no significant increase in range of motion of the wrist. Neither anodal nor sham tDCS had a significant effect. Cathodal tDCS over the Cz may have affected neural factors, such as perception of joint angle or pain, because the passive torque at 0°, 5°, 10°, and 15°, which indicates mechanical effects, did not change. These results suggest that the sensorimotor cortex is involved in joint flexibility.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of oxygen complexes in Cz and FZ silicon crystals implanted with carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Boris; Melnik, Victor; Popov, Valentin; Babich, Vilik; Kladko, Vasyl; Gudymenko, Olexandr; Ilchenko, Volodimir; Vasyliev, Iegor; Goriachko, Andrii

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative study of thermal donor (TD) center formation mechanisms as a result of carbon ion implantation into float zone (FZ-Si) and Czochralski (Cz-Si) silicon crystals. The kinetics of the TD center formation and transformation of their structure during annealing have been investigated. Also, the TD center formation takes place after additional oxygen implantation into FZ/Cz-Si, and an important role of recoil oxygen atoms (from the screen oxide) has been demonstrated for the FZ-Si case. Their concentration in the Si surface layer depends on the implantation dose and the screen oxide thickness, reaching up to values 1018 to 1019 cm-3, which is comparable with the oxygen concentration in Cz-Si. These oxygen atoms can lead to additional thermal donor centers generation, especially in the FZ-Si.

  15. Back surface cell structures for reducing recombination in CZ silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. R.; Mitchell, K. W.; Gee, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    Mass-produced terrestrial CZ silicon solar cells are currently entering the domain in which bulk diffusion length is comparable to the cell thickness, so that recombination at the back surface can have a significant effect on device performance. Three manufacturable processes that address the problem of back recombination are examined here: boron diffusion from a deposited doped SiO2, layer; Al-alloyed layers using screen-printed paste; and use of a collecting n* layer on the back interdigitated with the positive electrode. 104 sq cm cells fabricated at Siemens Solar Industries using these back surface structures are characterized by current-voltage, spectral response, photoconductivity decay, and SIMS measurements.

  16. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  17. The community-driven BiG CZ software system for integration and analysis of bio- and geoscience data in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Richard, S. M.; Cheetham, R.; Meyer, F.; Henry, C.; Berg-Cross, G.; Packman, A. I.; Aronson, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the prototypes of a new scientific software system designed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, https://github.com/UCHIC/ODM2) to substantially enhance integration of biological and Geological (BiG) data for Critical Zone (CZ) science. The CZ science community takes as its charge the effort to integrate theory, models and data from the multitude of disciplines collectively studying processes on the Earth's surface. The central scientific challenge of the CZ science community is to develop a "grand unifying theory" of the critical zone through a theory-model-data fusion approach, for which the key missing need is a cyberinfrastructure for seamless 4D visual exploration of the integrated knowledge (data, model outputs and interpolations) from all the bio and geoscience disciplines relevant to critical zone structure and function, similar to today's ability to easily explore historical satellite imagery and photographs of the earth's surface using Google Earth. This project takes the first "BiG" steps toward answering that need. The overall goal of this project is to co-develop with the CZ science and broader community, including natural resource managers and stakeholders, a web-based integration and visualization environment for joint analysis of cross-scale bio and geoscience processes in the critical zone (BiG CZ), spanning experimental and observational designs. We will: (1) Engage the CZ and broader community to co-develop and deploy the BiG CZ software stack; (2) Develop the BiG CZ Portal web application for intuitive, high-performance map-based discovery, visualization, access and publication of data by scientists, resource managers, educators and the general public; (3) Develop the BiG CZ Toolbox to enable cyber-savvy CZ scientists to access BiG CZ Application Programming Interfaces (APIs); and (4) Develop the BiG CZ Central software stack to bridge data systems developed for multiple critical zone domains into a single

  18. Correlation between the sensitivity of tumors to treatment with CZ48 and local concentrations of the active metabolite CPT within the tumors

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XING; CAO, ZHISONG; MENDOZA, JOHN; VARDEMAN, DANA; GIOVANELLA, BEPPINO

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline camptothecin-20-O-propionate hydrate (CZ48) is an esterification product from the reaction of natural camptothecin with propionic anhydride. CZ48 has been tested against 29 human tumor lines grown in nude mice as xenografts. Of the tested tumor lines, 28 were found to be responsive to CZ48, by regression or significant inhibition. The total response rate was 97%. However, the effective dose required to achieve the positive response varied from 100 to 2000 mg/kg/day depending on the tumor type. Thus, the sensitivity of tumors to CZ48 treatment varied from tumor to tumor. The most sensitive CLO-breast carcinoma achieved regression when treated with 100 mg/kg/day, while PC3-prostate carcinoma required as high as 1000 mg/kg/day to achieve a definitive response. To determine the reason for these differences in sensitivities among the tumors, we treated 9 human xenografts grown in nude mice with 1000 mg/kg/day CZ48 until saturation and measured the local concentrations of the parental CZ48 as well as the corresponding metabolite camptothecin (CPT) in the tumors with the established high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. Results showed that the sensitivities of these tumors to CZ48 treatment were not affected by local concentrations of the active metabolite CPT in the tumors, but instead by the types of tumors. PMID:24648919

  19. Charge distribution and chemical bonding in B-O complexes in Cz-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuliang; Caliste, Damien; Pochet, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Density functional calculations based on wavelet basis set are performed to investigate charge distribution and chemical bonding in possible BiOi (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen), BsO2i (substitutional boron and interstitial oxygen dimer), and BiO2i (interstitial boron and interstitial oxygen dimer) complexes in Cz-Si solar cells. It is confirmed that the BsO2ist complex composed by Bs and staggered oxygen dimer (O2ist) at second nearest site to boron has the lowest formation energy, resulting in better agreement with experiment. This is resulted by Coulomb attraction between Si-Oi and Si-Bs and consequently a decreased Coulomb repulsion between Bs-Oi in BsO2ist complex. A more physical description of the localized nature on bonding has been analyzed by maximally localized Wannier functions. It is found through the predicted Wannier centers that a doubly negative charge state of interstitial oxygen exists, which is consistent with our Bader charge analysis.

  20. Isolation and identification of methanethiol-utilizing bacterium CZ05 and its application in bio-trickling filter of biogas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-zheng; Zhang, Wei-jiang; Xu, Jiao

    2013-12-01

    A bacterium capable of methanethiol (MT) degradation was enriched and isolated by employing activated sewage sludge as the inoculum in a mineral medium containing MT. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa CZ05 through a Biolog test and 16S rDNA sequencing. This strain can utilize both organic and inorganic media and thrives at pH 4 to 9. The batch culture showed that the strain can degrade MT better in the No. 4 medium than in the No. 1 medium. A series-operating biotrickling filter with lava stone as the carrier was employed to test the application of P. polymyxa CZ05 in the removal of MT in simulated biogas. Long-term experiments showed that a high concentration of MT (60 ppm) was efficiently removed (99.5%) by the biotrickling filters at EBRT 30 s. The addition of hydrogen sulfide decreased the MT removal rate because the dissolved oxygen competed with MT.

  1. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  2. Saturation development in the bentonite barrier of the Mock-Up-CZ geotechnical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacovský, J.; Svoboda, J.; Zapletal, L.

    This paper reports on both the methodology and the results of the measurement of saturation development during the operation of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment. This experiment simulates the engineered barrier system hydration process of the Swedish KBS-3V vertical disposal system. The Mock-Up-CZ model consists of a barrier of bentonite blocks and a heater which simulates the radioactive waste. The potential inflow of granitic water from the natural barrier is simulated by employing a flooding system installed on the inner side of the experimental tank. The whole experiment is enclosed in a cylindrical pressure tank the construction of which allowed for the high pressure caused by the considerable swelling of the bentonite. Six measurement profiles along the vertical profile of the tank allow the continuous measurement of the various on-going processes. A number of sensors were placed inside the bentonite barrier (40 thermometers, 50 hydraulic pressure cells and 37 humidity sensors). The experiment commenced on 7th May 2002. In the first phase, the bentonite barrier was loaded only with the heat created by the heater for a period of six months. During the second phase, which commenced on 4th November 2002, in addition to the continuing thermal activity, the barrier was saturated with synthetic granitic water. This phase will most likely be concluded at the end of 2005. It has been found that of all the geotechnical measurements currently being performed, the measurement of changes in water content is the most challenging. The results obtained from employing any of the usually accepted methods for the measurement of indirect water content are often somewhat unreliable. Despite the problematic nature of these methods, 37 humidity sensors were installed in the barrier. Moreover, the construction of the experimental tank provided for sampling locations with access points allowing core sampling by means of drilling. These samples allow the determination of the water content

  3. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults.

  4. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  5. Utilization of Tabula Rasa to Stabilize Bulk Lifetimes in n-Cz Silicon for High-Performance Solar Cell Processing

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Jensen, Mallory Ann; Youssef, Amanda; Nemeth, William; Page, Matthew; Buonassisi, Tonio; Stradins, Paul

    2016-11-21

    We investigate a high temperature, high cooling-rate anneal Tabula Rasa (TR) and report its implications on n-type Czochralski-grown silicon (n-Cz Si) for photovoltaic fabrication. Tabula Rasa aims at dissolving and homogenizing oxygen precipitate nuclei that can grow during the cell process steps and degrade the cell performance due to their high internal gettering and recombination activity. The Tabula Rasa thermal treatment is performed in a clean tube furnace with cooling rates >100 degrees C/s. We characterize the bulk lifetime by Sinton lifetime and photoluminescence mapping just after Tabula Rasa, and after the subsequent cell processing. After TR, the bulk lifetime surprisingly degrades to <; 0.1ms, only to recover to values equal or higher than the initial non-treated wafer (several ms), after typical high temperature cell process steps. Those include boron diffusion and oxidation; phosphorus diffusion/oxidation; ambient annealing at 850 degrees C; and crystallization annealing of tunneling-passivating contacts (doped polycrystalline silicon on 1.5 nm thermal oxide). The drastic lifetime improvement during high temperature cell processing is attributed to improved external gettering of metal impurities and annealing of intrinsic point defects. Time and injection dependent lifetime spectroscopy further reveals the mechanisms of lifetime improvement after Tabula Rasa treatment. Additionally, we report the efficacy of Tabula Rasa on n-type Cz-Si wafers and its dependence on oxygen concentration, correlated to position within the ingot.

  6. Phylogenetic Identification, Phenotypic Variations, and Symbiotic Characteristics of the Peculiar Rhizobium, Strain CzR2, Isolated from Crotalaria zanzibarica in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Tai; Liu, Chi-Te; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Kao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Crotalaria zanzibarica is an exotic and widely distributed leguminous plant in Taiwan. The relationship between C. zanzibarica and its rhizobial symbionts has been suggested to contribute to its successful invasion. A rhizobial strain (designed as CzR2) isolated from the root nodules of C. zanzibarica and cultivated in standard YEM medium displayed pleomorphism, with cells ranging between 2 and 10 μm in length and some branching. In the present study, we identified this rhizobial strain, investigated the causes of pleomorphism, and examined the nodules formed. The results of a multilocus sequence analysis of the atpD, dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA, and rpoB genes revealed that CzR2 belongs to Bradyrhizobium arachidis, a peanut symbiont recently isolated from China. Cells of the strain were uniformly rod-shaped in basal HM medium, but displayed pleomorphism in the presence of yeast extract, mannitol, or fructose. These results indicate that the morphology of CzR2 in its free-living state is affected by nutrient conditions. Several highly pleomorphic bacteroids enclosed in symbiosomes were frequently detected in FM and TEM observations of sections of the indeterminate nodules induced by CzR2; however, no infection thread was identified. Flow cytometric analyses showed that CzR2 cells in YEM medium and in the nodules of C. zanzibarica had two or more than two peaks in relative DNA contents, respectively, suggesting that the elongated cells of CzR2 in its free-living state occur due to a cell cycle-delayed process, while those in its symbiotic state are from genomic endo-reduplication. PMID:27682803

  7. Photovoltaic Small Molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-Cz)3: Tuning Open-Circuit Voltage over 1.0 V for Their Organic Solar Cells by Increasing Fluorine Substitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Duan, Linrui; Tao, Qiang; Peng, Wenhong; Chen, Jianhua; Tan, Hua; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo

    2016-11-09

    To simultaneously improve both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) for organic solar cells, a novel D(A-π-Ar)3 type of photovoltaic small molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 was designed and synthesized, which contain central triphenylamine (TPA), terminal carbazole (Cz), armed fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (FxBT, where x = 1 or 2), and bridged thiophene (T) units. A narrowed ultraviolet-visible absorption and a decreasing highest occupied molecular orbital energy level were observed from TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3 to TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3 with increasing fluorine substitution. However, the TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based solar devices showed a rising Voc of 1.01 V and an enhanced Jsc of 10.84 mA cm(-2) as well as a comparable power conversion efficiency of 4.81% in comparison to the TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based devices. Furthermore, in comparison to the parent TPA(BT-T-3Cz)3 molecule without fluorine substitution, the fluorine-substituted TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 molecules exhibited significantly incremental Voc and Jsc values in their bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, owing to fluorine incorporation in the electron-deficient benzothiadiazole unit.

  8. Investigations into B-O defect formation-dissociation in CZ-silicon and their effect on solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnyat, Prakash M.

    About 30% of the total market share of industrial manufacture of silicon solar cells is taken by single crystalline Czochralski (CZ) grown wafers. The efficiency of solar cells fabricated on boron-doped Czochralski silicon degrades due to the formation of metastable defects when excess electrons are created by illumination or minority carrier injection during forward bias. The recombination path can be removed by annealing the cell at about 200° C but recombination returns on exposure to light. Several mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline solar cells have been characterized by methods such as laser beam induced current (LBIC), Four-Probe electrical resistivity etc. to better understand the light induced degradation (LID) effect in silicon solar cells. All the measurements are performed as a function of light soaking time. Annealed states are produced by exposing the cells/wafer to temperature above 200° C for 30 minutes and light soaked state was produced by exposure to 1000 W/m2 light using AM1.5 solar simulator for 72 hours. Dark I-V data are analyzed by a software developed at NREL. This study shows that LID, typically, has two components- a bulk component that arises from boron-oxygen defects and a surface component that appears to be due to the SiNx:H-Si interface. With the analysis of dark saturation current (J02), it is seen that the surface LID increases with an increase in the q/2kT component. Results show that cell performance due to bulk effect is fully recovered upon annealing where as surface LID does not recover fully. This statement is also verified by the study of mc- silicon solar cells. Multi-crystalline silicon solar cell has very low oxygen content and, therefore, recombination sites will not be able to form. This shows that there is no bulk degradation in mc- Si solar cells but they exhibit surface degradation. The results suggest that a typical Cz-silicon solar cell with an initial efficiency of ˜18% could suffer a reduction in efficiency

  9. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements on Cz-grown silicon pulled from compensated and recycled feedstock materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Modanese, Chiara; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-11-01

    In this work, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 88-350 K were carried out to investigate the electrical properties of three solar grade p-type Czochralski (Cz) silicon ingots, pulled from recycled p-type multi-crystalline silicon top cuts and compensated solar grade (SoG) feedstock. Material bulk properties including Hall mobility, carrier density and resistivity as functions of temperature were studied to evaluate the influence of compensation and impurities. Recycled top cut replacing poly-silicon as feedstock leads to a more uniform resistivity. In addition, higher concentrations of O and C, give rise to oxygen related defects, which act as neutral scattering centers displaying only a slight influence on the electrical properties at low temperature compared to the dominant compensation effect. The electrical performances of all samples are shown to be strongly dependent on compensation level, especially at the lowest temperature (~88 K). A significant presence of incompletely ionized phosphorus was deduced through the measured carrier density. The temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements fit Klaassen's mobility model very well at low temperatures (<150 K), showing consistency with the explanation of a reduced screening effect on ionized dopants for lightly doped silicon, while the deviation at the high temperature probably may be accounted for by the presence of as-grown defects, such as oxygen related defects and phosphorus clusters, which are usually neglected in most mobility models.

  10. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance.

  11. Integration of bio- and geoscience data with the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem for the CZOData and BiG CZ Data projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a family of solutions to the challenges of integrating diverse data from of biological and geological (BiG) disciplines for Critical Zone (CZ) science. These standards and software solutions have been developed around the new Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2, http://ODM2.org), which was designed as a profile of the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard. The ODM2 standards and software ecosystem has at it's core an information model that balances specificity with flexibility to powerfully and equally serve the needs of multiple dataset types, from multivariate sensor-generated time series to geochemical measurements of specimen hierarchies to multi-dimensional spectral data to biodiversity observations. ODM2 has been adopted as the information model guiding the next generation of cyberinfrastructure development for the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (http://www.iedadata.org/) and the CUAHSI Water Data Center (https://www.cuahsi.org/wdc). Here we present several components of the ODM2 standards and software ecosystem that were developed specifically to help CZ scientists and their data managers to share and manage data through the national Critical Zone Observatory data integration project (CZOData, http://criticalzone.org/national/data/) and the bio integration with geo for critical zone science data project (BiG CZ Data, http://bigcz.org/). These include the ODM2 Controlled Vocabulary system (http://vocabulary.odm2.org), the YAML Observation Data Archive & exchange (YODA) File Format (https://github.com/ODM2/YODA-File) and the BiG CZ Toolbox, which will combine easy-to-install ODM2 databases (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2) with a variety of graphical software packages for data management such as ODMTools (https://github.com/ODM2/ODMToolsPython) and the ODM2 Streaming Data Loader (https://github.com/ODM2/ODM2StreamingDataLoader).

  12. Parallel electron donation pathways to cytochrome c(z) in the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Azai, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the regulation mechanism of electron donations from menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c-554 to the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. We measured flash-induced absorption changes of multiple cytochromes in the membranes prepared from a mutant devoid of cytochrome c-554 or in the reconstituted membranes by exogenously adding cytochrome c-555 purified from Chlorobium limicola. The results indicated that the photo-oxidized cytochrome c(z) bound to the reaction center was rereduced rapidly by cytochrome c-555 as well as by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and that cytochrome c-555 did not function as a shuttle-like electron carrier between the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c(z). It was also shown that the rereduction rate of cytochrome c(z) by cytochrome c-555 was as high as that by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. The two electron-transfer pathways linked to sulfur metabolisms seem to function independently to donate electrons to the reaction center.

  13. First-principles study of new series of quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabça, A.; Rozale, H.; Amar, A.; Wang, X. T.; Sayade, A.; Chahed, A.

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties of new quaternary Heusler alloys CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb) were investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus modified Becke and Johnson as the exchange correlation. The results showed that all Heusler compounds were stable in Type (I) structure. The CsSrCZ (Z=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds had a nearly HM characteristic, and CsSrCZ (Z=P, As, Sb) compounds were true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnets. The strong spin polarization of p orbital for C, Si, Ge, Sn, P, As, and Sb atoms is found to be the origin of ferromagnetic. The half-metallicity is preserved up to a lattice contraction of 3.45%, 1.69%, 1.69%, 7.16%, 7.16%, and 11.2% for all six quaternary Heusler compounds. We also investigated the thermal effects using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  14. The route to MBxNyCz molecular wheels: II. Results using accurate functionals and basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthler, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandey, R.; Boustani, I.

    2014-04-01

    Applying ab initio quantum chemical methods, molecular wheels composed of metal and light atoms were investigated. High quality basis sets 6-31G*, TZPV, and cc-pVTZ as well as exchange and non-local correlation functionals B3LYP, BP86 and B3P86 were used. The ground-state energy and structures of cyclic planar and pyramidal clusters TiBn (for n = 3-10) were computed. In addition, the relative stability and electronic structures of molecular wheels TiBxNyCz (for x, y, z = 0-10) and MBnC10-n (for n = 2 to 5 and M = Sc to Zn) were determined. This paper sustains a follow-up study to the previous one of Boustani and Pandey [Solid State Sci. 14 (2012) 1591], in which the calculations were carried out at the HF-SCF/STO3G/6-31G level of theory to determine the initial stability and properties. The results show that there is a competition between the 2D planar and the 3D pyramidal TiBn clusters (for n = 3-8). Different isomers of TiB10 clusters were also studied and a structural transition of 3D-isomer into 2D-wheel is presented. Substitution boron in TiB10 by carbon or/and nitrogen atoms enhances the stability and leads toward the most stable wheel TiB3C7. Furthermore, the computations show that Sc, Ti and V at the center of the molecular wheels are energetically favored over other transition metal atoms of the first row.

  15. Spatial Pattern of Copper Phosphate Precipitation Involves in Copper Accumulation and Resistance of Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangcun; Lin, Huirong; Chen, Xincai

    2016-12-28

    Bacterial biofilms are spatially structured communities that contain bacterial cells with a wide range of physiological states. The spatial distribution and speciation of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms that accumulated 147.0 mg copper per g dry weight were determined by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and micro-X-ray fluorescence microscopy coupled with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) analysis. It was found that copper was mainly precipitated in a 75 μm thick layer as copper phosphate in the middle of the biofilm, while there were two living cell layers in the air-biofilm and biofilm-medium interfaces, respectively, distinguished from the copper precipitation layer by two interfaces. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of biofilm revealed that species resembling Cu₃(PO₄)₂ predominated in biofilm, followed by Cu-Citrate- and Cu-Glutathione-like species. Further analysis by micro-XANES revealed that 94.4% of copper were Cu₃(PO₄)₂-like species in the layer next to the air interface, whereas the copper species of the layer next to the medium interface were composed by 75.4% Cu₃(PO₄)₂, 10.9% Cu-Citrate-like species, and 11.2% Cu-Glutathione-like species. Thereby, it was suggested that copper was initially acquired by cells in the biofilm-air interface as a citrate complex, and then transported out and bound by out membranes of cells, released from the copper-bound membranes, and finally precipitated with phosphate in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. These results revealed a clear spatial pattern of copper precipitation in unsaturated biofilm, which was responsible for the high copper tolerance and accumulation of the biofilm.

  16. Superdiffusion of Carbon by Vacancies Irradiated with Soft X-Rays in CZ Silicon / Superdifūzija Ar Vakancēm Iestarota Ar Mīkstajiem Rentgenstariem CZ Silīcijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janavičius, A. J.; Mekys, A.; Purlys, R.; Norgėla, Ž.; Daugėla, S.; Rinkūnas, R.

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray photons absorbed in the inner K, L, M shells of Si atoms produce photoelectrons and Auger electrons, thus generating vacancies, interstitials and metastable oxygen complexes. The samples of Czochralski silicon crystals covered with 0.1 μm thickness layer of carbon have been irradiated by X-rays using different voltages of Cu anode of the Russian diffractometer DRON-3M. The influence of X-rays on the formation of point defects and vacancy complexes, and their dynamics in Cz-Si crystals have been studied by infrared absorption. We have measured and calculated dynamics of concentration of carbon and interstitial oxygen using FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature after irradiation by soft X-rays. Using transmittance measurements and nonlinear diffusion theory we have calculated densities increasing for substitutional carbon and interstitial oxygen by reactions and very fast diffusion. The superdiffusion coefficients of carbon in silicon at room temperature generated by X-rays are about hundred thousand times greater than diffusion coefficients obtained for thermodiffusion. Rezumējums: Rentgena staru fotoni, absorbēti Si atoma iekšējos slāņos, izstaro fotoelektronus un Ožē elektronus, ģenerējot vakances, starpmezglu silīcija atomus, vakanču un skābekļa kompleksus. Čohraļska silīcija kristāli, kas pārklāti ar oglekli 0.1 μm biezuma kārtā, tika apstaroti ar rentgena stariem, izmantojot krievu difraktometru DRON-3M. Oglekļa un skābekļa difūzija un koncentrāciju izmaiņa silīcijā tika izmērīta izmantojot infrasarkano staru FTIR spektroskopiju. Rentgena staru ģenerētās ļoti ātrās oglekļa difūzijas vai superdifūzijas koeficients istabas temperatūrā silīcijā ir simtiem tūkstošu reižu lielāks nekā termodifūzijas gadījumā.

  17. Measurement of the Double Polarization Observables Cx and Cz for Λn Final-state Interactions in γd -->K+ Λn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong

    2015-04-01

    Building a comprehensive picture of the strong interaction is the goal of modern nuclear physics. While considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, we are still far from a complete understanding of the hyperon-nucleon (YN) interaction, which plays a key role in hypernuclear matter and neutron stars. For the YN potential, some parameters can be obtained from the NN potential by using SU(3) symmetry. However, other parameters cannot be obtained from the NN potential due to broken SU(3) and must be obtained from fits to experimental data. One can access the dynamics of the YN interaction by studying nuclear reactions in which hyperons are produced. In this talk we present preliminary results for the polarization transfers Cx and Cz from the photon to the hyperon for final-state interactions in γd -->K+ Λn and discuss their dependence on kinematic variables. We use data taken with the CLAS detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Our results are the first ever obtained for Cx and Cz and will provide stringent constraints on the theoretical models of the YN potential. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under Grant PHY-125782.

  18. RCM ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulations of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 climate over the Central Europe region with emphasis on analysis of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA, two simulations of the future climate conditions in the Central Europe were performed by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ under high resolution of 10 km. The simulations according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario cover 30-years time intervals in the middle (2021-2050) and end of the 21st century (2071-2100). The regional model was driven by the general circulation model ARPEGE-Climate over the Central Europe integration domain covering 74 × 148 points (lat. × lon.). The presented analysis of the expected change in extreme events is focused only on the Czech Republic that represents a central part of the domain with 789 model's grid points. Before the analysis of the future climate, the model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created from all available data records stored in the climatological database of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ's grid of 10 km horizontal resolution while taking into account the model's elevation and distance from an individual grid point. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the past climate (1961-1990) GCM driven ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulation in each grid point. According to relationship between these two datasets, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. Corrected model outputs are analyzed with regard to extreme events of air temperature and precipitation by applying 131 indices defined within the WP4 of the CECILIA project. The obtained results are compared

  19. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  20. Effect of the bias correction on computed extremes based on simulations of ALADIN-Climate/CZ for the area of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Outputs of regional climate models are biased to some extend, resulting either from errors in driving data or from given regional climate model (RCM) itself (smoothed orography, physical parametrization etc.). Such biased outputs can lead then to biased results for computed extreme indices. The influence of the bias correction on RCM data in the scenario experiment was studied. The investigation was focused on the selected extreme indices calculated either from corrected or original uncorrected RCM data. The data for analysis of extremes were taken from two IPCC SRES A1B scenario experiments that were carried out by the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ driven by global circulation model (GCM) ARPEGE- Climat for the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future These experiments as well as the definition of the extreme indices definition were prepared in frame of the EC FP6 project CECILIA (2006-2009). The model data were corrected according to validation results carried out for the period 1961-1990. For this task a new gridded dataset of station observation was created. All input station observations were quality controlled and homogenized in daily scale and then recalculated to the ALADIN-Climate/CZ grid of 10 km horizontal resolution. Gridded dataset of station observations was then compared with the RCM simulation (driven by GCM) of the past climate (1961-1990) in each model grid point. According to relationship between the gridded station dataset and RCM past climate simulation, outputs of A1B scenario integrations of the future climate were corrected applying an approach of Déqué (2007) that is based on a variable correction using individual percentiles. After the correction, the model outputs are fully compatible with the station (measured) data. The gridding and all data processing including the presented analysis were done by ProClimDB database software (free download from http://www.climahom.eu/) for processing of climatological datasets (

  1. Investigations of interstitial generations near growth interface depending on crystal pulling rates during CZ silicon growth by detaching from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.; Zhang, X. W.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional CZ crystal growth, since formation of a cone tail takes a long time, from such a crystal to have been subject the long heat treatment it is not possible to observe actual distribution of vacancies (Vs) and interstitial atoms (Is) in a straight body of a crystal during growth. This experiment attempted to observe point defect distribution frozen by rapidly cooling a crystal that had been detached from a melt during growth to eliminate the effect of the time delay. Comparison between the experimental results of these specimens and the defect distributions of a conventionally pulled crystals revealed that Vs are introduced at a growth interface and the concentration of the Vs does not depend on the pulling rate. In addition, when the pulling rate is low, Is are generated by thermal stress which increases with increasing thermal gradient G because the amount of heat transfer by mass transfer is decreased and the crystal surface near the growth interface is cooled for longer period. As a result, the generation of Is due to the increase of the thermal stress is observed in an area referred to as an interstitial generation area (IGA) located above the vacancy region on the growth interface, where the crystal temperature is 1300 °C or more. This paper describes the recombination (Rc) mechanism by which these Is created in the IGA are recombined with Vs transformed through the growth interface, thereby creating an observable Rc area at a location where no defect can be detected.

  2. Influence of grown-in defects on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer analyzed by a coupled model with the interaction of point defects, oxygen precipitates, and dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bing; Juel, Mari; Mhamdi, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    To illuminate the role of crystal growth process on final oxygen precipitates during heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer, a coupled model, including the interaction of oxygen precipitates, point defects, and dislocation loops, has been used to test the influence of grown-in defects generated during crystal growth process. Several grown-in defect parameters such as density and size of oxygen precipitates and concentration of net silicon interstitials were checked. Results show that it is essential to control grown-in oxygen precipitate size and density, and net Si vacancy. By well controlling the three parameters less than some values, it is possible to remove the influence of crystal growth process on the final oxygen precipitates after heat treatment of Cz-Si wafer. Simple 1D results clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to control grown-in oxygen precipitates during crystal growth process.

  3. Identification of an acidic endo-polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028 and its broad use in major tropical and subtropical fruit juices production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Wang, Qingyan; Xian, Liang; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Tang, Hongchi; Lu, Zhilong; Zhu, Qixia; Chen, Yunlai; Huang, Ribo

    2017-02-18

    Endo-polygalacturonases play an important role on depectinization in fruit juices industry. A putative endo-polygalacturonase gene PoxaEnPG28A was cloned from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028. PoxaEnPG28A consisted of a putative signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 28, and it shared 72% identity with that of a functionally characterized endo-polygalacturonase from Trichoderma harzianum. Gene PoxaEnPG28A was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 1828.7 U/mL. The purified recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in endo-manner releasing oligo-galacturonates. PoxaEnPG28A showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 55°C, and was stable between pH 3.0 to 10.0 and below 45°C. The kinetic constants Km and Vmax of PoxaEnPG28A were calculated as 1.57 g/L and 14,641.29 U/mg, respectively. PoxaEnPG28A significantly improved the yields of fruit juices from banana, plantain, papaya, pitaya and mango. The high production level of the recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A by P. pastoris and remarkable catalytic activity of PoxaEnPG28A toward five kinds of fruit juices made the enzyme a potential application in agriculture and food industries.

  4. High resolution studies of gully erosion, sedimentation processes, and land use changes since the late Pleistocene and future trajectories in the Kazimierz Dolny area (Nałęczów Plateau, SE-Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Rodzik, J.; Zgłobicki, W.; Schmitt, A.; Schmidtchen, G.; Bork, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of 30 years of research on the Doły Podmularskie gully system (catchment 0.35 km2 in size), which is situated in the south-western part of the loess-covered Nałęczów Plateau in SE-Poland. Detailed topographic, stratigraphic and pedologic investigations, and monitoring of a tributary gully (gully area: 0.7 ha, catchment: 2.5 ha), combined with historical, archaeological and palaeoecological records reveal a long and complex history in terms of the temporal and spatial extent and the impact of land use on gully erosion, and the long-term feed-back mechanisms between land use changes and natural processes since the end of the Pleistocene are also expressed. Phases of gully erosion and subsequent filling occurred in the Bronze Age and around the 10th to 11th century. The most severe deepening and expansion of the gully took place in the 17th century. The results also show that field structures and land use intensity had a significant influence on the frequency and magnitude of run-off, soil erosion, piping, and landslide events. The last significant erosion phase started in the mid-19th century with renewed headward retreatment and down-cutting into older gully fills. Today, most of the catchment is either forested or the land is covered in berry shrubs. In the future, the area will continue to produce sediments, because of the steep slopes and because there are still areas of bare soil with a low resistance to erosion, a legacy from past land uses, which will remain a factor affecting soil erosion and sedimentation processes in the future. This study is an example of how important it is to observe and understand slow geomorphologic processes, changes and rare extreme events in the light of land use changes when investigating long-term human-environment interactions.

  5. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV-vis-NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission-Department of Atomic Research-Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR-KN/CSR-63/2014-2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  6. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  7. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  8. Human urine certified reference material CZ 6009: creatinine, styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sperlingová, I; Dabrowská, L; Stránský, V; Kucera, J; Tichý, M

    2004-03-01

    The reference material was prepared by freeze-drying pooled urine samples obtained from healthy persons occupationally exposed to styrene. The concentrations of mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), and hippuric acid (HA) in urine were determined by three modes of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For isochronous stability testing the urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid concentrations were followed over a 24-month period for a preliminary batch by use of HPLC. No changes of the concentration values were found. The creatinine concentration was stable for more than five years. Standard Reference Material NIST 914a Creatinine was used for traceability purposes for creatinine. Pure chemicals MA and PGA were used for traceability purposes. Control material ClinChek-Urine Control (Recipe) was analyzed simultaneously. The mean values of MA and PGA compare well with the means and fall within the control range of control samples. Results from homogeneity, stability, and traceability testing were evaluated using the statistical program ANOVA. The certified values and their uncertainties were evaluated from the results of interlaboratory comparisons, and homogeneity and stability tests. The values are unweighed arithmetical averages of accepted results and their uncertainties are combined uncertainties (coverage factor=1).

  9. DLTS Studies of high-temperature electron irradiated Cz n-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimash, V.; Kras'ko, M.; Kraitchinskii, A.; Voytovych, V.; Tishchenko, V.; Simoen, E.; Rafi, J. M.; Claeys, C.; Versluys, J.; de Gryse, O.; Clauws, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) study of both oxygen-related thermal donors (OTDs) and radiation-induced defects (RDs) formed in high-temperature 1 MeV electron irradiated n-type Czochralski silicon. The heating of Si samples is done in-situ by the electron beam. The formation of deep levels is studied on both heat-treated and irradiated at high temperature sides of samples. The interaction between OTDs and RDs is investigated.

  10. Assessment of Selected Aspects of Teaching Programming in SK and CZ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Záhorec, Jan; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Authors of this paper carried out a broader international research aimed at assessing the computer science education at upper secondary level of education--ISCED 3A. The assessed school subjects were informatics and programming as the most common school subjects taught at secondary schools within computer sciences. The assessment was based on the…

  11. Electronic and optical properties of BxNyCz monolayers with adsorption of hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, L.; Azevedo, S.; de Lima Bernardo, B.

    2017-03-01

    We apply first-principles calculations, using density functional theory, to analyze the electronic and optical properties of monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of 2D hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN). It also investigated the effects of the adsorption of hydrogen atoms in different atoms at the edge of the h-BN nanodomain. We calculate the electronic band structure, the complex dielectric function and the optical conductivity. For such systems, the calculations demonstrate that the compounds exhibit a prominent excitement in the visible and near-infrared regions. In this form, the present study provides physical basis for potential applications of the considered materials in optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

  12. Processing for Highly Emissive CZ-Silicon by Depositing Stressed Sol-Gel Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedrabbo, S.; Fiory, A. T.; Ravindra, N. M.

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced band-gap emission from Czochralski silicon substrates of up to ~100 times is reported. This was achieved by processing for a stressed interface resulting from baked and annealed silica films prepared by sol-gel processes. The active dopants include but are not limited to erbium and are prepared with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) while forming the active precursors using oxide and nitrate forms of the rare earth. In addition, annealed films produce infrared emission in the 1.5- μm band from erbium ions in the film. Steady-state photoluminescence studies indicate that a strong correlation of the intensity of the emission at the band gap to the stress formed at the interface and is a direct function of the annealing temperature of the silica films, independent from the known erbium 4 f emission bands.

  13. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of phosphorus implanted, Czochralski grown silicon for function formation of solar cells are evaluated. The feasibility and requirements are also determined to scale-up a laser system to anneal 7.62 cm diameter wafers at a rate of one wafer/second. Results show that laser annealing yields active, defect-free, shallow junction devices. Functional cells with AM 1 conversion efficiencies up to 15.4% for 2 x 2 cm and 2 x 4 cm sizes were attained. For larger cells, 7.62 cm dia., conversion efficiencies ranged up to 14.5%. Experiments showed that texture etched surfaces are not compatible with pulsed laser annealing due to the surface melting caused by the laser energy. When compared with furnace annealed cells, the laser annealed cells generally exhibited conversion efficiencies which were equal to or better than those furnace annealed. In addition, laser annealing has greater throughput potential.

  14. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  15. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  16. ASASSN-17cz: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in 2MASX J17503055-0148023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Cacella, P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Marples, P.; Post, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy 2MASX J17503055-0148023.

  17. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  18. CO detections and IRAS observations of bright radio spiral galaxies at cz equal or less than 9000 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    CO emission has been detected from 20 of 21 bright radio spirals with strong extended nuclear sources, including the most distant (NGC 7674) and the most luminous (IC 4553 = Arp 220, NGC 6240) galaxies yet detected in CO. All of these galaxies are rich in molecular gas, with M total(H2) = 3 x 10 to the 8th - 2 x 10 to the 10th solar masses. IRAS observations show that they have a strong far-infrared (FIR) excess, with L(FIR)/L(B) approximately equal to 1-35 and L(FIR) (40-400 microns) approximately equal to 10 to the 10th - 10 to the 12th L solar masses. The primary luminosity source for these radio cores appears to be star formation in molecular clouds. A strong correlation is found between the FIR and extended 21 cm continuum flux, implying that the fraction of massive stars formed is independent of the star formation rate. The ratio L(FIR)/M(H2) provides a measure of the current rate of star formation, which is found to be a factor 3-20 larger in these galaxies than for the ensemble of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. At these rates their molecular gas will be depleted in about 10 to the 8th yr.

  19. Late-Variscan rare metal ore deposition and plume-related magmatism in the eastern European Variscides (D, CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Located at the northwestern border of the Bohemian Massif in the eastern part of the European Variscides, the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in Europe with a 800-year history of mining. The following rare metal resources are associated with late-Variscan (315 - 280 Ma), postmagmatic mineralization pulses in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory and surrounded areas: 900 kt Sn, 230 kt W, 10 kt Mo, 1 kt Ta, 300 kt Li, 200 kt Rb, 2 kt Cs, 1.5 kt In, 230 t Ge, 320 t Sc, 14 kt Sb, 10 kt Bi, and 3 kt Ag. At the end of the Variscan Orogeny the regional tectonic regime in Central Europe changed, indicating the beginning of the break-up of the supercontinent. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian in Europe was a period of widespread basin formation that was associated in many areas with mantle-derived magmatic activity. 300 Ma-old dike swarms in NE England and the Scottish Midland Valley, the Oslo Graben and Scania, radiate from a triple junction in the northernmost part of Jutland. This triple junction marked the axis of a deep-mantle plume centered in this area. In this context it is important to note that the mantle plume center is surrounded by significant lamprophyre intrusions which show in some districts spatial-time relationships to Sn-W-polymetallic, Ag-base metal, and U mineralization. During the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian an extensive magmatic province developed within the present northern and central Europe, intimately with extensional tectonics, in an area stretching from southern Scandinavia, through the North Sea, into Northern Germany. Peak magmatic activity was concentrated in a narrow time-span from 300 to 280 Ma. Simultaneously in Stephanian-Early Permian an intensive bimodal magmatism associated with intra-continental extensional setting occurs in the European Variscides. Permo-Carboniferous volcanism in the Spanish Central System, Iberian Ranges, Cantabrian Chain, Pyrenees and the French Massif Central includes a range of mafic calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rock types, and lamprophyres (spessartites and camptonites) with age data between 300-270 Ma. The Mid-European Variscides show a large number of Permo-Carboniferous magmatic complexes with similar ages (Halle Volcanic Complex, Saar-Nahe Basin, Thuringian Forest, Harz Mts., Northwest-Saxonian Volcanic Complexes, bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and the Rhyolite Complex of Tharandt as well as Li-F-Sn small intrusion granites and lamprophyric intrusions in the Erzgebirge. It is important to note that the late-Variscan W-Mo, Sn-W-Mo, Ag-bearing Sn-In-base metal, Ag-Sb-base metal, and U mineralizations in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory are spatially and temporal associated with intrusion centers of Permo-Carboniferous post-collisional mafic and rhyolitic (sub)volcanic bimodal magmatism (315-290 Ma) along deep-rooted NW-SE fault zones, especially at the intersections with NE-SW, E-W, and N-S major regional structural zones. The bimodal lamprophyre-rhyolite assemblage in the Erzgebirge / Sub-Erzgebirge basin area was formed during intracontinental rifting in a 'Fast Extension' setting by melting of a metasomatic enriched mantle source. The emplacement of fluid-enriched lamprophyres and F-rich rhyolitic intrusions at the same time is probably associated with decompression melting of updoming asthenosphere which is possibly associated with the above mentioned mantle plume.

  20. Characterization of defects created in Cz and epitaxial Si doped with Ga or B using Laplace-DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamhere, Cloud; Deenapanray, P. N. K.; Auret, F. D.; Farlow, F. C.

    2006-04-01

    We have measured the electrical and annealing properties of defects created in epitaxial and Czochralski-grown Si doped with either B or Ga by electron irradiation using both conventional and Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy (L)-DLTS. With L-DLTS, we have been able to resolve several defects that cannot be resolved using conventional DLTS. L-DLTS provides a new avenue to study defect introduction rates and annealing kinetics in B- and Ga-doped Si. The isochronal annealing behaviour of the defects was also investigated.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  2. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  3. Steady distribution structure of point defects near crystal-melt interface under pulling stop of CZ Si crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2017-02-01

    In order to reveal a steady distribution structure of point defects of no growing Si on the solid-liquid interface, the crystals were grown at a high pulling rate, which Vs becomes predominant, and the pulling was suddenly stopped. After restoring the variations of the crystal by the pulling-stop, the crystals were then left in prolonged contact with the melt. Finally, the crystals were detached and rapidly cooled to freeze point defects and then a distribution of the point defects of the as-grown crystals was observed. As a result, a dislocation loop (DL) region, which is formed by the aggregation of interstitials (Is), was formed over the solid-liquid interface and was surrounded with a Vs-and-Is-free recombination region (Rc-region), although the entire crystals had been Vs rich in the beginning. It was also revealed that the crystal on the solid-liquid interface after the prolonged contact with the melt can partially have a Rc-region to be directly in contact with the melt, unlike a defect distribution of a solid-liquid interface that has been growing. This experimental result contradicts a hypothesis of Voronkov's diffusion model, which always assumes the equilibrium concentrations of Vs and Is as the boundary condition for distribution of point defects on the growth interface. The results were disscussed from a qualitative point of view of temperature distribution and thermal stress by the pulling-stop.

  4. Dissolution of Oxygen Precipitate Nuclei in n-Type CZ-Si Wafers to Improve Their Material Quality: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Basnyat, Prakash; Devayajanam, Srinivas; Tan, Teh; Upadhyaya, Ajay; Tate, Keith; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Xu, Han

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental results which show that oxygen-related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in p-doped, n-type, Czochralski wafers can be dissolved using a flash-annealing process, yielding very high quality wafers for high-efficiency solar cells. Flash annealing consists of heating a wafer in an optical furnace to temperature between 1150 and 1250 degrees C for a short time. This process produces a large increase in the minority carrier lifetime (MCLT) and homogenizes each wafer. We have tested wafers from different axial locations of two ingots. All wafers reach nearly the same high value of MCLT. The OPN dissolution is confirmed by oxygen analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectra and injection-level dependence of MCLT.

  5. Observations of secondary defects and vacancies in CZ silicon crystals detached from melt using four different types of characterization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2016-02-01

    The crystals were grown by a gradually decreased pulling rate method, a special crystal growing method, and detached from a melt during the growth so as to rapidly cool the grown crystal and then to observe the appearance and disappearance of point defects at the moment of the detachment. This observation - nearly in situ observation, as it were - revealed that vacancies (Vs) were introduced through a growth interface, and interstitials (Is) were generated at an interstitial generation area, an area at which the thermal stress was increased through the increased thermal gradient, above the growth interface. In the beginning of the gradually decreased pulling rate method, since the pulling rate was high, the Vs introduced through the growth interface remained in the crystal; as the pulling rate was decreased, the generation of the Is began from the interstitial generation area, and these interstitials were recombined with the Vs introduced through the growth interface, thereby forming a first recombination area. As the concentration of the Is increased due to a lower pulling rate, a dislocation loop region began to be formed. On the growth interface side of this dislocation loop region, a V region from the growth interface and a second recombination area were similarly formed. The formation of these two recombination areas proves that the growth interface was the V region. In this paper, the point defects and secondary defects thereof were observed by our three new observation methods and the etch-pit method used in product inspection. The results of these methods were consistent with all the above phenomenon.

  6. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  7. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Flat-plate solar array project process development area, process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The program is designed to investigate the fabrication of solar cells on N-type base material by a simultaneous diffusion of N-type and P-type dopants to form an P(+)NN(+) structure. The results of simultaneous diffusion experiments are being compared to cells fabricated using sequential diffusion of dopants into N-base material in the same resistivity range. The process used for the fabrication of the simultaneously diffused P(+)NN(+) cells follows the standard Westinghouse baseline sequence for P-base material except that the two diffusion processes (boron and phosphorus) are replaced by a single diffusion step. All experiments are carried out on N-type dendritic web grown in the Westinghouse pre-pilot facility. The resistivities vary from 0.5 (UC OMEGA)cm to 5 (UC OMEGA)cm. The dopant sources used for both the simultaneous and sequential diffusion experiments are commercial metallorganic solutions with phosphorus or boron components. After these liquids are applied to the web surface, they are baked to form a hard glass which acts as a diffusion source at elevated temperatures. In experiments performed thus far, cells produced in sequential diffusion tests have properties essentially equal to the baseline N(+)PP(+) cells. However, the simultaneous diffusions have produced cells with much lower IV characteristics mainly due to cross-doping of the sources at the diffusion temperature. This cross-doping is due to the high vapor pressure phosphorus (applied as a metallorganic to the back surface) diffusion through the SiO2 mask and then acting as a diffusant source for the front surface.

  9. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  10. Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

  11. A Novel Acid-Stable Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028: Purification, Characterization, and Application in the Beverage Industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Xian, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhen; Huang, Ribo

    2016-06-28

    Acidic endo-polygalacturonases are the major part of pectinase preparations and extensively applied in the clarification of fruits juice, vegetables extracts, and wines. However, most of the reported fungal endo-polygalacturonases are active and stable under narrow pH range and low temperatures. In this study, an acidic endo-polygalacturonase (EPG4) was purified and characterized from a mutant strain of Penicillium oxalicum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EPG4 (ATTCTFSGSNGAASASKSQT) was different from those of reported endopolygalacturonases. EPG4 displayed optimal pH and temperature at 5.0 and 60-70°C towards polygalacturonic acid (PGA), respectively, and was notably stable at pH 2.2-7.0. When tested against pectins, EPG4 showed enzyme activity over a broad acidic pH range (>15.0% activity at pH 2.2-6.0 towards citrus pectin; and >26.6% activity at pH 2.2-7.0 towards apple pectin). The Km and Vmax values were determined as 1.27 mg/ml and 5,504.6 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PGA in endo-manner, releasing oligo-galacturonates from PGA, as determined by TLC. Addition of EPG4 (3.6 U/ml) significantly reduced the viscosity (by 42.4%) and increased the light transmittance (by 29.5%) of the papaya pulp, and increased the recovery (by 24.4%) of the papaya extraction. All of these properties make the enzyme a potential application in the beverage industry.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Infrared studies of oxygen-related complexes in electron-irradiated Cz-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Feng; Yan, Wen-Bo; Chen, Hong-Jian; Cui, Hui-Ying; Li, Yang-Xian

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the infrared absorption spectra of oxygen-related complexes in silicon crystals irradiated with electron (1.5 MeV) at 360 K. Two groups of samples with low [Oi] = 6.9 × 1017 cm-3 and high [Oi] = 1.06 × 1018 cm-3 were used. We found that the concentration of the VO pairs have different behaviour to the annealing temperature in different concentration of oxygen specimen, it is hardly changed in the higher concentration of oxygen specimen. It was also found that the concentration of VO2 in lower concentration of oxygen specimen gets to maximum at 450 °C and then dissapears at 500 °C, accompanied with the appearing of VO3. For both kinds of specimens, the concentration of VO3 reachs to maximum at 550 °C and does not disappear completely at 600 °C.

  13. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  14. Complete nucleotide sequences of two NDM-1-encoding plasmids from the same sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    PubMed

    Studentova, V; Dobiasova, H; Hedlova, D; Dolejska, M; Papagiannitsis, C C; Hrabak, J

    2015-02-01

    The sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Kpn-3002cz was confirmed to harbor two NDM-1-encoding plasmids, pB-3002cz and pS-3002cz. pB-3002cz (97,649 bp) displayed extensive sequence similarity with the blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid pKPX-1. pS-3002cz (73,581 bp) was found to consist of an IncR-related sequence (13,535 bp) and a mosaic region (60,046 bp). A 40,233-bp sequence of pS-3002cz was identical to the mosaic region of pB-3002cz, indicating the en bloc acquisition of the NDM-1-encoding region from one plasmid by the other.

  15. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, Joon Ching; Jiang Yajie; Meng Xiujuan; Cao Weiliang; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Zhang Jingchang . E-mail: zhangjc1@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-07-03

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid.

  16. Rare Earth Elements of Orzeskie Beds of South-West Part Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) / Pierwiastki Ziem Rzadkich Z Pokładów Węgla Warstw Orzeskich Południowo-Zachodniej Części Gzw (Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Zdzisław; Białecka, Barbara; Moszko, Joanna Całusz; Komorek, Joanna; Lewandowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the research concerned the coal samples from 360/1, 361 and 362/1 seams of the Orzesze beds in the "Pniówek" coal mine. The obtained samples were characterized by low ash content - 2.22- 6.27% of the mass. The chemical composition of the ash indicates the presence of aluminosilicate minerals in the analyzed coal samples - most likely clay minerals, the presence of which has been confirmed in microscopic tests of the petrographic composition of channel samples of coal. The content of rare earth elements (REE sum) in the ash of the tested coal seams ranged from 364 to 1429 ppm. Variation of the REE content has been observed within a single seam. The fraction of REE indicates a relation with a mineral substance. No relation of the REE fraction and the presence of red beds has been found based on the tested samples. The content of REE found in ash, normalized to chondrites, is characterized by LREE enrichment in relation to HREE. The Eu anomaly is most likely related to tuff and tonstein levels occurring in Orzesze beds, which accompany the coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (i.a., south of the studied area). The research has indicated that LREE in the tested samples are more related to the mineral substance, while HREE have a stronger affinity with organic substances. Przedmiotem badań były próbki węgla z pokładów 360/1, 361 i 362/1 warstw orzeskich KWK Pniówek. Próbki te charakteryzują się niewielką zawartością popiołu 2,22-6,27% mas. Skład chemiczny popiołów wskazuje na obecność w analizowanych próbkach węgla minerałów z grupy glinokrzemianów najprawdopodobniej minerałów ilastych, których obecność była stwierdzona w badaniach mikroskopowych składu petrograficznego próbek bruzdowych węgla. Zawartości pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (suma REE) w popiołach badanych pokładów węgla wahają się od 364 do 1429 ppm. Obserwuje się zróżnicowanie zawartości REE w obrębie jednego pokładu. Udział REE wykazuje związek z substancją mineralną. Nie stwierdzono związku udziału REE, w badanych próbkach, z obecnością utworów pstrych w stropie karbonu. Zawartości REE oznaczone w popiołach, znormalizowane do chondrytów, charakteryzują się wzbogaceniem LREE wobec HREE. Anomalia Eu związana jest prawdopodobnie z występującymi w warstwach orzeskich (m.in. na północ od obszaru badań) Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego poziomami tufów i tonsteinów, które towarzyszą pokładom węgla. Badania wykazały, że LREE w badanych próbkach związane są raczej z substancją mineralną, natomiast HREE posiadają silniejsze powinowactwo z substancją organiczną.

  17. Integration of Stream Sediment Geochemical and Aster Data for Porphyry Copper Deposit Exploration in Khatun Abad, North West of Iran / Integracja geochemicznych danych o osadach dennych oraz danych pozyskanych z systemu aster do poszukiwań geologicznych w rejonie złóż miedzi porfirytowej w khatun abad, w północno-zachodniej części iranu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarpazhouh, Jamal; Hassanipak, Ali Asghar; Seifpanahi Shabani, Kumars

    2013-03-01

    Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt is the host of large porphyry copper deposits in Iran. Khatun Abad area is located in north west part of this belt, so in this study, the stream sediment geochemical survey and hydrothermal alteration zones extracted from ASTER data were used to generation new target for future lithogeochemical survey. In this study after a brief discussion on descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to compress the information to a few maps and to assist in determining multi-element associations. Then C-A fractal method was used for map classification. In order to extraction hydrothermal zones ASTER data were used. ASTER SWIR bands are most useful for the identification of alteration minerals such as Alunite, Pyrophylite, Kaolinite, Sericute and Carbonates. In this paper based on spectral analysis of ASTER SWIR data six maps of alteration zones were prepared. Geochemical study and spectral analysis of ASTER data showed that mineralization and alteration are limited to E1lb and gr lithological units and have NW-SE trends from east of Khatun Abad to Ghezeljeh-Gheshlaghi.

  18. The Extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Do Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Yoo, Young Hyo; Park, Sun Kyu; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, Min Beom

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) has been used for beverage or tea and also as folk medicine for the remedy of diverse inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, the therapeutic effect of CZ on arthritis remains to be unknown. In this paper we aim to investigate the CZ's antiarthritic effect and mechanism of action both in vitro and in vivo. To assess CZ's antiarthritic effect, mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used. Mice were used to gauge clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biological methods were adopted to measure CZ's effect on arthritis and to understand the veiled mechanism of action. CZ greatly suppressed CIA, histopathological score, bone erosion, and osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, CZ inhibited the production of various inflammatory and arthritic mediators like inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and chemokines. Of note, CZ significantly suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in vivo. CZ exerted an antiarthritic effect in CIA mice by curbing the production of crucial inflammatory and arthritis mediators. This study warrants further investigation of CZ for the use in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:27840652

  19. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-01

    Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  20. Development and evaluation of N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan micelles containing clotrimazole for oral candidiasis treatment.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Woraphatphadung, Thisirak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2017-03-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) micelles have been developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis treatment. NSCS was synthesized by reductive N-amination and N,O-succinylation. CZ was incorporated into the micelles using various methods, including the dropping method, the dialysis method, and the O/W emulsion method. The size and morphology of the CZ-loaded micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The drug entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, release characteristics, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans were also evaluated. The CZ-loaded micelles prepared using different methods differed in the size of micelles. The micelles ranged in size from 120 nm to 173 nm. The micelles prepared via the O/W emulsion method offered the highest percentage entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. The CZ released from the CZ-loaded micelles at much faster rate compared to CZ powder. The CZ-loaded NSCS micelles can significantly hinder the growth of Candida cells after contact. These CZ-loaded NSCS micelles offer great antifungal activity and might be further developed to be a promising candidate for oral candidiasis treatment.

  1. Alternative activation and increase of Trypanosoma cruzi survival in murine macrophages stimulated by cruzipain, a parasite antigen.

    PubMed

    Stempin, Cinthia; Giordanengo, Laura; Gea, Susana; Cerbán, Fabio

    2002-10-01

    We studied the macrophage (Mo) activation pathways through Mo interaction with immunogenic Trypanosoma cruzi antigens as cruzipain (Cz) and R13. J774 cells, peritoneal and spleen Mo from normal mice, were used. Although Mo classic activation was observed in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, evaluated through nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-12 production, Cz and R13 did not activate Mo in this way. To study the alternative pathway, we examined the arginase activity in Mo cultured with Cz. An increase of arginase activity was detected in all Mo sources assayed. An increase of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in culture supernatants from Mo stimulated with Cz was observed. The study of expression of B7.1 and B7.2 in spleen Mo revealed that Cz induces preferential expression of B7.2. In vitro studies revealed that Cz stimulated J774 cells and then, infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, developed a higher number of intracellular parasites than unstimulated infected Mo. Thus, Cz favors the perpetuation of T. cruzi infection. In addition, a down-regulation of inducible NO synthase was observed in J774 cells stimulated with Cz. These results suggest that Cz interaction with Mo could modulate the immune response generated against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway in Mo.

  2. Identification of Levothyroxine Antichagasic Activity through Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Bellera, Carolina L.; Balcazar, Darío E.; Alberca, Lucas; Labriola, Carlos A.; Carrillo, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Cruzipain (Cz) is the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas disease. A conformation-independent classifier capable of identifying Cz inhibitors was derived from a 163-compound dataset and later applied in a virtual screening campaign on the DrugBank database, which compiles FDA-approved and investigational drugs. 54 approved drugs were selected as candidates, 3 of which were acquired and tested on Cz and T. cruzi epimastigotes proliferation. Among them, levothyroxine, traditionally used in hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, showed dose-dependent inhibition of Cz and antiproliferative activity on the parasite. PMID:24592161

  3. Photocatalytic Oxygenation of Substrates by Dioxygen with Protonated Manganese(III) Corrolazine.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Neu, Heather M; Leeladee, Pannee; Siegler, Maxime A; Ohkubo, Kei; Goldberg, David P; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-04-04

    UV-vis spectral titrations of a manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(TBP8Cz)] with HOTf in benzonitrile (PhCN) indicate mono- and diprotonation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) to give Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] with protonation constants of 9.0 × 10(6) and 4.7 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. The protonated sites of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] were identified by X-ray crystal structures of the mono- and diprotonated complexes. In the presence of HOTf, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex [Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H))] acts as an efficient photocatalytic catalyst for the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene and thioanisole by O2 to the corresponding alcohol and sulfoxide with 563 and 902 TON, respectively. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis measurements of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) and [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] in the presence of O2 revealed the formation of a tripquintet excited state, which was rapidly converted to a tripseptet excited state. The tripseptet excited state of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)) reacted with O2 with a diffusion-limited rate constant to produce the putative Mn(IV)(O2(•-))(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), whereas the tripseptet excited state of [Mn(III)(OTf)(H2O)(TBP8Cz(H)2)][OTf] exhibited no reactivity toward O2. In the presence of HOTf, Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can oxidize not only HMB but also mesitylene to the corresponding alcohols, accompanied by regeneration of Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)). This thermal reaction was examined for a kinetic isotope effect, and essentially no KIE (1.1) was observed for the oxidation of mesitylene-d12, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism is operative in this case. Thus, the monoprotonated manganese(III) corrolazine complex, Mn(III)(OTf)(TBP8Cz(H)), acts as an efficient photocatalyst for the oxidation of HMB by O2 to the alcohol.

  4. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation.

  5. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  6. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment. PMID:28361968

  7. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-31

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  8. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The results of investigation of the associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coals Seams from Chwałowice Trough were presented in this article. The results of researches show that sandstones and mudstones dominate in the investigating profile. Claystones are situated mainly in ceilings and floors of coal seams. Grains of sandstones include mainly quartz, feldspars, micas and also quartzite's and gneiss's fragments. It is also possible to observe small grains of heavy minerals. Some of sandstones present bad compactness and are destroyed during transportation. This feature is connected with presence of little quantity of cement, especially in medium grained sandstones, which include more matrix than typical cement. The cement is built mainly of clay minerals, kaolinite and illite, carbonates and chalcedony but X-ray diffraction confirmed also the presence of halite in the cement of investigated sandstones. Mudstones and claystones are composed mainly of clay minerals. It's also possible to find quartz and micas there. Higher amounts of quartz and micas are possible to find rather in mudstones. The associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coal Seams from Chwałowice Trough include also organic matter. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań skał towarzyszących pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w badanym profilu dominują piaskowce oraz mułowce. Iłowce natomiast występują głównie w stropach i spągach pokładów węgla. Okruchy piaskowców to głównie ziarna kwarcu, skaleni, mik oraz fragmenty kwarcytów i gnejsów. Można tu również zaobserwować drobne okruchy minerałów ciężkich. Niektóre piaskowce charakteryzują się obniżoną zwięzłością i podczas transportu ulegają rozpadowi. Cecha ta związana jest z niewielką ilością spoiwa, szczególnie w piaskowcach średnioziarnistych, w których matrix przeważa nad typowym cementem. Spoiwo zbudowane jest głównie z minerałów ilastych, takich jak kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  9. White organic light-emitting diodes based on electroplex from polyvinyl carbazole and carbazole oligomers blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei-Peng; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Zu-Jin; Tian, Wen-Jing; Lü, Ping; Im, Chan

    2010-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes with a blue emitting material fluorene-centred ethylene-liked carbazole oligomer (Cz6F) doped into polyvinyl carbazole (PVK) as the single light-emitting layer are reported. The optical properties of Cz6F, PVK, and PVK:Cz6F blends are studied. Single and double layer devices are fabricated by using PVK: Cz6F blends, and the device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PVK:Cz6F/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminium (Alq3)/LiF/A1 exhibits white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.30, 0.33) and a brightness of 402 cd/m2. The investigation reveals that the white light is composed of a blue-green emission originating from the excimer of Cz6F molecules and a red emission from an electroplex from the PVK:Cz6F blend films.

  10. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi.

  11. A New Star-shaped Carbazole Derivative with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Core: Crystal Structure and Unique Photoluminescence Property.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zixuan; Yu, Tianzhi; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Guoyun; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Lanqin

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid material based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) capped with carbazolyl substituents, octakis[3-(carbazol-9-yl)propyldimethylsiloxy]-silsesquioxane (POSS-8Cz), was successfully synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of POSS-8Cz were described. The photophysical properties of POSS-8Cz were investigated by using UV–vis,photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The hybrid material exhibits blue emission in the solution and the solid film.The morphology and thermal stablity properties were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TG-DTA analysis.

  12. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  13. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-06

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  14. Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 2 showing louvers in former exterior window opening, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing residences fronting Dargue Avenue Circle, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southwest corner showing ell addition and carport, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hall to bath 1 showing typical doors and attic scuttle, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground floor and mission scrolls, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of double louvered doors between living/dining areas and west bedrooms showing bar transoms, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original tub and shower stall, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of kitchen, pantry area, and pivoting door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of kitchen, pantry area, and pivoting door to dining area, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern Profile, Bow Profile, Loose Plate - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front west entry showing telescoping pilasters and decorative crawl space vents, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Side elevation - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215A. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5A. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Involvement of CYP2D6 in oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine and flunarizine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, S; Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Ohmori, S; Kitada, M; Hosokawa, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T

    1993-06-30

    Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) and its fluorine derivative flunarizine (FZ), both of which are selective calcium entry blockers, was examined in human liver microsomes. The ring-hydroxylations and the N-desalkylations constituted primary metabolic pathways in microsomal metabolism of CZ and FZ. Among these pathways, the ring-hydroxylase (p-hydroxylation) activities at the cinnamyl moiety of both drugs were highly correlated with debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity and CYP2D6 content. Quinidine, a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6, suppressed the ring-hydroxylase activities of CZ and FZ. These results suggest that CYP2D6 is involved in the ring-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl moiety of both CZ and FZ in human liver microsomes.

  12. Detail of east wall showing double casement windows set into ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east wall showing double casement windows set into arched recess, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Detail of front entry stairs showing original boot scrape set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front entry stairs showing original boot scrape set in concrete, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bedroom 3 showing double doors to dining area and china dresser in background, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bifold ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of dining area showing china dresser, and bi-fold door to hall, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of living and dining areas showing china dresser and structural system, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Ground floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior Details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. First floor plan - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Second floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Exterior details - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Rodman, Republic or Panama), 1940. Elevations. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. First floor plan. - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940) Toilet plans - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Details of toilets - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Basement floor plan. - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1940. Sections - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1941. Elevation and section - Fort Amador, Four Apartments, Van Hook Place, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parachute tower showing integration with main roof form, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of central hall from bedroom 2 showing linen dresser, facing southwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Left side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Rear elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Longitudinal section. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Second floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Front elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). First floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), Right side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Interior view of shower room 216 with original marble surround ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of shower room 2-16 with original marble surround and double sash windows, facing east. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Interior view of bath room 05 with original toilet stall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath room 0-5 with original toilet stall, marble surround, and urinal, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Critical Zone Science: a new scientific paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Nord, G.; André, F.

    2014-12-01

    The main merit of the Critical Zone (CZ) Science is to foster multidisciplinary approaches on one of the most important envelopes of our Planet, the zone on which humanity lives and on which humans develop their societies. Policy makers and stakeholders also require a more unified scientific vision on the behavior of the CZ. The CZ science is not new and many communities have been doing CZ science for many decades. CZ-type observatories have been developed in most of the countries for different aims but generally lack of an integrated approach. When hydrologic measurements are made, they are generally not associated to geochemical measurements and the situation is worst for biological parameters. Instrumental geophysics of the CZ has done impressive progresses over the last decades but the misfit between the scientific questions and instrumental development is still a challenging issue. We will take the example of the French initiatives to build up a wide community of CZ scientists ("critical zonists") at the national scale taking into account decades of instrumentation and observation. More than creating new CZOs the French national research agencies helped foster collaboration between existing infrastructures by funding networking activities and developing significant investment programs for new equipment. We will review the main challenges of creating CZ networks based on existing funded research infrastructures and highlight the main instrumental challenges that need to be addressed to explore and understand the CZ in a modern way. The French initiatives mirror the European initiatives and the need for developing the links between the geo-centered initiative CZ concept and the ecology-centered concepts of LTER (and more recently LTSER) at the European scale. This willingness of linking historically separated communities is a stimulating opportunity for the advance of integrated Earth and Life sciences. As quoted by Bruno Latour (2014) the new environmental

  3. Sixth International Workshop on Laser Physics (LPHYS 97) Volume 8, No. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Dentistry H. Jelinkovd, T. Dostdlovd, K. Hamal, O. Krejsa, J. Kubelka, andS. Prochdzka 176 Laser-Deposited Hydroxyapatite Films on Dental Implants...W.H., 1976, Opt. Commun., 18, 413. 5. Bateman, H. and Erdelyi, A., 1953, Higher Transcen- dental Functions (McGraw-Hill), vol. 2. LASER PHYSICS...troja.fjfi.cvut.cz ** The Institute of Dental Research, Vinohradskd 48, Prague 2, 120 60 Czech Republic e-mail: vuspraha@mbox.vol.cz *** Preciosa-Crytur

  4. Performance of Passive and Active Sonars in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Philippine Sea Arthur B. Baggeroer Massachusetts Institute of Technology Departments of Mechanical and Ocean Engineering Cambridge, MA 02139 phone: (617...to model the features of a CZ which we observed in the PhilSea09 experiment. The data from this found very abrupt transitions and into the CZ’s and...The CZ is one of the most notable features of deep ocean sound propagation. Several models for the sound speed profile have been used to model the

  5. Valence tautomerism in a high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complex induced by a Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Leeladee, Pannee; Baglia, Regina A; Prokop, Katharine A; Latifi, Reza; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2012-06-27

    Addition of the Lewis acid Zn(2+) to (TBP(8)Cz)Mn(V)(O) induces valence tautomerization, resulting in the formation of [(TBP(8)Cz(+•))Mn(IV)(O)-Zn(2+)]. This new species was characterized by UV-vis, EPR, the Evans method, and (1)H NMR and supported by DFT calculations. Removal of Zn(2+) quantitatively restores the starting material. Electron-transfer and hydrogen-atom-transfer reactions are strongly influenced by the presence of Zn(2+).

  6. Photophysical properties and computational investigation on substituent effects on the structural and electronic properties of 3,6-di(thiophene-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriyab, Suwannee; Gleeson, Matthew Paul; Hannongbua, Supa; Suramitr, Songwut

    2016-12-01

    A series of 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives, 3,6-CzTh-(1), 3,6-CzTh-(2), 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4), were synthesized to investigate the influence of structural distortion on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) complexation between the conjugation components and carbazole core unit of the 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives. The 3,6-carbazole-based derivatives were synthesized and analysed using UV-Visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The electron-donating substituents on the carbazole core unit, which was linked by formyl and acetyl at the 3,6-positions of the carbazole core so as to directly involve the electron-donating edge substituents in backbone, exhibited conjugation breaks in the middle of the carbazole core units. The break lead to a planar structure with an extraordinary ability to stabilize on the excited state resulting in a strong fluorescence quantum yield (Vfluo ≈ 0.6-0.7). The results of the Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were in agreement with the experimental results, and indicated that the low fluorescence of 3,6-CzTh-(1) and 3,6-CzTh-(2) is derived not only from intersystem crossing but also from internal conversion due to the proximity effect; this inference was also supported by the measurements of the photoluminescence spectra at low temperatures. In addition, factors leading efficiently to non-radiative processes were shown to be absent in 3,6-CzTh-(3) and 3,6-CzTh-(4). This work deepens our understanding of 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-carbazole-based derivatives and provides insight into the future design of novel materials for improved fluorescence efficiencies and optoelectronic devices.

  7. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  8. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: Intermetrics, Inc. I2Ada Compiler, Version 17.08 for the IBM 370 Architecture under UTS 2.3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-10

    SPEC-AE.ADA P REPORTBODY-B.ADA P *CHECK FILE-B.ADA P CZ110A- ABADA *CZ11O1A-AB.ADA P CZ11O2A-B.ADA P *CZ121A-B.ADA P CZ12O1A-AB.ADA P CZ12O1B-AB.ADA P...B55AO1E-AB.ADA P B59001H- ABADA P B52003B-AB.ADA P B55AO1F-AB.ADA P B590011-AB.ADA P B52003C-AB.ADA P B55AO1G-AB.ADA P C51002A-AB.ADA P *B52OO04A...AB.ADA P P C95012A-B.ADA P C96005B-B.TST P C97203E-AB.ADA P *C95013A-B.ADA P C96005C-B.TST P C97204A-B.ADA P C95021A-B.ADA P C96005D-B.ADA P C97303A- ABADA

  9. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-23

    (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on (31)P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  10. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-05

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  11. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  12. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  13. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  14. Strong Inhibition of O-Atom Transfer Reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(π-Radical-Cation)(Lewis Acid) versus Mn(V)(O) Porphyrinoid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-05-27

    The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity of two valence tautomers of a Mn(V)(O) porphyrinoid complex was compared. The OAT kinetics of Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) reacting with a series of triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates were monitored by stopped-flow UV-vis spectroscopy, and revealed second-order rate constants ranging from 16(1) to 1.43(6) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the OAT transition state analogues Mn(III)(OPPh3)(TBP8Cz) and Mn(III)(OP(o-tolyl)3)(TBP8Cz) was carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). A valence tautomer of the closed-shell Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can be stabilized by the addition of Lewis and Brønsted acids, resulting in the open-shell Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA (LA = Zn(II), B(C6F5)3, H(+)) complexes. These Mn(IV)(O)(π-radical-cation) derivatives exhibit dramatically inhibited rates of OAT with the PAr3 substrates (k = 8.5(2) × 10(-3) - 8.7 M(-1) s(-1)), contrasting the previously observed rate increase of H-atom transfer (HAT) for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA with phenols. A Hammett analysis showed that the OAT reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA is influenced by the Lewis acid strength. Spectral redox titration of Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):Zn(II) gives Ered = 0.69 V vs SCE, which is nearly +700 mV above its valence tautomer Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (Ered = -0.05 V). These data suggest that the two-electron electrophilicity of the Mn(O) valence tautomers dominate OAT reactivity and do not follow the trend in one-electron redox potentials, which appear to dominate HAT reactivity. This study provides new fundamental insights regarding the relative OAT and HAT reactivity of valence tautomers such as M(V)(O)(porph) versus M(IV)(O)(porph(•+)) (M = Mn or Fe) found in heme enzymes.

  15. Effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri, and of anethole and estragole on skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, A A; Sorenson, A L; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    1995-11-17

    Extracts of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (CzEO) yield a mixture of substances in which the major components are anethole and estragole. The action of CzEO and of pure anethole and estragole (at 0.05-1.0 mg/ml) were studied in muscle preparations of the toad and rat. All three oils blocked twitches evoked by nerve stimulation. In the rat diaphragm direct stimulation resulted in enhanced twitches (CzEO), partially depressed twitches (estragole) and anethole did not induce a significant change. The response of toad rectus to acetylcholine was reduced by all three oils. Caffeine contractions of the rectus abdominis and sartorius muscles were enhanced by all oils. This enhancement in the case of the sartorius was blocked by procaine. Lowering the temperature to 4 degrees C in the presence of CzEO, anethole or estragole provoked a contraction which could be blocked by procaine. CzEO, anethole or estragole alone sometimes caused contractions. The occurrence of this response was increased by elevation of calcium (to 22 mM). Other divalent cations and La3+ were also effective, in order: La3+ > Ca2+ > Mn2+ > Ba2+ > Mg2+ except in the case of anethole where the order of Ca2+ and Mn2+ are interchanged. CzEO- and estragole-induced contractions were blocked by procaine. The data suggest that CzEO, anethole and estragole may have two sites of action on muscle fibers: the post junctional membrane, by blocking neuromuscular transmission, and on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), by increasing myoplasmic calcium.

  16. Highly sensitive colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for cyanazine based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Changjun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao; Wu, Huixiang; Shen, Caihong; Huo, Danqun

    2016-06-01

    Cyanazine residue poses a great threat to human health and its derivatives would remain in soils, natural waters, and other environmental domains for a long time. Herein, a simple, rapid, and ultra-sensitive analytical method for the determination of cyanazine (CZ) based on inner filter effect (IFE) of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) is first described in this study. With the presence of citrate-stabilized AuNPs, the fluorescence of GSH-capped CdTe QDs was remarkably quenched by AuNPs via IFE. The fluorescence of the AuNP-CdTe QD system was recovered upon addition of CZ. CZ can adsorb on to the surface of AuNPs due to its cyano group that has good affinity with gold, which could induce the aggregation of AuNPs accompanying color change from red to blue. Thus, the IFE of AuNPs on CdTe QDs was weakened, and the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs was recovered accordingly. A good linear correlation for detection of CZ was exhibited from 0.05 to 9 μM, and the detection limit reached 0.1568 μM, which was much lower than the safety limit required by the USA, the UK, and China. In order to probe into the selectivity of AuNPs towards CZ over other pesticides, various frequently used pesticides were mixed with AuNPs. AuNP composite solution shows good selectivity towards CZ among other pesticides. This method was successfully carried out for the assessment of CZ in real samples with satisfactory results, which revealed many advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, and non-time-consuming compared with traditional methods.

  17. Oxidative metabolism of flunarizine and cinnarizine by microsomes from B-lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Uchino, K; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1996-11-01

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine [(E)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, CZ] and flunarizine [(E)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, FZ] was examined in microsomes from lymphoblastoid cells that expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among 10 kinds of CYP enzymes examined, only CYP2D6 catalyzed p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl ring of CZ (C-2 formation) and FZ (F-2 formation), and only CYP2B6 exhibited activity for p-hydroxylation (C-4 formation) of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ at a substrate concentration of 50 microM. On the other hand, CYP2C9 together with CYP1A1, -1A2 and/or -2A6 mediated N-desalkylation at the 1- and 4-positions of the piperazine ring of the two drugs that formed C-1 and C-3 from CZ and F-1 and F-3 from FZ, respectively, whereas CYP2C8, -2C19, -2E1 or -3A4 did not show detectable activity for these reactions under the conditions used. We then examined kinetics for the oxidative metabolism of CZ and FZ using CYP2B6 and -2D6 that have considerable activities. CYP2D6 with Km values of 2 to 4 microM had intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) of 0.31 and 0.14 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-2 and F-2 formation, respectively, while CYP2B6 with a Km value of 17 microM exhibited the clearance value of 0.10 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-4 formation. These results suggest that CYP2D6 mainly mediates p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl rings of CZ and FZ, and CYP2B6 mediates that of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ.

  18. Evolution of the structural fault permeability in argillaceous rocks in a polyphased tectonic context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, J.; Peyaud, J. B.; Vergély, P.; Pagel, M.; Cabrera, J.

    Deep argillaceous formations have petrophysical and hydrodynamic properties favourable to long-term radioactive waste confinement (very low intrinsic permeability, high sorption capacity,…). However, these properties may be modified by the development of discontinuities in the host-rock. The tectonic activity is responsible on the one hand for creating the fractures and on the other hand for reactivating them. Today, the calcite crystallisations in faults give evidence of paleofluid flows during the tectonic deformation. The microstructural study shows that faults were alternately and temporarily impermeable, permeable or “semi-permeable” during the tectonic activity. These “hydraulic states” were controlled by the nature and the architecture of the microstructures and by variations in the petrophysical properties of the rock in the core zone (CZ) and damage zone (DZ) of the faults. Within DZ, the structural fault permeability evolution is associated with (1) microcracking and (2) a probable ductile behaviour of the shales. Within CZ, the structural fault permeability is associated with the development of cavities generated by (1) dilation, (2) shearing and openings in extensional stepover and (3) microcracking in pre-existing calcite fillings. During the tectonic evolution, the development of a new structural porosity both in CZ and DZ gave up the faults permeable. The crystallisation sealing of the total structural porosity gave up the faults impermeable. But, when only the CZ was sealed, the fault was “semi-permeable”. Finally, we show that (1) the fluid transfers occurred principally from the DZ to the CZ, (2) the DZ constituted a “storage zone” in fluids for the CZ, (3) the DZ then remained longer permeable than the CZ and became permeable with weaker stress intensity and (4) the sealed discontinuities constituted zones of weakness (fracture reactivation with or without shearing) in the argillaceous material.

  19. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.

    2015-03-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  20. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  1. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B. A.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-06-01

    Observation and quantification of the Earth's surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of critical zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", which extends from the top of unweathered bedrock to the top of the vegetation canopy. Fundamental to CZ science is the development of transdisciplinary theories and tools that transcend disciplines and inform other's work, capture new levels of complexity, and create new intellectual outcomes and spaces. Researchers are just beginning to use lidar data sets to answer synergistic, transdisciplinary questions in CZ science, such as how CZ processes co-evolve over long timescales and interact over shorter timescales to create thresholds, shifts in states and fluxes of water, energy, and carbon. The objective of this review is to elucidate the transformative potential of lidar for CZ science to simultaneously allow for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological processes. A review of 147 peer-reviewed lidar studies highlights a lack of lidar applications for CZ studies as 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % had an interdisciplinary focus. A handful of exemplar transdisciplinary studies demonstrate lidar data sets that are well-integrated with other observations can lead to fundamental advances in CZ science, such as identification of feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes over hillslope scales and the synergistic co-evolution of landscape-scale CZ structure due to interactions amongst carbon, energy, and water cycles

  2. The ground water ammonium sorption onto Croatian and Serbian clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Siljeg, Mario; Foglar, Lucija; Kukucka, Miroslav

    2010-06-15

    The removal of ammonium from the Valpovo region ground water (VGW) with the use of natural clinoptilolite samples from the Donje Jesenje deposit (Croatia) and the Zlatokop deposit in Vranjska Banja (Serbia) was studied. The natural Serbian (SZ) and Croatian zeolites (CZ) were transformed to the Na-form (Na-CZ and Na-SZ) in order to increase the exchange capacity of zeolite. The CZ and SZ theoretic ammonium sorption capacities were 24.24 mg NH(4)(+)/g CZ and 32.55 mg NH(4)(+)/g SZ, respectively. The application of natural and Na-form of clinoptilolite for efficient removal of ammonium ions from VGW was further investigated. For that purpose, the four "filter guard" vessels filled with zeolite samples were set in parallel in the ground water purification pilot plant. The complete ammonium removal, with the use of SZ and Na-SZ was achieved during 20 h. After having observed saturation of clinoptilolite, the samples were regenerated with the use of 2 mol/L NaCl, and reused for determination of ammonium sorption efficiency. The regenerated samples showed to be still very efficient for NH(4)(+) removal and, in addition, the SZ was shown as superior for ammonium removal in comparison to the CZ.

  3. Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target.

    PubMed

    Taku, Alemji A; Marcaccio, Christina L; Ye, Wenda; Krause, Gregory J; Raper, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory sensory axons target well-defined intermediate targets in the zebrafish olfactory bulb called protoglomeruli well before they form odorant receptor-specific glomeruli. A subset of olfactory sensory neurons are labeled by expression of the or111-7:IRES:GAL4 transgene whose axons terminate in the central zone (CZ) protoglomerulus. Previous work has shown that some of these axons misproject to the more dorsal and anterior dorsal zone (DZ) protoglomerulus in the absence of Netrin 1/Dcc signaling. In search of additional cues that guide these axons to the CZ, we found that Semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is expressed in the anterior bulb and acts as a repellent that pushes them towards the CZ. Further analysis indicates that Sema3D signaling is mediated through Nrp1a, while Nrp2b also promotes CZ targeting but in a Sema3D-independent manner. nrp1a, nrp2b and dcc transcripts are detected in or111-7 transgene-expressing neurons early in development and both Nrp1a and Dcc act cell-autonomously in sensory neurons to promote accurate targeting to the CZ. dcc and nrp1a double mutants have significantly more DZ misprojections than either single mutant, suggesting that the two signaling systems act independently and in parallel to direct a specific subset of sensory axons to their initial protoglomerular target.

  4. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  5. Hydrological partitioning in the critical zone: Recent advances and opportunities for developing transferable understanding of water cycle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Fan, Ying; Godsey, Sarah E.; Maxwell, Reed M.; McNamara, James P.; Tague, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Hydrology is an integrative discipline linking the broad array of water-related research with physical, ecological, and social sciences. The increasing breadth of hydrological research, often where subdisciplines of hydrology partner with related sciences, reflects the central importance of water to environmental science, while highlighting the fractured nature of the discipline itself. This lack of coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines has hindered the development of hydrologic theory and integrated models capable of predicting hydrologic partitioning across time and space. The recent development of the concept of the critical zone (CZ), an open system extending from the top of the canopy to the base of groundwater, brings together multiple hydrological subdisciplines with related physical and ecological sciences. Observations obtained by CZ researchers provide a diverse range of complementary process and structural data to evaluate both conceptual and numerical models. Consequently, a cross-site focus on "critical zone hydrology" has potential to advance the discipline of hydrology and to facilitate the transition of CZ observatories into a research network with immediate societal relevance. Here we review recent work in catchment hydrology and hydrochemistry, hydrogeology, and ecohydrology that highlights a common knowledge gap in how precipitation is partitioned in the critical zone: "how is the amount, routing, and residence time of water in the subsurface related to the biogeophysical structure of the CZ?" Addressing this question will require coordination among hydrologic subdisciplines and interfacing sciences, and catalyze rapid progress in understanding current CZ structure and predicting how climate and land cover changes will affect hydrologic partitioning.

  6. Results from Coalbed Methane Drilling in Winn Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Richard, Troy E.; Ross, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    A coalbed methane (CBM) well in Winn Parish, Louisiana, named CZ Fee A No. 114, was drilled by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., in January 2004. The CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well was drilled to a total depth of 3,114 ft and perforated at 2,730-2,734 ft in a Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal bed. Analytical data from the drilling project have been released by Vintage Petroleum, Inc., and by the current well operator, Hilcorp Energy Corporation (see Appendix) to the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for publication. General information about the CZ Fee A No. 114 CBM well is compiled in Table 1, and analytical data from the well are included in following sections. The CZ Fee A No. 114 well is located in eastern Winn Parish, approximately 30 mi east of where Wilcox Group strata crop out on the Sabine Uplift (fig. 1). In the CZ Fee A No. 114 well, lower Wilcox Paleocene coal beds targeted for CBM production occur at depths of 2,600-3,000 ft (fig. 2). Average monthly gas production for the reporting period August 1, 2004, through May 1, 2005, was 450 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) (Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 2005).

  7. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; Brooks, Paul D.; Troch, Peter A.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Craig

    2016-03-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last 3 decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high-elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment-scale discharge, and satellite-derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in precipitation), and decreasing EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). Although we do not know the timescales of CZ change, these results suggest an upward migration of CZ/ecosystem structure on the order of 100 m decade-1, and that decadal-scale differences in EEMT are similar to the differences between convergent/hydrologically subsidized and planar/divergent landscapes, which have been shown to be very different in vegetation and CZ structure.

  8. Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target

    PubMed Central

    Taku, Alemji A.; Marcaccio, Christina L.; Ye, Wenda; Krause, Gregory J.; Raper, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory sensory axons target well-defined intermediate targets in the zebrafish olfactory bulb called protoglomeruli well before they form odorant receptor-specific glomeruli. A subset of olfactory sensory neurons are labeled by expression of the or111-7:IRES:GAL4 transgene whose axons terminate in the central zone (CZ) protoglomerulus. Previous work has shown that some of these axons misproject to the more dorsal and anterior dorsal zone (DZ) protoglomerulus in the absence of Netrin 1/Dcc signaling. In search of additional cues that guide these axons to the CZ, we found that Semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is expressed in the anterior bulb and acts as a repellent that pushes them towards the CZ. Further analysis indicates that Sema3D signaling is mediated through Nrp1a, while Nrp2b also promotes CZ targeting but in a Sema3D-independent manner. nrp1a, nrp2b and dcc transcripts are detected in or111-7 transgene-expressing neurons early in development and both Nrp1a and Dcc act cell-autonomously in sensory neurons to promote accurate targeting to the CZ. dcc and nrp1a double mutants have significantly more DZ misprojections than either single mutant, suggesting that the two signaling systems act independently and in parallel to direct a specific subset of sensory axons to their initial protoglomerular target. PMID:26732841

  9. Phtophysical processes involved within the bichromophoric system 9-benzotriazole-1-ylmethyl-9H-carbazole and its role as an artificial photosynthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Paulami; Misra, Tapas; De, Asish; Ghosh, Sanjib; Chaudhury, Shyamal Roy; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2007-03-01

    From both steady state and fluorescence lifetime measurements it reveals that due to photoexcitation of benzotriazole (BZ) part of the bichromophore, 9(1-H-benzotriazole-lylmethyl)-9H-carbazole (BHC), singlet-singlet energy transfer takes place to populate the lowest excited singlet of carbazole (CZ). CZ, thus being excited indirectly via energy transfer process, undergoes strong charge transfer (CT) reaction with the surrounding polar medium acetonitrile (ACN). On the other hand, very weak CT band was apparent when CZ part, within BHC, was directly excited. In less polar tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polar benzonitrile (BN) environment, lack of formation of CT band strongly suggests in favor of the electron-accepting behavior of ACN. Moreover, by measuring the emission spectra of BHC in microcrystals and of 30 bilayers mixed LB film at high mole fraction of BHC molecules, the possibility of excimer formation or aggregation has been ruled out. Thus, BHC, when dissolved in ACN, acts as a triad system of BZ-CZ-ACN where BZ acts as an antenna molecule and CZ as a reaction center. The possible role of the bichromophoric system BHC as an artificial photosynthetic or solar energy conversion device has been hinted.

  10. Czochralski growth of NaNO3-LiNO3 solid solution single crystals using axial vibrational control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissov, Igor; Sadovskiy, Andrei; Belov, Stanislav; Kong Khan, Chan; Mozhevitina, Elena; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Zharikov, Eugeniy

    2014-09-01

    T-x diagram of LiNO3-NaNO3 quasi-binary system has been improved using an original technique based on Raman measurements of condense phase. (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystal has been grown at different regimes of axial vibrational control (AVC) technique. Significant difference in segregation coefficient behavior between AVC-CZ and conventional CZ grown crystals has appeared: with AVC intensity increase the segregation coefficient (SC) raises for light molecular weight elements, SC reduces for medium molecular weight elements, and SC remains practically unchangeable for heavy molecular weight elements. Effect of vibrational intensity on vibron and optical characteristics, microhardness of AVC-CZ (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystals has been studied. For the AVC-CZ crystals has been observed increases in microhardness as well as in optical transmission up to 10 rel% compare to conventional CZ grown crystals.

  11. Modulation of the Bifidobacterial Communities of the Dog Microbiota by Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Sabbioni, Alberto; Ferrario, Chiara; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Riccardi, Enzo; Di Ianni, Francesco; Beretti, Valentino; Superchi, Paola; Ossiprandi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    During last decades canine health and well being is becoming an important issue for human owners. In dogs, several factors including diet, pathogenic bacterial and stress conditions can affect the composition of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary chabazitic zeolitite (CZ) supplementation on the contribution of bifidobacteria to the fecal microbiota in training hunting dogs. Fecal microbiota cataloging based on 16S rRNA microbial profiling analyses highlighted an increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in animals treated with CZ, with a simultaneous decrease of pathogens associated with dog gastrointestinal infections, such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter. A detailed profiling of the bifidobacterial population of dogs receiving CZ based on the ITS-based sequencing approach, revealed an enhancement bifidobacterial of species typical of animals such as Bifidobacterium animalis and B. pseudolongum. Moreover, these analyses identified the occurrence of putative new bifidobacterial taxa in both treated and untreated samples. PMID:27713735

  12. Effect of oxygen on ion-beam induced synthesis of SiC in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, V. V.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Klyui, N. I.; Melnik, V. P.; Romanyuk, A. B.; Romanyuk, B. N.; Yuhimchuk, V. A.

    1999-01-01

    The properties of Si-structures with a buried silicon carbide (SiC) layer created by high-dose carbon implantation into Cz-Si or Fz-Si wafers followed by high-temperature annealing were studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The effect of additional oxygen implantation on the peculiarities of SiC layer formation was also studied. It was shown that under the same implantation and post-implantation annealing conditions the buried SiC layer is more effectively formed in Cz-Si or in Si (Cz-or Fz-) subjected to additional oxygen implantation. So we can conclude that oxygen in silicon promotes the SiC layer formation due to SiO x precipitate creation and accommodation of the crystal volume in the region where SiC phase is formed. Carbon segregation and amorphous carbon film formation on SiC grain boundaries were revealed.

  13. Effect of reverse intersystem crossing rate to suppress efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Munetomo; SereviĿius, Tomas; Nakanotani, Hajime; Yoshida, Kou; Matsushima, Toshinori; JuršĿnas, Saulius; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters 1,2-bis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,5-dicyanobenzene (2CzPN) and 3-(9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)-9H-xanthen-9-one (ACRXTN) is investigated by considering intramolecular exciton relaxation processes. Electroluminescence efficiency roll-off at high current density is dramatically suppressed using ACRXTN as an emitter instead of 2CzPN because of suppressed bimolecular exciton annihilation processes such as singlet⿿triplet and triplet⿿triplet annihilation. The rate constant of reverse intersystem crossing from triplet to singlet excited states of ACRXTN is about 300 times higher than that of 2CzPN, decreasing triplet exciton density and suppressing exciton annihilation processes under optical and electrical excitation.

  14. Current multi-element distribution in forest epigeic moss in the Czech Republic--a survey of the Czech national biomonitoring programme 2000.

    PubMed

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I

    2004-12-01

    The content of 35 elements was determined in moss samples collected at 250 sites in the Czech Republic (CZ) in 2000. Four main areas of increased element contents in moss were revealed in the CZ (southern Moravia, Czech part of the former Black Triangle I territory, industrial northeastern Moravia, and the surroundings of a smelting town in southwestern Bohemia). The bioindicated high levels of Al, Ce, Co, Ga, La, Li, Pr, S, Th, U, V and Y atmospheric deposition loads in southern Moravia have never been reported in any paper before. Correlations were found in element content in moss vs. altitude, precipitation sums and bedrock types of the moss sampling plots. The current variability of element content in the CZ moss samples can be explained by the operation of not more than six factors.

  15. Chinese space and aviation industries score major breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the current status of China's aviation and aerospace industries is presented, as well as planned future development and areas of importance for China's future space programs. The development of China's CZ-1, CZ-2 and CZ-3 rocket program is discussed, as well as China's satellite launch capabilities. China's first geostationary communications satellite STW-1 is also mentioned, and further development of the second and third communications satellites to be launched in 1987 are shown. Other developments include a seventh low Earth orbiting photographic reconnaissance satellite, plans for an image transmitting remote sensing satellite to be launched in 1988 to 1990, and other satellite developments. The Chinese-designed Y-10 transport aircraft is discussed, as well as the TU-16 bomber aircraft and the co-production agreement with McDonnell Douglas for the MD-82 passenger aircraft.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of Cetirizine dihydrochloride orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Sankar, V; Manakadan, Asha Asokan; Ismail, Sareena; Andhuvan, G

    2010-04-01

    Cetirizine orodispersible tablets were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using cetirizine along with camphor and mannitol in the proportion of 1:1:1, 1:1:3, and 1:1:6. The flow property of granules was found to be good for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3). The hardness and friability of all the formulations were found to be within the standard limit for orodispersible tablets. Disintegration time was found to be rapid in formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).The in vitro dissolution time was found to be 100% in 11 minutes for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).

  17. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S. G.; M. L. Sweet; Francisco, A.

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report advances the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program by improving the energy performance of affordable and market-rate housing. Southface Energy Institute (Southface), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team Partnership for Home Innovation, worked with owners and builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in three climate zones (CZs): Savannah Gardens in Savannah, Georgia (CZ 2); JMC Patrick Square in Clemson, South Carolina (CZ 3); and LaFayette in LaFayette, Georgia (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high-performance homes.

  18. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-01-01

    Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata. PMID:19267932

  19. Reversible Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Show Promise for a Chagas Disease Cure

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Christian; Black, W. Cameron; Isabel, Elise; Vasquez-Camargo, Fabio; Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Massé, Frédéric; Mellon, Christophe; Methot, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cruzipain is essential for the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Thus, inhibitors of cruzipain are considered promising anti-T. cruzi chemotherapeutic agents. Reversible cruzipain inhibitors containing a nitrile “warhead” were prepared and demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as potent as 1 nM in baculovirus-generated cruzipain enzyme assays. In epimastigote and intracellular amastigote in vitro assays, the most potent compounds demonstrated antiparasitic behavior in the 5 to 10 μM IC50 range; however, trypomastigote production from the amastigote form was ∼90 to 95% inhibited at 2 μM. Two key compounds, Cz007 and Cz008, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1.8 nM, respectively, against the recombinant enzyme were tested in a murine model of acute T. cruzi infection, with oral dosing in chow for 28 days at doses from 3 to 50 mg/kg of body weight. At 3 mg/kg of Cz007 and 3 mg/kg of Cz008, the blood parasitemia areas under the concentration-time curves were 16% and 25% of the untreated group, respectively. At sacrifice, 24 days after immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, parasite presence in blood, heart, and esophagus was evaluated. Based on negative quantitative PCR results in all three tissues, cure rates in surviving animals were 90% for Cz007 at 3 mg/kg, 78% for Cz008 at 3 mg/kg, and 71% for benznidazole, the control compound, at 50 mg/kg. PMID:24323474

  20. Nanopaleomagnetism of meteoritic Fe-Ni studied using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, James F. J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian; Ghidini, Massimo; Redfern, Simon A. T.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Harrison, Richard J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) enables natural remanent magnetisation to be imaged with ˜30 nm resolution across a field of view of 5-20 μm. The method is applied to structural features typical of the Widmanstätten microstructure (kamacite - tetrataenite rim - cloudy zone - plessite) in the Tazewell IIICD iron meteorite. Kamacite lamellae and the tetrataenite rim are multidomain, whereas plessite consists of laths of different phases displaying a range of stable magnetisation directions. The cloudy zone (CZ) displays a complex interlocking domain pattern resulting from nanoscale islands of tetrataenite with easy axes distributed along three possible crystallographic directions. Quantitative analysis of the coarse and intermediate CZ was achieved using a combination of image simulations and histogram profile matching. Remanence information was extracted from individual regions of interest ˜400 nm wide, demonstrating for the first time the capability of XPEEM to perform quantitative paleomagnetic analysis at sub-micron length scales. The three tetrataenite easy axis orientations occur with equal probability in the coarse and intermediate CZ, suggesting that spinodal decomposition in these regions was not strongly influenced by internal interaction fields, and that they are suitable candidates for future paleomagnetic studies. The fine CZ shows a strong dominance of one easy axis. This effect is attributed to island-island exchange interactions that render the fine CZ unsuitable for paleomagnetic study. Variations in the relative strength (proportion of dominant easy axis) and direction (direction of dominant easy axis) of a paleomagnetic field can be resolved from different regions of the CZ using XPEEM, raising the prospect of obtaining a time-resolved measurement of the active dynamo period in meteorites originating from the upper unmelted regions of differentiated asteroids (e.g. chondrites, pallasites, mesosiderites).

  1. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  2. Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a biofilter in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Liang-Zi; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-23

    A Gram-staining-negative bacterial strain (termed CZ-AZ5T) was isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. CZ-AZ5T cells were non-spore-forming, non-motile rods, 0.6-0.7 μm wide and 3.0-3.7 μm long. CZ-AZ5T was strictly heterotrophic, aerobic, oxidase-negative, and catalase-positive. Growth occurred in the temperature range 20-40 °C (optimal: 30 °C), pH range 6.0-8.5 (optimal: 7.5), and salinity range 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal: 1 %). In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, CZ-AZ5T was assigned to the family Saprospiraceae (phylum Bacteroidetes) and was clustered with the genera Saprospira and Aureispira within the family. It showed highest sequence similarity to Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens (86.2 %), followed by Saprospira grandis ATCC 23119T (85.7 %) and Lewinella persica T-3T (85.6 %). DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol %, the major menaquinone was MK-7, and the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16:1ω7c and iso-C15:0. Our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic observations, taken together, led us to conclude that strain CZ-AZ5T represents a new species and genus of the family Saprospiraceae, for which the name Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CZ-AZ5T (= CGMCC 1.13179T = JCM 18886T).

  3. Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of Axially Ligated Mn(V)–Oxo Complexes: Evidence for Enhanced Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Addition of anionic donors to the manganese(V)–oxo corrolazine complex MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) has a dramatic influence on oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactivity with thioether substrates. The six-coordinate anionic [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes (X = F–, N3–, OCN–) exhibit a ∼5 cm–1 downshift of the Mn–O vibrational mode relative to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex as seen by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Product analysis shows that the oxidation of thioether substrates gives sulfoxide product, consistent with single OAT. A wide range of OAT reactivity is seen for the different axial ligands, with the following trend determined from a comparison of their second-order rate constants for sulfoxidation: five-coordinate ≈ thiocyanate ≈ nitrate < cyanate < azide < fluoride ≪ cyanide. This trend correlates with DFT calculations on the binding of the axial donors to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex. A Hammett study was performed with p-X-C6H4SCH3 derivatives and [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− (X = CN– or F–) as the oxidant, and unusual “V-shaped” Hammett plots were obtained. These results are rationalized based upon a change in mechanism that hinges on the ability of the [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes to function as either an electrophilic or weak nucleophilic oxidant depending upon the nature of the para-X substituents. For comparison, the one-electron-oxidized cationic MnV(O)(TBP8Cz•+) complex yielded a linear Hammett relationship for all substrates (ρ = −1.40), consistent with a straightforward electrophilic mechanism. This study provides new, fundamental insights regarding the influence of axial donors on high-valent MnV(O) porphyrinoid complexes. PMID:25238495

  4. Axial vibration control of melt structure of sodium nitrate in crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Andrey; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Belov, Stanislav; Kostikov, Vladimir; Zykova, Marina; Artyushenko, Maxim; Zharikov, Evgeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The melt structure evolution under the action of the low-frequency axial vibration control (AVC) technique was studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy for several complex chemical compound melts: sodium nitrate, margarine acid, paraffin mixture (C17-C20). The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from the melting point up to 60 °C above. Comparison of crystallization heats for AVC activated and steady melts with melting heats of AVC-CZ and conventional CZ produced powders allowed to propose the energy diagram of NaNO3 states for activated and non-activated melts and crystals based on DTA, XRD, DSC and Raman experimental data.

  5. Fractal Images: Procedure and Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    the group of one-on-one analytic map- pings is the group of Moebius transforms, that is, maps of the form -az + b g(z) cz + d ad - bc * 0cz Moebius ...powerful. Let h(z) = Az2 + 2Bz + C be a general quadratic equation in C. For f(z) as above, it is possible to solve for a Moebius transform g(z) and a...given by g(z) = Az + B I = AC + B -B 2 Since two dynamical systems in C conjugate by a Moebius transform are the same, every quadratic dynamical system

  6. Possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors affecting parkinsonism inducement by cinnarizine and flunarizine.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1995-11-09

    Potentialities of cinnarizine [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, CZ] and its fluorine derivative flunarizine [1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, FZ] to induce parkinsonism as an adverse effect were evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically in rats. In multiple-dose experiments, CZ or FZ was given to rats at a daily dose of 20 mumol/kg for 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days, and CZ, FZ, and the ring-hydroxylated metabolites of their cinnamyl moiety [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine, C-2 and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-[3-(4'- hydroxyphenyl)propenyl]piperazine, F-2] in the plasma and striatum were determined 24 hr after the final dose. Plasma and striatum concentrations of the above compounds except for FZ reached steady state after 10 doses, but their concentrations of FZ continued to increase throughout the experiments. The concentrations obtained after the 30 doses were in the order of FZ > F-2 > CZ > C-2 for the plasma and of F-2 > FZ > CZ > C-2 for the striatum. The ratios of striatum to plasma concentrations of C-2 and F-2 were 2.4 and 3 times higher than those of the parent drugs. Binding affinities of CZ, FZ, and their 10 metabolites for rat striatal dopamine D-2 receptors (D2-R) were assessed by competitive radioligand-binding studies using [3H]-N-[(2RS,3RS)-1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]-5-chloro-2-met hoxy- 4-methylamino-benzamide ([3H]-YM-09151-2). The IC50s calculated from their Ki values were in the order of F-2 < C-2 < FZ < CZ < C-4 < F-1, indicating that C-2 and F-2 exhibit higher affinities for D2-R than the parent drugs, whereas affinities of other metabolites were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those of C-2 and F-2. These results suggest some important roles of C-2 and F-2 in the development of parkinsonism as active metabolites during chronic medication with CZ and FZ, respectively.

  7. Development of metallization process: FSA project, cell and module formation research area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    This experiment is involved in determining bulk resistivity values for different past concentrations. Experiments were performed on silicon Cz and non-Cz wafers. To determine bulk resistivity more accurately, pastes were printed on ceramic substrates. Contact resistance was determined by measuring the voltage drop at constant current. Because of irregularity of grid profiles, accurate determination of cross sections of grid lines is difficult. The bulk resistivity is accurate when the resistivity of the metallization is much less than that of the layer beneath it. When the resistivity of the metal approaches that of the substrate, the actual resistivity will be larger than the measured value.

  8. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  9. Large third-order nonlinear optical response of conjugated copolymers consisting of fluorene and carbazole units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaowei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben; Liu, Xuchun; Xu, Gang; Ye, Peixian

    2002-08-01

    Off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties using degenerate four-wave mixing measurements in solution at 1064 nm have been studied for novel π-conjugated, processible, optically transparent and thermally stable copolymers constituted of carbazole and fluorene. The second-order hyperpolarizability γ1111 per repeat unit of the polymer containing alkyne segment (Cz-PFE) is as high as 6.5×10 -31 esu. The large nonlinearity of Cz-PFE is attributed to its rigid planar and intrachain charge transfer structure.

  10. MELOC - Memory and Location Optimized Caching for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    locations PZID, CZID, <CD> list O/P: Cache Reallocation Operation Notations: PZ Previous Zone CZ Current Zone NCD List of nodes whose original...zone C Cache location crossing the zone CD[C] Cached data of C Trigger :( Cache Location moving from PZ to CZ) if (( NCD minus NPZ)> NCD /2) then...Insert CD[C] into H [PZ] Else No operation if (( NCD minus NCZ)> NCD /2) then No operation Else Delete CD[C] from C

  11. Directional Stability Tests of Two Prismatic Planing Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Cv lateral force coefficient, Y/wb 3 Cz vertical force coefficient, Z/wb 3 Non-dimensional quantities Forces Moments X’ = X/qb’ = 2 Cx/Cv’ K’ = K/ qb3 ...2 CK/Cv = Y’ = Y/qb2 = 2 Cv/Cv’ M’ = M/ qb3 = 2 Cm/Cv2 Z’ = Z/qb* = 2 Cz/Cvl N’ = N/ qb3 = 2 CN/Cv2 Sign Convention The sign conventions are discussed

  12. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  13. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  14. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the Earth's outer shell where all the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes critical for sustaining life occur and interact. As microbes in the CZ drive many of these biogeochemical cycles, understanding their impact on life-sustaining processes starts with an understanding of their biodiversity. In this review, we summarize the factors controlling where terrestrial CZ microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live and what is known about their diversity and function. Microbes are found throughout the CZ, down to 5 km below the surface, but their functional roles change with depth due to habitat complexity, e.g. variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients. Abundances of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decrease from 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 or rock-1, or ml water-1 by up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Although symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers have been studied extensively in soil habitats, where they occur up to 103 cells g soil-1, little is known regarding their identity or impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that they are limited in space, nutrients, are unable to cope with oxygen limitations, or some combination thereof. Since deep regions of the CZ have limited access to recent photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes there depend on deposited organic material or a chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for a complete food chain, independent from the surface, although limited energy flux means cell growth may take tens to thousands of years. Microbes are found in all regions of the CZ and can mediate important biogeochemical processes, but more work is needed to understand how microbial populations influence the links between different regions of the CZ and weathering processes. With the recent development of "omics" technologies, microbial ecologists have new methods that

  15. Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed.

  16. [H2O2 oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines over Mg2+ ion exchanged clinoptilolite and solventless solid state acid decomposition of ester to 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi; Sato, Kanji; Nomura, Masayuki; Nakata, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    The acid property of alkali and alkali earth cation exchanged clinoptiolites were observed by micro-calorimetry of NH(3) adsorption at 200 degrees C. The reaction rates on decomposition of tert-butyl acetate (TBA) over clinoptilolites was proportional to the acid strength. 1,4-Dihydropyridines were oxidized to corresponding Pyridines in high yields at room temperature by H(2)O(2) aqueous solution over Mg(2+) ion exchanged clinoptilolte (CZ-Mg) in acetone. Solventless acid ester decomposition of Di-tert-butyl 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate to 3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid was effected using CZ-Mg at 170 degrees C.

  17. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before they…

  19. Crystal-originated particles in germanium-doped Czochralski silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Li, Hong; Ma, Xiangyang; Tian, Daxi; Li, Liben; Que, Duainlin

    2007-08-01

    Grown-in distribution and annealing behavior of crystal-originated particles (COPs) in Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafer with germanium doping have been investigated. It was found that COPs with high density but small sizes were inclined to generate in germanium-doped Cz-Si (GCz-Si) wafer. The increase of boron atoms in Cz-Si crystal with the germanium doping could benefit the formation of COPs while the oxygen interstitials in GCz-Si wafer could enhance the generation of COPs with small sizes. Meanwhile, it was suggested that the germanium doping in Cz-Si would result in the poor thermal stability of COPs. It is proposed that the combination between germanium atom and vacancy could reduce the free vacancy concentration and the onset temperature for void generation, thus forming denser but smaller void. While the stress compensation induced by boron and germanium atoms could increase the vacancy fluxes in heavy-boron doped GCz-Si crystal, the presence of oxygen atom in GCz-Si would incline to benefit the formation of inner oxide walls of void, especially with small sizes. Furthermore, thinner oxide walls within void for GCz-Si crystal are considered to be charged for the easy annihilation by the germanium doping.

  20. A Novel Application of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method for Estimating the Critical Zone Thicknes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S.; Yaede, J.; McBride, J. H.; Park, C.; Turnbull, S. J.; Tingey, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    MASW approaches are suitable for the accurate measurement of variably thick weathering profiles by producing shear-wave (Vs) profiles. The critical zone (CZ) base is usually a transitional boundary, which is captured by MASW but not by conventional seismic reflection techniques. Modified MASW methods were used in Hawaii, USA to extend the investigative depth of saprolite (kaolin clays, Fe-oxides) thickness calibrated against wells with geologic logs. Active-source ± passive dispersion curves produced improved low-frequency fundamental modes by combining records with varying source-receiver offsets, enabling the generation of Vs profiles to >50 m depth. The top of unaltered bedrock occurs at a Vs of >~500 m/s. Intra-saprolite high Vs zones probably represent aa flow interiors with fewer primary discontinuities (vesicles and fractures), therefore imparting higher secondary stiffness than altered pahoehoe and pyroclastic material. The MASW approach permits measuring CZ thicknesses at discrete locations rapidly, inexpensively, and without drilling. For example, employed on slopes of the Koolau Volcano (neither aggrading nor degrading), the downward rate of advance of the weathering front of the CZ varies from 0.02 to 0.03 mm/yr in wet and ~0.01 mm/yr in dry areas. This compares well with recent work based on solute mass fluxes averaged over large areas. MASW can be deployed in a variety of settings where rapid estimation of the CZ thickness at particular locations is desired.

  1. A review of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Various parameters that affect solar cell efficiency were discussed. It is not understood why solar cells produced from less expensive Czochralski (Cz) silicon are less efficient than cells fabricated from more expensive float-zone (Fz) silicon. Performance characteristics were presented for recently produced, high-efficient solar cells fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Corp., Spire Corp., University of New South Wales, and Stanford University.

  2. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  3. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  4. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  5. Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Katarzyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Zespół kanału nadgarstka (ZKN) to najczęstsza neuropatia uciskowa i częsta przyczyna zwolnień lekarskich z powodu przeciążenia ręki związanego z pracą. ZKN leczy się przede wszystkim operacyjnie.

  7. Lake Ladora and Lake Mary Phase 2 Data Addendum Site 2-17 Task No. 20 - Lower Lakes Version 3.1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    AND CZ.tTIFIED METHODS 3 Synonymous Names Used AnalysislMethods/Analytes in Appendix B Abbreviations I AGENT PRODUCTS/HPLCM Chloroacetic acid ... Chloroacetic acid CLC2A Thiodiglycol Thiodiglycol (TDG) TDGCL I AGENT PRODUCTSIIONCHROD Isopropylmethylphosphonic Isopropylmethylphosphonate IMPA acid ANIONS

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1920's (original print located at the Office of the 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, Republic of Panama). Photographer unknown. View of U.S. Army Air Corps over Fort Amador. - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Elevation on prado - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413116 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section looking west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40215. (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-5. (original drawing located at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama). New Ancon Hospital general layout - Gorgas Hospital, Southwest of Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413115 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking north. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413110 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413112 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Second floor wiring plan - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413113 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413114 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-14 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-section looking south. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413118 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of doors and sash. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413111 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4131-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41376 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-6 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48479 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-9 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, elevations sheet 1. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46953 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-3 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402112 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-12 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Sections and layout plans. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413320 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-20 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Exterior Details. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Section and details - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41379 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Left side and front framing - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413318 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-18 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section of central line. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413313 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48476 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-6 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section second floor. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48473 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-3 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, sub-basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 484710 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-10 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, elevations sheet 2. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41334 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-4 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. South elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Details. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40717 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-7 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, front and rear elevations. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407115 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-15 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings A, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41374 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-4 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407110 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-10 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, sections, buildings C, and details of stairs and steps. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46956 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-6 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48477 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-7 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Right side and front elevations - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 469510 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-10 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Cross sections A-A and B-B. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48474 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-4 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section basement floor. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413711 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Longitudinal section. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, upper third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Floor plans. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407118 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-18 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings B, second story plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Elevations. - Fort Davis, Theater, Clem Road, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41357 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-7 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. East elevations for covered passageway detail. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46959 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-9 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Southeast elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41352 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-2 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Plan and elevation of walkway between administration and clinics and kitchen and mess buildings. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 469511 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-11 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Cross sections C-C and D-D. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, (U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Right side and rear framing. - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40218 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-8 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413317 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-17 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section through porch. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413319 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-19 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross section along line "AA". - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46957 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-7 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Northwest side elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40718 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-8 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, longitudinal sections and end elevations. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413312 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-12 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Third floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413315 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-15 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. North elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, middle third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48475 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-5 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 40719 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-9 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, sections, buildings A and B. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46954 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-4 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413310 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407116 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-16 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings A, second story plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41351 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-1 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. General elevations and planed for walkways and passageways. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41339 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-9 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46958 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-8 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413513 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-13 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevation of walkway between administration and clinics building and ward group C. - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Interior partition framing - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402116 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-16 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, stair details, etc. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing 41378 dated 1917 on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing 4137-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Front elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407117 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-17 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings B, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 48478 dated 1948 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4847-8 dated 1948 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Obstetrical building, central section fourth floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Section O, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413311 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-11 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41986 dated 1919 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-6 dated 1919 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevations and upper floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407119 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-19 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings C, first floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413710 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-10 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. End elevation and sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41375 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4137-5 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. First floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Kitchen & Mess Hall Building, West of Administration & Clinics Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 407120 dated 1916 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4071-20 dated 1916 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 5, buildings C, second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402113 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-13 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Group no. 4, second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 46955 dated 1941 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4695-5 dated 1941 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic and Panama. Second floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Mortuary & Chapel, Gorgas Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41358 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4135-8 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Detail of covered passageways including arches, keystones, and columns (oversize, lower third). - Gorgas Hospital, Main Stairs & Passageways, Gorgas & Culebra Roads, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1917. Left side and rear elevations - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama), 1916. Floor plan - Fort Amador, Officers' Quarters, Fifth Street at intersection with Amador Road, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41987 dated 1919 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-7 dated 1919 on file at Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Cross-sections, elevation and basement floor plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 413316 dated 1917 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4133-16 dated 1917 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Rear elevation. - Gorgas Hospital, Isolation Ward, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41982 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-2 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Elevations and cross-sections. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 402116 dated 1915 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4021-16 dated 1915 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Typical details, blueprint # 4021-16. - Gorgas Hospital, Sections A & B, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations used a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.

  17. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  19. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  20. Defects and device performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Armstrong, R.; Johnson, S.; Lin, H. C.; Regnault, W.; Yoo, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for a low-cost crystalline silicon sheet material for photovoltaics has generated a number of alternative crystal growth techniques that would replace Czochralski (Cz) and float-zone (FZ) technologies. Efficiencies of devices fabricated from low resistivity FZ silicon are approaching 20%, and it is highly likely that this value will be superseded in the near future. However, FZ silicon is expensive, and is unlikely ever to be used for photovoltaics. Cz silicon has many of the desirable qualities of FZ except that minority-carrier lifetimes at lower resistivities are significantly less than those of FZ silicon. Even with Cz silicon, it is unlikely that cost goals can be met because of the poor-material yield that results from sawing and other aspects of the crystal rowth. Although other silicon sheet technologies have been investigated, almost all have characteristics that limit efficiency to approx. 16%. In summary, 20% efficient solar cells can likely be fabricated from both FZ and Cz silicon, but costs are likely to be ultimately unacceptable. Alternate silicon technologies are not likely to achieve this goal, but cost per watt figures may be eventually better than either of the single crystal technologies and may rival any thin-film technology.

  1. The roles of trees In the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    As trees extract water from a wide variety of potential subsurface reservoirs and transpire it into the forest boundary layer they link Earth and atmosphere and influence the critical zone (CZ). In seasonally dry climates there is growing evidence that some tree species derive their primary source of water from a deep weathered bedrock reservoir below the soil and saprolite while other species use a wide range of water sources in a more opportunistic manner. As trees extract water from these different sources they can change the behavior of stream baseflow, recharge dynamics in both the subsurface and streams, and impact water availability for evapotranspiration (ET). Each of these changes in turn change the site-specific hydrological balance in very different ways as well as the nature of how well buffered the CZ is in response to climate and climate change. I will present examples from the Critical Zone Observatory network on (1) where different tree species derive their water in the CZ ranging from less that a meter deep to many tens of meters deep, (2) how this compares to the diversity of known water reservoirs in the subsurface from the surface of the Earth to fresh bedrock, (3) how this impacts baseflow and recharge dynamics of the CZ, and (4) how the manner and magnitude of tree water use can feedback and feed forward to change local climate and the strength of the linkages between Earth and atmosphere as modulated by trees in the critical zone.

  2. Cancellation of Surface Reverberation from a Bistatic Sonar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    output ref. 1 LMS adaptive + m ref. K jso• -’ filtr / + filter Tw second ×mit counter Figure 2- 1. Multiple Canceller Strutue for Application to CZ...No. 12, Dec. 1973. [3] B. Widrow, "Adaptive Filters" in Aspects of Network and System Theory, R. Kalman and N. DeClarts Eds., New York: Rinehart and

  3. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OPTIMIZATION: SELECTIVE PROTEIN SAMPLE ON-COLUMN RETENTION IN REVERSE-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why work was done?

    To be able to identify, on a proteomic level, cytochromes P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) in mouse liver microsomes for the conazole exposure study IRP # NHEERL-ECD-SCN-CZ-2002-01-R1_Addendum 1. The new enrichment method was necessary beca...

  4. Exploring Mass Loss, Low-Z Accretion, and Convective Overshoot in Solar Models to Mitigate the Solar Abundance Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Mussack, Katie

    2010-04-01

    Solar models using the new lower abundances of Asplund et al. or Caffau et al. do not agree as well with helioseismic inferences as models that use the higher Grevesse & Noels or Grevesse & Sauval abundances. Adopting the new abundances leads to models with sound-speed discrepancies of up to 1.4% below the base of the convection zone (CZ) compared to discrepancies of less than 0.4% with the old abundances; a CZ that is too shallow; and a CZ helium abundance that is too low. Here we briefly review recent attempts to restore agreement, and we evaluate three changes to the models: early mass loss, accretion of low-Z material, and convective overshoot. One goal of these attempts is to explore models that could preserve the structure in the interior obtained with the old abundances while accommodating the new abundances at the surface. Although the mass-losing and accretion models show some improvement in agreement with seismic constraints, a satisfactory resolution to the solar abundance problem remains to be found. In addition, we perform a preliminary analysis of models with the Caffau et al. abundances that shows that the sound-speed discrepancy is reduced to only about 0.6% at the CZ base, compared to 1.4% for the Asplund et al. abundances and 0.4% for the Grevesse & Noels abundances. Furthermore, including mass loss in models with the Caffau et al. abundances may improve sound-speed agreement and help resolve the solar lithium problem.

  5. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1945. Plans and details for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Real Property Office, Naval Base Rodman, Republic of Panama), 1943. Proposed design for post office alterations - Fort Amador, Administration Building, Rear Admiral Nimitz Circle, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  8. Reasons for using polymer blends in the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinova, Lenka; Lubasova, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    Polymer blends can be very effective for the processing of nanofibers, especially for the novel electrospinning process of Nanospider™ (Jirsak et al., 2005, www.nanospider.cz), offering the realistic potential for industrial production of nanofiber sheets. Polymer blending is designed to generate materials with optimized chemical, structural, mechanical, morphological and biological properties.

  9. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #453, Washington, D.C.). Aerial view of Quarry Heights and Balboa from Sosa Hill - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Fort Amador - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Balboa Heights with Balboa Elementary School in background center. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VII. A dense filament with extremely long H I streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.; Minchin, R. F.; Herbst, H.; Davies, J. I.; Rodriguez, R.; Vazquez, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present completed observations of the NGC 7448 galaxy group and background volume as part of the blind neutral hydrogen Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. Our observations cover a region spanning 5°× 4°, over a redshift range of approximately -2000 <cz < 20 000 km s-1. A total of 334 objects are detected, mostly in three overdensities at cz ˜ 7500, cz ˜ 9600 and cz ˜ 11 400 km s-1. The galaxy density is extremely high (15 deg-2) and many (˜24 per cent) show signs of extended H I emission, including some features as much as 800 kpc in projected length. We describe the overall characteristics of this environment: kinematics, typical galaxy colours and mass-to-light ratios, and substructure. To aid in the cataloguing of this data set, we present a new FITS viewer (FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension). This incorporates interactive source cataloguing tools which increase our source extraction speed by approximately a factor of 50.

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 41981 dated 1918 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing no. 4198-1 dated 1918 on file at the Engineering and Planning Office, Panama Canal Commission, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Foundation plan, floor plan and roof plan. - Gorgas Hospital, Shops & Boiler House, Behind Kitchen & Mess Building, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    DOE PAGES

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations usedmore » a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.« less

  17. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan; ...

    2016-11-29

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta,more » GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.« less

  18. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE: Project 4.2. Direct Air Blast Exposure Effects in Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-12-01

    I. Whitten A. C. Allen, HIMC J. S. Otto, HMC P. E. Thompson, HGC A. L. Parnham, HM1 D. J. Skelley, HM2 T. P. Nordquist, HM3 .:. E. Jar&- ara , 113 The...30 Commanding General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , NAVY ACTIVITIES C.Z. AlI’S: Cml. Off. 331 Commanding General, USARFANT & MDFR, Ft. Brooke, 72

  19. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 5.3. Blast Effects on B-36 Type Aircraft in Flight. Report to the Test Director

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-03-01

    blast-induced loads was primarily the responsibility of Allied Research Associates, Inc. ( ARA ). Calculations relative to thermal radiation were...Beard ffk, Hcmdquarters, continental Amy Command, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Comnsndlng General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , C.Z. Aimi: Cml. Off

  20. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Project 8.10. Physical Characteristics of Thermal Radiation from an Atomic Bomb Detonation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-02-01

    Amador , C.Z. ATTN; Cml. Off. Commander-in-chief, European Cooroind, APO 128, c/o PM, New York, N.T. Coamander-ln-Chief, Far Eaat Comind, APO 500...Albuquerque, N. Ma*. ATTN: Technical Training Group 192-200 Chief, Araed Forcea Special Weapona Project, Waahington 25, D.C. Technical Information

  1. Integrated Systems of Manufacture (Robotics) Technology Working Group Report (IDA/OSD R&M (Institute for Defense Analyses/Office of the Secretary of Defense Reliability and Maintainability) Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    cZ •. " • 𔄁_’#’.,’..𔃻 t6t I ik~i cc_ ro M escc ! 1 l- UQam w M "൓ -- 3..• I~=~~ I -1 ,.. -l A !i mem aw uj 4c cc* a ~IlI i: I U)Iic-’ K U"S LI

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Details of bookshelves and pilasters. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1924 (original print located in the Construction Inventory Book at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). East front. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1919 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1919 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #352, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of El Prado from administration building with Balboa Elementary School on left side, looking west. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1938 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1938 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #93, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of Balboa Elementary School, looking south. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post1943 (original postcard located USACERL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of postcard, ca. post-1943 (original postcard located USACERL, Champaign, IL). Kodachrome by Leon Greene, published exclusively for L.G.G. View of Balboa Elementary School, looking southwest. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1939 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1939 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #2129, Washington, D.C.). Photographer unknown. View of Balboa Elementary School from El Prado, looking east. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  10. Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Precise Positioning Service (PPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-30

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Precise Positioning ...The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Precise Positioning Service (PPS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...EQUIPMENT USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) / PRECISE POSITIONING SERVICE (PPS) DISTRIBUTION: SMC/CZ (3 cys); AFFSA; NAWCAD; ESC/GA; SPAWAR Code

  11. Using RNA Interference to Reveal Genetic Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Luo, B., Heard, A.D. & Lodish , H.F. Small interfering RNA production by enzymatic engineering of DNA (SPEED). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 5494-9...suppressors identifies REST. Cell 121, 837-48 (2005). 44. Chen, C.Z., Li, L., Lodish , H.F. & Bartel, D.P. MicroRNAs modulate hematopoietic lineage

  12. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan; Bhandari, Mahabir S.

    2016-11-29

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta, GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.

  13. Surface stabilized nanosized Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O(2) solid solutions over SiO(2): characterization by XRD, Raman, and HREM techniques.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; Loridant, Stéphane; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción

    2005-07-21

    Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solutions deposited over silica surface were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques in order to understand the role of silica support and the temperature stability of these composite oxides. For the purpose of comparison, an unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) was also synthesized and subjected to characterization by various techniques. The Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2)/SiO(2) (CZ/S) (1:1:2 mole ratio based on oxides) was synthesized by depositing Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solution over a colloidal SiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method and unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) (CZ) (1:1 mole ratio based on oxides) was prepared by a coprecipitation procedure, and the obtained catalysts were subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K. The XRD measurements disclose the presence of cubic phases with the composition Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2) and Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) in CZ samples, while CZ/S samples possess Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) in different proportions. The crystallinity of these phases increased with increasing calcination temperature. The cell a parameter estimations indicate contraction of ceria lattice due to the incorporation of zirconium cations into the CeO(2) unit cell. Raman measurements indicate the presence of oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and displacement of oxygen ions from their normal lattice positions in both the series of samples. The HREM results reveal, in the case of CZ/S samples, a well-dispersed nanosized Ce-Zr-oxides over the surface of amorphous SiO(2). The structural features of these crystals as determined by digital diffraction analysis of experimental images reveal that the Ce-Zr-oxides are mainly in the cubic geometry and exhibit high thermal stability. Oxygen storage capacity measurements by a thermogravimetric method reveal a substantial enhancement in the oxygen

  14. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai; Trumbore, Susan; Lehmann, Robert; Steinhäuser, Christine; Herrmann, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future

  15. Weathering, Fractures and Water in the deep Critical Zone: Geophysical investigations in the U.S. Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Hayes, J. L.; Flinchum, B. A.; St Clair, J. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Leone, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is Earth's breathing skin: the thin layer from treetop to bedrock that supports most terrestrial life. Key hydrological, biogeochemical, and physical processes occur in the CZ, including physical and chemical weathering, soil production, erosion, nutrient cycling, and surface/groundwater exchange. These processes in turn influence subsurface water storage capacity, landscape evolution, ecological stability, aquifer recharge and stream flow. Because the deep CZ is hidden from direct observation, it can only be studied by drilling and/or geophysical measurements. Given the relative scarcity of such data, we lack a complete understanding of the architecture of the CZ, how it varies across landscapes, and what controls that variation. We present geophysical data that address these questions at six Critical Zone Observatories (CZO): Calhoun, Boulder Creek, Eel River, Reynolds Creek, Catalina-Jemez, and Southern Sierra. Conclusions include: (1) Regolith depth is influenced by the opening of fractures due to the release of regional and topographic stress as rocks are exhumed toward the surface. Stress models at Calhoun and Boulder Creek show remarkable agreement with seismic velocities in the shallow subsurface, suggesting that stress release controls the development of fracture porosity in the CZ. (2) Chemical weathering (plagioclase dissolution) begins at depths where fractures open (~40 m at Calhoun), implying that fracturing and chemical weathering are intimately paired in the deep CZ. (3) Volumetric strain is an underappreciated contributor to porosity in the CZ. In the Southern Sierra, strain dominates over chemical weathering in the upper 10 m, consistent with the stress-release model. (4) Geological structure and lithology can trump environmental controls (e.g., aspect and climate) on regolith development. At Catalina, strongly contrasting regolith thickness on north- and south-facing slopes, is not due to "northness", but rather to

  16. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  17. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  18. Where microorganisms meet rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akob, D. M.; Küsel, K.

    2011-03-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the critical, outer shell of the Earth that provides an arena for the interplay of diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes that are fundamental for sustaining life. As microbes are the principle drivers of biogeochemical cycles, it is necessary to understand the biodiversity of the CZ unseen majority and their impact on life-sustaining processes. This review aims to summarize the factors controlling where microbes (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) live within the CZ and what is known to date about their diversity and function. Microbes live in all regions of the CZ down to 5 km depth, but due to changing habitat complexity, e.g., variability in pore spaces, water, oxygen, and nutrients, their functional role changes with depth. The abundance of prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes decreases from a maximum of 1010 or 107 cells g soil-1 up to eight orders of magnitude with depth. Symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers are best understood in soil habitats, where they are up to 103 cells g soil-1. However, little is known about their identity and impact on weathering in the deep subsurface. The relatively low abundance of micro-eukaryotes in the deep subsurface suggests that these organisms are either limited in space or nutrients or unable to cope with oxygen limitations. Since deep regions of the CZ are limited in the recent input of photosynthesis-derived carbon, microbes are dependent on deposited organic material or on chemolithoautotrophic metabolism that allows for the establishment of a complete food chain independent from the surface. However, the energy flux available might only allow cell growth over tens to thousands of years. The recent development of "omics" technologies has provided microbial ecologists with methods to link the composition and function of in situ microbial communities. We should expect new metabolic discoveries as we have a closer look utilizing a polyphasic approach into the

  19. Intrinsic point defect behavior in silicon crystals during growth from the melt: A model derived from experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takao; Takahashi, Toru

    2011-11-01

    During the growth of float-zoning (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ) Si crystals, the temperature distributions from the growth interface were measured using a two-color infrared thermometer for the FZ crystal surfaces and three thermocouples within the CZ bulk crystals. The results showed that the thermal gradient is a decreasing function of the growth rate, which forms the basis of this work. In a comparison of the shape variations in the growth interfaces observed in both FZ and CZ crystals of three different diameters, all of the results were in agreement with the above premise. In consideration of Stefan's condition the premise above is discussed. One of the most important observations is that the region of increasing thermal gradient extends not only to the region grown before but also to the region afterward by stopping the pulling in FZ crystals or lowering the growth rate in CZ crystals. This phenomenon is termed the “BA (before and after) effect”. The growing CZ crystals are detached from the melt and rapidly cooled so that the point defects are frozen. Using the anomalous oxygen precipitation (AOP) phenomenon obtained by the above detaching, which demonstrates the existence of vacancies in the crystal, we found that the growth interface is always filled with vacancies. By increasing the thermal gradient, which can be controlled by lowering the growth rate, the vacancy (AOP) region is reduced, due to the generation of a silicon interstitial-rich region. The ratio of vacancies from the growth interface and silicon interstitials generated by the thermal gradient ultimately determines the nature of the bulk silicon crystal grown from the melt, i.e., with voids, defect-free or with dislocation loops.

  20. The increase in mannose receptor recycling favors arginase induction and Trypanosoma cruzi survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Vanina V; Dulgerian, Laura R; Stempin, Cinthia C; Cerbán, Fabio M

    2011-01-01

    The macrophage mannose receptor (MR) is a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system that binds to microbial structures bearing mannose, fucose and N-acetylglucosamine on their surface. Trypanosoma cruzi antigen cruzipain (Cz) is found in the different developmental forms of the parasite. This glycoprotein has a highly mannosylated C-terminal domain that participates in the host-antigen contact. Our group previously demonstrated that Cz-macrophage (Mo) interaction could modulate the immune response against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway. In this work, we have studied in Mo the role of MR in arginase induction and in T. cruzi survival using different MR ligands. We have showed that pre-incubation of T. cruzi infected cells with mannose-Bovine Serum Albumin (Man-BSA, MR specific ligand) biased nitric oxide (NO)/urea balance towards urea production and increased intracellular amastigotes growth. The study of intracellular signals showed that pre-incubation with Man-BSA in T. cruzi J774 infected cells induced down-regulation of JNK and p44/p42 phosphorylation and increased of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results are coincident with previous data showing that Cz also modifies the MAPK phosphorylation profile induced by the parasite. In addition, we have showed by confocal microscopy that Cz and Man-BSA enhance MR recycling. Furthermore, we studied MR behavior during T. cruzi infection in vivo. MR was up-regulated in F4/80+ cells from T. cruzi infected mice at 13 and 15 days post infection. Besides, we investigated the effect of MR blocking antibody in T. cruzi infected peritoneal Mo. Arginase activity and parasite growth were decreased in infected cells pre-incubated with anti-MR antibody as compared with infected cells treated with control antibody. Therefore, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, Cz may contact with MR, increasing MR recycling which leads to arginase activity up-regulation and intracellular

  1. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2015-09-21

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  2. Attenuation of a human H9N2 influenza virus in mammalian host by reassortment with an avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Lim, W; Tashiro, M

    2004-07-01

    In order to develop a surrogate virus strain for production of an inactivated influenza vaccine against a human H9N2 virus, A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (HK1073: H9N2) was co-infected in embryonated chicken eggs with an apathogenic avian influenza virus, A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/56 (Dk/Cz: H4N6), for gene segment reassortment. Multiple-gene reassortants obtained were examined for replication in mammalian hosts in vitro and in vivo by infecting MDCK cells and by intranasal administration to hamsters, respectively. A 2-6 gene reassortant with both surface glycoproteins of HK1073 origin and the rest of Dk/Cz origin, HK/CZ-13, was shown to replicate poorly in the mammalian hosts both in vivo and in vitro comparing with HK1073, although this reassortant replicated as efficiently as each parental strain in embryonated eggs. No sequence difference was observed in the HA1 region between HK1073 and HK/CZ-13, indicating that the reassortant would be equivalent in its immunogenicity to the parental HK1073 strain when it is used as an inactivated vaccine. A virus strain with attenuation in mammalian hosts is preferable for production of an H9 vaccine, since it should reduce the risk of manufacturing-related infections of employees during the vaccine production. HK/CZ-13 can therefore be a surrogate strain for production of an inactivated vaccine as well as diagnostic antigens in case of a possible future pandemic caused by an HK1073-like H9 influenza virus.

  3. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH4OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10(-5) and 7.35 × 10(-5) mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO2 and Al2O3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter.

  4. Rapid synthesis of Fe-doped CuO-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts for CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich streams: Effect of iron source and the ratio of Fe/Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Caiyun; Gao, Xiaoya; Lu, Jichang; Wan, Gengpin; He, Dedong; Chen, Ran; Chen, Kezhen; He, Sufang; Luo, Yongming

    2017-03-01

    A facile route (urea grind combustion method) is described for the rapid synthesis of Fe-doped Cu-Ce-Zr catalysts within 30 min through simple grinding and combustion. The effects of iron source and Fe/Cu mass ratio on the performances of the catalysts for CO preferential oxidation (CO-PROX) are evaluated. The influences of H2O, CO2, and their mixture on the activity as well as stability of the catalysts are also investigated. The samples are characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, H2-TPR, TEM, Raman and XPS. Fe(NO3)3 is found to be superior to FeCl3 and Fe2(SO4)3 as the iron source for Fe-CuCZ catalyst. Among the different synthesized catalysts, 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ is found to be the most active catalyst, indicating that the optimal Fe/Cu mass ratio is 1/10. The influences of H2O, CO2, and H2O + CO2 on the catalytic performance of 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ are in the order of CO2 < CO2 + H2O < H2O. 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ exhibits excellent stability during a 228 h time-on-stream test. 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ shows the highest catalytic activity and excellent stability even in the presence of H2O and CO2. The excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergy between the highly dispersed copper species and ceria, as well as the formation of more oxygen vacancies and reduced copper species.

  5. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781

  6. Bifacial low concentrator argentum free crystalline silicon solar cells based on ARC of TCO and current collecting grid of copper wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untila, G. G.; Kost, T. N.; Chebotareva, A. B.; Zaks, M. B.; Sitnikov, A. M.; Solodukha, O. I.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained in frame of an innovative approach for fabrication of the bifacial low concentrator Ag free Cz silicon solar cells based on Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)/(p+nn+)Cz-Si/Indium-Fluorine-Oxide (IFO) structure (n-type cell) as well as on IFO/(n+pp+)Cz-Si/ITO structure (p-type cell) are presented in this work. The (p+nn+)Cz-Si and (n+pp+)Cz-Si structures were produced by diffusion of boron and phosphorus from deposited B- and P-containing glasses followed by an etch-back step. The n+ surface of the structures was textured, whereas the p+ surface remained planar. Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, which act as passivating and antireflection electrodes, were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method on both sides. The contact pattern of copper wire was attached by the low-temperature (160 °C) lamination method simultaneously to the front and rear TCO layers as well as to the interconnecting ribbons arranged outside the structure. The shadowing from the contacts is in the range of ˜4%. The resulting solar cells showed front/rear efficiencies of 18.6-19.0%/14.9-15.3% (p-type cell) and 17.5-17.9%/16.5-17.0% (n-type cell) respectively at 1-5 suns. Even for 1 sun illumination at 20-50% albedo, similar energy production corresponds to 21.6-26.1% (p-type cell) and 20.8-25.8% (n-type cell) efficiency of a monofacial cell.

  7. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-01-01

    Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science. Observation and quantification of the Earth surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of Critical Zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and ecosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", extending from the groundwater to the vegetation canopy. Lidar holds promise as a transdisciplinary CZ research tool by simultaneously allowing for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological data. Researchers are just beginning to utilize lidar datasets to answer synergistic questions in CZ science, such as how landforms and soils develop in space and time as a function of the local climate, biota, hydrologic properties, and lithology. This review's objective is to demonstrate the transformative potential of lidar by critically assessing both challenges and opportunities for transdisciplinary lidar applications. A review of 147 peer-reviewed studies utilizing lidar showed that 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % have an interdisciplinary focus. We find that using lidar to its full potential will require numerous advances across CZ applications, including new and more powerful open-source processing tools, exploiting new lidar acquisition technologies, and improved integration with physically-based models and complementary in situ and remote-sensing observations. We provide a five-year vision to utilize and advocate for the expanded use of lidar datasets to benefit CZ science applications.

  8. Structural characterization of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) mixed oxide catalysts by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, HREM, and other techniques.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción

    2005-02-10

    Structural characteristics of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (CZ/T) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (V/CZ/T) mixed oxide catalysts have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques. The CeO(2)-ZrO(2) (1:1 mole ratio) solid solution was deposited over a finely powdered TiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method. A nominal 5 wt % V(2)O(5) was impregnated over the calcined (773 K) CZ/T mixed oxide carrier by a wet impregnation technique. The obtained CZ/T and V/CZ/T samples were further subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K to understand the dispersion and temperature stability of these materials. In the case of CZ/T samples, the XRD results suggest the formation of different cubic and tetragonal Ce-Zr-oxide phases, Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2), and Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) in varying proportions depending on the treatment temperature. With increasing calcination temperature from 773 to 1073 K, the intensity of the lines pertaining to cubic Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) phases increased at the expense of cubic Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), indicating more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice. The TiO(2) was mainly in the anatase form whose crystallite size also increased with increasing treatment temperature. A better crystallization and more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice was noted when CZ/T was impregnated with V(2)O(5). However, no crystalline V(2)O(5) could be seen from both XRD and RS measurements. In particular, a preferential formation of CeVO(4) compound and an intense tetragonal Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) phase were noted beyond 873 K. The HREM results indicate, in the case of CZ/T samples, a well-dispersed Ce-Zr-oxide of the size approximately 5 nm over the bigger crystals ( approximately 40 nm) of TiO(2) when treated at 873 K. The exact structural features of these

  9. Low temperature iron gettering by grown-in defects in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Yu, Xuegong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yichao; He, Jian; Vanhellemont, Jan; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature iron gettering in as-grown boron doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) at temperatures between 220 and 500 °C is studied using microwave-photoconductive decay based minority carrier lifetime measurements. Scanning infrared microscopy technique is used to study the defect density/size distribution in the samples before and after anneal. It is found that the decrease of interstitial iron (Fei) concentration shows a double exponential dependence on annealing time at all temperatures. This suggests the existence of two sinks for Fei. Meanwhile, the observed bulk defect densities and sizes in contaminated and as-grown samples are nearly the same, implying that the grown-in defects could be the gettering centers in this process. The results are important for understanding and controlling low temperature Fei gettering during processing of Cz-Si based devices.

  10. Identification of lifetime limiting defects by temperature- and injection-dependent photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Jonas; Youssef, Amanda; Park, Sungeun; Mundt, Laura E.; Niewelt, Tim; Mack, Sebastian; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Murai, Ryota; Jensen, Mallory A.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Schubert, Martin C.

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the lifetime limiting defects in silicon plays a key role in systematically optimizing the efficiency potential of material for solar cells. We present a technique based on temperature and injection dependent photoluminescence imaging to determine the energy levels and capture cross section ratios of Shockley-Read-Hall defects. This allows us to identify homogeneously and inhomogeneously distributed defects limiting the charge carrier lifetime in any silicon wafer. The technique is demonstrated on an n-type wafer grown with the non-contact crucible (NOC) method and an industrial Czochralski (Cz) wafer prone to defect formation during high temperature processing. We find that the energy levels for the circular distributed defects in the Cz wafer are in good agreement with literature data for homogeneously grown oxide precipitates. In contrast, the circular distributed defects found in NOC Si have significantly deeper trap levels, despite their similar appearance.

  11. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  12. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  13. Seismic Measurement of the Locations of the Base of Convection Zone and Helium Ionization Zone for Stars in the Kepler Seismic LEGACY Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Raodeo, Keyuri; Antia, H. M.; Mazumdar, Anwesh; Basu, Sarbani; Lund, Mikkel N.; Silva Aguirre, Víctor

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic glitches are regions inside a star where the sound speed or its derivatives change abruptly. These leave a small characteristic oscillatory signature in the stellar oscillation frequencies. With the precision achieved by Kepler seismic data, it is now possible to extract these small amplitude oscillatory signatures, and infer the locations of the glitches. We perform glitch analysis for all the 66 stars in the Kepler seismic LEGACY sample to derive the locations of the base of the envelope convection zone (CZ) and the helium ionization zone. The signature from helium ionization zone is found to be robust for all stars in the sample, whereas the CZ signature is found to be weak and problematic, particularly for relatively massive stars with large errorbars on the oscillation frequencies. We demonstrate that the helium glitch signature can be used to constrain the properties of the helium ionization layers and the helium abundance.

  14. Solar cells on low-resistivity boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon with stabilized efficiencies of 20%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Bianca; Hermann, Sonja; Bothe, Karsten; Schmidt, Jan; Brendel, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    Recently, it was shown that the boron-oxygen complex responsible for the light-induced lifetime degradation in oxygen-rich boron-doped silicon can be permanently deactivated by illumination at elevated temperatures. Since the degradation is particularly harmful in low-resistivity Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si), we apply the deactivation procedure to a high-efficiency rear interdigitated single evaporation emitter wrap-through solar cell made on 1.4Ωcm B-doped Cz-Si. The energy conversion efficiency is thereby increased by more than 1% absolute compared to the degraded state to 20.3% on a designated area of 92cm2 and is furthermore shown to be stable under illumination at room temperature.

  15. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  16. Isolation of Circulatory Influence in HSG

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Scheid (30) reported a value of 82 mm Hg as well as summarizing the values obtained in the literature for Pa02: Pa0 2 Chiodi and Terman, 1965 99...and calculated arterial pH values during 1 G, +6 Cz, +8 Gz and +10 G2 ( m . H& ± standard error). 1 C +6 Cz +8 G2 +10 Gz (n) (34) (11) (10) (13) Pa02...C02 from 100% 02 Ventilated Birds (man m Hg ± standard error). 1 G +6Gz +8 Gz +10 G2 (a) (21) (7) (7) (7) Pa02 488.4±14.6 459.4±38.6 435.566.7 439.2

  17. Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Narimatsu, S; Suzuki, T

    1992-10-06

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-piperazine] to 1-(diphenylmethyl)piperazine (M-1), 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine (M-2), benzophenone (M-3) and 1-[4'-hydroxyphenyl)-phenylmethyl]-4-(3- phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine (M-4) has been studied in rat liver microsomes. In Wistar rats, kinetic analysis revealed sex differences (male > female) in the Km values for formation of all the metabolites and the Vmax values for the formation of M-1, M-3 and M-4. The reactions required NADPH, and were inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF 525-A. Only M-2 formation was suppressed by sparteine or metoprolol, and was significantly lower in female Dark Agouti rats than in Wistar rats of both sexes. The results suggest that CZ is oxidized by cytochrome P450, and M-2 formation is related to debrisoquine/sparteine-type polymorphic drug oxidation.

  18. D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Brücke, T; Wöber, C; Podreka, I; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Asenbaum, S; Aull, S; Wenger, S; Ilieva, D; Harasko-van der Meer, C; Wessely, P

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-six patients under treatment with the calcium channel blockers flunarizine (Fz) or cinnarizine (Cz) were examined-with single-photon emission computed tomography using [123I]iodobenzamide as a ligand. The striatal dopamine D2 receptor-binding potential was determined and found to be reduced by 14 to 63% (39.5 +/- 15.0%; p < 0.0001) in patients compared with age-matched control values. This reduction was larger in 12 patients with extrapyramidal symptoms and was only slowly reversible after discontinuation of treatment. Patients treated for > 6 months had significantly larger reductions than patients treated for a shorter period. Parkinsonian symptoms were only seen in patients older than 50 years. Our findings prove a neuroleptic-like action of Fz and Cz, which seems to be the major reason for their extrapyramidal side effects. Older age and long-term treatment are predisposing factors for these effects.

  19. Optimization of energy extraction in transverse galloping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribes-Palmer, F.; Sanz-Andres, A.

    2013-11-01

    A numerical method to analyse the stability of transverse galloping based on experimental measurements, as an alternative method to polynomial fitting of the transverse force coefficient Cz, is proposed in this paper. The Glauert-Den Hartog criterion is used to determine the region of angles of attack (pitch angles) prone to present galloping. An analytic solution (based on a polynomial curve of Cz) is used to validate the method and to evaluate the discretization errors. Several bodies (of biconvex, D-shape and rhomboidal cross sections) have been tested in a wind tunnel and the stability of the galloping region has been analysed with the new method. An algorithm to determine the pitch angle of the body that allows the maximum value of the kinetic energy of the flow to be extracted is presented.

  20. The electronic transport characteristics of hybridized hexagon beryllium sulfide and graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Ding, Bingjun; Guo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Hybridized Z-BexSyCz (x + y + z = 16) systems connected by zigzag beryllium-sulfide (BeS) and graphene nanoribbons are theoretically designed, and their electronic transport characteristics are explored by first-principles approach. For the hybridized systems with unequal number of x and y, i.e. z is an odd number, an exceptional negative differential resistance (NDR) property occurs. However, for the hybridized systems including an even number of zigzag carbon chains, namely x equal to y, an interesting current-limited behavior happens. Meanwhile, the NDR phenomenon disappears. The spin transport properties of these hybridized Z-BexSyCz systems with parallel magnetism configuration also reveal the above odd-even dependence conductance behavior.

  1. MOLEonline 2.0: interactive web-based analysis of biomacromolecular channels.

    PubMed

    Berka, Karel; Hanák, Ondrej; Sehnal, David; Banás, Pavel; Navrátilová, Veronika; Jaiswal, Deepti; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Svobodová Vareková, Radka; Koca, Jaroslav; Otyepka, Michal

    2012-07-01

    Biomolecular channels play important roles in many biological systems, e.g. enzymes, ribosomes and ion channels. This article introduces a web-based interactive MOLEonline 2.0 application for the analysis of access/egress paths to interior molecular voids. MOLEonline 2.0 enables platform-independent, easy-to-use and interactive analyses of (bio)macromolecular channels, tunnels and pores. Results are presented in a clear manner, making their interpretation easy. For each channel, MOLEonline displays a 3D graphical representation of the channel, its profile accompanied by a list of lining residues and also its basic physicochemical properties. The users can tune advanced parameters when performing a channel search to direct the search according to their needs. The MOLEonline 2.0 application is freely available via the Internet at http://ncbr.muni.cz/mole or http://mole.upol.cz.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  3. Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Voorhis, S.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to sequences of flashes delivered to the right and left visual fields while subjects responded promptly to designated stimuli in one field at a time (focused attention), in both fields at once (divided attention), or to neither field (passive). Three stimulus schedules were used: the first was a replication of a previous study (Eason, Harter, and White, 1969) where left- and right-field flashes were delivered quasi-independently, while in the other two the flashes were delivered to the two fields in random order (Bernoulli sequence). VEPs to attended-field stimuli were enhanced at both occipital (O2) and central (Cz) recording sites under all stimulus sequences, but different components were affected at the two scalp sites. It was suggested that the VEP at O2 may reflect modality-specific processing events, while the response at Cz, like its auditory homologue, may index more general aspects of selective attention.

  4. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  5. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively.

  6. Potential productivity benefits of float-zone versus Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient mass production of single-crystal silicon is necessary for the efficient silicon solar arrays needed in the coming decade. However, it is anticipated that there will be difficulty growing such volumes of crystals using conventional Czochralski (Cz) methods. While the productivity of single crystals might increase with a crystal diameter increase, there are two obstacles to the mass production of large diameter Czochralski crystals, the long production cycle due to slow growth rate and the high heat requirements of the furnaces. Also counterproductive would be the large resistivity gradient along the growth direction of the crystals due to impurity concentration. Comparison between Float zone (FZ) and Cz crystal growth on the basis of a crystal 150 mm in diameter is on an order of two to four times in favor of the FZ method. This advantage results from high growth rates and steady-state growth while maintaining a dislocation-free condition and impurity segregation.

  7. Analysis of Dissimilar Material Defect Based on Eddy Current Conductivity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Lifu

    In this experiment, the conductivity distribution of lack of penetration (LOP) in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials has been tested, and has been compared with the conductivity distribution of the same kind of material, by using eddy current conductivity meter. CZ state and M state LY12 aluminum alloy has been studied. The results show that when the depth of LOP is small, the conductivity of M state is the highest, the conductivity decreases gradually to the weld center, reduce to the minimum until reach the CZ state base metal. When the depth of LOP is larger, the conductivity of the weld center decreases sharply with the depth of LOP increases gradually. Scilicet, the larger the depth of LOP, the lower the conductivity. The conductivity distribution of other areas is similar to the distribution when the depth of LOP is small.

  8. Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

  9. On the nature of striations in n-type silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Donne, Alessia; Binetti, Simona; Folegatti, Valerio; Coletti, Gianluca

    2016-07-01

    In n-type Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafer, swirl shaped regions with low lifetime (known as striations) can cause degradation up to 1% absolute or even more in homojunction industrial solar cells. Nevertheless, the nature of the defects responsible for the occurrence of these striations is still unclear. In this work, n-type Cz-Si solar cell precursors cut from industrial size ingots with different feedstock quality and oxygen content were analyzed by microwave photo-conductance decay and photoluminescence in order to investigate the nature of such defects. The results demonstrate that the defects responsible for the occurrence of striations are oxide nanoprecipitates formed during the high temperature steps for the solar cell realization, due to the presence of grown-in oxygen nuclei.

  10. Radiative heat transfer in curved specular surfaces in Czochralski crystal growth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Maruyama, Shigenao; Tsukada, Takao

    1997-11-07

    A numerical investigation of radiative heat transfer constructed by curved surfaces with specular and diffuse reflection components is carried out. The ray tracing method is adopted for the calculation of view factors, in which a new ray emission model is proposed. The second-degree radiation ring elements are introduced, which are of engineering importance and numerical efficiency. The accuracy of the method is analyzed and verified using a simple configuration. The present computation using the proposed ray emission model is in good agreement with the analytical solution. As a numerical example and engineering application, the effects of the specular reflection and the meniscus of the melt surface in Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth are investigated. A marked temperature decrease in the melt surface is found by introducing specular reflection and the meniscus. The combined effects of the specular reflection and the meniscus should be considered in precision heat transfer control of a CZ apparatus.

  11. Scale up aspects of directional solidification and Czochralski silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropka, Natasha; Ervik, Torunn; Czupalla, Matthias; Kiessling, Frank M.

    2016-10-01

    We performed 3D simulations of directional solidification (DS) and Czochralski (Cz) silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields (TMFs) and verified them with the experimental data that were available. Particularly, we studied silicon DS growth in real G1, G2 and G5 size setups and Cz growth in 6″ and 24″ crucibles in furnaces provided with KRISTMAG® heater magnet modules (HMMs). TMFs were used for a solid/liquid interface shaping and for a melt stirring. Based on our simulation findings, we discussed scale up challenges and proposed a method for safe upscaling. The method related all present driving forces using dimensionless numbers: Grashof (Gr), Stephan (Ste), Reynolds (Re), Shielding (S) and magnetic forcing number (F).

  12. Down syndrome and hyperthyroidism - two case reports.

    PubMed

    Szatkowska, Marta; Zimny, Dominika; Barg, Ewa

    2016-02-18

    Trisomia 21 pary chromosomów (Zespół Downa, DS) jest jednym z częściej występujących zaburzeń chromosomalnych w praktyce pediatrycznej. Zaburzenia funkcji tarczycy często występują u tych pacjentów. Niedoczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana u blisko 50% pacjentów z ZD, a liczba ta wzrasta wraz z wiekiem. Nadczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana znaczniej rzadziej u dzieci z ZD. Odpowiednia strategia leczenia nadczynności tarczycy jest bardzo istotna ze względu na możliwość zaburzenia rozwoju dzieci. Przedstawiamy dwa przypadki dzieci z zespołem Downa i nadczynnością tarczycy. Proces leczenia tych pacjentów był odmienny.

  13. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  14. Profiles of dark matter haloes at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.

    2001-08-01

    I study the evolution of halo density profiles as a function of time in the SCDM and ΛCDM cosmologies. Following Del PopoloQ1, I calculate the concentration parameter c=rv /a and study its time evolution. For a given halo mass, I find that c(z)~1/(1+z) in both the ΛCDM and SCDM cosmology, in agreement with the analytic model of Bullock et al.Q1 and N-body simulations. In both models, a(z) is roughly constant. The present model predicts a stronger evolution of c(z) with respect to the Navarro, Frenk & WhiteQ1 model. Finally I show some consequences of the results on galaxy modelling.

  15. Single-axis gyroscopic motion with uncertain angular velocity about spin axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A differential game approach is presented for studying the response of a gyro by treating the controlled angular velocity about the input axis as the evader, and the bounded but uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis as the pursuer. When the uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis desires to force the gyro to saturation a differential game problem with two terminal surfaces results, whereas when the evader desires to attain the equilibrium state the usual game with single terminal manifold arises. A barrier, delineating the capture zone (CZ) in which the gyro can attain saturation and the escape zone (EZ) in which the evader avoids saturation is obtained. The CZ is further delineated into two subregions such that the states in each subregion can be forced on a definite target manifold. The application of the game theoretic approach to Control Moment Gyro is briefly discussed.

  16. A solar sailcraft simulation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čeleda, Tomáš

    2013-07-01

    An applicationAvailable online at the Aldebaran educational portal: www.aldebaran.cz/lab/plachetnice/SolarSail.html. was created to encourage students’ practical knowledge of gravitational fields, the law of conservation of energy and other phenomena, such as gravitational slingshots. The educational software simulates the flight of a solar sail spacecraft between two planets of the Solar System using the laws of gravity and radiation pressure. The students’ goal can, for example, be to fly from the Earth to Mars.

  17. Controlling charge balance and exciton recombination by bipolar host in single-layer organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xianfeng; Tao, Youtian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo; Wang, Lixiang; Qin, Jingui; Wang, Fosong

    2010-08-01

    Highly efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off are demonstrated by using a bipolar host material of 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) doped with iridium complexes as the emissive layer. For example, the green single-layer device, employing fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium Ir(ppy)3 as dopant, shows a peak current efficiency of 45.57 cd A-1, corresponding to external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 12.42%, and still exhibits efficiencies of 45.26 cd A-1 and 40.42 cd A-1 at luminance of 1000 and 10 000 cd m-2, respectively. In addition, the yellow and red single-layer devices, with bis(2-(9,9- diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-benzoimidazol-N ,C3)iridium(acetylacetonate) (fbi)2Ir(acac) and bis(1-phenylisoquinolinolato-C2,N)iridium(acetylacetonate) (piq)2Ir(acac) as emitter, also show high EQE of 7.04% and 7.28%, respectively. The transport properties of o-CzOXD film are well investigated by current-voltage measurement, from which both hole and electron mobility are determined. It is found that the o-CzOXD shows appealing bipolar transport character, which is favor for the balanced charge distribution in the whole doped zone. More importantly, the multifunctional role of hole trapping and electron transporting of the iridium complex in o-CzOXD further balances the charge carriers and broadens the recombination zone. As a result, the recombination of electrons and holes is significantly improved and the triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching processes are effectively suppressed, eventually leading to the high efficiency as well as the reduced efficiency roll-off.

  18. Regional Attenuation at GSETT-3 Stations and the Transportability of the Lg/P Discriminant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Tectonic, Cenozoic Continental, Paleozoic and Mesozoic (150-800 Ma), Proterozoic (800-1700 Ma), and Archean (> 1700 Ma). The Young Ocean, Intermediate...Continental, Paleozoic and Mesozoic , Proterozoic, and Archean represent young to old relatively stable continental environments. Figure 3 shows the...combine Cenozoic Continental, Paleozoic and Mesozoic , Proterozoic, and 3 tot -71 t c0 4c C6) -0-M 5c 00 C) CZ- CIA apna C-4 60 Aarchean into a single

  19. Mu Wave Suppression during the Perception of Meaningless Syllables: EEG Evidence of Motor Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew; Harkrider, Ashley; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Motor involvement in speech perception has been recently studied using a variety of techniques. In the current study, EEG measurements from Cz, C3 and C4 electrodes were used to examine the relative power of the mu rhythm (i.e., 8-13 Hz) in response to various audio-visual speech and non-speech stimuli, as suppression of these rhythms is…

  20. A Computer-Based Gaming System for Assessing Recognition Performance (RECOG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Game Testing Softwiare Tools 1S *AhCZ XPP .. w o Awex &w awe *a% -This report documents a computer-based gaming sytem for uassesing recog- nition...then, pro- vides a set of software tools which can be used by others who want to assess recognition performance. The software for the complete gaming...this set of software tools for either research, development, or operational implementation will have an easier time comprehending the modularity of

  1. Emergence of sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing NDM-1 and VIM-1 metallo-β-lactamases in a Greek hospital.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, C C; Malli, E; Florou, Z; Sarrou, S; Hrabak, J; Mantzarlis, K; Zakynthinos, E; Petinaki, E

    2017-03-01

    Sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae, coproducing NDM-1 and VIM-1 metallo-β-lactamases, were isolated in a Greek hospital. blaNDM-1 was part of a Tn125 derivative, located on an ~90-kb plasmid similar to the NDM-1-encoding plasmid pB-3002cz. blaVIM-1 was located in an In-e541-like integron, carried on a multireplicon (IncA/C and IncR) plasmid of ~180kb.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, cilostazol, and antioxidants, enzymatically-modified isoquercitrin and α-lipoic acid, reduce dextran sulphate sodium-induced colorectal mucosal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kangawa, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Abe, Hajime; Seto, Yoshiki; Miyashita, Taishi; Nakamura, Michi; Kihara, Tohru; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    Developing effective treatments and preventing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgent challenges in improving patients' health. It has been suggested that platelet activation and reactive oxidative species generation are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. We examined the inhibitory effects of a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, cilostazol (CZ), and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) and α-lipoic acid (ALA), against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. BALB/c mice were treated with 0.3% CZ, 1.5% EMIQ, and 0.2% ALA in their feed. Colitis was induced by administering 5% DSS in drinking water for 8days. The inhibitory effects of these substances were evaluated by measuring relevant clinical symptoms (faecal blood, diarrhoea, and body weight loss), colon length, plasma cytokine and chemokine levels, whole genome gene expression, and histopathology. Diarrhoea was suppressed by each treatment, while CZ prevented shortening of the colon length. All treatment groups exhibited decreased plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α compared with the DSS group. Microarray analysis showed that cell adhesion, cytoskeleton regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, which might be related to inflammatory cell infiltration and mucosal healing, were affected in all the groups. DSS-induced mucosal injuries such as mucosal loss, submucosal oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the distal colon were prevented by CZ or antioxidant treatment. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of these agents reduced DSS-induced mucosal injuries in mice and, therefore, may provide therapeutic benefits in IBD.

  3. Optoelectronics: Continuously Spatial-Wavelength-Tunable Nanowire Lasers on a Single Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially composition-graded CdxPb1-xS nanowires on a single substrate: a design study, Optics Express (07 2011...R.B. Liu. SPATIALLY COMPOSITION-GRADED ALLOY SEMICONDUCTOR NANOWIRES AND WAVELENGTH SPECIFIC LATERAL-MULTIJUNCTION FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR CELLS , (06...Stat. Sol B247, 774-788 (2010) 6. D. A. Caselli and C.Z. Ning, High-performance laterally-arranged multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially

  4. Spatial collection efficiency of a solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.; Ruokolainen, J.; Uotila, P.; Hovinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial collection efficiency C(z) is the probability that a photon absorbed at the point z in the cell will yield a charge carrier into the current. The C function is obtained from the spectral response by means of the inverse Laplace transformation. It gives important information on the cell parameters such as diffusion length, junction depth, surface recombination velocity, etc. Examples of c-Si and thin-film CdS/CdTe cells are given.

  5. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR.

  6. Highly Efficient Organic Hole Transporting Materials for Perovskite and Organic Solar Cells with Long-Term Stability.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Saripally Sudhaker; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Moon, Jong Hun; Lee, Jin Yong; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-27

    Small molecules based on N-atom-linked phenylcarbazole-fluorene as the main scaffold, end-capped with spirobifluorene derivatives, are developed as organic hole-transporting materials for highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The CzPAF-SBF-based devices show remarkable device performance with excellent long-term stability in PSCs and BHJ IOSCs with a maximum PCE of 17.21% and 7.93%, respectively.

  7. Towards the solution of Schwinger-Dyson equations in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, V.

    2001-08-01

    This is an abstract of authors PhD thesis which is devoted to studies of quantum field models with strong coupling. The Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) in momentum representation are solved in Minkowski space. The original version of the paper hep-ph/0108160 is included in. The full text of author's PhD thesis can be found at this WWW: 'http://gemma.ujf.cas.cz/~sauli/papers.html'

  8. High-frequency ultrasound in carpal tunnel syndrome: assessment of patient eligibility for surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Katarzyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Zespół kanału nadgarstka (ZKN) jest najczęstszą neuropatią uciskową i częstą przyczyną zwolnień lekarskich z powodu przeciążenia ręki związanego z pracą. Optymalne postępowanie w tym zespole zależy od wczesnego rozpoznania i podjęcia odpowiedniego leczenia (zachowawczego lub operacyjnego).

  9. Ultrasound imaging in the general practitioner's office - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Genc, Alicja; Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonografia, będąca bezpieczną i nieinwazyjną metodą diagnostyczną, wykorzystującą coraz bardziej udoskonalone techniki obrazowania, stała się badaniem pierwszego wyboru w wielu schorzeniach. Coraz częściej stosowana jest w gabinecie lekarza rodzinnego jako metoda uzupełniająca badania podmiotowe i przedmiotowe.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Fire Station/Air Traffic Control Tower/RAPCON at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    have any questions please contact Duane Klinner at (701) 32a-3576. s~ ’ c:z_. ~ Merlan E. Paaverud, Jr. State Historic Preservation Officer...correspondence for this specific project. If you have any questions please contact Duane Klinner at (701) 328-3576. sn~ ~~ Merlan E. Paaverud...project. If you have any questions please contact Duane Klinner at (701) 328-3576. Sincerely, (l;__;K~ Merlan E. Paaverua, Jr. State Historic

  11. Environmental Assessment: Construct Mass/Mobility Parking Lot at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-13

    2003 ND SHPO Ref.: 97 .. 0527, Draft EA, Mass/Mobility Parking Lot, Grand Forks AFB, ND. Dear Ms. Durako: We have reviewed: Environmental Assessment...specific project. If you have any questions please contact Duane Klinner at (701) 328-3576. Sincerely, cZ:~ Merlan E. Paaverud, Jr. State Historic... we have reviewed the projeet and foresee no identiftable conflict with wildlife or wildlife habitat based on 1M information provided. D .. Q

  12. Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles provide long duration sustained-release effect for a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Hanley, Tracey; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2011-07-30

    This study is the first to demonstrate the ability of nanostructured liquid crystal particles to sustain the absorption of a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration. Cubic (V(2)) liquid crystalline nanostructured particles (cubosomes) formed from phytantriol (PHY) were shown to sustain the absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) beyond 48h after oral administration to rats. Plasma concentrations were sustained within the range of 21.5±1.5ng/mL from 12 to 48h. In stark contrast, cubosomes prepared using glyceryl monooleate (GMO) did not sustain the absorption of CZ and drug concentrations fell below quantifiable levels after 24h. Sustained absorption of CZ from PHY cubosomes lead to a significant enhancement (p<0.05) in oral bioavailability (F%=21%) compared to a CZ suspension (9%) and oleic acid emulsion (12%). Analysis of the nanostructured particles in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the V(2)Pn3m nanostructure of PHY cubosomes was maintained for extended periods of time, in contrast to GMO cubosomes where the V(2)Im3m nanostructure was lost within 18h after exposure, suggesting that degradation of the LC nanostructure may limit sustained drug release. In addition, PHY cubosomes were shown to be extensively retained in the stomach (>24h) leading to the conclusion that in the case of non-digestible PHY cubosomes, the stomach may act as a non-sink reservoir that facilitates the slow release of poorly water soluble drugs, highlighting the potential use of non-digestible LC nanostructured particles as novel sustained oral drug delivery systems.

  13. Delayed Effects of Proton Irradiation in Macaca mulatta. III. Glucose Intolerance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    rradiated subjects were tested in groups of 5 over a 20-week period. Test subjects were randomly selected with respect to radiation exposure, but the group...M m $ZCLA0Y M M -- Iwo COO c CzMCCC I* CMCM C Z~ACC’S wI y t-*- $ -- 4.. *; . .* .I .4. N* *0 C .I’ - L,- .+1 a) UV ) 5 𔃺-.000’. 1 (’. L0.- t- I LANLA

  14. BCD/CPS: An event-level GEANT3 parallelization via CPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.A.

    1991-04-01

    BCD/CPS is an implementation of the Bottom Collider Detector GEANT3 simulation for CPS processor ranches. BCD/CPS demonstrates some of the capabilities of event-parallel applications applicable to current SSC detector simulations using the CPS and CZ/CPS communications protocols. Design, implementation and usage of the BCD/CPS simulation are presented along with extensive source listings for novice GEANT3/CPS programmers. 11 refs.

  15. Phase I Experimental Testing of a Generic Submarine Model in the DSTO Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    a possible wake effect from the model support and fairing. In contrast, the Z force coefficient in the body-axis (CZ) is relatively symmetric about...of the flow around the aerodynamic fairing, and the turbulent wake structures downstream of the vertical support pylon-model body junction. Figure 8...of the results gathered using this flow visualisation technique. Unsteady Wake Region Figure 9 - A typical tufting flow visualisation

  16. Mentoring and Leadership Development in the Officer Corps of the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    universal in its effects . Hypothesis 10 is important in its finding that mentored officers view mentoring as being a more valuable tool for leadership ...0 MENTORING AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN THE OFFICER CORPS FOF THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE THESIS F D E Michael E. UeckerCaptain, USAF CZ’ AFIT/GSM...AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN THE OFFICER CORPS OF THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE THESIS - Michael E. Uecker Captain, USAF AFIT/GSM/LSY/84S-30 DTICF-il

  17. Substructure and Dynamics of the Fornax Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, Michael J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Colless, Matthew

    2001-02-01

    We present the first dynamical analysis of a galaxy cluster to include a large fraction of dwarf galaxies. Our sample of 108 Fornax Cluster members measured with the UK Schmidt Telescope FLAIR-II spectrograph contains 55 dwarf galaxies (15.5>bJ>18.0 or -16>MB>-13.5). Hα emission shows that 36%+/-8% of the dwarfs are star forming, twice the fraction implied by morphological classifications. The total sample has a mean velocity of 1493+/-36 km s-1 and a velocity dispersion of 374+/-26 km s-1. The dwarf galaxies form a distinct population: their velocity dispersion (429+/-41 km s-1) is larger than that of the giants (308+/-30 km s-1) at the 98% confidence level. This suggests that the dwarf population is dominated by infalling objects whereas the giants are virialized. The Fornax system has two components, the main Fornax Cluster centered on NGC 1399 with cz=1478 km s-1 and σcz=370 km s-1 and a subcluster centered 3° to the southwest including NGC 1316 with cz=1583 km s-1 and σcz=377 km s-1. This partition is preferred over a single cluster at the 99% confidence level. The subcluster, a site of intense star formation, is bound to Fornax and probably infalling toward the cluster core for the first time. We discuss the implications of this substructure for distance estimates of the Fornax Cluster. We determine the cluster mass profile using the method of Diaferio, which does not assume a virialized sample. The mass within a projected radius of 1.4 Mpc is (7+/-2)×1013 Msolar, and the mass-to-light ratio is 300+/-100 Msolar/Lsolar. The mass is consistent with values derived from the projected mass virial estimator and X-ray measurements at smaller radii.

  18. Novel carbazole-phenothiazine dyads for dye-sensitized solar cells: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Gabriele; Reddy, Marri Anil; Singh, Surya Prakash; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; De Angelis, Filippo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Chandrasekharam, Malapaka

    2013-10-09

    We report a joint experimental and computational work on new organic donor-acceptor dye sensitizers in which a carbazole (CZ) and a phenothiazine (PTZ) units are linked together by an alkyl C6H13, while two different anchoring groups are employed: the cyanoacrylic acid (CS1A, CSORG1) and the rhodanine-3-acetic acid (CS4A, CSORG4). The CZ moiety has multiple roles of (i) acting as an extra-electron donor portion, providing more electron density on the PTZ; (ii) suppressing the back-electron transfer from TiO2 to the electrolyte by forming a compact insulating dye layer; (iii) modulating dye aggregation on the semiconductor surface; and (iv) acting as an antenna, collecting photons and, through long-range energy transfer, redirecting the captured energy to the dye sensitizer. We show that the introduction of the CZ donor remarkably enhances the photovoltaic performances of the rhodanine-based dye, compared to the corresponding simple PTZ dye, with more than a two-fold increase in the overall efficiencies, while it does not bring beneficial effects in the case of the cyanoacrylic-based sensitizer. Based on quantum mechanical calculations and experimental measurements, we show that, in addition to a favored long-range energy transfer, which increases the light absorption in the blue region of the spectrum, the presence of the CZ unit in the CSORG4 dye effectively induces a beneficial aggregation pattern on the semiconductor surface, yielding a broadened and red-shifted light absorption, accounting for the two-fold increase in the generated photocurrent.

  19. Asymptotic Properties of Distributed and Communicating Stochastic Approximation Algorithms,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    L ECTE W1 DDEC B Approved for public release; Diztxiblltiofl Unlimited 15TW- ’p. *~8"~ ,$1Q Unclassified SECURITY CLAS FICATION OF THIS PAGE (ftm Owa...ORGANIZATION NAME AND AORESS 𔃺. P"QRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Lefschetz Center for Dynamical Systems AEIA WORK UNIT NUMBERS Division of Applied Mathematics...unclassified C\\~z \\\\A D. ECLASSIFICATION/ OOWNGRAOING 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thl R aprt) Approved for public release: distribution unlimited 17

  20. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on revere. old. $1 nocoeoary and identify by block nuvb.,) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickne)s Rotor Camber...COMPRESSOR ’Q ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume III D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson CZ) General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. WAN BI Director, Turbine Engine Division ŕ *If your address has changed, if you wish

  1. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  2. Involvement of sulfates from cruzipain, a major antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the interaction with immunomodulatory molecule Siglec-E.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Heins, Anja M; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; Esteva, Mónica I; Jacobs, Thomas; Duschak, Vilma G

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the involvement of sulfated groups in the Trypanosoma cruzi host-parasite relationship, we studied the interaction between the major cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi, cruzipain (Cz), a sulfate-containing sialylated molecule and the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin like lectin-E (Siglec-E). To this aim, ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assays and flow cytometry, using mouse Siglec-E-Fc fusion molecules and glycoproteins of parasites, were performed. Competition assays verified that the lectins, Maackia amurensis II (Mal II) and Siglec-E-Fc, compete for the same binding sites. Taking into account that Mal II binding remains unaltered by sulfation, we established this lectin as sialylation degree control. Proteins of an enriched microsomal fraction showed the highest binding to Siglec-E as compared with those from the other parasite subcellular fractions. ELISA assays and the affinity purification of Cz by a Siglec-E column confirmed the interaction between both molecules. The significant decrease in binding of Siglec-E-Fc to Cz and to its C-terminal domain (C-T) after desulfation of these molecules suggests that sulfates contribute to the interaction between Siglec-E-Fc and these glycoproteins. Competitive ELISA assays confirmed the involvement of sulfated epitopes in the affinity between Siglec-E and Cz, probably modified by natural protein environment. Interestingly, data from flow cytometry of untreated and chlorate-treated parasites suggested that sulfates are not primary receptors, but enhance the binding of Siglec-E to trypomastigotic forms. Altogether, our findings support the notion that sulfate-containing sialylated glycoproteins interact with Siglec-E, an ortholog protein of human Siglec-9, and might modulate the immune response of the host, favoring parasitemia and persistence of the parasite.

  3. Advanced Waveform Research Methods for GERESS Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-15

    Leipzig University, Stuttgart Univer- sity, NORSAR, Oklahoma Geol. Survey, ORFEUS , and seismological institutes in Austria, CZ, Hungary, Slovenija...From Precambrian to Variscian Europe, in: A contient re- veale~d- Mh European Geotravers, pp. 153 - 164, ed. Blundell, D., Free - n R & Mueler St...those may be affected by anisotropy and the free surface. Errors are typically larger than those from array data (GSE/35/CRP/228, 1993). In comparison

  4. Experimental and theoretical evidence for vacancy-clustering-induced large voids in Czochralski-grown germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, S.; Vanhellemont, J.; Poelman, D.; Clauws, P.; Romandic, I.; Theuwis, A.; Holsteyns, F.; Van Steenbergen, J.

    2005-08-01

    Optical inspection of polished Czochralski-grown Ge wafers typically reveals the presence of surface pits similar to the Crystal Originated Particles (COP's) observed in silicon but in a wider variety of sizes and shapes. Computer simulation of vacancy clustering during the Cz germanium crystal growth suggests that the surface pits originate from large voids formed by the diffusion-limited clustering of an excess of vacancies.

  5. Theoretical and Laboratory Study of Deep-Based Structures. Volume 2. Model Tests and Analyses of Mighty Epic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-15

    o 00a H, C CNI C. 00 C:0 4 cz 0 4 0 0 C0 H Dr m Iq ci -q 0 Hn H* H1 CH 14 ’.0 .0 .0 0) 00) -4 ~ 0L H 0 0 * UO 4~4) H .3 m 0 H H H 0 21- 1.3...mixture of PETN and microspheres). The machine has the capability to apply isotropic, uniaxial strain or more general triaxial loadings that may be

  6. Human factors of target detection tasks within heavily cluttered video scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Samuel; Wellig, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Background: Algorithms show difficulties in distinguishing weak signals of a target from a cluttered background, a task that humans tend to master relatively easily. We conducted two studies to identify how various degrees of clutter influence operator performance and search patterns in a visual target detection task. Methods: First, 8 male subjects had to look for specific female targets within a heavily cluttered public area. Subjects were supported by differing amounts of markings that helped them to identify females in general. We presented video clips and analyzed the search patterns. Second, 18 subject matter experts had to identify targets on a heavily frequented motorway intersection. We presented them with video material from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveillance mission. The video image was subdivided in three zones: The central zone (CZ), a circle area of 10°. The peripheral zone (PZ) corresponding to a 4:3 format and the hyper peripheral zone (HPZ) which represented the lateral region specific to the 16:9 format. We analyzed fixation densities and task performance. Results: We found an approximately U-shaped correlation between the number of markings in a video and the degree of structure in search patterns as well as performance. For the motorway surveillance task we found a difference in mean detection time for CZ vs. HPZ (p=0.01) and PZ vs. HPZ (p=0.003) but no difference for CZ vs. PZ (p=0.491). There were no differences in detection rate for the respective zones. We found the highest fixation density in CZ decreasing towards HPZ. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that markings could increase surveillance operator performance in a cluttered environment as long as their number is kept in an optimal range. When performing a search task within a heavily cluttered environment, humans tend to show rather erratic search patterns and spend more time watching central picture areas.

  7. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Solar cells from HEM, Dendritic Webs, and EFG ribbons were fabricated and characterized. The HEM solar cells showed only slight enhancement in cell performance after gettering steps (diffusion glass) were added. Dendritic webs from various growth runs indicated that performance of solar cells made from the webs was not as good as that of the conventional CZ cells. The EFG ribbons grown in CO ambient showed significant improvement in silicon quality.

  8. Performance of Passive and Active Sonars in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    150 km, or two and one half CZ’s. We label such figures as a depth-direction sine 1Both the internal wave and RAM MATLAB codes were provided by Matt...solution reflects a CZ like behavior.) The figures have encapsulate the ray arrivals very Figure 2: Left: Directional wave spectra vs subaperture...no shallow rays near the surface. Significant energy does not appear until approximately 250 m. After this there are just two paths until 1500 m

  9. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  10. Logistics Handbook for Strategic Mobility Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    AD-A257 075 MTMCTEA REFERENCE 92-700-2 LOGISTICS HANDBOOK FOR STRATEGIC 7 DTIGMOBILITY >CT 2 8 1992 SEPTEMBER 1992 MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT...unlimited.,, I MTMCTEA Reference 92-700-2 LOGISTICS HANDBOOK FOR STRATEGIC MOBILITY PLANNING September 1992 Aces gaj 0 n For (NTIS cz MILITARY TRAFFIC ...Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA) transportation and transportability studies. D. REFERENCES Source references

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: For Construction of a Security Forces Complex on Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Lubricant Preservative CO Carbon Monoxide CZ Clear Zone CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act EA Environmental Assessment EIAP Environmental Impact...Microns RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SO2 Sulfur Oxides SR State Road SWPPP Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TCLP Toxicity...0.46 0.05 a Source: USEPA, 1999 CO = carbon monoxide NOX = nitrogen oxides VOC = volatile organic compounds SO2 = sulfur oxides PM10 = particulate

  12. Final Environmental Assessment for Camp Rudder Master Plan at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-07

    Building BMP Best Management Practices CAA Clean Air Act CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide CZ...Emissions Rate SIP State Implementation Plan SO2 Sulfur Dioxide sq ft Square Feet SWPPP Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TCLP Toxicity...occurring mineral whose crystals form long, thin fibers . Asbestos was widely used in manufacturing in the late 1800s because of its insulating

  13. Final Environmental Assessment: To Relocate Air Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal Administrative Complex at Eglin Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Engineering CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide CWA Clean Water Act CZ Clear Zone CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act DoD Department of...undifferentiated alluvial, fluvial, floodplain and coastal sediments. Quartz (siliclastics), shells (aragonite) and freshwater carbonates are abundant...Point Source 28 49 15 12 79 Grand Total 63,274 7,132 8,723 839 10,333 CO= Carbon Monoxide; NOx=Nitrogen Oxide; PM10=Particulate Matter; SO2=Sulfur

  14. Applications of Eigenstructure Assignment to Design of Robust MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) Decoupling Controllers and to Reconfiguration Algorithms for Damaged Flight Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    0 * NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 00 Monterey, California A DTIC ELECTE MAY 1 4 9871 c~z( D THESIS APPLICATIONS OF EIGENSTRUCTURE ASSIGNMENT TO DESIGN OF... Thesis Advisor D.J. Collins Approved for public release; distribution iE unlimited. 87 U DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE...reconfiguring damaged digital flight controllers is then p resented. The thesis concludes with reconfigy red solution demonstrations as applied to the

  15. Thermal Modeling of Millimeter Wave Energy and Heat Transfer in Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-25

    28th Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society. Cancun, Mexico. (N.J. Millenbaugh, R. Sypniewska, C.C. Roth, V. Chan, C.Z. Cerna, B.J. Brott...exposure of rat skin: numerical and experimental results." 29th Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, Kanazawa, Japan. (D.A. Nelson, R...34 29* Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, Kanazawa, Japan. (W. Hubert, N. Millenbaugh, C. Roth, R. Sypniewska, V. Chan, J. Eggers, R

  16. An attempt to correlate surface physics with chemical properties: molecular beam and Kelvin probe investigations of Ce1-xZrxO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Sadhu K; Dubey, Anjani; Date, Kalyani S; Datar, Suwarna; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2016-10-05

    What is the correlation between physical properties of the surfaces (such as surface potential, electronic nature of the surface), and chemical and catalysis properties (such as chemisorption, sticking probability of surface)? An attempt has been made to explore any correlation that might exist between the physical and chemical properties of thin film surfaces. Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM) and the molecular beam (MB) methods were employed to carry out the surface potential, and oxygen adsorption and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements on Ce1-xZrxO2 thin films. A sol-gel synthesis procedure and spin-coating deposition method have been applied to make continuous nanocrystalline Ce1-xZrxO2 (x = 0-1) (CZ) thin films with uniform thickness (35-50 nm); however, surface roughness and porosity inherently changes with CZ composition. MB studies of O2 adsorption on CZ reveal high OSC for Ce0.9Zr0.1O2, which also exhibits highly porous and significantly rough surface characteristics. The surface potential observed from KPM studies varied between 30 and 80 mV, with Ce-rich compositions exhibiting the highest surface potential. Surface potential shows large changes after reduction or oxidation of the CZ film demonstrating the influence of Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) on surface potential, which is also a key to catalytic activity for ceria-based catalysts. The surface potential measured from KPM and the OSC measured from MB vary linearly and they depend on the Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) ratio. More and detailed studies are suggested to arrive at a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces.

  17. Dysregulation of RNA Interference in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    of microRNAs by stem-loop RT–PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 33: e179. Chen CZ, Li L, Lodish HF, Bartel DP. (2004). MicroRNAs modulate hematopoietic lineage...2005) Cell 122, 6–7 8. Chen, C. Z., Li, L., Lodish , H. F., and Bartel, D. P. (2004) Science 303, 83–86 9. Chen, C. Z. (2005) N. Engl. J. Med. 353

  18. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Restructuring research objectives from a technical readiness demonstration program to an investigation of high risk, high payoff activities associated with producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material is reported. Deletion of the module frame in favor of a frameless design, and modification in cell series parallel electrical interconnect configuration are reviewed. A baseline process sequence was identified for the fabrication of modules using the selected dendritic web sheet material, and economic evaluations of the sequence were completed.

  19. Capture-Zone Areas & the Wigner Distribution: New Case of Universal Scaling of Spacings in Fluctuating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.

    2007-03-01

    When investigating scaling of island sizes during growth in d dimensions, one should consider the distribution of the areas of proximity cells around nucleation centers, i.e. capture zones (CZ). Using data from kinematic Monte Carlo studies, we find that the CZ distributions in both d = 1 and d = 2 are well described by the generalized Wigner distribution (GWD) from random-matrix theory: P(s)=as^(-bs^2). P(s) accounts for a broad range of fluctuation phenomena, inc. the terrace-width distribution (TWD) on vicinal surfaces. For CZ distributions, we find = i + d/2, where i is the critical nucleus size. We present a phenomenological justification by constructing a Langevin equation similar to that used in accounting for the equilibration of TWDs. We discuss implications for processing and analysis of experimental data. Mulheran et al., PRB 53 ('96) 10261, 54 ('96) 11681; EPL 49 ('00) 617, 65 (’04) 379. Amar, Family, et al., PRL 74 ('95) 2066; PRB 64 (’01) 205404. Evans, Bartelt, et al. PRB 66 (’02) 235410; SSR 61 ('06) 1. A. Pimpinelli, H. Gebremariam, & T.L. Einstein, PRL 95 ('05) 246101

  20. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of high-grade host rocks to the Venetia kimberlite diatremes, Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Creus, P. K.; Anthonissen, C. J.; Stoch, B.; Ekkerd, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Beit Bridge Complex of the Central Zone (CZ) of the Limpopo Belt hosts the 519 ± 6 Ma Venetia kimberlite diatremes. Deformed shelf- or platform-type supracrustal sequences include the Mount Dowe, Malala Drift and Gumbu Groups, comprising quartzofeldspathic units, biotite-bearing gneiss, quartzite, metapelite, metacalcsilicate and ortho- and para-amphibolite. Previous studies define tectonometamorphic events at 3.3-3.1 Ga, 2.7-2.5 Ga and 2.04 Ga. Detailed structural mapping over 10 years highlights four deformation events at Venetia. Rules-based implicit 3D modelling in Leapfrog Geo™ provides an unprecedented insight into CZ ductile deformation and sheath folding. D1 juxtaposed gneisses against metasediments. D2 produced a pervasive axial planar foliation (S2) to isoclinal F2 folds. Sheared lithological contacts and S2 were refolded into regional, open, predominantly southward-verging, E-W trending F3 folds. Intrusion of a hornblendite protolith occurred at high angles to incipient S2. Constrictional-prolate D4 shows moderately NE-plunging azimuths defined by elongated hornblendite lenses, andalusite crystals in metapelite, crenulations in fuchsitic quartzite and sheath folding. D4 overlaps with a: 1) 2.03-2.01 Ga regional M3 metamorphic overprint; b) transpressional deformation at 2.2-1.9 Ga and c) 2.03 Ga transpressional, dextral shearing and thrusting around the CZ and d) formation of the Avoca, Bellavue and Baklykraal sheath folds and parallel lineations.

  1. Evaluation of the parameters of 1:1 charge transfer complexes from spectrophotometric data by non-linear numerical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, Serhiy A.; Perepichka, Igor F.; Popov, Anatolii F.

    2002-11-01

    The non-linear numerical method for evaluation of equilibrium constants and molar extinction coefficients of molecular complexes from a spectrophotometric experiment is described, which in contrast to linear models has no limitations with respect to concentrations of the components. The proposed procedure is applied to donor-acceptor interaction in solution between N-ethyl carbazole (EtCz) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or n-hexyl 2,5,7-trinitro-9-dicyanomethylenefluorene-4-carboxylate (HexDTFC) to evaluate the method and to obtain the parameters of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) formation. Association constants ( K) and molar extinction coefficients ( ɛ) of CTCs derived from non-linear approach (EtCz-TCNQ: K=2.49±0.19 M -1; ɛ=2950±160 M -1 cm -1. EtCz-HexDTFC: K=12.1±0.3 M -1; ɛ=1335±24 M -1 cm -1) are close to that from linear models but show lower standard errors in parameter estimations.

  2. Different Culture Metabolites of the Red Sea Fungus Fusarium equiseti Optimize the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease (HCV PR)

    PubMed Central

    Hawas, Usama W.; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T.; Turki, Adnan J.

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek’s (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM. The Cz culture extract exhibited high-level inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 27.6 μg/mL) compared to the biomalt culture extract (IC50 56 μg/mL), and the most potent HCV PR isolated compound (Griseoxanthone C, IC50 19.8 μM) from the bio-malt culture extract showed less of an inhibitory effect compared to isolated ω-hydroxyemodin (IC50 10.7 μM) from the optimized Cz culture extract. Both HCV PR active inhibitors ω-hydroxyemodin and griseoxanthone C were considered as the lowest selective safe constituents against Trypsin inhibitory effect with IC50 48.5 and 51.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27775589

  3. Intranasal brain-targeted clonazepam polymeric micelles for immediate control of status epilepticus: in vitro optimization, ex vivo determination of cytotoxicity, in vivo biodistribution and pharmacodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Nour, Samia A; Abdelmalak, Nevine S; Naguib, Marianne J; Rashed, Hassan M; Ibrahim, Ahmed B

    2016-11-01

    Clonazepam (CZ) is an anti-epileptic drug used mainly in status epilepticus (SE). The drug belongs to Class II according to BCS classification with very limited solubility and high permeability and it suffers from extensive first-pass metabolism. The aim of the present study was to develop CZ-loaded polymeric micelles (PM) for direct brain delivery allowing immediate control of SE. PM were prepared via thin film hydration (TFH) technique adopting a central composite face-centered design (CCFD). The seventeen developed formulae were evaluated in terms of entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro release. For evaluating the in vivo behavior of the optimized formula, both biodistrbution using (99m)Tc-radiolabeled CZ and pharmacodynamics studies were done in addition to ex vivo cytotoxicty. At a drug:Pluronic® P123:Pluronic® L121 ratio of 1:20:20 (PM7), a high EE, ZP, Q8h, and a low PDI was achieved. The biodistribution studies revealed that the optimized formula had significantly higher drug targeting efficiency (DTE = 242.3%), drug targeting index (DTI = 144.25), and nose-to-brain direct transport percentage (DTP = 99.30%) and a significant prolongation of protection from seizures in comparison to the intranasally administered solution with minor histopathological changes. The declared results reveal the ability of the developed PM to be a strong potential candidate for the emergency treatment of SE.

  4. Characterization of the loss of the dislocation-free growth during Czochralski silicon pulling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterne, Adeline; Gaspar, Guilherme; Hu, Yu; Øvrelid, Eivind; Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The loss of the dislocation-free growth (structure loss) during Czochralski (Cz) silicon pulling can have a strong negative impact on the production yield of the Cz photovoltaic industry. As almost no publication has been dedicated to this phenomenon in the past, this paper aims at investigate in detail the loss of the dislocation-free growth and its origin by characterizing an industrial-scale n-type Cz silicon ingot exhibiting such issue. After the occurrence of a perturbation, generation and propagation of slip dislocations in the already grown crystal have been observed. These dislocations, generated over the whole ingot cross-section, propagate with the solidification front during further growth. Additional small perturbations seem then to be responsible for their multiplication together with the transition to a multicrystalline structure. Investigations were conducted to find the perturbation causing the structure loss in the ingot. A pinhole, small gas bubble of 0.5 mm diameter, was identified as the main cause for the generation of dislocations.

  5. Impact of intramolecular twisting and exciton migration on emission efficiency of multifunctional fluorene-benzothiadiazole-carbazole compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpicz, R.; Puzinas, S.; Krotkus, S.; Kazlauskas, K.; Jursenas, S.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Grigalevicius, S.; Gulbinas, V.

    2011-05-01

    Novel donor-acceptor compounds consisting of singly bonded fluorene (Fl), benzothiadiazole (BT), and carbazole (Cz) functional units in the same molecule were investigated. Analysis of the optical spectra and fluorescence transients of the compounds revealed the domination of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states with high fluorescence quantum yield (72%-85%). A similar Cz-Fl-Cz compound exhibiting 100% fluorescence quantum yield and no ICT character was also studied as a reference to reveal the impact of electron-accepting BT groups. Thorough examination of the optical properties of the compounds in different media, i.e., dilute solution and polymer matrix, indicated their twisted conformations due to steric hindrance in the ground state and flattened geometry in the excited state for both reference and ICT compounds. Remarkable fluorescence efficiency losses (amounting to 70%) observed upon casting the molecular solutions into neat films were determined to originate from the low-fluorescent twisted conformers and migration-facilitated exciton quenching. The majority of emission efficiency losses (over 70%) were caused by the twisted conformers, whereas only less than 30% by exciton-migration-induced nonradiative deactivation.

  6. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    SciTech Connect

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; Fanto, Michael L.; Kaplan, Lev; Smith, Amos Matthew

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally, we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.

  7. Future application of Czochralski crystal pulling for silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlcok, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Czochralski (Cz) crystal pulling has been the predominant method used for preparing silicon single crystal for the past twenty years. The fundamental technology used has changed little. However, great strides have been made in learning how to make the crystals bigger and of better quality at ever increasing productivity rates. Currently charge sizes of 50 kg of polycrystal silicon are being used for production and crystals up to ten inches in diameter have been grown without major difficulty. The largest material actually being processed in silicon wafer form is 150 mm (6 inches) in diameter. Growing of crystals in a magnetic field has proved to be particularly useful for microscopic impurity control. Major developments in past years on equipment for Cz crystal pulling have included the automatic growth control of the diameter as well as the starting core of the crystal, the use of magnetic fields and around the crystal puller to supress convection, various recharging schemes for dopant control and the use of continuous liquid feed in the crystal puller. The latter, while far from being a reliable production process, is ideal in concept for major improvement in Cz crystal pulling. The Czochralski process will maintain its dominance of silicon crystal production for many years.

  8. The effects of bromazepam over the central and frontal areas during a motor task: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Suzete; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Araújo, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Juliana; Aprigio, Danielle; Gongora, Mariana; Teixeira, Silmar; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis F; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the influence of bromazepam while executing a motor task. Specifically, we intend to analyze the changes in alpha absolute power under two experimental conditions, bromazepam and placebo. We also included analyses of theta and beta frequencies. We collected electroencephalographic data before, during, and after motor task execution. We used a Two Way ANOVA to investigate the condition (PL × Br6 mg) and moment (pre and post) variables for the following electrodes: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, C3, CZ and C4. We found a main effect for condition on the electrodes FP1, F7, F3, Fz, F4, C3 and CZ, for alpha and beta bands. For beta band we also found a main effect for condition on the electrodes Fp2, F8 and C4; for theta band we identified a main effect for condition on C3, Cz and C4 electrodes. This finding suggests that the motor task did not have any influence on the electrocortical activity in alpha, and that the existing modifications were a consequence due merely to the drug use. Despite its anxiolytic and sedative action, bromazepam did not show any significant changes when the individuals executed a finger extension motor task.

  9. [Changes in movement-related cortical potentials in Parkinson's patients before and after treatment with levodopa].

    PubMed

    Feve, A P; Bathien, N; Rondot, P

    1991-05-01

    Cortical potentials associated with voluntary, self-paced wrist flexion (MRPs) were recorded from 3 scalp locations (Cz and psi contralateral hand motor area) in patients with Parkinson's disease (9 de novo patients and 30 L-Dopa treated patients). The analysis concerned 3 components of the MRPs: the 2 slow negative shifts (NS1 and N1) before the movement onset and the motor potential (MP). The NSI amplitude was measured at Cz, the peak negativity N1 and MP from contralateral hand motor area location. The potential distribution was also studied. The amplitude of the MRPs components was the same as in the normals. But in de novo patients, the potential distribution of the NS1 component was different; a Cz preponderance of the NS1 amplitude was not found. In patients treated with L-Dopa, there is a negative correlation between the changes in amplitude and the changes in clinical rating for NS1, N1 and MP components. The decrease in the MRPs components was significant from stage III and IV of the Hoehn and Yahr scales. After L-Dopa therapy, the NS1 component from de novo patients was increased in amplitude. The amplitude of the MRPs components from patients with L-Dopa induced clinical fluctuations was reduced during "off" period in comparison to "on" period. The findings suggest that the NS1 potential and the N1 and MP components share 2 distinct systems for the control of voluntary movement. Their mechanism in Parkinson's disease is discussed.

  10. Changes in absolute theta power in bipolar patients during a saccadic attention task.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Consuelo; Diniz, Claudia; Di Girogio, Luiza; Bittencourt, Juliana; Gongora, Mariana; Ken Tanaka, Guaraci; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Novis, Fernanda; Angélica Silveira, Luciana; da Silva, Rafael de Assis; Cagy, Mauricio; Cheniaux, Elie; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-08-30

    The present study analyzed absolute theta power (ATP) in brain areas involved with attention in the three phase of BD while the patients performing a saccadic attention task. We hypothesized that patients in depression and mania states show a higher ATP compared to euthymic patients, since a higher ATP is indicative of attention deficit. We analyzed the frontal (F7, F3, Fz, F4 and F8) and central (C3, Cz and C4) areas. Thirty bipolar patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed a saccadic attention task while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography (20 channels). Our results showed a main effect for group over C3, C4, Cz, F7, F4, F8 electrodes, and a main effect for moment over Cz, F7, F8 electrodes. These results indicate that both task and groups produce changes in theta activity in distinct cortical areas that participate in the organization of attention. Our results therefore demonstrate that, although it is well established in the literature that theta has a relevant role in the attention process, it is necessary to deepen the investigations to better understand the specifics of theta during visual processing tasks that have a demand for attention.

  11. The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-02-01

    The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered.

  12. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Ching-Yao; Li, Shih-Wein; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong

    2008-10-01

    In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.

  13. Interactions between P300 and passive probe responses differ in different visual cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Michalski, A

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of firing thresholds of cortical neurons was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying the generation of the P300 component in the human event-related potential. According to this hypothesis, the detection of an important stimulus produced the widespread inhibition of "irrelevant" networks, interrupting their ongoing activity and facilitating the analysis of selected information. In the present experiment, the responsiveness of visual cortex was evaluated during the P300 potential by using additional, probing stimuli. Large separation of the cortical visual fields permitted separate analysis of the input and more advanced stages of processing. Responses were recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz and Oz scalp sites. P300 waves were evoked by visual, mentally counted stimuli in a standard "odd-ball" procedure. Visual probes were delivered 200, 300, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 ms later. No responses to the probes were required. Significant suppression of responses to the probes delivered less than 400 ms after target stimuli was found in Oz and Pz but not in Cz or Fz. The suppression was not proportional to the voltage levels from which probe responses started. In Fz and Cz, latencies of probe responses were elongated if probes were delivered less than 400 ms after target stimuli. The results suggest that probe responses suppressed by the P300 potential in occipital and parietal cortex may be restored in frontal areas. In these areas the P300 potential could delay probe responses instead of suppressing them.

  14. Constraints on anomalous tcZ coupling from overline{B}to {{overline{K}}^{*}}{μ+}{μ-} and B s → μ + μ - decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hui; Yang, Ya-Dong; Yuan, Xing-Bo

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the possible anomalous tcZ coupling effects in the b → s mediated decays overline{B}to {{overline{K}}^{*}}{μ+}{μ-} and B s → μ + μ -. After exploiting the available experimental data, the combined constraints on the anomalous coupling X_{ct}^L are derived. It is found that, the bound on the magnitude | {X_{ct}^L} | is dominated by the branching ratios of these two decays. Furthermore, one sign-flipped solution is excluded by the longitudinal fraction of overline{B}to {{overline{K}}^{*}}{μ+}{μ-} at the low dilepton mass region. After considering the combined constraints, for general complex coupling X_{ct}^L , the predicted upper bound on {B}( {tto cZ} ) are compatible with that from the recent CMS direct search. In particular, for the case of real coupling X_{ct}^L , the upper bound reads {B}( {tto cZ} )<6.3× {10^{-5 }} , which is much lower than the current CMS bound but still accessible at the LHC. With improved measurements at the LHC, the colser correlations between the t → cZ and b → s mediated (semi-) leptonic decays are expected in the near future.

  15. Behavior of nitrogen in Si crystal during irradiation and post-annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naohisa; Oyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kaori; Seki, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2014-02-21

    Radiation induced complexes in nitrogen (N) -doped silicon crystal was investigated by highly sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The absorption by N{sub 2} pair was reduced by the electron irradiation in FZ crystals. The absorptions appeared on both sides of N{sub 2} line at 766 cm{sup −1}, at about 725 and 778 cm{sup −1}. By the annealing, N{sub 2} lines recovered a little at 600 °C and mostly at 800 °C. The above new absorption lines reduced by the annealing at lower temperatures and other absorption appeared. In CZ silicon, N{sub 2} lines did not change by the irradiation. Dominant absorption in low carbon FZ silicon was that of C-rich type complexes, VO and I{sub n}C{sub i}O{sub im}(n=0–3, m=0,1). Dominant absorption in the irradiated low carbon CZ silicon was that of C-lean type complexes I{sub n}O{sub 2+mi}(n=1, 2, m=0, 1), and the decrease of C-lean type O{sub 2i} and TDD was observed. By the annealing of CZ Si, VO{sub n} (n=2–4) formation and annihilation was observed.

  16. Solar variability in irradiance and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jeff R.

    1995-01-01

    The signature of the solar cycle appears in helioseismic frequencies and splittings. It is known that the changing outer superadiabatic region of the sun is responsible for this. The deeper solar-cycle mechanism from the surface changes, and, in particular, how magnetic fields perturb the global modes, the solar irradiance and the luminosity, is discussed. The irradiance and helioseismic changes are described. The interpretation of seismic and photometric data is discussed, considering current one-dimensional models and phenomenology. It is discussed how the long term solar-cycle luminosity effect could be caused by changes occurring near the base of the convection zone (CZ). It is shown that a thin toroidal flux sheath at the top of the radiative zone changed the thermal stratification immediately below the CZ over a solar-cycle timescale in two ways: the temperature of the magnetized fluid becomes hotter than the surrounding fluid, and the temperature gradient steepens above the magnetized region. The testing of CZ dynamics and extension of numerical experiments to global scales are considered.

  17. Predicting the peculiar velocities of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Jacob; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Canavezes, A.; Saunders, W.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.; Keeble, O.; McMahon, R. G.; Maddox, S.; Oliver, S. J.; Sutherland, W.; Tadros, H.; White, S. D. M.

    1999-06-01

    We use the Least Action Principle to predict the peculiar velocities of PSC-z galaxies inside (cz = 2000 kms^{-1}). Linear theory is used to account for tidal effects to (cz = 15000 kms^{-1}), and we iterate galaxy positions to account for redshift distortions. As the Least Action Principle is valid beyond Linear theory, we can predict reliable velocities even for very nearby galaxies (ie cz <= 500 kms^{-1}). These predicted peculiar velocities are then compared with the observed velocities of 12 galaxies with Cepheid distances. The combination of the PSC-z galaxy survey (with its large sky coverage and uniform selection), with the accurate Cepheid distances, makes this comparison relatively free from systematic effects. We find that galaxies are good tracers of the mass, even at small (<= 10 h^{-1}Mpc) scales; and under the assumption of no biasing, β <= 0.75 (at 90% confidence). We use the reliable predicted peculiar velocities to estimate (H0) from the local volume without ``stepping up'' the distance ladder, finding a confidence range of 65-75 kms^{-1}Mpc^{-1} (at 90% confidence).

  18. Photometry of some neglected bright cataclysmic variables and candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2017-04-01

    As part of an effort to better characterize bright cataclysmic variables (CVs) which have received little attention in the past light curves of four confirmed systems (CZ Aql, BO Cet, V380 Oph and EF Tuc) and one candidate (Lib 3) are analyzed. For none of these stars time resolved photometry has been published previously. While no variability was found in the case of Lib 3, which thus cannot be confirmed as a CV, the light curves of all other targets are dominated by strong flickering. Modulations on hourly time scales superimposed on the flickering can probably be related to orbital variations in BO Cet and V380 Oph, but not in CZ Aql and EF Tuc. Variations on the time scale of 10 min in CZ Aql, while not yet constituting convincing evidence, together with previous suspicions of a magnetically channeled accretion flow may point at an intermediate polar nature of this star. Some properties of the flickering are quantified in an effort to enlarge the data base for future comparative flickering studies in CVs and to refine the classification of the target stars.

  19. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    DOE PAGES

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; ...

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally,more » we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.« less

  20. Cytokinin metabolism in maize: Novel evidence of cytokinin abundance, interconversions and formation of a new trans-zeatin metabolic product with a weak anticytokinin activity.

    PubMed

    Hluska, Tomáš; Dobrev, Petre I; Tarkowská, Dana; Frébortová, Jitka; Zalabák, David; Kopečný, David; Plíhal, Ondřej; Kokáš, Filip; Briozzo, Pierre; Zatloukal, Marek; Motyka, Václav; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are an important group of phytohormones. Their tightly regulated and balanced levels are essential for proper cell division and plant organ development. Here we report precise quantification of CK metabolites and other phytohormones in maize reproductive organs in the course of pollination and kernel maturation. A novel enzymatic activity dependent on NADP(+) converting trans-zeatin (tZ) to 6-(3-methylpyrrol-1-yl)purine (MPP) was detected. MPP shows weak anticytokinin properties and inhibition of CK dehydrogenases due to their ability to bind to an active site in the opposite orientation than substrates. Although the physiological significance of tZ side-chain cyclization is not anticipated as the MPP occurrence in maize tissue is very low, properties of the novel CK metabolite indicate its potential for utilization in plant in vitro tissue culture. Furthermore, feeding experiments with different isoprenoid CKs revealed distinct preferences in glycosylation of tZ and cis-zeatin (cZ). While tZ is preferentially glucosylated at the N9 position, cZ forms mainly O-glucosides. Since O-glucosides, in contrast to N9-glucosides, are resistant to irreversible cleavage catalyzed by CK dehydrogenases, the observed preference of maize CK glycosyltransferases to O-glycosylate zeatin in the cis-position might be a reason why cZ derivatives are over-accumulated in different maize tissues and organs.

  1. New high performance Si for optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenma, T.; Matsuzaka, M.; Sako, R.; Takase, K.; Chiba, K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the backdrop of a growing demand in the areas of smart buildings, security, vehicle installation, and other applications, the market for far infrared cameras is expected to grow significantly in the future. However, since germanium (Ge) and chalcogenide glass, which have been used as the lens materials of far infrared cameras, are very expensive or highly toxic, there are some problems supporting the growing demand. We have therefore focused attention on silicon, which is inexpensive and less toxic. Although silicon has been used as a lens material of far infrared cameras, there are some problems remaining to be solved: Cz silicon is inexpensive but delivers low transmittance, and Fz silicon delivers sufficient transmittance but is expensive. We have developed New Cz silicon, which delivers high transmittance as Fz silicon does, and is inexpensive as conventional Cz silicon is. We have already started its sample work at both companies in Japan and overseas and have obtained excellent performance results. Mass production is scheduled to start in this fiscal year.

  2. Towards an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Banwart, S. A.; Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Richter, D., Jr.; Trumbore, S.; Vereecken, H.; Voelkel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) concept provides a holistic and unifying framework to understand diverse Earth surficial processes, encompassing the hydrologic cycle, the geochemical cycle, the carbon cycle, the nutrient cycle, gas exchange (major and trace gases), erosion and deposition, weathering, lithification (diagenesis), soil formation and evolution (pedogenesis), life processes (macro- and microbial communities), and human impacts (land use and management). Among the complexity of the CZ are the integration of abiotic and biotic processes, the linkage between belowground and aboveground systems, and the unification of time and space dimensions. Three aspects unique to CZ can be used to differentiate Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) from other terrestrial environmental observing systems : 1) Deep time, including geologic timescale to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth's surficial environment and the reconciliation of long- and short-time scale processes; 2) Deep depth into weathered bedrock, which is much deeper than the classical perception of soils perceived as 1-2 m root zone; and 3) Deep coupling of diverse processes, including interactions and feedbacks among geologic, pedologic, hydrologic, biologic, geochemical, atmospheric, and anthropogenic processes. These "three deeps" can be used to guide the development of the international network of CZOs. The US, EU, Germany, UK, China, and Australia are leading the way to establish such an international network, which can serve the international scientific community through interdisciplinary research, common infrastructure, shared databases, integrated models, and the education of new generations of earth and environmental scientists.

  3. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.

  4. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jens K; Pihl, Rasmus; Møller, Anders H; Madsen, Anne T; Otzen, Daniel E; Andersen, Kell K

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL) and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ), the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT) and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ). Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction toward the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the enzyme well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries) to SZ. Furthermore, all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant enzymes. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications.

  5. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Solar cells were fabricated from EFG ribbons dendritic webs, cast ingots by heat exchanger method, and cast ingots by ubiquitous crystallization process. Baseline and other process variations were applied to fabricate solar cells. EFG ribbons grown in a carbon-containing gas atmosphere showed significant improvement in silicon quality. Baseline solar cells from dendritic webs of various runs indicated that the quality of the webs under investigation was not as good as the conventional CZ silicon, showing an average minority carrier diffusion length of about 60 um versus 120 um of CZ wafers. Detail evaluation of large cast ingots by HEM showed ingot reproducibility problems from run to run and uniformity problems of sheet quality within an ingot. Initial evaluation of the wafers prepared from the cast polycrystalline ingots by UCP suggested that the quality of the wafers from this process is considerably lower than the conventional CZ wafers. Overall performance was relatively uniform, except for a few cells which showed shunting problems caused by inclusions.

  6. Highly sensitive gas-phase explosive detection by luminescent microporous polymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Räupke, André; Palma-Cando, Alex; Shkura, Eugen; Teckhausen, Peter; Polywka, Andreas; Görrn, Patrick; Scherf, Ullrich; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We propose microporous networks (MPNs) of a light emitting spiro-carbazole based polymer (PSpCz) as luminescent sensor for nitro-aromatic compounds. The MPNs used in this study can be easily synthesized on arbitrarily sized/shaped substrates by simple and low-cost electrochemical deposition. The resulting MPN afford an extremely high specific surface area of 1300 m2/g, more than three orders of magnitude higher than that of the thin films of the respective monomer. We demonstrate, that the luminescence of PSpCz is selectively quenched by nitro-aromatic analytes, e.g. nitrobenzene, 2,4-DNT and TNT. In striking contrast to a control sample based on non-porous spiro-carbazole, which does not show any luminescence quenching upon exposure to TNT at levels of 3 ppm and below, the microporous PSpCz shows a clearly detectable response even at TNT concentrations as low as 5 ppb, clearly demonstrating the advantage of microporous films as luminescent sensors for traces of explosive analytes. This level states the vapor pressure of TNT at room temperature. PMID:27373905

  7. High purith low defect FZ silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, H.; Robertson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The most common intrinsic defects in dislocation-free float zone (FZ) silicon crystals are the A- and B-type swirl defects. The mechanisms of their formation and annihilation have been extensively studied. Another type of defect in dislocation-free FZ crystals is referred to as a D-type defect. Concentrations of these defects can be minimized by optimizing the growth conditions, and the residual swirls can be reduced by the post-growth extrinsic gettering process. Czochralski (Cz) silicon wafers are known to exhibit higher resistance to slip and warpage due to thermal stress than do FZ wafers. The Cz crystals containing dislocations are more resistant to dislocation movement than dislocated FZ crystals because of the locking of dislocations by oxygen atoms present in the Cz crystals. Recently a transverse magnetic field was applied during the FZ growth of extrinsic silicon. Resultant flow patterns, as revealed by striation etching and spreading resistance in Ga-doped silicon crystals, indicate strong effects of the transverse magnetic field on the circulation within the melt. At fields of 5500 gauss, the fluid flow in the melt volume is so altered as to affect the morphology of the growing crystal.

  8. Growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes: a nano Czochralski model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been under intense investigations during the past two decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties; however, there is still no commonly accepted growth mechanism to describe the growth behavior of CNTs. Here, we propose a nano Czochralski (CZ) model which regards the catalytic growth of a CNT as a CZ process taking place on the nano scale. The main idea is that, during the CNT growth, each catalyst particle acts as a nano crucible to nucleate and maintain the CNT growth, and the extruding CNT rotates relative to the nano crucible, leading to a chirality-dependent growth rate. In this case, the structural quality gradually changes along the CNT due to the dynamic generation-reconstruction-diffusion of defects during the CNT growth. The nano CZ mechanism may also apply to the catalytic growth of many other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (including various nanotubes and nanowires), thus further efforts will be stimulated in the quality and property control, as well as application explorations of these 1D nanomaterials. PMID:22747835

  9. Dependence of nickel gettering on crystalline nature in as-grown Czochralski silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Ji; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-02-01

    The efficiency of nickel gettering in vacancy- and interstitial-silicon-dominant crystalline nature was studied using wafers cut along the axial direction of a CZ-grown silicon ingot grown with a variable v/G ratio. Six crystalline areas (V-rich, P-band, PV, PI, B-band, and I-rich) were present within one wafer. Nickel gettering efficiency was estimated before and after a typical NAND-flash-memory heat-treatment. With as-grown CZ silicon wafers, nickel gettering depends on the crystalline nature, i.e., nickel atoms are mainly gathered at oxygen precipitates in bulk at vacancy-dominant crystalline regions and at the surface of pure silicon in the interstitial-silicon-dominant crystal region (PI). Rapid thermal annealing of a CZ silicon wafer at 1175 °C for 10 s in Ar/NH3 mixture ambient completely erased the dependency of nickel gettering on the crystalline nature and demonstrated an excellent getting ability for nickel contamination via the relaxation gettering of oxygen precipitates.

  10. FTP archives for physics

    SciTech Connect

    Trunec, D.; Brablec, A.; Kapicka, V.

    1995-12-31

    We have established archives for programs, data, papers etc. in physics (mainly for plasma physics). The archives are located at computer ftp.muni.cz in the directory pub/muni.cz/physics. These archives can be reached by anonymous FTP or by gopher server gopher.muni.cz (147.251.4.33). At the present time, programs for PC, cross sections for electrons, swarm parameters and rate constants stored are in the archives. We would like to collect the programs for calculations in physics (mainly for PC). We suppose that each program should have a testing example and some description. We would also like to collect physical constants and experimental or theoretical data (e.g. cross sections, swarm parameters and rate constants), which are important for other calculation or for comparison with the results of others studies. Interested scholars are invited to sent us their programs, data, preprints and reports for these archives. All files in the archives are in public domain and can be obtained using computer network Internet.

  11. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jens K.; Pihl, Rasmus; Møller, Anders H.; Madsen, Anne T.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Andersen, Kell K.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL) and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ), the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT) and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ). Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction toward the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the enzyme well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries) to SZ. Furthermore, all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant enzymes. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications. PMID:25941516

  12. ON THE AMPLITUDE OF CONVECTIVE VELOCITIES IN THE DEEP SOLAR INTERIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Rempel, Matthias; Trampedach, Regner

    2012-10-01

    We obtain lower limits on the amplitude of convective velocities in the deep solar convection zone (CZ) based only on the observed properties of the differential rotation and meridional circulation together with simple and robust dynamical balances obtained from the fundamental magnetohydrodynamics equations. The linchpin of the approach is the concept of gyroscopic pumping whereby the meridional circulation across isosurfaces of specific angular momentum is linked to the angular momentum transport by the convective Reynolds stress. We find that the amplitude of the convective velocity must be at least 30 m s{sup -1} in the upper CZ (r {approx} 0.95R) and at least 8 m s{sup -1} in the lower CZ (r {approx} 0.75R) in order to be consistent with the observed mean flows. Using the base of the near-surface shear layer as a probe of the rotational influence, we are further able to show that the characteristic length scale of deep convective motions must be no smaller than 5.5-30 Mm. These results are compatible with convection models but suggest that the efficiency of the turbulent transport assumed in advection-dominated flux-transport dynamo models is generally not consistent with the mean flows they employ.

  13. Water Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed dynamic pore-network model is presented [1]. The model explicitly solves for both water pressure and capillary pressure. A semi-implicit scheme is used in updating water saturation in each pore body, which considerably increases the numerical stability at low capillary number values. Furthermore, a multiple-time-step algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational effort. A number of case studies of water transport in the micro porous layer (MPL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are conducted. We illustrate the role of MPL in reducing water flooding in the GDL. Also, the dynamic water transport through the MPL-GDL interface is explored in detail. This information is essential to the reduced continua model (RCM), which was developed for multiphase flow through thin porous layers [2, 3]. C.Z. Qin, Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: dynamic pore-network modeling, J Electrochimical. Soci., 162, F1036-F1046, 2015. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: general balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, 693-708, 2014. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, A new approach to modeling water flooding in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40, 3348-3358, 2015.

  14. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of three herbal irrigants in reducing intracanal E. faecalis populations: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Jitesh; Duhan, Jigyasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the intracanal bacterial reduction promoted by chemomechanical preparation using three different herbal extracts named Ocimum sanctum (OS), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ), Syzygium aromaticum (SA) against Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods Root canals from extracted teeth were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 for 7 days and then randomly distributed into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: which includes conventional irrigation with OS, CZ and SA. The control groups included 5 teeth each consisting of NaOCl (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). Samples taken before and after chemomechanical procedures were cultured, and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. Bacterial identification was performed using Polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analyses were performed with various tests. Results Reduction in the intracanal bacterial populations was highly significant for all the experimental groups. CZ and SA showed 80 to 85% intracanal bacterial reduction while O. Sanctum revealed only 70 to 75 % reduction. NaOCl showed 96 to 100 % bacterial reduction on the other hand distilled water showed very minimal bacterial reduction i.e 10 to 16%. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and Ocimum sanctum showed intracanal bacterial reduction against Enterococcus faecalis. The 3 experimental groups were less effective in terms of intracanal bacterial reduction as compare to NaOCl but more effective than distilled water. Key words:Antimicrobial activity, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Enterococcus faecalis, Ocimum sanctum, Syzygium aromaticum, herbal extracts. PMID:27398170

  15. Resolving the Multi-scale Behavior of Geochemical Weathering in the Critical Zone Using High Resolution Hydro-geochemical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates hydrologic and geochemical interactions in the Critical Zone (CZ) using high-resolution reactive transport modeling. Reactive transport models can be used to predict the response of geochemical weathering and solute fluxes in the CZ to changes in a dynamic environment, such as those pertaining to human activities and climate change in recent years. The scales of hydrology and geochemistry in the CZ range from days to eons in time and centimeters to kilometers in space. Here, we present results of a multi-dimensional, multi-scale hydro-geochemical model to investigate the role of subsurface heterogeneity on the formation of mineral weathering fronts in the CZ, which requires consideration of many of these spatio-temporal scales. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN, an open source subsurface flow and reactive transport code that utilizes parallelization over multiple processing nodes and provides a strong framework for simulating weathering in the CZ. The model is set up to simulate weathering dynamics in the mountainous catchments representative of the Colorado Front Range. Model parameters were constrained based on hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical observations from the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO). Simulations were performed in fractured rock systems and compared with systems of heterogeneous and homogeneous permeability fields. Tracer simulations revealed that the mean residence time of solutes was drastically accelerated as fracture density increased. In simulations that include mineral reactions, distinct signatures of transport limitations on weathering arose when discrete flow paths were included. This transport limitation was related to both advective and diffusive processes in the highly heterogeneous systems (i.e. fractured media and correlated random permeability fields with σlnk > 3). The well-known time-dependence of mineral weathering rates was found to be the most

  16. Ciglitazone ameliorates homocysteine-mediated mitochondrial translocation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation in endothelial cells by inducing peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, N; Moshal, K S; Sen, U; Lominadze, D; Ovechkin, A V; Tyagi, S C

    2006-12-31

    The activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) ameliorates the homocysteine (Hcy)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the mechanism by which Hcy induces ROS generation and MMP activation is unclear. We hypothesize that Hcy increases NADH oxidase (Nox-4) and decreases thioredoxin (Trx). This leads to translocation of Nox-4 into the mitochondria and decrease in Trx. In addition, activation of PPARgamma ameliorates the translocation of Nox-4 into mitochondria and MMP-9 activation. Mouse aortic vascular endothelial cells (MVEC) were cultured in the presence or absence of 100 microM Hcy. The cells were pre-treated with ciglitazone (CZ, 150 microM). Activity of PPARgamma activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and antibody super shift assay. In situ generation of ROS was measured using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin (DCF) as a probe. The expression of Nox-4 and Trx were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The translocation of Nox-4 was measured by 2-D gel analysis. To determine the levels of Nox-4 and Trx, the mitochondria and cytosol were separated and Western blot analysis was preformed. The MMP-9 activity was measured by gelatin-zymography. The results suggested that CZ activated endothelial PPARgamma in the presence of Hcy. Production of ROS was ameliorated by PPARgamma activation. Expression of Nox-4 was increased, while production of Trx was decreased by Hcy. However, the treatment with CZ normalized the levels of Nox-4 and Trx. Nox-4 was translocated into mitochondria in Hcy-treated endothelial cells. This translocation was associated with decreased production of Trx in mitochondria. The treatment with CZ blocked this translocation and increased Trx levels in mitochondria. Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activity was decreased in cells pre-treated with CZ. These results suggest that Hcy increases NADH oxidase and

  17. The effect of reference choices on the spatio-temporal analysis of brain evoked potentials: the use of infinite reference.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dezhong; Wang, Li; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Chen, Andrew C N

    2007-11-01

    Reference is a very virtual issue in EEG and ERP. Understanding the difference of various references will make the applications more confident. In this work, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) with stimulation on the right hand was studied. The SEP spatio-temporal analysis was conducted comparatively on six references, left mastoid (contralateral mastoid reference, CM), right mastoid (ipsilateral mastoid reference, IM), linked mastoids (LM), average reference (AR), vertex reference (Cz) and the infinity reference (IR) newly proposed in 2001. Among the six, CM is the one used in actual recordings, and the other five are obtained by off-line re-referencing. The comparison is conducted on four selected components (P30 ms, P40 ms, N90 ms and P230 ms) in both temporal and spatial aspects. The results show that references may have a distinct influence on the amplitudes of the scalp potentials, with relative error at some electrodes larger than 500%, and for some electrodes it may even change the polarity. Pair-wise multiple comparison (Tukey test) shows that the differences of peak values among various references are very significant (P<0.001) between Cz and IR\\CM\\IM\\LM, and significant (P<0.01) between Cz and AR for component N90 ms; very significant (P<0.001) between Cz and IR\\CM\\IM\\LM\\AR, significant between IMLM and AR (P<0.01), CM and AR (P<0.05) for component P230 ms. The amplitude value order is CM/IM> or =LM>IR>AR>Cz. The two-ways (the six references vs. the four Peaks) repeated measures ANOVA test shows the effect of different references depends on various components; there is a statistically significant interaction between reference and the peak (P=<0.001). While for the spatial map of the potential amplitude, references will not affect the amplitude map shape if the color-bar is selected automatically, but if a fixed color-bar is chosen for data of various references, they may show some differences. These results mean a common reference is important

  18. A Balancing Act: Stability versus Reactivity of Mn(O) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Neu, Heather M; Baglia, Regina A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-10-20

    A large class of heme and non-heme metalloenzymes utilize O2 or its derivatives (e.g., H2O2) to generate high-valent metal-oxo intermediates for performing challenging and selective oxidations. Due to their reactive nature, these intermediates are often short-lived and very difficult to characterize. Synthetic chemists have sought to prepare analogous metal-oxo complexes with ligands that impart enough stability to allow for their characterization and an examination of their inherent reactivity. The challenge in designing these molecules is to achieve a balance between their stability, which should allow for their in situ characterization or isolation, and their reactivity, in which they can still participate in interesting chemical transformations. This Account focuses on our recent efforts to generate and stabilize high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complexes and tune their reactivity in the oxidation of organic substrates. Dioxygen can be used to generate a high-valent Mn(V)(O) corrolazine (Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz)) by irradiation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) with visible light in the presence of a C-H substrate. Quantitative formation of the Mn(V)(O) complex occurs with concomitant selective hydroxylation of the benzylic substrate hexamethylbenzene. Addition of a strong H(+) donor converted this light/O2/substrate reaction from a stoichiometric to a catalytic process with modest turnovers. The addition of H(+) likely activates a transient Mn(V)(O) complex to achieve turnover, whereas in the absence of H(+), the Mn(V)(O) complex is an unreactive "dead-end" complex. Addition of anionic donors to the Mn(V)(O) complex also leads to enhanced reactivity, with a large increase in the rate of two-electron oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to thioether substrates. Spectroscopic characterization (Mn K-edge X-ray absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies) revealed that the anionic donors (X(-)) bind to the Mn(V) ion to form six-coordinate [Mn(V)(O)(X)](-) complexes. An unusual "V

  19. Temporal correlation between two channels EEG of bipolar lead in the head midline is associated with sleep-wake stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjun; Tang, Xiaoying; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Weifeng; Li, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Whether the temporal correlation between inter-leads Electroencephalogram (EEG) that located on the boundary between left and right brain hemispheres is associated with sleep stages or not is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of correlation coefficients between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz for automatic classification of sleep stages. A total number of 39 EEG recordings (about 20 h each) were selected from the expanded sleep database in European data format for temporal correlation analysis. Original waveform of EEG was decomposed into sub-bands δ (1-4 Hz), θ (4-8 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (13-30 Hz). The correlation coefficient between original EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz within frequency band 0.5-30 Hz was defined as r(EEG) and was calculated every 30 s, while that between the two leads EEG in sub-bands δ, θ, α and β were defined as r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. Classification of wakefulness and sleep was processed by fixed threshold that derived from the probability density function of correlation coefficients. There was no correlation between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz during wakefulness (|r| < 0.1 for r(θ), r(α) and r(β), while 0.3 > r > 0.1 for r(EEG) and r(δ)), while low correlation existed during sleep (r ≈ -0.4 for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β)). There were significant differences (analysis of variance, P < 0.001) for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β) during sleep when in comparison with that during wakefulness, respectively. The accuracy for distinguishing states between wakefulness and sleep was 94.2, 93.4, 89.4, 85.2 and 91.4% in terms of r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. However, no correlation index between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz could distinguish all five types of wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N1 sleep, N2 sleep and N3 sleep. In conclusion, the temporal correlation between EEG bipolar leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz are highly associated with sleep

  20. Influence of education level on design-induced N170 and P300 components of event related potentials in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Begum, Tahamina; Reza, Faruque; Ahmed, Izmer; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-03-01

    Simple geometric and organic shapes and their arrangement are being used in different neuropsychology tests for the assessment of cognitive function, special memory and also for the therapy purpose in different patient groups. Until now there is no electrophysiological evidence of cognitive function determination for simple geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement. Then the main objective of this study is to know the cortical processing and amplitude, latency of visual induced N170 and P300 event related potential components on different geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement and different educational influence on it, which is worthwhile to know for the early and better treatment for those patient groups. While education influenced on cognitive function by using auditory oddball task, little is known about the influence of education on cognitive function induced by visual attention task in case of the choice of geometric, organic shapes and their arrangements. Using a 128-electrode sensor net, we studied the responses of the choice of the different geometric and organic shapes randomly in experiment 1 and their arrangements in experiment 2 in the high, medium and low education groups. In both experiments, subjects push the button "1" or "2" if like or dislike, respectively. Total 45 healthy subjects (15 in each group) were recruited. ERPs were measured from 11 electrode sites and analyzed to see the evoked N170/N240 and P300 ERP components. There were no differences between like and dislike in amplitudes even in latencies in every stimulus in both experiments. We fixed geometric shapes and organic shapes stimuli only, not like and dislike. Upon the stimulus types, N170 ERP component was found instead of N240, in occipito-temporal (T5, T6, O1 and O2) locations where the amplitude is the highest at O2 location and P300 was distributed in the central (Cz and Pz) locations in both experiments in all groups. In experiment 1, significant low amplitude and

  1. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  2. Improvement of neurofeedback therapy for improved attention through facilitation of brain activity using local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Zandi Mehran, Yasaman; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Rostami, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Traditional neurofeedback (NF) is a training approach aimed at altering brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms as feedback. In NF training, external factors such as the subjects' intelligence can have an effect. In contrast, a low-energy NF system (LENS) does not require conscious effort from the subject, which results in fewer attendance sessions. However, eliminating the subject role seems to eliminate an important part of the NF system. This study investigated the facilitating effect on the theta-to-beta ratio from NF training, using a local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field (LSELF-MF) versus traditional NF. Twenty-four healthy, intelligent subjects underwent 10 training sessions to enhance beta (15-18 Hz), and simultaneously inhibit theta (4-7 Hz) and high beta (22-30 Hz) activity, at the Cz point in a 3-boat-race video game. Each session consisted of 3 statuses, PRE, DURING, and POST. In the DURING status, the NF training procedure lasted 10 minutes. Subjects were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field during NF training; however, 16 of the subjects who were assigned to the experimental group were really exposed to 45 Hz-360 µT LSELF-MF at Cz. For the 8 other subjects, only the coil was located at the Cz point with no exposure. The duty cycle of exposure was 40% (2-second exposure and 3-second pause). The results show that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of each group differs significantly from the PRE and POST statuses. Between-group analysis shows that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of the experimental group is significantly (P < .001) lower than in the sham group. The result shows the effect of LSELF-MF on NF training.

  3. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  4. Patterned expression of a cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide reveals complex circuit topography in the rodent cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Reeber, Stacey L; Sillitoe, Roy V

    2011-06-15

    The cerebellum (Cb) of mammals and birds consists of an evolutionarily conserved map defined by Purkinje cell (PC) protein expression. In mice, ZebrinII/aldolaseC is expressed in a striking array of stripes in lobules I-V (anterior zone; AZ) and VIII-anterior IX (posterior zone; PZ), whereas the small heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) is expressed in stripes in lobules VI-VII (central zone, CZ) and posterior IX-X (nodular zone, NZ). Little is known about whether molecularly defined afferent subsets terminate within specific PC stripes or whether their topography is conserved across species. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate in adult mice and rats that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression can be used to partition sensory-motor projections into complex topographic maps. We found that in mice CART was expressed in climbing fiber bands that generally corresponded to the pattern of HSP25-expressing PCs in the CZ/NZ. In contrast, CART was expressed in climbing fiber bands in all four transverse zones of the rat Cb. Within the rat AZ/PZ, climbing fibers terminated selectively within the dendrites of ZebrinII-immunoreactive PCs. In additional experiments, we observed CART expression in loose clusters of spinocerebellar mossy fibers in the mouse AZ/PZ, whereas in rat CART immunoreactive mossy fibers terminated predominantly in the CZ/NZ. We conclude that, although the overall topography of CART-expressing afferents is restricted within a conserved map of PC stripes and transverse zones, their termination patterns also reflect species-specific compartmental features.

  5. Solar Cell Efficiency and High Temperature Processing of n-type Silicon Grown by the Noncontact Crucible Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mallory A.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Morishige, Ashley E.; Nakajima, Kazuo; Veschetti, Yannick; Jay, Frederic; Jouini, Anis; Youssef, Amanda; Stradins, Paul; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-08-01

    The capital expense (capex) of conventional crystal growth methods is a barrier to sustainable growth of the photovoltaic industry. It is challenging for innovative techniques to displace conventional growth methods due the low dislocation density and high lifetime required for high efficiency devices. One promising innovation in crystal growth is the noncontact crucible method (NOC-Si), which combines aspects of Czochralski (Cz) and conventional casting. This material has the potential to satisfy the dual requirements, with capex likely between that of Cz (high capex) and multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si, low capex). In this contribution, we observe a strong dependence of solar cell efficiency on ingot height, correlated with the evolution of swirl-like defects, for single crystalline n-type silicon grown by the NOC-Si method. We posit that these defects are similar to those observed in Cz, and we explore the response of NOC-Si to high temperature treatments including phosphorous diffusion gettering (PDG) and Tabula Rasa (TR). The highest lifetimes (2033 us for the top of the ingot and 342 us for the bottom of the ingot) are achieved for TR followed by a PDG process comprising a standard plateau and a low temperature anneal. Further improvements can be gained by tailoring the time-temperature profiles of each process. Lifetime analysis after the PDG process indicates the presence of a getterable impurity in the as-grown material, while analysis after TR points to the presence of oxide precipitates especially at the bottom of the ingot. Uniform lifetime degradation is observed after TR which we assign to a presently unknown defect. Future work includes additional TR processing to uncover the nature of this defect, microstructural characterization of suspected oxide precipitates, and optimization of the TR process to achieve the dual goals of high lifetime and spatial homogenization.

  6. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S. G.; Sweet, M. L.; Francisco, A.

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize buildling envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  7. Subthalamic nucleus, sensorimotor cortex and muscle interrelationships in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marsden, J F; Limousin-Dowsey, P; Ashby, P; Pollak, P; Brown, P

    2001-02-01

    Ten patients with Parkinson's disease were seen following bilateral or unilateral implantation of macroelectrodes into the subthalamic nucleus. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from adjacent subthalamic nucleus macroelectrode (STNME) contacts simultaneously with EEG activity over the supplementary motor (Cz-FCz) and sensorimotor (C3/4-FC3/4) areas and EMG activity from the contralateral wrist extensors during isometric and phasic wrist movements. Significant coherence was seen between STNME LFPs and Cz-FCz, STNME LFPs and C3/4-FC3/4, and STNME LFPs and EMG over the range 7-45 Hz. EEG phase-led STNME LFPs by 24.4 ms (95% confidence interval 19.8 to 29.0 ms). EMG also led STNME LFPs, but time differences tended to cluster around one of two values: 6.3 ms (-0.7 to 13.3 ms) and 46.5 ms (26.2 to 66.8 ms). Recordings from the STNME contact that demonstrated the most consistent coherence with Cz-FCz in the 15-30 Hz band coincided with the contact which, when electrically stimulated at high frequencies, produced the most effective clinical response in eight out of nine (89%) subjects (P < 0.01). Oscillatory activity at 15-30 Hz may therefore prove of use in localizing the subthalamic nucleus target that provides the best clinical effect on stimulation. These results extend the hypothesis that coherent activity may be useful in binding together related activities in simultaneously active motor centres. The presence of coherence between EEG and STNME LFPs in both the beta and the gamma band (as opposed to only the beta band between EEG and cerebellar thalamus) suggests that there may be some relative frequency selectivity in the communication between different motor structures.

  8. Redox-sensitive Akt and Src regulate coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reed, Ryan; Potter, Barry; Smith, Erika; Jadhav, Rashmi; Villalta, Patricia; Jo, Hanjoong; Rocic, Petra

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown that the inability of repetitive ischemia (RI) to activate p38 MAPK (p38) and Akt in metabolic syndrome [JCR:LA-cp (JCR)] rats was associated with impaired coronary collateral growth (CCG). Furthermore, Akt and p38 activation correlated with optimal O(2)(-). levels and were altered in JCR rats, and redox-sensitive p38 activation was required for CCG. Here, we determined whether the activation of Src, a possible upstream regulator, was altered in JCR rats and whether redox-dependent Src and Akt activation were required for CCG. CCG was assessed by myocardial blood flow (microspheres) and kinase activation was assessed by Western blot analysis in the normal zone and collateral-dependent zone (CZ). RI induced Src activation (approximately 3-fold) in healthy [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] animals but not in JCR animals. Akt inhibition decreased (approximately 50%), and Src inhibition blocked RI-induced CCG in WKY rats. Src inhibition decreased p38 and Akt activation. Myocardial oxidative stress (O(2)(-). and oxidized/reduced thiols) was measured quantitatively (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance). An antioxidant, apocynin, reduced RI-induced oxidative stress in JCR rats to levels induced by RI in WKY rats versus the reduction in WKY rats to very low levels. This resulted in a significant restoration of p38 (approximately 80%), Akt (approximately 65%), and Src (approximately 90%) activation in JCR rats but decreased the activation in WKY rats (p38: approximately 45%, Akt: approximately 65%, and Src: approximately 100%), correlating with reduced CZ flow in WKY rats (approximately 70%), but significantly restored CZ flow in JCR rats (approximately 75%). We conclude that 1) Akt and Src are required for CCG, 2) Src is a redox-sensitive upstream regulator of RI-induced p38 and Akt activation, and 3) optimal oxidative stress levels are required for RI-induced p38, Akt, and Src activation and CCG.

  9. Building America Case Study: Savannah Gardens, Savannah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize building envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  10. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Gardner, C. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two monochromatic gravity wave events were observed in the 25 to 55 km altitude region during 16 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Poker Flat, Alaska and Urbana, Illinois. The measured wave parameters were compared to previous radar and lidar measurements of gravity wave activity. Vertical wavelengths, lambda(z), between 2 and 11.5 km with vertical phase velocities, c(z), between 0.1 and 1 m/s were observed. Measured values of lambda(z) and c(z) were used to infer observed wave periods, T(ob), between 50 and 1000 minutes and horizontal wavelengths, lambda(x), from 25 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No seasonal variations were evident in the observed wave parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with T(ob), which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of monochromatic wave events near the mesopause. Measured power law relationships between the wave parameters were lambda(z) varies as T(ob) sup 0.96, lambda(x) varies as T(ob) sup 1.8, and c(z) varies as T(ob) sup -0.85. The kinetic energy calculated for the monochromatic wave events varied as k(z) sup -2, k(x) sup -1, and f(ob) sup -1.7. The atmospheric scale heights calculated for each observation date range from 6.5 to 7.6 km with a mean value of 7 km. The increase of rms wind perturbations with altitude indicated an amplitude growth length of 20.9 km. The altitude profile of kinetic energy density decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  11. Antibody-dependent SARS coronavirus infection is mediated by antibodies against spike proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Shen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Liu, Wu-Tse; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Huang, Jason C

    2014-08-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the FcγRII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis.

  12. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  13. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  14. Impact of the reference choice on scalp EEG connectivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Several scalp EEG functional connectivity studies, mostly clinical, seem to overlook the reference electrode impact. The subsequent interpretation of brain connectivity is thus often biased by the choice of a non-neutral reference. This study aims at systematically investigating these effects. Approach. As EEG reference, we examined the vertex electrode (Cz), the digitally linked mastoids (DLM), the average reference (AVE), and the reference electrode standardization technique (REST). As a connectivity metric, we used the imaginary part of the coherency. We tested simulated and real data (eyes-open resting state) by evaluating the influence of electrode density, the effect of head model accuracy in the REST transformation, and the impact on the characterization of the topology of functional networks from graph analysis. Main results. Simulations demonstrated that REST significantly reduced the distortion of connectivity patterns when compared to AVE, Cz, and DLM references. Moreover, the availability of high-density EEG systems and an accurate knowledge of the head model are crucial elements to improve REST performance, with the individual realistic head model being preferable to the standard realistic head model. For real data, a systematic change of the spatial pattern of functional connectivity depending on the chosen reference was also observed. The distortion of connectivity patterns was larger for the Cz reference, and progressively decreased when using the DLM, the AVE, and the REST. Strikingly, we also showed that network attributes derived from graph analysis, i.e. node degree and local efficiency, are significantly influenced by the EEG reference choice. Significance. Overall, this study highlights that significant differences arise in scalp EEG functional connectivity and graph network properties, in dependence on the chosen reference. We hope that our study will convey the message that caution should be used when interpreting and comparing

  15. High Temp Toughening and Creep Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-11

    1350°C for various times. Average grain sizes of both C2 S particles and the CZ matrix were analyzed according to the Jeffries- Saltykov method . 9...S. It has minimal solubility in C2 S I and likewise for C2S in MgO. The first task was to find a satisfactory method for the production of dicalcium...silicate for the addition to the magnesia matrix. The method settled upon used calcium carbonate and silicic acid. Both had good reactivities. The

  16. Implementation of Process Management for a Secure Archival Storage System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    V.DT.MSGQ.NEXTP_’SG(R2), UNI e iB2 FFFF 0134 5E08 EXIT FROM MSG- LS TINIT 01B6 01CZ’ v~ibe 5Eee ELSiE (diBA 01CkO’ 013C 6F21 LD VPT.MSG-Q.Ni;XTMSG(R~e...RET V 28 2 hEND RUNNING_.P 220 £282 SPIN LOCK PROCEDUPE * USLS SPIN LOCK MiCh. * LOCLS UNLOCKID DATA ’ STRUCTURE (POINTED TO * BY INPUT PARAMETER

  17. An EPR study on a new triclinic symmetry defect in neutron-irradiated FZ-silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Wu; Shu-xian, Wu; Jin-Chang, Mao; Mao-Xun, Yan; Guo-gang, Qin

    1987-01-01

    A new defect, labled as Si-PK1, has been observed with EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) in neutron irradiated FZ-Si grown in argon, hydrogen and vacuum. Its symmetry has been determined to be triclinic symmetry, the lowest possible symmetry. Si-PK1 has not been observed in CZ-Si. It is not related to any common impurities in Si, like oxygen, carbon, phosphorus and boron, and it should be an intrinsic defect. Combining with the empirical classification of g tensor, it is concluded that Si-PK1 may be a multi-vacancy cluster.

  18. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained <10 μg Se L-1 - the safe limit for drinking purpose except one location each in SWZ and CZ and three locations in NSFZ. Only at one location, water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  19. Study of the Hyperon-Nucleon (YN) Interaction in Exclusive Λ Photoproduction off the Deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtong; Ilieva, Yordanka; Zachariou, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to extract the polarization observables Cx, Cz, ∑, Ox, and Oz for final-state interactions (FSI) in overrightarrow γ d to {K^ + }overrightarrow Λ n. The data were taken with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) during the E06-103 experiment. These are the very first results for FSI observables in hyperon photoproduction and are expected to constrain the free parameters of YN potentials. This work is funded in part by the U.S. NSF under grant PHY-125782.

  20. VINSON/AUTOVON Interface Applique for the Modem, Digital Data, AN/GSC-38

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    GSC-38 cZ 1 Harris Corporation Frank Perkins, et al Salvat~ ion J. Nasci (RADC) DISTRIBUTION LIMITED TO U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ONtY; TEST AND...Tnib IoNC s;ý7 r( N~ AME ~ AN :no ss AROV N A Rig 3f -00 (flfl btrkt )i Rofe Airovdn Developmen rnt l isroe (ecure vol rvi c I te ea Crmfs APB NY0 8...the OCONUS AUTOVON in Hawaii, England, Germany, and Italy. Included tests over tropo, satellite and subcables with outstanding results. The modem sync

  1. A Core Facility for the Study of Neurotoxins of Biological Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-15

    a somewhat different approach was used. TVL was incubated with or without N-acetyl-g- glucosamine (1 x 10-1 M) for 30 min. This mixture was then...galactosamine, N-acetyl-0-galactosamine, N-acetyl-cz ,lucosamine and N-acetyl-3- glucosamine . None of these lectins was a potent antagonist of botulinum...sialic acid, whereas TVL has affinity for both N-acetyl-,6- glucosamine and N-acetyl-a-sialic acid. However, the fact that the lectin from Datora

  2. International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (19th), ICDS-19, Held in Aveiro, Portugal on 21-25 July 1997, Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-23

    diffraction pattern from the slab, observed before electron irradiation. Formation of nanoholes . We have found that nanometer-sized holes are formed on...Si surface by electron irradiation in UHV environment. Figure 2 depicts the nanoholes . The contrast of the nanoholes varies with the focus condition...a) are Fig. 2 Nanoholes with grooves on a Si surface (£r=141keV, Jr=200°C, CZ-Si (110) ). The image in (a) was taken at the under-focused condition

  3. Influence of the growth and annealing atmosphere on the electrical conductivity of LTG crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, M.; Batis, N.; Laroche, T.; Nehari, A.; Cabane, H.; Lebbou, K.; Boy, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the electrical conductivity measurements of La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT) crystals grown by Czochralski (Cz) technique in Ir crucibles and N2 atmosphere containing few percent of O2. In addition, we have studied the effect of thermal annealing on the stability and the thermal conductivity. The electrical conductivity depends on the stoichiometry, the inhomogeneous impurities levels, the growth atmosphere and the post-growth annealing conditions. Furthermore, we recorded the UV-Vis transmission spectra of the LGT samples and we note that the less resistive LGT samples have an edge of the intrinsic absorption at the highest wavelengths.

  4. Corrigendum to: Picosecond Laser Surface Cleaning of AM1 Superalloy. Proceeding of 9th International Conference on Photonic Technologies - LANE 2016 Physics Procedia (2016), vol. 83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, D.; Martan, J.; Kučera, M.; Houdková, Š.; Kromer, R.

    Acknowledgements The result was developed within the CENTEM project, reg. no. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0088, co-funded by the ERDF as part of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic OP RDI program and in the follow-up sustainability stage, supported through CENTEM PLUS (LO1402) by financial means from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports under the "National Sustainability Programme I" and project SGS-2016-005. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR (French agency) for financial assistance in the ARCOLE (12-BS09-0009) project and Safran Aircraft-Engines, Genevilliers France for the studied samples.

  5. USSR Report, Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    178112 JPRS 83354 28 April 1983 USSR Report ENERGY No. 144 ■A. P. •Cv, <,.■■■ cz y Distrlb-atta öalxsitwä \\ ᝰ> W FBIS FOREIGN...reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. JPRS 83354 28 April 1983 USSR REPORT ENERGY No. 144 CONTENTS FUELS OIL AND GAS Party’s...undoubtedly, the machinebuild- ers—those who produce the equipment for penetrating the earth and for withdrawing fuel from formations—should be

  6. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    III, COL MC; Richard J. Sunmmers, COL MC FAcILITY: 6RP DPT/SVC: Allergy -Cl ini cal Immnunol ogy Service _________I ______ MU,’L. PPRz-Ss REPORT Ef...8217;rI.’ DATE: 26 April 1977 DATE 0: CUIFILET:O:I: KEY U:S Immunotherapy ; Potency; Persistence; RAST Inhibition TITLE CF PPOWZCT: Immunotherapy Kit...FAcILyrY: MR1C IDEPr/Svc: Allergy -Clinical Immunology Service AcCz .. Ativi iMGCASE Cost: I kCut."LATVE CaIrRACT COST: AWC’J.:’JLATW-VE SUPPLY COST

  7. Improved quality control of silicon wafers using novel off-line air pocket image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Sanna, M. Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Air pockets (APK) occur randomly in Czochralski (Cz) grown silicon (Si) crystals and may become included in wafers after slicing and polishing. Previously the only APK of interest were those that intersected the front surface of the wafer and therefore directly impacted device yield. However mobile and other electronics have placed new demands on wafers to be internally APK-free for reasons of thermal management and packaging yield. We present a novel, recently patented, APK image processing technique and demonstrate the use of that technique, off-line, to improve quality control during wafer manufacturing.

  8. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum. Appendix B. Alternative Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    60 / 5r ( /n -,A/ace) orOZ3.40 / S. Y Imckh/-j 641 ZSISJ Qt a, g tsp e Aes~ w.C’Cj o) ca As/e. Galsq GANNETT FLAMING CODRY Car.//e /, PoJ.i AND...6- IA x -9 I - 0 z t A acO . w r49 00 oz0 Im - £0 0~.U W1W L O- It 0- 6 IA 1~.- 2WE 4s * g; Zo- wz tp 1 -CZ2.-U.OU z4 at" :) ~0 LI IL at us 4 0, -N 4

  9. Use of low-energy hydrogen ion implants in high-efficiency crystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Sigh, R.; Mu, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of low-energy hydrogen implants in the fabrication of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. Low-energy hydrogen implants result in hydrogen-caused effects in all three regions of a solar cell: emitter, space charge region, and base. In web, Czochralski (Cz), and floating zone (Fz) material, low-energy hydrogen implants reduced surface recombination velocity. In all three, the implants passivated the space charge region recombination centers. It was established that hydrogen implants can alter the diffusion properties of ion-implanted boron in silicon, but not ion-implated arsenic.

  10. A high pressure optical cell utilizing single crystal cubic zirconia anvil windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, T. P.; Piermarini, G. J.

    1997-04-01

    A high pressure optical cell capable of producing pressures up to 13.2 GPa using gem-cut single crystal cubic zirconia (CZ) anvils was developed. Maximum pressures obtainable were found to depend upon the particular pressure transmitting medium and gasket material employed. The cubic zirconia anvil high pressure cell (CZAC) provides advantages over the diamond anvil cell in optical and infrared spectroscopy while still maintaining a substantial pressure capability. To demonstrate these advantages, microRaman, optical fluorescence, and infrared absorption measurements were made on diamond, ruby, and 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine samples, respectively, using the CZAC cell under high pressure conditions.

  11. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full Scale Fire Tests in a Closed and an Open Compartment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    30,30,25) COMM4ON/BL38/TCOUP(30) ,CXl(30) ,CY(30) ,CZ(30) ,NTH(30,3) ,NTHCO COMMON/BL39/ALEW, CONSRA, QSIN, QSWER, QSWAL, QSAIR , QSFAN, QSHOL COMMON/BL4 0...GC, RAIR, NT COMMON/BL39/.ALEW, CONSRA, QSIN, QSWER, QSWAL, QSAIR , QSFAN, QSHOL C ~~SPECIFY THE INITIAL DATA DATA UO, PRT, RHOO , CPO, VISO , NTMAXO...30,30,25),COND(30,30,25),RESORM(40), & CPM(30,30,25),NHSZ(3,2),NOD(30,30,25) COMMON/BL39/ALEW, CONSRA, QSIN, QSWER, QSWAL, QSAIR , QSFAN, QSHOL COMMON

  12. A Study to Establish a Measure of Clinical Productivity among Physicians in the Department of Family Practice Outpatient Clinics, Madigan Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    4) Hypertension 4 2.1 10 (7) Lacerations, contusions, abrasions 4 2.1 10 (10) Fractures, dislocations 4 2.1 10 (12) Acne , sweat and sebaceous gland...Diagnosis Cluster Title ID2-M ICHUfCz1 12 Acne and Diseases of the 695.3 705-,7061,7062 Sweat and Sebaceaous Glands (18) 705 0 to 706.2 706.4 to 706.9...789.0 7890 pelvic ) (64) 61 Psoriasis and Pityriasis (70) 696.0 to 696.9 6961,6963 62 Irritable Colon (72) 564.1 558- 564.5 63 Chronic Cystic Disease of

  13. Applications of intraoperative ultrasound in the treatment of complicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer - own experience.

    PubMed

    Ćwik, Grzegorz; Solecki, Michał; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Zarówno ostre, jak i przewlekłe stany zapalne trzustki prowadzą często do powstania powikłań, które współcześnie rozwiązuje się na drodze zabiegów endoskopowych oraz operacyjnych. Śródoperacyjna ultrasonografia (IOUS) w wielu przypadkach umożliwia prawidłowe określenie rozległości zmian chorobowych, pozwala na bezpieczne przeprowadzenie zabiegu operacyjnego oraz skrócenie czasu jego trwania.

  14. Plumbing Career Ladder AFSC 552X5 and Occupational Series WG-4206.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    I d Ia CDP <r I. I _ I ) I I ( L I aL U~. J <is Lii 2J Mj CZ LA Of CA (.) 4x VA I. < I~0 a0IL I Im11 1V) cr I I V) r 4 << aVac. ac lCD 4)~ LJ CD F...inlstllaition>, rflrtficill i’,1S, arid rcpfinS wih ittlr- ch 10elck hu ring ~their, 1 ttoi:Th tests andl m1a:1es neededui J n e~lt’ to Sx Stem;l

  15. Determination of Tafel Constants in Nonlinear Polarization Curves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    di. . (S1.± -S 1 )/6h% bx = Sx /2 cz = ((yl.. - y 1 )/h1 ) - ((2h 1 S1 + h1 Sx .-)/6) dL = Yz The resulting system of n - 2 equations in St involves n...pairs of data points in order to generate the required number of equations. To arrive at the two.% additional equations to solve for Sx and S...constraints are , specified which pertain to the conditions at the ends of the curves. The three choices for the end conditions are: 0% 1. Sx = S, = w, hich

  16. The Acoustic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports. Volume 2. The Evaluation of the FACT PL9D Transmission Loss Model. Book 3. Appendices E-H

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    is a Generic Ocean Research and Development Activity FACT CZ width which is two to three Report No. 34. CONFIDENTIAL times narrower than LORAD’s. Cases...XD 0D L.) II4 LA W 0 LA E-4 GII o ls ULA LA) C’J’ A I~N 0 00 E-37 CO FIEN IA ......... CON FIDENTIAL 0U) U) ~U)j cQ) Uoat4+ * ~o pLf) GoGoI cli zZ r

  17. Structural and luminescent properties of electron-irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Aruev, P. N.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Zabrodskiy, V. V.; Shtel'makh, K. F.; Vdovin, V. I.; Xiang, Luelue; Yang, Deren

    2014-02-21

    Structural defects induced by electron irradiation of p-Cz-Si wafers were identified. The influence of the annealing conditions in a chlorine-containing atmosphere on the structural and luminescent properties of the samples was examined. Light-emitting diodes based on electron-irradiated and high-temperature-annealed wafers were fabricated by a vapour-phase epitaxy technique and their luminescence properties were studied. A high-intensity dislocation-related D1 line was observed at 1.6 μm in the room-temperature electroluminescence spectrum.

  18. Anacapa Island Split Pipe Installation Inspection and Repair, 1978-1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    hydraulic grinder on the split pipe . Next, the 1/2" jumper studs were arc- welded onto each of the cleaned pipe areas (Figure 9). During the first day...mechanical integrity of the Anacapa test system for over 3-1/2 years. 2. For replacing jumper straps on existing pipe systems, welding studs onto the...U 0 E U Cz. 13 I! Figure 8. Preparing split pipe for welding using hydraulic grinder to clean surface. Figure 9. Arc welding 1/2-in. diameter studs

  19. The development of the N1 and N2 components in auditory oddball paradigms: a systematic review with narrative analysis and suggested normative values.

    PubMed

    Tomé, David; Barbosa, Fernando; Nowak, Kamila; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2015-03-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) are widely used in diverse fields of today's neuroscience, concerning auditory processing, speech perception, language acquisition, neurodevelopment, attention and cognition in normal aging, gender, developmental, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. However, its transposition to clinical practice has remained minimal. Mainly due to scarce literature on normative data across age, wide spectrum of results, variety of auditory stimuli used and to different neuropsychological meanings of AERPs components between authors. One of the most prominent AERP components studied in last decades was N1, which reflects auditory detection and discrimination. Subsequently, N2 indicates attention allocation and phonological analysis. The simultaneous analysis of N1 and N2 elicited by feasible novelty experimental paradigms, such as auditory oddball, seems an objective method to assess central auditory processing. The aim of this systematic review was to bring forward normative values for auditory oddball N1 and N2 components across age. EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies that elicited N1 and/or N2 by auditory oddball paradigm. A total of 2,764 papers were initially identified in the database, of which 19 resulted from hand search and additional references, between 1988 and 2013, last 25 years. A final total of 68 studies met the eligibility criteria with a total of 2,406 participants from control groups for N1 (age range 6.6-85 years; mean 34.42) and 1,507 for N2 (age range 9-85 years; mean 36.13). Polynomial regression analysis revealed that N1 latency decreases with aging at Fz and Cz, N1 amplitude at Cz decreases from childhood to adolescence and stabilizes after 30-40 years and at Fz the decrement finishes by 60 years and highly increases after this age. Regarding N2, latency did not covary with age but amplitude showed a significant decrement for both Cz and Fz. Results

  20. Development of Core Data Set of the Officer Longitudinal Research Data Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    L LU1 C em uI ’ u~ I UCi0 ~ I0 E~L LL I LU 1U- LU Zj w D 0 cw w,;LLI LU 11- LU wU- H O I I?, I- H O I H OJ I gmo I cz Q I 0z I 0 H C HI 0 I- 0 HI1H LU...15. AGC 16. AGE 17. AHX 18. AKX 19. ALX 20. ANX 21. AXX 22. B 23. BAA 24. BAC 25. BAD 26. BAE 27. BAF 28. BAK 29. BAL 30. BAM 31. BAN 32. BAO 33. BAP