Science.gov

Sample records for selection process southeast

  1. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G.; Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P.

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  2. Selecting herbaceous energy crops for the southeast and midwest/lake states

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes an approach to crop selection and development that has evolved through the five years of species screening and selection in the US Department of Energy's Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The first phase of this program was designed to identify a number of species for development as energy crops for the Southeast and Midwest/Lake States, specifically as feedstocks for the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes for alcohol fuels now under development. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  4. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  5. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND ETR STACK ARE IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. TRA-666 IS NEAR CENTER, ABUTTED BY SECURITY BUILDING; TRA-626, AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW BEHIND BUS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-34-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Selected Readings from SCMTC (Southeast Correctional Management Training Council) Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, Mark L., Ed.; Morton, Joann B., Ed.

    This selection of readings is designed to assist correctional managers with their particular concerns such as planning, organizing, understanding the client, and utilizing volunteers. The first article deals generally with the functions and problems of the innovator and planner, without dealing specifically with the correctional setting. The…

  7. Improving staff selection processes.

    PubMed

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research.

  8. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  9. Spatial analysis of habitat selection by Sitka black-tailed deer in Southeast Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kang-Tsung; Verbyla, David L.; Yeo, Jeffrey J.

    1995-07-01

    We used a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) to examine habitat selection by radiocollared Sitka black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in logged forests of southeast Alaska. Our main objective was to explain deer habitat selection relative to old-growth/clear-cut edges and edge habitats at two different spatial scales. Deer home ranges contained higher percentages of recent clear-cuts (50-69%) than the study area (37%; P<0.01) and had higher old-growth/clear-cut edge densities than expected by chance ( P<0.01). Deer relocation points were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges (average=135 m) than random points located within each deer's relocation area (average=168 m; P=0.05). Likewise, deer relocations were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges than points randomly located within old-growth stands or recent clear-cuts ( P<0.01). As the size of clear-cuts increased, both deer relocation density and the proportion of a clear-cut occupied by deer home ranges decreased. Because old growth is important deer habitat and clear-cuts can produce deer forage for only 20-30 years after logging in southeast Alaska, deer management plans such as preserving entire watersheds and maintaining mixes of old growth and recent clear-cut have been proposed. Our data suggest that deer need a diversity of habitats near each other within their home ranges.

  10. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  11. Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared elementary students' school lunches selected and consumed before (Spring, 2011) and after (Spring, 2013) implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in the fall of 2012. Students in eight elementary schools in one Southeast Texas school district were observed du...

  12. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    the Darwin-Wallace controversy was that most Darwinian biologists avoided the subject of sexual selection until at least the 1950s, Ronald Fisher being a major exception. This controversy still deserves attention from modern evolutionary biologists, because the modern approach inherits from both Darwin and Wallace. The modern approach tends to present sexual selection as a special aspect of the theory of natural selection, although it also recognizes the big difficulties resulting from the inevitable interaction between these two natural processes of selection. And contra Wallace, it considers mate choice as a major process that deserves a proper evolutionary treatment. The paper's conclusion explains why sexual selection can be taken as a test case for a proper assessment of "Darwinism" as a scientific tradition. Darwin's and Wallace's attitudes towards sexual selection reveal two different interpretations of the principle of natural selection: Wallace's had an environmentalist conception of natural selection, whereas Darwin was primarily sensitive to the element of competition involved in the intimate mechanism of any natural process of selection. Sexual selection, which can lack adaptive significance, reveals this exemplarily.

  13. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    the Darwin-Wallace controversy was that most Darwinian biologists avoided the subject of sexual selection until at least the 1950s, Ronald Fisher being a major exception. This controversy still deserves attention from modern evolutionary biologists, because the modern approach inherits from both Darwin and Wallace. The modern approach tends to present sexual selection as a special aspect of the theory of natural selection, although it also recognizes the big difficulties resulting from the inevitable interaction between these two natural processes of selection. And contra Wallace, it considers mate choice as a major process that deserves a proper evolutionary treatment. The paper's conclusion explains why sexual selection can be taken as a test case for a proper assessment of "Darwinism" as a scientific tradition. Darwin's and Wallace's attitudes towards sexual selection reveal two different interpretations of the principle of natural selection: Wallace's had an environmentalist conception of natural selection, whereas Darwin was primarily sensitive to the element of competition involved in the intimate mechanism of any natural process of selection. Sexual selection, which can lack adaptive significance, reveals this exemplarily. PMID:20338530

  14. Revamp your software selection process.

    PubMed

    Allen, D J

    1999-11-01

    Very few software implementations fail from lack of functionality. More often, the failure results from other factors. Yet most companies continue to focus primarily on software functionality during the selection and evaluation process. By expanding the scope of your evaluation process to include other important factors, your probability of successful implementation and future happiness with your vendor can be dramatically enhanced.

  15. Major-ion and selected trace-metal chemistry of the Biscayne Aquifer, Southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radell, M.J.; Katz, B.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major-ion and selected trace-metal chemistry of the Biscayne aquifer was characterized as part of the Florida Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Network Program, a multiagency cooperative effort concerned with delineating baseline water quality for major aquifer systems in the State. The Biscayne aquifer is unconfined and serves as the sole source of drinking water for more than 3 million people in southeast Florida. The Biscayne aquifer consists of highly permeable interbedded limestone and sandstone of Pleistocene and Pliocene age underlying most of Dade and Broward Counties and parts of Palm Beach and Monroe Counties. The high permeability is largely caused by extensive carbonate dissolution. Water sampled from 189 wells tapping the Biscayne aquifer was predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with some mixed types occurring in coastal areas and near major canals. Major - ion is areally uniform throughout the aquifer. According to nonparametric statistical tests of major ions and dissolved solids, the concentrations of calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, and dissolved solids increased significantly with well depth ( 0.05 significance level ), probably a result of less circulation at depth. Potassium and nitrate concentrations decreased significantly with depth. Although the source of recharge to the aquifer varies seasonally, there was no statistical difference in the concentration of major ions in pared water samples from 27 shallow wells collected during wet and dry seasons. Median concentrations for barium, chromium, copper, lead, and manganese were below maximum or secondary maximum contaminant levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The median iron concentration only slightly exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level. The concentration of barium was significantly related (0.05 significance level) to calcium and bicarbonate concentration. No distinct areal pattern or vertical distribution of the selected trace metals was evident in water from

  16. Aerosol-stratocumulus Interactions over the Southeast Pacific: A Process Study Using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y.; Chen, G.; Wang, W. C.; Liao, H.; Chen, J. P.; Xue, H.

    2015-12-01

    The recent WRF study by Chen et al. (2015) showed that the shortwave radiative forcing by the stratocumulus over the southeast Pacific (SEP) is much enhanced by anthropogenic aerosols from South America. Here we further investigate the aerosol-stratocumulus interactions on the process level using the WRF-Chem model which explicitly simulates the aerosol emissions and formations. Two cloud microphysics schemes are used: the widely-applied Lin scheme and the physics-based two-moment scheme used in Chen et al. (2015). The simulations with the Lin scheme captured some observed features of aerosols (e.g., aerosol mass and optical depth decreases westward along 20°S) and key aerosol-cloud microphysics interactions (e.g., more cloud droplet numbers near the coast). However, biases were also noticed, such as the overestimation of cloud droplet number near the coast, and the underestimation of aerosol concentration over the remote ocean. These could be caused by the inadequacy in cloud process parameterization, such as a lack of aerosol recycling from rain droplets in coupling with chemistry and microphysical modules (Saide et al, 2012). The two-moment scheme that explicitly addresses these processes is expected to minimize the biases. Detailed investigations of the cloud microphysics processes using the two schemes, and, to the extent possible, comparisons with observations will be presented and discussed. Chen, G.-X., W.-C. Wang, and J.-P. Chen, 2015: Aerosol-stratocumulus-radiation interactions over Southeast Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 2612-2621. Saide, P. E. (and 16 co-authors), 2012: Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3045-3064.

  17. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  18. Reactive nitrogen oxides in the southeast United States national parks: source identification, origin, and process budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Daniel Quansong; Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Ray, John D.

    2005-01-01

    We present in this study both measurement-based and modeling analyses for elucidation of source attribution, influence areas, and process budget of reactive nitrogen oxides at two rural southeast United States sites (Great Smoky Mountains national park (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave national park (MACA)). Availability of nitrogen oxides is considered as the limiting factor to ozone production in these areas and the relative source contribution of reactive nitrogen oxides from point or mobile sources is important in understanding why these areas have high ozone. Using two independent observation-based techniques, multiple linear regression analysis and emission inventory analysis, we demonstrate that point sources contribute a minimum of 23% of total NOy at GRSM and 27% at MACA. The influence areas for these two sites, or origins of nitrogen oxides, are investigated using trajectory-cluster analysis. The result shows that air masses from the West and Southwest sweep over GRSM most frequently, while pollutants transported from the eastern half (i.e., East, Northeast, and Southeast) have limited influence (<10% out of all air masses) on air quality at GRSM. The processes responsible for formation and removal of reactive nitrogen oxides are investigated using a comprehensive 3-D air quality model (Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP)). The NOy contribution associated with chemical transformations to NOz and O3, based on process budget analysis, is as follows: 32% and 84% for NOz, and 26% and 80% for O3 at GRSM and MACA, respectively. The similarity between NOz and O3 process budgets suggests a close association between nitrogen oxides and effective O3 production at these rural locations.

  19. Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W.; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared elementary students' school lunches selected and consumed before (Spring, 2011) and after (Spring, 2013) implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in the fall of 2012. Method Students in eight elementary schools in one Southeast Texas school district were observed during lunch: foods selected/consumed were recorded. The percentage of students who selected each food group was compared between years, as were the differences in the consumption and the percent of food consumed by year, for students who selected the food group. All analyses controlled for student gender and grade and school free/reduced price meal status. Results Observations were conducted for 472 (2011) and 573 (2013) students. Significantly more 2013 students selected fruit, 100% juice, total fruit + 100% juice, other vegetables, whole grains, protein foods and milk, but fewer selected starchy vegetables. For those students selecting them, significantly more total fruit + 100% juice and red–orange vegetables, but significantly less other vegetables, legumes, and protein foods were consumed. There were no differences in waste of fruit, whole grains, or vegetables, with the exception of legumes. More legumes were wasted in 2013 than 2011. Conclusion The findings that students had similar consumption rates for fruit, whole grains, and most vegetables in this study are encouraging. Regular monitoring of student food selection and consumption at school is needed to assess whether the new meal patterns improve intake at school. PMID:26101737

  20. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25716365

  1. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia.

  2. Cutaneous Manifestations of Selected Parasitic Infections in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian Regions.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente; Delos Trinos, John Paul Caesar; Garcia, Nikko Benjamin; Reyes, Maureen

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections often result in discomfort, debilitation, and even stigmatization. Data on cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections, however, are limited. This article provides updates on the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections which are known to occur in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions, such as scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, larva currens, cutaneous schistosomiasis, cutaneous enterobiasis, cutaneous cysticercosis, acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (lymphatic filariasis), and cutaneous amoebiasis. The lack of epidemiological data on these conditions suggests the need for improvements in recording and reporting of cases. Utilization of advance diagnostic modalities and capacity building of health workers are important for proper case management. Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections are a topic rarely studied and thus represent an opportunity for further research. PMID:27447892

  3. 15 CFR 2301.18 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection process. 2301.18 Section... PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection Process § 2301.18 Selection process. (a) The PTFP Director will consider the summary evaluations prepared by program staff, rank the applications, and present...

  4. 15 CFR 2301.18 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 2301.18 Section 2301.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Telecommunications and Information NATIONAL... PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection Process § 2301.18 Selection process. (a) The PTFP Director will...

  5. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  6. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  8. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  9. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  10. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  11. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  12. Selected Highlights in Nuclear Research in the Southeast by Vanderbilt and ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    On the one hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the nucleus, selected highlights in nuclear research by Vanderbilt scientists and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists as well as their joint research are described. These will include the earliest work involving the first confirmation of neutron induced fission and classic papers on the fission process. This was followed by the development of the barrier for the gaseous diffusion separation of ^235U from ^238U. In the 1940's the first working nuclear reactor became operational at ORNL, to make ^239Pu followed by the first radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, neutron scattering to probe materials leading to a Nobel Prize and the first observation of the β decay of the free neutron. In 1953 Hill and Wheeler published their classic nuclear theory paper that has over 2000 citations. In the 1960's large E0 transitions were observed in decays of β but not γ vibrational bands to confirm the predictions of Bohr and Mottelson that β vibrations change the nuclear deformation. Then the first failures of the B-M model were observed. In the 1970's the paradigm that each nucleus had one fixed shape was changed when the discovery of the coexistence of overlapping bands built on different deformations were observed. This was made possible, in part, by universities building the first isotope separator on-line to the Oak Ridge cyclotron. This was followed by the discovery of the reinforcement of proton and neutron shell gaps at the same deformation to give superdeformed double magic nuclei. Other highlights will be presented, including the recent discovery of the new element 117 and confirmation of new elements 113 and 115.

  13. Zoonotic emerging infectious disease in selected countries in Southeast Asia: insights from ecohealth.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Lapar, M Lucila; Unger, Fred; Fèvre, Sonia; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Schelling, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Most emerging diseases of humans originate in animals, and zoonotic emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten human, animal, and environment health. We report on a scoping study to assess actors, linkages, priorities, and needs related to management of these diseases from the perspective of key stakeholders in three countries in Southeast Asia. A comprehensive interview guide was developed and in-depth interviews completed with 21 key stakeholders in Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. We found numerous relevant actors with a predominance of public sector and medical disciplines. More capacity weaknesses than strengths were reported, with risk analysis and research skills most lacking. Social network analysis of information flows showed policy-makers were regarded as mainly information recipients, research institutes as more information providers, and universities as both. Veterinary and livestock disciplines emerged as an important "boundary-spanning" organization with linkages to both human health and rural development. Avian influenza was regarded as the most important zoonotic EID, perhaps reflecting the priority-setting influence of actors outside the region. Stakeholders reported a high awareness of the ecological and socioeconomic drivers of disease emergence and a demand for disease prioritization, epidemiological skills, and economic and qualitative studies. Evaluated from an ecohealth perspective, human health is weakly integrated with socioeconomics, linkages to policy are stronger than to communities, participation occurs mainly at lower levels, and equity considerations are not fully considered. However, stakeholders have awareness of ecological and social determinants of health, and a basis exists on which transdisciplinarity, equity, and participation can be strengthened. PMID:21174223

  14. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  15. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  16. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  17. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  18. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  19. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  20. Updated mapping and seismic reflection data processing along the Queen Charlotte fault system, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, M. A. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Rohr, K.; Roland, E. C.; Trehu, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) is an obliquely convergent strike-slip system that accommodates offset between the Pacific and North America plates in southeast Alaska and western Canada. Two recent earthquakes, including a M7.8 thrust event near Haida Gwaii on 28 October 2012, have sparked renewed interest in the margin and led to further study of how convergent stress is accommodated along the fault. Recent studies have looked in detail at offshore structure, concluding that a change in strike of the QCF at ~53.2 degrees north has led to significant differences in stress and the style of strain accommodation along-strike. We provide updated fault mapping and seismic images to supplement and support these results. One of the highest-quality seismic reflection surveys along the Queen Charlotte system to date, EW9412, was shot aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing in 1994. The survey was last processed to post-stack time migration for a 1999 publication. Due to heightened interest in high-quality imaging along the fault, we have completed updated processing of the EW9412 seismic reflection data and provide prestack migrations with water-bottom multiple reduction. Our new imaging better resolves fault and basement surfaces at depth, as well as the highly deformed sediments within the Queen Charlotte Terrace. In addition to re-processing the EW9412 seismic reflection data, we have compiled and re-analyzed a series of publicly available USGS seismic reflection data that obliquely cross the QCF. Using these data, we are able to provide updated maps of the Queen Charlotte fault system, adding considerable detail along the northernmost QCF where it links up with the Chatham Strait and Transition fault systems. Our results support conclusions that the changing geometry of the QCF leads to fundamentally different convergent stress accommodation north and south of ~53.2 degrees; namely, reactivated splay faults to the north vs. thickening of sediments and the upper crust to the south

  1. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  2. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  3. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a particular service area, Corporation staff shall: (1) Review each application and any additional...

  4. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... selection. (a)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part or of parts 4 and 16 of this chapter, a... the pre-filing consultation process, including the Commission staff, may communicate with each...

  5. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  6. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  7. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  8. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  9. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  10. Group selection and kin selection: two concepts but one process.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Keller, Laurent; West, Stuart; Roze, Denis

    2007-04-17

    In a recent paper, Traulsen and Nowak use a multilevel selection model to show that cooperation can be favored by group selection in finite populations [Traulsen A, Nowak M (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:10952-10955]. The authors challenge the view that kin selection may be an appropriate interpretation of their results and state that group selection is a distinctive process "that permeates evolutionary processes from the emergence of the first cells to eusociality and the economics of nations." In this paper, we start by addressing Traulsen and Nowak's challenge and demonstrate that all their results can be obtained by an application of kin selection theory. We then extend Traulsen and Nowak's model to life history conditions that have been previously studied. This allows us to highlight the differences and similarities between Traulsen and Nowak's model and typical kin selection models and also to broaden the scope of their results. Our retrospective analyses of Traulsen and Nowak's model illustrate that it is possible to convert group selection models to kin selection models without disturbing the mathematics describing the net effect of selection on cooperation. PMID:17416674

  11. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.3 Process... with the Commission a request to use the traditional licensing process or alternative...

  12. The presence of biomarker enzymes of selected Scleractinian corals of Palk Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Anithajothi, R; Duraikannu, K; Umagowsalya, G; Ramakritinan, C M

    2014-01-01

    The health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. The causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. These disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. If the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. Therefore, the present study was aimed to analyze the enzymes involved in stress induced by coral pathogen and its resistance. We focused on the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis pathway (phenoloxidase (PO) and peroxidases (POD)) and free radical scavenging enzymes (super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in selected scleractinian corals such as Acropora formosa, Echinopora lamellosa, Favia favus, Favites halicora, Porites sp., and Anacropora forbesi. Overall, PO activity of coral was significantly lower than that of zooxanthellae except for Favia favus. Coral colonies with lower PO and POD activities are prone to disease. Maximum antioxidant defensive enzymes were observed in Favia favus followed by Echinopora lamellose. It is concluded that assay of these enzymes can be used as biomarkers for identifying the susceptibility of corals towards coral bleaching induced by pathogen.

  13. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon during 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, K.-M.; Wetzel, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated by coupling a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed, land surface model, PLACE (the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange). The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The control simulation with the PLACE land surface model and variable sea surface temperature captured the basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. Sensitivity tests indicated that simulations were sigmficantly improved by including the PLACE land surface model. The mechanism by which the land surface processes affect the moisture transport and the convection during the onset of the southeast Asian monsoon were analyzed. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation: the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-china peninsula and the northern, cold frontal intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes modified the low-level temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level wind due to the thermal wind effect. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat fluxes from the detailed, land surface model improved the low-level wind simulation apd associated moisture transport and convection.

  14. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon during 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, K.-M.; Wetzel, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated by coupling a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed, land surface model, PLACE (the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange). The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The control simulation with the PLACE land surface model and variable sea surface temperature captured the basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. Sensitivity tests indicated that simulations were significantly improved by including the PLACE land surface model. The mechanism by which the land surface processes affect the moisture transport and the convection during the onset of the southeast Asian monsoon were analyzed. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation: the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-China peninsula and the northern, cold frontal intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes modified the low-level temperature distribution and merit, and therefore the low-level wind due to the thermal wind effect. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat fluxes from the detailed, land surface model improved the low-level wind simulation and associated moisture transport and convection.

  15. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

  16. The sinkhole enigma in the Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany: Evidence of impact-induced rock liquefaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstson, Kord; Mayer, Werner; Neumair, Andreas; Sudhaus, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Sudden collapse of the Quaternary soil to form sinkholes on the order of meters and tens of meters has been a geologic phenomenon within living memory in a localized area north of Lake Chiemsee in Southeast Germany. Failing a satisfying explanation, a relation with an undefined glaciation process has always been proposed. Excavations and geophysical measurements at three newly affected sites show underground features such as prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Since strong earthquakes can reasonably be excluded to have affected the area under discussion, it has been suggested that the observed widespread liquefaction is related with the recently proposed Holocene Chiemgau meteorite impact event. Except for one earlier proposed but unassertive relation between impact and liquefaction, the obviously direct association of both processes in the Chiemgau area emphasizes that observed paleoliquefaction features need not necessarily have originated solely from paleoseismicity but can provide a recognizable regional impact signature.

  17. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  18. Sexual selection unhandicapped by the Fisher process.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    1990-06-21

    A population genetic model of sexual selection is constructed in which, at equilibrium, males signal their quality by developing costly ornaments, and females pay costs to use the ornaments in mate choice. It is shown that the form of the equilibrium is uninfluenced by the Fisher process, that is, by self-reinforcement of female preferences. This is a working model of the handicap principle applied to sexual selection, and places Zahavi's handicap principle on the same logical footing as the Fisher process, in that each can support sexual selection without the presence of the other. A way of measuring the relative importance of the two processes is suggested that can be applied to both theories and facts. A style of modelling that allows simple genetics and complicated biology to be combined is recommended.

  19. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have resulted in the development of a novel agglomeration process for upgrading ultrafine coal. This process, which is known as selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC), is based on the new finding that hydrophobic coal particles can be selectively coagulated in the presence of dispersed mineral matter. The driving force for the coagulation is believed to be due to the structural arrangement of water molecules near the coal surface. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of the coal particles and (2) effectively disperse the particles of mineral matter. During the past quarter, several important aspects of the SHC process were examined. Direct measurements of the surface forces which control the selective coagulation process were conducted using a Mark 4 surface force apparatus. These preliminary measurements have provided irrefutable evidence for the existence of the hydrophobic force. Key expressions have been presented for a population balance model describing the hydrophobic coagulation process. In order to validate this model, experimental measurements of the size distributions of coal coagulation have been initiated. The liberation characteristics of samples obtained from the Elkhorn No. 3 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal seams were determined using a SEM-IPS image processing system. Mixing studies were carried out to determine the effects of mixer-impeller configurations on the coagula size distributions. Bench-scale continuous testing has also been initiated during the past quarter using a rotating drum screen and sedimentation tank. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  1. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS...

  2. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT,...

  3. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PUBLIC SAFETY AWARDS TO PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS §...

  4. Selective epitaxy using the gild process

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  5. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon During 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, K.-M.; Wetzel, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated with a coupled mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed land surface model. The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data fiom the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The simulation with the land surface model captured basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. The sensitivity tests indicated that land surface processes had a greater impact on the simulated rainfall results than that of a small sea surface temperature change during the onset period. In both the 1997 and 1998 cases, the simulations were significantly improved by including the land surface processes. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation; the southwest low-level flow over the Indo- China peninsula and the northern cold front intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat exchange between the land and atmosphere modified the lowlevel temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat from the detailed land surface model improved the monsoon rainfall and associated wind simulation.

  6. Residency selection process: description and annotated bibliography.

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, P R; Frye, T L

    1979-01-01

    Specialty and residency training choices of medical students will affect the quality, mode, and geographic location of their future practice; the importance of such choices should not be underestimated. Medical school librarians have largely ignored the opportunity to interact with both medical students and medical school officials in providing sources needed to assist these career decisions, and for the most part students and administrators have ignored the opportunity to utilize the medical library in this process. This article presents an overview of the processes and procedures in which third- and fourth-year medical students are involved in selecting specialty and residency training, and provides a detailed description of the resources which the medical student should consult in order to make thoughtful, informed career decisions. The article urges medical school advisers and medical librarians to work as partners in providing information on specialty and residency selection to medical students. PMID:385087

  7. Selection-mutation process of RNA viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aafif, Amal; Lin, Juan

    1998-02-01

    RNA viruses mutate at a rate 105-106 times faster than their DNA counterparts. This process can be simulated by a continuous stochastic model on a smooth one-dimensional fitness landscape where selection forces the viral quasispecies to climb uphill to higher fitness values. Theoretical results of the model with drift velocity proportional to fitness are fitted to the experimental observations made by Novella et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5841 (1995)].

  8. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an economical method of producing low-ash and low-sulfur coals using the selective coagulation process. Work is subdivided into three tasks: (1) project planning; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development testwork to establish the best possible methods of separating the coagula from the dispersed mineral matter. During the second quarter, the effects of surface hydrophobicity, pH and KCI concentrations on the interaction energies of attachment and detachment have been evaluated; hydrophobic interaction parameters were determined for oxidized and unoxidized; Elkhorn No. 3 seam coal samples and then compared with calculations based on the extended DLVO theory; and work continued on the population balance model of the hydrophobic coagulation process. A sample of Elkhorn No. 3 seam coal was obtained and is currently being characterized; a particle size monitor has been received; and work has begun on enhancing the separation of coagula (Task 3.4). 14 figs.

  9. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an economical method of producing low-ash and low-sulfur coals using the selective coagulation process. The work is subdivided into three tasks: (1) Project Planning, (2) Establish the fundamental mechanism of the selective coagulation process and determine the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur, and (3) Conduct bench-scale process development testwork to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from the dispersed mineral matter. The effect of pH on the energy of particle/bubble detachment has been measured with a single point surface force apparatus (Task 2.1); bench-scale coagulation experiments, coupled with contact angle and zeta potential measurements, are being used to determine hydrophobic interaction parameters for a Pittsburgh No. 8 coal sample (Task 2.2); and a population balance model of the hydrophobic coagulation process is under development (Task 2.3). A sample of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been received and is currently being characterized (Tasks 3.1 3.2), and the mixer required for Task 3.3 was designed and constructed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  11. Selective-oxidation catalyst improves Claus process

    SciTech Connect

    Lagas, J.A.; Borsboom, J. ); Berben, P.H. )

    1988-10-10

    Increased SO/sub 2/ emissions. On a worldwide scale, the exploitation and processing of crude oil and natural gas have increased significantly during the past 30 years. This expansion has caused severe pollution problems, especially from sulfur dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. A new development for the well-known Claus process improves production of elemental sulfur from H/sub 2/S. The ''SuperClaus'' process involves a modification of the process-control system and the use of a newly developed selective-oxidation catalyst in the third reactor with the objective of achieving a 99% or 99.5% overall sulfur recovery (two versions) without further tail-gas cleanup. The catalyst for the new process was developed and tested on laboratory bench scale for more than 3 years. Based on the results, it was decided to test the process directly in a commercial unit. A three-stage, 100-t/d Claus plant in a natural-gas plant in the Federal Republic of Germany has been retrofitted to SuperClause. Since Jan. 21, the process has been successfully operated.

  12. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  13. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  14. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George

    2009-01-01

    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  15. Selected applications and processing techniques for LTCC.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Krueger, Daniel S.; Sandoval, Charles E.

    2010-11-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic has proven itself in microelectronics, microsystems (including microfluidic systems), sensors, RF features, and various non-electronic applications. We will discuss selected applications and the processing associated with those applications. We will then focus on our recent work in the area of EMI shielding using full tape thickness features (FTTF) and sidewall metallization. The FTTF is very effective in applications with -150 dB isolation requirements, but presents obvious processing difficulties in full-scale fabrication. The FTTF forms a single continuous solid wall around the volume to be shielded by using sequential punching and feature-filling. We discuss the material incompatibilities and manufacturing considerations that need to be addressed for such structures and show preliminary implementations.

  16. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon During 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W.; Baker, R.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated with a coupled mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed land surface model. The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The simulation with the land surface model captured basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. The sensitivity tests indicated that land surface processes had a greater impact on the simulated rainfall results than that of a small sea surface temperature change during the onset period. In both the 1997 and 1998 cases, the simulations were significantly improved by including the land surface processes. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation; the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-China peninsula and the northern cold front intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat exchange between the land and atmosphere modified the low-level temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat from the detailed land surface model improved the monsoon rainfall and associated wind simulation. The model results will be compared to the simulation of the 6-7 May 2000 Missouri flash flood event. In addition, the impact of model initialization and land surface treatment on timing, intensity, and location of extreme precipitation will be examined.

  17. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon during 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Wang, Y.; Lau, W.; Baker, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated with a coupled mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed land surface model. The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The simulation with the land surface model captured basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. The sensitivity tests indicated that land surface processes had a greater impact on the simulated rainfall results than that of a small sea surface temperature change during the onset period. In both the 1997 and 1998 cases, the simulations were significantly improved by including the land surface processes. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation; the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-China peninsula and the northern cold front intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat exchange between the land and atmosphere modified the low-level temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat from the detailed land surface model improved the monsoon rainfall and associated wind simulation. The model results will be compared to the simulation of the 6-7 May 2000 Missouri flash flood event. In addition, the impact of model initialization and land surface treatment on timing, intensity, and location of extreme precipitation will be examined.

  18. Glacimarine sedimentary processes, facies and morphology of the south-southeast Alaska shelf and fjords

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, R.D.; Molnia, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    High precipitation from Gulf of Alaska air masses can locally reach up to 800 cm a-1. This precipitation on tectonically active mountains creates cool-temperate glaciation with extremely active erosion and continuously renewed resources. High basal debris loads up to 1.5 m thick of pure debris and rapid glacial flow, which can be more than 3000 m a-1, combine to produce large volumes of siliciclastic glacimarine sediment at some of the highest sediment accumulation rates on record. At tidewater fronts of valley glaciers, sediment accumulation rates can be over 13 m a-1 and deltas commonly grow at about 106 m3 a-1. Major processes influencing glacimarine sedimentation are glacial transport and glacier-contact deposition, meltwater (subaerial and submarine) and runoff transport and deposition, iceberg rafting and gouging, sea-ice transport, wave action and storm reworking, tidal transport and deposition, alongshelf transport, sliding and slumping and gravity flows, eolian transport, and biogenic production and reworking. Processes are similar in both shelf and fjord settings; however, different intensities of some processes create different facies associations and geometries. The tectonoclimatic regime also controls morphology because bedrock structure is modified by glacial action. Major glacimarine depositional systems are all siliciclastic. They are subglacial, marginal-morainal bank and submarine outwash, and proglacial/paraglacial-fluvial/deltaic, beach, tidal flat/estuary, glacial fjord, marine outwash fjord and continental shelf. Future research should include study of long cores with extensive dating and more seismic surveys to evaluate areal and temporal extent of glacial facies and glaciation; time-series oceanographic data, sidescan sonar surveys and submersible dives to evaluate modern processes; biogenic diversity and production to evaluate paleoecological, paleobiogeographic and biofacies analysis; and detailed comparisons of exposed older rock of the

  19. A study using demographic data of genetic drift and natural selection in an isolated Mediterranean community: Bayárcal (La Alpujarra, south-east Spain).

    PubMed

    Luna, F; Tarelho, A R; Camargo, A M; Alonso, V

    2011-07-01

    Natural selection and genetic drift are two evolutionary mechanisms that can be analysed in human populations using their fertility and mortality patterns, and their reproductive size and isolation, respectively. This paper analyses the models of natural selection and genetic drift in Bayárcal, south-east Spain, and compares them with the observed models in the rest of the Alpujarran region. Demographic data were obtained from a sample of 77 families (48.45% of the population, with 547 inhabitants). The genetic drift and natural selection action was evaluated with the Coefficient of Breeding Isolation (CBI of Lasker and Kaplan) and Crow's index, respectively. The CBI (23.23/12.61) suggests that genetic drift is near to acting, and Crow's index (I=0.58) is slightly higher than that observed in the rest of La Alpujarra. Although the reproductive isolation of Bayárcal is not effective enough for genetic drift to act, it is near when marital migrants inside the Bayárcal valley are considered as a native population. The natural selection pattern is not different from that of the rest of La Alpujarra, but it tends towards the model of developing communities, where the demographic transition has not yet begun.

  20. A Delay Differential Equation Model for Dengue Fever Transmission in Selected Countries of South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakdanupaph, Werapong; Moore, Elvin J.

    2009-08-01

    Dengue Fever is a dangerous viral disease that is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes and is common in more than 100 countries in the world and in all countries of South-East Asia. Mathematical models of Dengue Fever transmission are useful for studying the causes of the spread of the disease and to try to develop methods for reducing the spread of the disease. In this paper, a mathematical model for Dengue fever is analyzed consisting of a system of four nonlinear differential equations with two time delays. The model includes infected humans, infectious humans, infected mosquitoes and infectious mosquitoes. The model has disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points are studied analytically. The Matlab computer program is used to obtain numerical solutions of the model for both zero and nonzero time delays for a range of parameter values. It is found that for some reasonable estimates of parameter values the endemic equilibrium point is asymptotically stable, but the approach to equilibrium is very slow, suggesting that this equilibrium point may not be of practical importance for these parameter values. Some comparisons are made between the model results and the actual data for Dengue Fever in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

  1. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  2. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by

  3. Processing and domain selection: Quantificational variability effects

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jesse A.; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    Three studies investigated how readers interpret sentences with variable quantificational domains, e.g., The army was mostly in the capital, where mostly may quantify over individuals or parts (Most of the army was in the capital) or over times (The army was in the capital most of the time). It is proposed that a general conceptual economy principle, No Extra Times (Majewski 2006, in preparation), discourages the postulation of potentially unnecessary times, and thus favors the interpretation quantifying over parts. Disambiguating an ambiguously quantified sentence to a quantification over times interpretation was rated as less natural than disambiguating it to a quantification over parts interpretation (Experiment 1). In an interpretation questionnaire, sentences with similar quantificational variability were constructed so that both interpretations of the sentence would require postulating multiple times; this resulted in the elimination of the preference for a quantification over parts interpretation, suggesting the parts preference observed in Experiment 1 is not reducible to a lexical bias of the adverb mostly (Experiment 2). An eye movement recording study showed that, in the absence of prior evidence for multiple times, readers exhibit greater difficulty when reading material that forces a quantification over times interpretation than when reading material that allows a quantification over parts interpretation (Experiment 3). These experiments contribute to understanding readers’ default assumptions about the temporal properties of sentences, which is essential for understanding the selection of a domain for adverbial quantifiers and, more generally, for understanding how situational constraints influence sentence processing. PMID:25328262

  4. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    SciTech Connect

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  5. Selection. ERIC Processing Manual, Section III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Grace, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided governing the selection of documents and journal articles to be included in the ERIC database. Selection criteria are described under the five headings: (1) Appropriateness of content/subject matter; (2) Suitability of format, medium, document type; (3) Quality of content; (4) Legibility and reproducibility; (5)…

  6. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  7. Eugenics as Indian removal: sociohistorical processes and the de(con)struction of American Indians in the southeast.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Angela; Kertész, Judy; Tayac, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Although research on the history of the eugenics movement in the United States is legion, its impact on state policies that identified and defined American Indians has yet to be fully addressed. The exhibit, Our Lives: Comtemporary Life and Identities (ongoing until September 21, 2014) at the National Museum of the American Indian provides a provocative vehicle for examining how eugenics-informed public policy during the first quarter of the twentieth century served to "remove" from official records Native peoples throughout the Southeast. One century after Indian Removal of the antebellum era, Native peoples in the American Southeast provide an important but often overlooked example of how racial policies, this time rooted in eugenics, effected a documentary erasure of Native peoples and communities.

  8. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  9. Superintendent Selection Processes: Perspectives of Professional Search Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hiring the superintendent is the most important job of a school board. The superintendent selection process is increasingly being guided by paid consultants employed to work with school boards in a process to select superintendents. This qualitative study examined the selection criteria school boards use from the perspective of the professional…

  10. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  11. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  12. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section 1780... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  14. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  15. 15 CFR 295.4 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM General § 295.4 The selection process. (a) The selection process for awards is a multi-step process based on the criteria listed in § 295.6. Source evaluation boards (SEB) are established to ensure... under the criteria found in § 295.6. Proposals judged by the SEB after considering the technical...

  16. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

  17. Nurse manager selection process (Part 1). Survey of selection process (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Vandewater, D A; White, L

    1998-01-01

    The Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre developed as a result of the merger of the five adult hospitals in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The merge involved 7000 staff members, 2700 of whom were nursing staff. Although mergers are becoming relatively common amongst health care organizations, there is a paucity of information in the literature to describe such an enormous human resource effort. This two-part article describes the hiring process for the selection and placement of 52 nurse managers over a concentrated time period of six weeks. Issues identified and resolved included: unionized and non unionized head nurses, the role of nurse managers, varying educational preparations, the time frame and organization of the process itself, options for unsuccessful incumbents, and multi unit and multi site management. The second part of the article reports on the results of a survey which was carried out to obtain feedback from the applicants and the interview panel members. The survey was conducted within eight weeks of the conclusion of the hiring process. Overall the process was deemed successful, albeit stressful. Some of the problems encountered are discussed.

  18. Computers in Schools of Southeast Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrow, Raylene; Henderson, David L.

    This study determined the prominent brands of microcomputers presently in use in Southeast Texas schools, the reasons for their selection, and computer use and brands in relation to grade level. Questionnaires related to microcomputer use were sent to 115 school districts in southeast Texas in 1985. The return rate was 83 percent. A total of 8,258…

  19. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... all agencies, Indian tribes, and others affected by the applicant's request, and that a consensus... the pre-filing consultation process, including the Commission staff, may communicate with each...

  20. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... all agencies, Indian tribes, and others affected by the applicant's request, and that a consensus... the pre-filing consultation process, including the Commission staff, may communicate with each...

  1. Process observation in selective laser melting (SLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Abels, P.

    2015-03-01

    In additive manufacturing, the quality of products can be traced by observation of process variables track by track and layer by layer. The stacking of layer wise information can be used to consolidate the entire build up history of a product thus leading to a truly three dimensional quality histogram. The first step that is necessary to achieve such a quality histogram is the acquisition of process measurands that are related to product quality. Successful acquisition of measurements for thermal radiation has been reported in several publications. The authors of such papers report the detection of changes in boundary conditions of the process by observing the thermal radiation of the process. It has been reported that for example a change in laser power has an influence on the thermal emission and that different readings are received for processing a thin powder layer on a solid work piece compared to scanning pure powder in the situation of an overhang structure. A correlation to the underlying reason for the increase in thermal radiation however is mostly related to the experimental setup rather than to in process measurements. This report demonstrates an approach of acquiring and combining synchronous measurements of different physical properties of the process. The coaxial observation system used in the experiments enables the synchronous acquisition of measurements of the thermal emission and the acquisition of images that visualize the surface of the powder bed in the vicinity of the interaction zone. The images are used to monitor the motion of powder particles as they are influenced by the melting process. This amount of particle motion is then correlated to areas of different powder thicknesses. The combination of this information with excessive readings in thermal emission classifies the event to be a situation of noncritical deviation of thermal emission. In fact, this combination of extracted features establishes a first key criterion for an

  2. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.5 Proposal selection process. The...

  3. 15 CFR 291.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS § 291.5 Proposal selection process. The proposal...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  5. Folklore and the College Selection Process Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Clinton F. Conrad's article, "Beyond the Folklore." Conrad's strategy for assessing undergraduate quality echoes the sentiments espoused by many admission and college counseling professionals over the years at various workshops for students and families that focus on navigating the process. As transcendent as the…

  6. Using Card Games to Simulate the Process of Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilliot, Matthew E.; Harden, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    In 1858, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." His explanation of evolution by natural selection has become the unifying theme of biology. We have found that many students do not fully comprehend the process of evolution by natural selection. We discuss a few simple games that incorporate hands-on…

  7. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  8. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposal selection process. 292.5 Section 292.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL... EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.5 Proposal selection process. The...

  9. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposal selection process. 292.5 Section 292.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL... EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.5 Proposal selection process. The...

  10. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposal selection process. 292.5 Section 292.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL... EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.5 Proposal selection process. The...

  11. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposal selection process. 292.5 Section 292.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL... EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.5 Proposal selection process. The...

  12. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  13. A Formal Language Selection Process for Introductory Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kevin R.; Chao, Joseph T.; Ottaway, Thomas A.; Chang, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The selection of a programming language for introductory courses has long been an informal process involving faculty evaluation, discussion, and consensus. As the number of faculty, students, and language options grows, this process becomes increasingly unwieldy. As it stands, the process currently lacks structure and replicability. Establishing a…

  14. Process selection for treatment of SOC contaminated waters

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, B.I.; Lawler, D.F.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The selection of the least-cost treatment option for treating synthetic organic chemical (SOC) contaminated wastewaters is often a complex endeavor. There are too many potential treatment processes and series-of-processes to perform a detailed evaluation of all alternatives. This research was undertaken to simplify the selection of the least expensive treatment process(es) for a given set of conditions. Mathematical process performance and cost models were developed for eight treatment processes. Four aqueous treatment processes were considered: air stripping, liquid-phase adsorption, fixed-film biological oxidation, and biodegradation within a carbon adsorption column. Because off-gases from air stripping towers are frequently regulated, four off-gas treatment processes also were considered: gas-phase adsorption (both on and off site regeneration), thermal incineration, and catalytic oxidation. The least-cost design for each process was identified for a set of wastewaters typical of contaminated groundwaters, drinking waters, and industrial wastes. The results were synthesized to create generalizations concerning process selection. The specific objective of this research was to develop analytical tools to aid engineers faced with complex decisions concerning process selection for the treatment of SOC contaminated waters.

  15. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  16. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  17. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Nutrients, Other Chemical Constituents, and Diatoms in Bottom Sediment, Fall River Lake, Southeast Kansas, 1948-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, diatoms, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake, southeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1948 through 2006 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was 470 million cubic feet and 18.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 36 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1948 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 324 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Fall River Lake Basin was estimated to be 585,000 pounds per square mile per year. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake were estimated to be 648,000 pounds per year and 267,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Fall River Lake Basin were 1,170 pounds per square mile per year and 480 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Fall River Lake, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were relatively uniform. Trace element concentrations in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake generally were uniform over time. Arsenic, chromium, nickel, and zinc concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Trace element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects

  18. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  19. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  20. Listeners modulate temporally selective attention during natural speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Sanders, Lisa D.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially selective attention allows for the preferential processing of relevant stimuli when more information than can be processed in detail is presented simultaneously at distinct locations. Temporally selective attention may serve a similar function during speech perception by allowing listeners to allocate attentional resources to time windows that contain highly relevant acoustic information. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials were compared in response to attention probes presented in six conditions during a narrative: concurrently with word onsets, beginning 50 and 100 ms before and after word onsets, and at random control intervals. Times for probe presentation were selected such that the acoustic environments of the narrative were matched for all conditions. Linguistic attention probes presented at and immediately following word onsets elicited larger amplitude N1s than control probes over medial and anterior regions. These results indicate that native speakers selectively process sounds presented at specific times during normal speech perception. PMID:18395316

  1. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

    2000-08-16

    A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

  2. It takes three: selection, influence, and de-selection processes of depression in adolescent friendship networks.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J T; Stattin, Håkan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-07-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms) and friendship de-selection (i.e., de-selection of friends with dissimilar levels of depressive symptoms). Further, this study is unique in that these processes were studied both inside and outside the school context. The authors used a social network approach to examine 5 annual measurements of data in a large (N =847) community-based network of adolescents and their friends (M = 14.3 years old at first measurement). Results supported the proposed model: adolescents tend to select friends with similar levels of depression, and friends may increase each other's depressive symptoms as relationships endure. These two processes were most salient outside the school context. At the same time, friendships seemed to be ended more frequently if adolescents' level of depressive symptoms was dissimilar to that of their friends.

  3. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession. PMID:26689381

  4. Selection of Temporal Lags When Modeling Economic and Financial Processes.

    PubMed

    Matilla-Garcia, Mariano; Ojeda, Rina B; Marin, Manuel Ruiz

    2016-10-01

    This paper suggests new nonparametric statistical tools and procedures for modeling linear and nonlinear univariate economic and financial processes. In particular, the tools presented help in selecting relevant lags in the model description of a general linear or nonlinear time series; that is, nonlinear models are not a restriction. The tests seem to be robust to the selection of free parameters. We also show that the test can be used as a diagnostic tool for well-defined models. PMID:27550703

  5. Seismicity and active accretion processes at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest and intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridges from hydroacoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves; Perrot, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic and tectonic events are the main processes involved in the generation of the oceanic crust and responsible for the seismicity associated with seafloor spreading. To monitor this activity, usually not or poorly detected by land-based seismological stations, we deployed from February 2012 to February 2013 a network of autonomous hydrophones to compare the behaviour of the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) with that of the intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridge (SEIR). The rate of seismicity is similar for both ridges, suggesting that there is no systematic relationship between seismicity and spreading rates. The along-axis distribution of the seismic events, however, does differ, reflecting the rate dependence of accretion modes. Earthquakes are sparse and regularly spaced and scattered along the SWIR, reflecting prevailing tectonic processes. By contrast, along the SEIR, events are irregularly distributed and focus at ridge-segment ends and transforms faults, reflecting the ridge segmentation; only two swarms occurred at a segment centre and are probably caused by a magmatic event. This seismicity distribution thus looks controlled by segment-scale crustal heterogeneities along the SEIR and by regional-scale contrasting accretion processes along the SWIR, probably driven by different lithospheric and asthenospheric dynamics on either side of the Melville fracture zone. The comparison of hydroacoustic and teleseismic catalogues shows that, along these spreading ridges, the background seismicity observed in 1 yr by a hydroacoustic network is representative of the seismicity observed over two decades by land-based networks.

  6. Seismicity and active accretion processes at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest and intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridges from hydroacoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves; Perrot, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic and tectonic events are the main processes involved in the generation of the oceanic crust and responsible for the seismicity associated with seafloor spreading. To monitor this activity, usually not or poorly detected by land-based seismological stations, we deployed from February 2012 to February 2013 a network of autonomous hydrophones to compare the behaviour of the ultraslow-spreading Southwest (SWIR) with that of the intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridges (SEIR). The rate of seismicity is similar for both ridges, suggesting that there is no systematic relationship between seismicity and spreading rates. The along-axis distribution of the seismic events, however, does differ, reflecting the rate-dependence of accretion modes. Earthquakes are sparse and regularly spaced and scattered along the SWIR, reflecting prevailing tectonic processes. By contrast, along the SEIR, events are irregularly distributed and focus at ridge-segment ends and transforms faults, reflecting the ridge segmentation; only two swarms occurred at a segment centre and are probably caused by a magmatic event. This seismicity distribution thus looks controlled by segment-scale crustal heterogeneities along the SEIR and by regional-scale contrasting accretion processes along the SWIR, probably driven by different lithospheric and asthenospheric dynamics on either side of the Melville FZ. The comparison of hydroacoustic and teleseismic catalogues shows that, along these spreading ridges, the background seismicity observed in one year by a hydroacoustic network is representative of the seismicity observed over two decades by land-based networks.

  7. Multicriteria framework for selecting a process modelling language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanavachi Moreira Campos, Ana Carolina; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2016-01-01

    The choice of process modelling language can affect business process management (BPM) since each modelling language shows different features of a given process and may limit the ways in which a process can be described and analysed. However, choosing the appropriate modelling language for process modelling has become a difficult task because of the availability of a large number modelling languages and also due to the lack of guidelines on evaluating, and comparing languages so as to assist in selecting the most appropriate one. This paper proposes a framework for selecting a modelling language in accordance with the purposes of modelling. This framework is based on the semiotic quality framework (SEQUAL) for evaluating process modelling languages and a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach in order to select the most appropriate language for BPM. This study does not attempt to set out new forms of assessment and evaluation criteria, but does attempt to demonstrate how two existing approaches can be combined so as to solve the problem of selection of modelling language. The framework is described in this paper and then demonstrated by means of an example. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using SEQUAL and MCDA in an integrated manner are discussed.

  8. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works. PMID:19197656

  9. Investigations on Manufacturability and Process Reliability of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Selective laser melting is a layer-wise manufacturing process that enables the use of complex geometric shapes in part design and production. An infrared laser beam is focused on a thin layer of metallic powder and selectively deflected in order to scan the cross-section of the parts being built. The process quality is dominated by the consolidation of powder particles through laser beam interaction, the part geometry itself and the arrangement of multiple parts. In this paper, the manufacturability is investigated by characterizing single melt tracks and the buildup of thin wall structures consisting of a few aligned scan tracks.

  10. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James E.

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  11. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  12. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  13. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  15. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  16. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  17. Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which…

  18. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  19. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  20. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  1. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  2. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section 1780.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and...

  3. Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Resident Assistant Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broitman, Thomas

    The American phenomenon of "more is better" extends a value-loaded concept implicit in budget preparation. At any university, the scope, magnitude and cost of a residence hall assistant program selection process is a metaphor to illustrate efficiency and effectiveness of human resources. In order to discover a more efficient and effective…

  4. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  5. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  6. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  7. Tachyplesins isolated from hemocytes of Southeast Asian horseshoe crabs (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus gigas): identification of a new tachyplesin, tachyplesin III, and a processing intermediate of its precursor.

    PubMed

    Muta, T; Fujimoto, T; Nakajima, H; Iwanaga, S

    1990-08-01

    Tachyplesins and their analogs are antimicrobial peptides composed of 17 or 18 amino acid residues present abundantly in acid extracts of hemocyte debris of horseshoe crabs. We purified here tachyplesin isopeptides from hemocytes of two species of Southeast Asian horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus gigas, and determined their amino acid sequences. The major tachyplesin isolated from both species was identified, respectively, as tachyplesin I, which had previously been found in hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus). The yield from both species was very high (more than 70 mg per 100 g wet weight of hemocytes), i.e., comparable with that from T. tridentatus. In addition to tachyplesin I, a new tachyplesin isopeptide, named tachyplesin III, was also isolated from T. gigas hemocytes, in which an arginine replaced the 15th lysine of tachyplesin I. The carboxyl-terminal residue of the isolated tachyplesins I and III was confirmed, respectively, to be an arginine alpha-amide by chemical analysis. Furthermore, a tachyplesin peptide derivative with a carboxyl-terminal extension of glycine-lysine was newly found in the hemocytes of C. rotundicauda. It appeared to be an intermediate derived from a tachyplesin precursor during processing to the mature form.

  8. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  9. Selective CO Methanation Catalysts for Fuel Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Wang, Yong; Xia, Guanguang G.; Strohm, James J.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2007-07-15

    Abstract Selective CO methanation as a strategy for CO removal in micro fuel processing applications was investigated over Ru-based catalysts. Ru loading, pretreatment and reduction conditions, and choice of support were shown to affect catalyst activity, selectivity, and stability. Even operating at a gas-hourly-space-velocity as high as 13,500 hr-1, a 3%Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was able to lower CO in a reformate to less than 100 ppm over a wide temperature range from 240oC to 285 oC, while keeping hydrogen consumption below 10%.

  10. Hyperparameter Selection for Gaussian Process One-Class Classification.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingchao; Wang, Huangang; Xu, Wenli

    2015-09-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) provide predicted outputs with a full conditional statistical description, which can be used to establish confidence intervals and to set hyperparameters. This characteristic provides GPs with competitive or better performance in various applications. However, the specificity of one-class classification (OCC) makes GPs unable to select suitable hyperparameters in their traditional way. This brief proposes to select hyperparameters for GP OCC using the prediction difference between edge and interior positive training samples. Experiments on 2-D artificial and University of California benchmark data sets verify the effectiveness of this method.

  11. Amorphous solid dispersions: Rational selection of a manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Teófilo; Marques, Sara; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous products and particularly amorphous solid dispersions are currently one of the most exciting areas in the pharmaceutical field. This approach presents huge potential and advantageous features concerning the overall improvement of drug bioavailability. Currently, different manufacturing processes are being developed to produce amorphous solid dispersions with suitable robustness and reproducibility, ranging from solvent evaporation to melting processes. In the present paper, laboratorial and industrial scale processes were reviewed, and guidelines for a rationale selection of manufacturing processes were proposed. This would ensure an adequate development (laboratorial scale) and production according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP) (industrial scale) of amorphous solid dispersions, with further implications on the process validations and drug development pipeline. PMID:26826438

  12. Parameters in selective laser melting for processing metallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Chlebus, Edward; Kuźnicka, Bogumiła; Reiner, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents results of studies on Selective Laser Melting. SLM is an additive manufacturing technology which may be used to process almost all metallic materials in the form of powder. Types of energy emission sources, mainly fiber lasers and/or Nd:YAG laser with similar characteristics and the wavelength of 1,06 - 1,08 microns, are provided primarily for processing metallic powder materials with high absorption of laser radiation. The paper presents results of selected variable parameters (laser power, scanning time, scanning strategy) and fixed parameters such as the protective atmosphere (argon, nitrogen, helium), temperature, type and shape of the powder material. The thematic scope is very broad, so the work was focused on optimizing the process of selective laser micrometallurgy for producing fully dense parts. The density is closely linked with other two conditions: discontinuity of the microstructure (microcracks) and stability (repeatability) of the process. Materials used for the research were stainless steel 316L (AISI), tool steel H13 (AISI), and titanium alloy Ti6Al7Nb (ISO 5832-11). Studies were performed with a scanning electron microscope, a light microscopes, a confocal microscope and a μCT scanner.

  13. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-12-01

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet.

  14. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  15. Filament winding cylinders. III - Selection of the process variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    By using the Lee-Springer filament winding model temperatures, degrees of cure, viscosities, stresses, strains, fiber tensions, fiber motions, and void diameters were calculated in graphite-epoxy composite cylinders during the winding and subsequent curing. The results demonstrate the type of information which can be generated by the model. It is shown, in reference to these results, how the model, and the corresponding WINDTHICK code, can be used to select the appropriate process variables.

  16. Peritoneal Dialysis and the Process of Modality Selection

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Peter G.; Quinn, Robert R.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The process of modality selection and how it works is a critical determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization. This very complex process has not been well analyzed. Here, we break it down into 6 steps and point out how problems at each step can significantly reduce the proportion of endstage renal disease patients initiating PD. It is important that any program wising it to grow its use of PD understand the steps and the points at which problems may be arising. Examples are presented. PMID:23660605

  17. Composite Interstage Structural Concept Down Select Process and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Thoma, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Technologies (ACT) project evaluated several composite construction options for the Ares V Interstage to support the Constellation Program's goal of reducing the mass of vehicle dry structures. In Phase 1 of the project, eight candidate construction concepts were evaluated for the Ares V Interstage design. Trade studies were performed using finite element analyses to determine weight estimates for the construction concepts. An evaluation process was then used to down select the construction concepts down to two concepts for further consideration in Phase 2 of the project. In Phase 2 of the project, additional trade studies were performed using detailed finite element analyses of the Interstage and a final down select process was used to choose the recommended Interstage construction concept. The results of the study showed that a honeycomb sandwich design was the most favorable Interstage construction concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost. Details of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 trade studies and down select process with final results are presented in the paper.

  18. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  19. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of the temporal structure of acoustic signals contributes critically to vocal signaling. In the aquatic clawed frog Xenopus laevis, calls differ primarily in the temporal parameter of click rate, which conveys sexual identity and reproductive state. We show here that an ensemble of auditory neurons in the laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis (TS) of X. laevis specializes in encoding vocalization click rates. We recorded single TS units while pure tones, natural calls, and synthetic clicks were presented directly to the tympanum via a vibration-stimulation probe. Synthesized click rates ranged from 4 to 50 Hz, the rate at which the clicks begin to overlap. Frequency selectivity and temporal processing were characterized using response-intensity curves, temporal-discharge patterns, and autocorrelations of reduplicated responses to click trains. Characteristic frequencies ranged from 140 to 3,250 Hz, with minimum thresholds of −90 dB re 1 mm/s at 500 Hz and −76 dB at 1,100 Hz near the dominant frequency of female clicks. Unlike units in the auditory nerve and dorsal medullary nucleus, most toral units respond selectively to the behaviorally relevant temporal feature of the rate of clicks in calls. The majority of neurons (85%) were selective for click rates, and this selectivity remained unchanged over sound levels 10 to 20 dB above threshold. Selective neurons give phasic, tonic, or adapting responses to tone bursts and click trains. Some algorithms that could compute temporally selective receptive fields are described. PMID:21289132

  20. Processes in arithmetic strategy selection: a fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Taillan, Julien; Ardiale, Eléonore; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Félician, Olivier; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 × 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up (RU) strategy (i.e., doing 60 × 80 = 4,800) or rounding-down (RD) strategy (i.e., doing 50 × 70 = 3,500 to estimate product of 54 × 78). In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40 × 50). Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and angular gyrus (ANG), when selecting (relative to executing) the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modeling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.

  1. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  2. Process observation in fiber laser-based selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Gatej, Alexander; Pereira, Milton

    2015-01-01

    The process observation in selective laser melting (SLM) focuses on observing the interaction point where the powder is processed. To provide process relevant information, signals have to be acquired that are resolved in both time and space. Especially in high-power SLM, where more than 1 kW of laser power is used, processing speeds of several meters per second are required for a high-quality processing results. Therefore, an implementation of a suitable process observation system has to acquire a large amount of spatially resolved data at low sampling speeds or it has to restrict the acquisition to a predefined area at a high sampling speed. In any case, it is vitally important to synchronously record the laser beam position and the acquired signal. This is a prerequisite that allows the recorded data become information. Today, most SLM systems employ f-theta lenses to focus the processing laser beam onto the powder bed. This report describes the drawbacks that result for process observation and suggests a variable retro-focus system which solves these issues. The beam quality of fiber lasers delivers the processing laser beam to the powder bed at relevant focus diameters, which is a key prerequisite for this solution to be viable. The optical train we present here couples the processing laser beam and the process observation coaxially, ensuring consistent alignment of interaction zone and observed area. With respect to signal processing, we have developed a solution that synchronously acquires signals from a pyrometer and the position of the laser beam by sampling the data with a field programmable gate array. The relevance of the acquired signals has been validated by the scanning of a sample filament. Experiments with grooved samples show a correlation between different powder thicknesses and the acquired signals at relevant processing parameters. This basic work takes a first step toward self-optimization of the manufacturing process in SLM. It enables the

  3. Race, self-selection, and the job search process.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process.

  4. Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process1

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S.

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original datasets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Finally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  5. Race, self-selection, and the job search process.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  6. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  7. Selective laser micro sintering with a novel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Horst; Regenfuss, Peter; Hartwig, Lars; Kloetzer, Sascha; Ebert, Robby

    2003-11-01

    Microparts with a structural resolution of <30μm and aspect ratios of >12 have been generated by selective laser sintering. The technique includes sintering under conditions of vacuum or reduced shield gas pressures. In a novel set-up the material is processed by a Q-switched 1064nm Nd-YAG laser after a special raking procedure. The procedure allows the work pieces to be generated from powders of high melting metals like tungsten as well as lower melting metals like aluminium and copper. Contingent on the parameters, the generated bodies are either firmly attached to the substrate or can be dissevered by a non-destructive method.

  8. Aasgard B process selection of hydrogen sulfide removal and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.J. van; Chludzinski, G.; Charles, P.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Aasgard offshore project consists of a 2-stage development to produce the oil and gas reserves from three fields in the Norwegian Sea. The three fields Midgard, Smoerbukk and Smoerbukk Soer have reserves of approximately 220 Gia standard cubic meters (Gsm{sup 3}, 8 Tcf) and 120 (Mm{sup 3}, 750 MMbbls) of crude oil and condensate. The Aasgard unit will be jointly developed by Statoil and Saga, and operated by Statoil. Other partners are Neste Petroleum, Mobil, Total, Agip and Norsk Hydro. This paper will focus on the process selection and preliminary design of the gas treating system.

  9. Selecting and testing recyclables collection and processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman-Ramcheck, W.; Hunsicker, M.

    1994-11-01

    How does a community select the best way to collect and process recyclables? Cost is certain a factor, but the many other considerations include convenience for residents, flexibility, environmental impact, and compatibility with the existing waste management system. If the community wants to consider bagging recyclables and co-collecting them with mixed waste, there are the additional and thorny issues of how such programs will be received by the public, the impact of those choices on participation, quality of recyclables, and real costs associated with such systems. To select a recycling collection system that best meets state requirements as well as city needs, Wauwatosa undertook a comprehensive recycling system analysis. Guided by a citizen`s advisory committee and assisted by a consultant, the city reviewed all available waste management methods and identified four alternatives with the potential to meet the city`s needs. The comprehensive approach taken by Wauwatosa illustrates one way to get a handle on a community`s important considerations. Pilot testing of the selected combined collection option also provided some insights into what can be expected of such systems.

  10. Reinforcement Probability Modulates Temporal Memory Selection and Integration Processes

    PubMed Central

    Matell, Matthew S.; Kurti, Allison N.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that rats trained in a mixed-interval peak procedure (tone = 4s, light = 12s) respond in a scalar manner at a time in between the trained peak times when presented with the stimulus compound (Swanton & Matell, 2011). In our previous work, the two component cues were reinforced with different probabilities (short = 20%, long = 80%) to equate response rates, and we found that the compound peak time was biased toward the cue with the higher reinforcement probability. Here, we examined the influence that different reinforcement probabilities have on the temporal location and shape of the compound response function. We found that the time of peak responding shifted as a function of the relative reinforcement probability of the component cues, becoming earlier as the relative likelihood of reinforcement associated with the short cue increased. However, as the relative probabilities of the component cues grew dissimilar, the compound peak became non-scalar, suggesting that the temporal control of behavior shifted from a process of integration to one of selection. As our previous work has utilized durations and reinforcement probabilities more discrepant than those used here, these data suggest that the processes underlying the integration/selection decision for time are based on cue value. PMID:23896560

  11. Parallel processing of layout data with selective data distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mark; Bhat, Nitin; Srinivas, Preethi

    2006-10-01

    With the increase in layout data (GDSII) size due to finer geometries and resolution enhancement techniques such as Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Phase Shift Mask (PSM), layout data is proving to be too voluminous to process by single CPU machines. Post-layout tools have now moved towards distributed computing techniques to process this data more efficiently in terms of speed. Typical distributed computing architectures involve distributing the layout data to various workstations and then each workstation processing its part of the data in parallel. This approach will work well provided the amount of data that is to be distributed is not too large. As the size of the layout data is increasing significantly, the time taken to transfer the layout data between the workstations is turning out to be a major bottleneck. This bottleneck gets further highlighted because the time taken for actual operations gets almost linearly scaled down through employing higher number of workstations in the distributed computing environment and also because the clock speed of the workstations get continuously improved. The focus of this paper is on a smart way of distributing the layout data so that the amount of redundant data transfer is significantly reduced. This is achieved by selective data distribution wherein the layout data is fragmented and each workstation is provided with minimal and sufficient layout information for it to determine the actual fragments required for its processing.

  12. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper.

  13. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  14. 8. View of interior facing southeast, showing southeast corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of interior facing southeast, showing southeast corner of early 19th century room on second floor - First Free Will Baptist Church, Parsonage, South side of Dover Road, corner of Blackhall Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  15. 51. Ground floor, southeast corner, looking southeast in mezzanine (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Ground floor, southeast corner, looking southeast in mezzanine (original function unknown) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. 5. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. SOUTHEAST FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER. SOUTHEAST FACE OF MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Neutral and Selective Processes Drive Population Differentiation for Iris hexagona

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow among widespread populations can be reduced by geographical distance or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation. In this study, we tested for the divergence of phenotypes and genotypes among 8 populations of Iris hexagona. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we generated a panel of 750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used population genetic analyses to determine what may affect patterns of divergence across I. hexagona populations. Specifically, genetic differentiation was compared between populations at neutral and nonneutral SNPs and detected significant differences between the 2 types of markers. We then asked whether loci with the strongest degree of population genetic differentiation were also the loci with the strongest association to morphology or climate differences, allowing us to test if pollinators or climate drive population differentiation or some combination of both. We found 2 markers that were associated with morphology and 1 marker associated with 2 of the environmental variables, which were also identified in the outlier analysis. We then show that the SNPs putatively under selection were positively correlated with both geographic distance and phenotypic distance, albeit weakly to phenotypic distance. Moreover, neutral SNPs were only correlated with geographic distance and thus isolation-by-distance was observed for neutral SNPs. Our data suggest that both deterministic and neutral processes have contributed to the evolutionary trajectory of I. hexagona populations. PMID:26163584

  18. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  19. Gut wall bacteria of earthworms: a natural selection process.

    PubMed

    Thakuria, Dwipendra; Schmidt, Olaf; Finan, Dillon; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-03-01

    Earthworms and microorganisms are interdependent and their interactions regulate the biogeochemistry of terrestrial soils. Investigating earthworm-microorganism interactions, we tested the hypothesis that differences in burrowing and feeding habits of anecic and endogeic earthworms are reflected by the existence of ecological group-specific gut wall bacterial communities. Bacterial community was detected using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of 16S and 23S genes and ribotype data was used to assess diversity and community composition. Using soil and earthworm samples collected from adjacent wheat-barley and grass-clover fields, we found that the anecic Lumbricus terrestris and L. friendi, the endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. longa (classically defined as anecic, but now known to possess endogeic characteristics) contain ecological group-specific gut wall-associated bacterial communities. The abundance of specific gut wall-associated bacteria (identified by sequence analysis of ribotype bands), including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and an actinobacterium, was ecological group dependent. A microcosm study, conducted using A. caliginosa and L. terrestris and five different feeding regimes, indicated that food resource can cause shifts in gut wall-associated bacterial community, but the magnitude of these shifts did not obscure the delineation between ecological group specificity. Using A. caliginosa and A. longa samples collected in six different arable fields, we deduced that, within an ecological group, habitat was a more important determinant of gut wall-associated bacterial community composition than was host species. Hence, we conclude that the selection of bacteria associated with the gut wall of earthworms is a natural selection process and the strongest determinant of this process is in the order ecological group>habitat>species. PMID:19924156

  20. Diesel oil volatilization processes affected by selected porous media.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfei; Zheng, Xilai; Anderson, S H; Lu, Jie; Feng, Xuedong

    2014-03-01

    Volatilization plays an important role in attenuating petroleum products in contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of wind speed, vessel diameter and mean grain size of porous media on diesel oil volatilization. Experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of diesel oil from porous media by weighing contaminated samples pre- and post-volatilization. Three selected field porous media materials were evaluated: Silty Clay Loam, Fine Sand, and Coarse Sand along with six individual sand fractions of the Coarse Sand. Results indicate that increasing wind speed accelerates the diesel oil volatilization process, especially for wind speeds below 2.10ms(-1). The low-carbon components of diesel oil volatilize more rapidly, with the effects of wind speed more pronounced on C10 to C15 volatilization than on C16 and higher. The volatilization rate coefficient of diesel oil increases with decreasing mean grain size of porous media, and with increasing vessel diameter. A power function expressed the relationship with mean grain size. All processes (wind speed, vessel diameter, and mean grain size) were included in an equation which explained over 92% of the measured diesel oil volatilization rate coefficient variations for the experiments. Diesel oil volatilization appears to be boundary-layer regulated to some extent.

  1. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  2. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  3. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the following…

  4. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  5. New Confrontations in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Ton That

    1978-01-01

    Examines political, social, and economic developments in Southeast Asia under Communist forces which conquered Southeast Asia after the American disengagement. Topics discussed include refugees, Vietnamese who have chosen to live in exile, civil administration in Vietnam, Sino-Soviet relations, and predictions about the future of Southeast Asia.…

  6. Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee processing structure with the Santaella residence to the left - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  7. Folate content and retention in selected raw and processed foods.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2010-09-01

    Adequate intake of folate reduced the risk of abnormalities in early embryonic brain development such as the risk of malformations of the embryonic brain/spinal cord, collectively referred to as neural tube defects (NTDs). Folate is extremely sensitive to destruction by heat, oxidation and UV light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different extraction procedures and enzymatic treatment to determine folate concentrations in variety of foods using a microbiological assay (MA) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as the test organism. This study also aimed to evaluate the retention of folate in foods after using different cooking processes. Nine of the most commonly consumed foods in Argentina and that contain folate were analyzed: broccoli, spinach, potato, lentil, soy (raw and boiled); hen whole egg and yolks (raw, boiled and fried); beef liver (raw and cooked); strawberry (raw) and white bread. For this study, rat plasma (RP) and human plasma (HP) conjugases together with acetate and phosphate buffers were tested. In extraction step for all analyses, RP conjugase was selected since it was easily available in our laboratory and small quantities were required. The acetate buffer was chosen since better growth and more reproducible results were obtained in the different conditions assayed. The results allowed the foods to be grouped into (a) rich sources of folate: hen eggs, yolks, spinach, soybean (raw) and strawberry (100 and 350 microg/100 g fresh weight (FW); (b) good sources of folate: broccoli (raw), soybean (boiled), lentils (raw) and potato (56 to 83 microg/100 g FW) and c) moderate sources of folate: broccoli, lentils (boiled), white breads, onions and beef liver (15 to 30 microg/100g FW). The folate retention was in the range 14-99% according to both type of food and method of processing. Contents and losses of folate vary widely according to type of food and cooking method. PMID:21612148

  8. On the elementary processes of protein crystallization: Bond selection mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanev, Christo N.

    2014-09-01

    The paper explores the application of bond selection mechanism (BSM) in protein crystal growth; previously, BSM was employed to explain the slow rate of protein crystal nucleation, equilibrium crystal shape and energy barrier in nucleus formation (C.N. Nanev, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59 (2013) 133-169). Now, the elementary growth processes are considered from BSM perspective and the crystal growth shape is tackled, the latter resulting from a strong directional kinetic anisotropy in step advancement rates in different crystallographic directions. The most significant surface patterns of growing protein crystals, such as two-dimensional nuclei and growth spiral shapes observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), are also considered. The activation barrier associated with entering of a protein molecule into the kink site is evaluated and the start of the kinetic roughening is established. Crystal lattice bond energies are estimated (being well above the thermal energy, kBT) from the supersaturation dependence of 2D- into 1D-nuclei transformation.

  9. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  10. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The

  11. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks.

    PubMed

    Baraniecka, Joanna; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Dobrzyńska, Elzbieta

    2010-11-15

    The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks in southern Poland was investigated. Size-segregated samples of air particulate matter (<0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 μm) were collected at the electric arc furnace and rolling mill. The PAHs were sampled with the personal cascade impactor and identified by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The obtained results showed that collected PAH contents were significantly higher at the electric arc furnace. The highest content of total PAHs (93 ng m(-3)) was present in the smallest particles of 0.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or less, indicating that the ultrafine particles have a high contribution in the overall PM(2.5) fine fraction. Concentrations of Py, CH, BbF, BaP and BghiP came to 76% of total PAHs content in <0.25 μm fraction. The five- and six-ring compounds (BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA, BghiP) with 4-ring chrysene presented typical unimodal size distribution with one predominant peak for this particles' diameter. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene exhibited highest concentrations on coarse particles in the range of 10-2.5 μm, decreasing with decrease of a particle size fraction. Using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF), the mean contributions of the carcinogenic potency of BaP to the air samples collected at the arc furnace and rolling mill (fraction below 0.25 μm) were determined to be 66.3% and 50.3%, respectively.

  12. Redox processes and water quality of selected principal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions in 15 principal aquifer (PA) systems of the United States, and their impact on several water quality issues, were assessed from a large data base collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the USGS. The logic of these assessments was based on the observed ecological succession of electron acceptors such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate and threshold concentrations of these substrates needed to support active microbial metabolism. Similarly, the utilization of solid-phase electron acceptors such as Mn(IV) and Fe(III) is indicated by the production of dissolved manganese and iron. An internally consistent set of threshold concentration criteria was developed and applied to a large data set of 1692 water samples from the PAs to assess ambient redox conditions. The indicated redox conditions then were related to the occurrence of selected natural (arsenic) and anthropogenic (nitrate and volatile organic compounds) contaminants in ground water. For the natural and anthropogenic contaminants assessed in this study, considering redox conditions as defined by this framework of redox indicator species and threshold concentrations explained many water quality trends observed at a regional scale. An important finding of this study was that samples indicating mixed redox processes provide information on redox heterogeneity that is useful for assessing common water quality issues. Given the interpretive power of the redox framework and given that it is relatively inexpensive and easy to measure the chemical parameters included in the framework, those parameters should be included in routine water quality monitoring programs whenever possible.

  13. Principal Selection in Rural School Districts: A Process Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, M. D.; And Others

    Recent research illustrates the increasingly important role of the school principal. As a result, procedures for selecting principals have also become more critical to rural school districts. School systems, particularly rural school districts, are encouraged to adopt systematic, rational means for selecting administrators. Such procedures will…

  14. Automated frame selection process for high-resolution microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, Ayumu; Schwarz, Richard A.; Shin, Dongsuk; Mondrik, Sharon; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high-resolution microendoscopy video sequences. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The algorithm was evaluated by quantitative comparison of diagnostically relevant image features and diagnostic classification results obtained using automated frame selection versus manual frame selection. A data set consisting of video sequences collected in vivo from 100 oral sites and 167 esophageal sites was used in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (automated selection) versus 0.82 (manual selection) for oral sites, and 0.93 (automated selection) versus 0.92 (manual selection) for esophageal sites. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.

  15. Elements of the employee selection process: interviewing operating room staff.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J

    1996-07-01

    Selecting the right staff for employment in an operating room (OR) is critical to the success of any OR manager. Legal considerations limit the ability to gather certain information. However, by applying the correct skills and techniques, the manager can develop an information base that will lead to better decisions when selecting employees who can contribute to an efficiently run department.

  16. Early and Late Selection in Unconscious Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Carsten; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated whether masked stimuli in priming experiments are subjected to early or to late selection. In Experiment 1, participants classified four target-pictures as being small or large. In line with early selection accounts, prime-pictures with a different perceptual appearance as the experienced targets did not elicit…

  17. Estimation of minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge for selected stream sites, and associated low-flow water-quality data, southeast Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Texas that provides discharge data used for water-management decisions and various other purposes. Operating stations at all locations where discharge data are needed is not feasible, but the statistical characteristics of the network station data can be used to estimate discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Regionalization techniques such as regression analyses relate discharge-frequency characteristics to selected physical and climatic characteristics of drainage basins. A particular discharge-frequency characteristic that can be regionalized is the minimum 7-day, 2-year discharge1 (7Q2). In Texas, the 7Q2 is used at stream sites to analyze permit applications for water allocation, water-supply planning, aquatic maintenance (instream flow) requirements, and waste-load allocation for point and nonpoint source discharges.

  18. Supercritical Processing of Functionalized Size Selective Microporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Li Q.; Liu, Jun

    2000-05-01

    Zeolites and related microporous materials are qidely used in industry as size selective catalysts due to the uniform pore size and shape. The modification of such materials by organic funtional molecules will greatly broaden the application.

  19. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    changed since the CLV Project's inception, the USE design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system. Because consideration was given in the ESAS to both clean-sheet and modified USE designs, this paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and provide a detailed discussion of trades/selections made that led to the final upper stage configuration.

  20. Language selection in bilingual speech: Evidence for inhibitory processes

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bobb, Susan C.; Misra, Maya; Guo, Taomei

    2008-01-01

    Although bilinguals rarely make random errors of language when they speak, research on spoken production provides compelling evidence to suggest that both languages are active when only one language is spoken (e.g., Poulisse, 1999). Moreover, the parallel activation of the two languages appears to characterize the planning of speech for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners. In this paper we first review the evidence for cross-language activity during single word production and then consider the two major alternative models of how the intended language is eventually selected. According to language-specific selection models, both languages may be active but bilinguals develop the ability to selectively attend to candidates in the intended language. The alternative model, that candidates from both languages compete for selection, requires that cross-language activity be modulated to allow selection to occur. On the latter view, the selection mechanism may require that candidates in the non-target language be inhibited. We consider the evidence for such an inhibitory mechanism in a series of recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies. PMID:18358449

  1. Language selection in bilingual speech: evidence for inhibitory processes.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Judith F; Bobb, Susan C; Misra, Maya; Guo, Taomei

    2008-07-01

    Although bilinguals rarely make random errors of language when they speak, research on spoken production provides compelling evidence to suggest that both languages are active when only one language is spoken (e.g., [Poulisse, N. (1999). Slips of the tongue: Speech errors in first and second language production. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins]). Moreover, the parallel activation of the two languages appears to characterize the planning of speech for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners. In this paper, we first review the evidence for cross-language activity during single word production and then consider the two major alternative models of how the intended language is eventually selected. According to language-specific selection models, both languages may be active but bilinguals develop the ability to selectively attend to candidates in the intended language. The alternative model, that candidates from both languages compete for selection, requires that cross-language activity be modulated to allow selection to occur. On the latter view, the selection mechanism may require that candidates in the nontarget language be inhibited. We consider the evidence for such an inhibitory mechanism in a series of recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies.

  2. Selected Tools for Risk Analysis in Logistics Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulińska, Ewa

    2012-03-01

    As each organization aims at managing effective logistics processes, risk factors can and should be controlled through proper system of risk management. Implementation of complex approach to risk management allows for the following: - evaluation of significant risk groups associated with logistics processes implementation, - composition of integrated strategies of risk management, - composition of tools for risk analysis in logistics processes.

  3. Path selection process utilizing rapid estimation scheme. [for Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, H.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a rapid estimation scheme for path selection by a roving vehicle. Essentially, the evaluation procedure simulates movement of the rover over each of several corridors lying radially outward from the scanning position. Two levels of corridors are used, and the path selection scheme selects the optimal primary corridor according to a dynamic programming algorithm. In the present version, the length of the corridors is variable. The rapid estimation scheme provides information to define corridor dimensions. This corridor structure, which varies as a function of the terrain, eliminates the need for backtracking, except in certain extreme cases. Computer results are promising in that obstacles were avoided while corridor lengths were kept to a maximum where safety permitted.

  4. A study of selected parameters in solid propellant processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A propellant processing study to identify and control unplanned variation in composite solid propellant properties has shown that burning rate increases with process mixing but is not sensitve to process temperature. Different vertical propellant mixes of the same type were shown to provide different conditions of mixing at the pot wall because of differences in gearing, sometimes resulting in a stagnant wall film. Poor propellant produced in the stagnant wall film was attributed to poor mixing because of viscosity effects and wall film geometry. A control strategy based on briefly heating the wall was demonstrated. The study showed the need for improved process controls, good process instruments, and good propellant testing.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS RELATIVE TO AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING PROCESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAFFEE, LEONARD M.; HELLER, ROBERT W.

    PROJECT PASS (PROJECT IN AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING) WAS SPONSORED IN 1965 BY THE WESTERN NEW YORK SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL TO PROVIDE IN-SERVICE EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL CONTEMPLATING THE USE OF AUTOMATED APPROACHES TO SCHOOL SCHEDULING. TWO TECHNIQUES WERE UTILIZED--CLASS LOADING AND STUDENT SELECTION (CLASS), AND GENERAL ACADEMIC SIMULATION…

  6. Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle for existence occurs through the vital rates of population growth. This basic fact demonstrates the tight connection between ecology and evolution that defines the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics. An effective synthesis of the interdependencies between ecology and evolution is grounded in six principles. The mechanics of evolution specifies the origin and rules governing traits and evolutionary strategies. Traits and evolutionary strategies achieve their selective value through their functional relationships with fitness. Function depends on the underlying structure of variation and the temporal, spatial and organizational scales of evolution. An understanding of how changes in traits and strategies occur requires conjoining ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Adaptation merges these five pillars to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ecological and evolutionary change. I demonstrate the value of this world-view with reference to the theory and practice of habitat selection. The theory allows us to assess evolutionarily stable strategies and states of habitat selection, and to draw the adaptive landscapes for habitat-selecting species. The landscapes can then be used to forecast future evolution under a variety of climate change and other scenarios. PMID:21613295

  7. 15 CFR 290.7 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures assigning equal weight to each of the four categories. NIST may enter into negotiations with the... accordance with the criteria set forth in section 290.6 of these procedures, assigning equal weight to each of the four categories. From the qualified proposals, a group of finalists will be selected based...

  8. Adhesive materials and processing selection for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    Manufacturers that use certain adhesives and related manufacturing processes must consider the impact they have on worker health, safety, and the environment. Product manufacturers must find alternate replacements for solvent-based adhesives and solvent cements. In addition, processes that use ozone-depleting solvents for hand-wipe cleaning operations as well as vapor degreasing must find suitable alternates in order to be environmentally compliant. Likewise, manufacturers that use etching solutions that contain chrome must find a replacement. This paper identifies some of the specific problems associated with using certain adhesives and manufacturing processes. Environmentally acceptable alternative adhesives and processes are presented.

  9. 45 CFR 2522.400 - What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.400 What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees... staff review, and approval by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors, or their designee....

  10. ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROOF, Taken looking southeast from the southeast corner of the stair tower roof, showing external piping and west facade of Penthouse 201P. The large stack is seen behind the Penthouse - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  11. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE FAR LEFT. THE CONCRETE COLUMNS WERE ADDED CIRCA 1944 AND SUPPORTED SPRAY EQUIPMENT. SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 2 (MODIFIED TO ACCOMODATE FLOCCULATION EQUIPMENT) IS AT THE FAR RIGHT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  12. Selective Archiving of Web Resources: A Study of Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Mirna; Buzina, Tanja; Holub, Karolina; Zajec, Jasenka; Milinovic, Miroslav; Topolscak, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess costs in the National and University Library of Croatia for processing Croatian web resources and the maintenance and development of the service, and to analyse the present organisation and workflow of their processing, and to propose improvements. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment period…

  13. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  14. 45 CFR 2522.400 - What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.400 What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees? The Corporation uses a multi-stage process, which may include review by panels of experts, Corporation... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What process does the Corporation use to...

  15. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... process. 295.5 Section 295.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.5 Use of pre-proposals in the selection process. To reduce proposal preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  16. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2004-07-01

    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  17. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  18. Highly selective catalytic process for synthesizing 1-hexene from ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Murtuza, Shahid; Harkins, Seth B.; Andes, Cecily

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene is trimerized to form 1-hexene, at a selectivity of up to about 99 mole percent, by contacting ethylene, at an ethylene pressure of from about 200-1500 psig and at a reaction temperature of from about 0.degree. C. to about 100.degree. C., with a catalyst comprising a tantalum compound (e.g., TaCl.sub.5) and a alkylating component comprising a metal hydrocarbyl compound or a metal hydrocarbyl halide compound (e.g., Sn(CH.sub.3).sub.4).

  19. Process for selectively plugging subterranean formations with a melamine resin

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, D.O.

    1984-09-25

    Highly permeable zones in a subterranean formation are selectively plugged by injecting a melamine formaldehyde solution via a well into the highly permeable zones. The solution is water soluble and preferentially enters water-containing zones where it reacts to form a resin at a temperature of from about 25/sup 0/ C. to about 120/sup 0/ C. and a pH of from about 7 to 12 and over a period of from about 1 to 4 days. The resulting resin substantially plugs the highly permeable zones in the formation.

  20. Selected Systems Engineering Process Deficiencies and Their Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence Dale

    2006-01-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous systems failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a system engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time - an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is system failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  1. Supercritical phase process for selective synthesis of wax from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Li; Yoshii, Kyotaka; Yan, Shi-Run

    1996-10-01

    Wax is widely used in many fields. Much attention was focused on its production method for its increasingly high price. It is difficult to selectively synthesize wax from syngas through Fischer-Tropsch reaction, due to ASF regulation. Here we report that addition of several percent of heavy {alpha}-olefins (i.e. C{sub 7}-C{sub 17}), which are of low value, into supercritical phase F-T reactions can accelerate carbon chain growth remarkably. Wax yield was enhanced twice or three times in olefin-added case, where high cobalt-content catalysts was employed. More interestingly, CO conversion and CO{sub 2} CH{sub 4} selectively decreased if heavy olefin was added. It should be stressed that this effect can not appear in gas-phase F-T reaction and is not so obvious in liquid-phase F-T reaction. Influence of catalysts pore size, type and amount of added olefins; was also investigated. Using the same high cobalt-ontent catalysts, CO/CO{sub 2} mixture gas diluted with much nitrogen reacted with hydrogen completely to form liquid hydrocarbons effectively.

  2. Development and application of microbial selective plugging processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; Gevertz, D.; Davey, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Phillips Petroleum Company recently completed a microbial selective plugging (MSP) pilot at the North Burbank Unit (NBU), Shidler, Oklahoma. Nutrients were selected for the pilot that could stimulate indigenous microflora in the reservoir brine to grow and produce exopolymer. It was found that soluble corn starch polymers (e.g., maltodextrins) stimulated the indigenous bacteria to produce exopolymer, whereas simple sugars (e.g., glucose and sucrose), as well as complex media (e.g., molasses and Nutrient Broth), did not. Injection of maltodextrin into rock cores in the presence of indigenous NBU bacteria resulted in stable permeability reductions (> 90%) across the entire length, while injection of glucose resulted only in face plugging. In addition, it was found that organic phosphate esters (OPE) served as a preferable source of phosphorus for the indigenous bacteria, since orthophosphates and condensed phosphates precipitated in NBU brine at reservoir temperature (45{degrees}C). Injection of maltodextrin and ethyl acid phosphate into a producing well stimulated an increase in maltodextrin utilizing bacteria (MUB) in the back-flowed, produced fluid. Additional screens of indigenous and nonindigenous bacteria yielded several nonindigenous isolates that could synthesize polymer when growing in brine containing 6% NaCl at 45{degrees}C.

  3. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries. PMID:25089059

  4. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  5. Selected and Annotated Bibliography on the Processes of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Norman D., Comp.; Miller, Richard I., Comp.

    Over 170 books, booklets, articles, bibliographies, periodicals, and unpublished items on anthropology, sociology, education, industry, and technology, medicine, political science, and psychology are listed in this annotated bibliography on the processes of change. These documents, which treat such subjects as educational change, social and…

  6. Selective Bibliography on the History of Computing and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspray, William

    1982-01-01

    Lists some of the better-known and more accessible books on the history of computing and information processing, covering: (1) popular general works; (2) more technical general works; (3) microelectronics and computing; (4) artificial intelligence and robotics; (5) works relating to Charles Babbage; (6) other biographical and personal accounts;…

  7. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  8. School Decentralization as a Process of Differentiation, Hierarchization and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Heinrich, Martin; Soukup-Altrichter, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The Austrian "school autonomy policy", which allowed schools to develop specific "curricular profiles", is taken as an example for discussing processes and effects of school decentralization policies. Data from school case studies (based on qualitative interviews and document analysis) are used to analyse and interpret the…

  9. Finding Relevant Items: Attentional Guidance Improves Visual Selection Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Sonja; Hild, Isabella; Wiesbeck, Mathey; Zaeh, Michael F.; Schubö, Anna

    In daily life and at work people are confronted with complex information. Especially elderly or disabled users might be overburdened by the amount of information and distracted by irrelevant items. Due to this, they possibly fail to find and select relevant items in visual search. This could be demotivating for the use of media like the internet or could result in an inability to achieve certain job requirements. A method for supporting performance in visual search tasks is the guidance of attention. The present study compares different methods for attentional guidance. Results show a benefit for peripheral exogenous cues realized as luminance changes in comparison to endogenous central cues. Possible applications for the proposed attentional guidance method are discussed.

  10. Process for selective production of di- and tri-alkylamines

    DOEpatents

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.

    1984-01-01

    A primary alkyl amine and an alcohol of up to 12 carbon atoms are reacted at low temperature (50.degree.-250.degree. C.) over specific catalysts (alkali-treated catalysts generally or binary Cu/ZnO and Pd/SiO.sub.2 systems, with or without alkali treatment) to produce, with good selectivity, secondary and tertiary alkylamines of the general formula, R.sub.1 N(R.sub.2).sub.2, wherein R.sub.1 is a lower alkyl or an aryl group, and R.sub.2 is hydrogen or another lower alkyl or aryl group, with at least one of R.sub.2 's being an alkyl or aryl group.

  11. Combining shape and position expectancies: hierarchical processing and selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Klingstone, A; Klein, R

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments report the effects of generating a concurrent position expectancy and form expectancy. Ss were precued to a stimulus position where 1 target shape was most probable, and they made a speeded 2-choice response to the orientation of the displayed shape. Response time (RT) was faster for an expected position than an unexpected position and faster for a likely shape than for an unlikely shape. This replicates the work of Lambert and Hockey (1986). It was also observed, however, that when a stimulus appeared at an unexpected position where 2 shapes were equally improbable, RT was slower for the shape that had been likely rather than unlikely at the cued position. This finding is incompatible with the probability-matching hypothesis of Lambert and Hockey. The data support a hierarchical-expectancy model of attentional selectivity. PMID:1830089

  12. Hierarchical zeolites and their catalytic performance in selective oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Grau-Atienza, Aida; Campos, Rafael; Romero, Antonio A; Serrano, Elena; Maria Marinas, Jose; García Martínez, Javier; Luque, Rafael

    2015-04-24

    Hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites prepared using a simple alkali treatment and subsequent HCl washing are found to exhibit unprecedented catalytic activities in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under microwave irradiation. The metal-free zeolites promote the microwave-assisted oxidation of benzyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide in yields ranging from 45-35 % after 5 min of reaction under mild reaction conditions as well as the epoxidation of cyclohexene to valuable products (40-60 % conversion). The hierarchically porous systems also exhibited an interesting catalytic activity in the dehydration of N,N-dimethylformamide (25-30 % conversion), representing the first example of transition-metal free catalysts in this reaction.

  13. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi... benchmarks and management criteria, and project future conditions. 2. Participants will recommend the...

  14. 78 FR 4390 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the.... Participants include: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists,...

  15. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... include data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and...

  16. 77 FR 75613 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast... scientists, biologists and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen,...

  17. Superintendent Search and Selection Processes in the State of Wisconsin: Seeking the Best Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Local school boards have the responsibility to select school superintendents to lead their districts. The process by which school boards go about searching for and selecting a superintendent varies. In Wisconsin, school boards have the option to hire a search firm or other outside assistance, or they can choose to search for and select a…

  18. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  19. [Chemotherapy selection through the process of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Shu

    2012-02-01

    The role of chemotherapy has become more and more important in the whole process of gastric cancer. S-1 or XELOX regimen is regarded as the standard treatment option in adjuvant chemotherapy. First-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer has been established to improve survival, and the benefit from second-line chemotherapy is being acknowledged. More studies are needed to assess the neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. [Behavior of selected veterinary preparations during industrial milk processing].

    PubMed

    Konrad, H; Gabro, T; Dedek, W

    1977-01-01

    Since the extensive veterinary-hygienic treatment of herds with insecticidal veterinary preparations may lead to milk contamination, the authors studied the behaviour of some active agents (butonate, dichlorvos (DDVP), trichlorphon, naled, carbaryl, hexachloro-p-xylene and rafoxanide) during the industrial processing of milk to fluid milk, cream, butter, cheese and milk powder, and during the storage of these products. Small-scale model experiments served to investigate the effects of pasteurization (74 and 95 degrees C.), separation and churning as well as of the processing to milk powder and cheese. Analyses for residues were performed by thin-layer chromatography, colorimetry and with the aid of the isotope technique. From the viewpoint of milk processing, the use of TCP and, in part, that of DDVP may be considered as less critical due to their hydrophilic properties and rapid degradation. In view of their lipophilic behaviour, the use of butonate, carbaryl, rafoxanide and hexachloro-p-xylene as active agents in veterinary preparations for milk cows must be regarded as problematic. The utilization of naled is also problematic due to the fact that the toxicology of its metabolites is not yet sufficiently known. PMID:404556

  1. [Behavior of selected veterinary preparations during industrial milk processing].

    PubMed

    Konrad, H; Gabro, T; Dedek, W

    1977-01-01

    Since the extensive veterinary-hygienic treatment of herds with insecticidal veterinary preparations may lead to milk contamination, the authors studied the behaviour of some active agents (butonate, dichlorvos (DDVP), trichlorphon, naled, carbaryl, hexachloro-p-xylene and rafoxanide) during the industrial processing of milk to fluid milk, cream, butter, cheese and milk powder, and during the storage of these products. Small-scale model experiments served to investigate the effects of pasteurization (74 and 95 degrees C.), separation and churning as well as of the processing to milk powder and cheese. Analyses for residues were performed by thin-layer chromatography, colorimetry and with the aid of the isotope technique. From the viewpoint of milk processing, the use of TCP and, in part, that of DDVP may be considered as less critical due to their hydrophilic properties and rapid degradation. In view of their lipophilic behaviour, the use of butonate, carbaryl, rafoxanide and hexachloro-p-xylene as active agents in veterinary preparations for milk cows must be regarded as problematic. The utilization of naled is also problematic due to the fact that the toxicology of its metabolites is not yet sufficiently known.

  2. Selective electrowinning of silver and gold from cyanide process solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nehl, F.H.; Murphy, J.E.; Atkinson, G.B.; Walters, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines investigated the selective electrowinning of Ag and Au from cyanide solutions contaminated with Cu, with the goal of decreasing the amount of Cu codeposited. Decreasing Cu codeposited will reduce refinery costs. Direct current was applied to the cell in pulsed and square wave voltages at 0.70 A [center dot] h per 150 mL of solution. Times tested for each cycle ranged from 1 to 100,000 ms. Graphite, lead, and stainless steel were evaluated as electrode materials. Square wave electrowinning at 70 C gave the best separation of Ag and Au from Cu. Applying 2.5 V during the duty cycle, 0.0 V the rest of the period, a duty cycle to 10 to 30%, and a period of 100 to 1,000 ms gave the following results: Ag concentrations decreased from 34 to 0.1 [mu]g/mL, Au concentrations decreased from 54 to 0.2 [mu]g/mL, and Cu concentrations remained almost constant at 560 [mu]g/mL.

  3. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  4. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment. PMID

  5. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  6. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  7. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  8. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  9. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  10. 7 CFR 58.723 - Basis for selecting cheese for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis for selecting cheese for processing. 58.723... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.723 Basis for selecting cheese for processing. A... vat of cheese shall have been examined to determine the suitability of the vat for use in...

  11. Establishing a Selection Process Model for an Ethnic Collection in a Prison Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymann-Diaz, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the selection process used by two inmate/library assistants to develop Hispanic and African ethnic collections in a prison library. The findings of the study are used to develop a selection process model for the development of ethnic collections using the expertise of ethnic inmate/library assistants. (25…

  12. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....

  13. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....

  14. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....

  15. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....

  16. Input Control Processes in Rapid Serial Visual Presentations: Target Selection and Distractor Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink refers to the finding that the 2nd of 2 targets embedded in a stream of rapidly presented distractors is often missed. Whereas most theories of the attentional blink focus on limited-capacity processes that occur after target selection, the present work investigates the selection process itself. Identifying a target letter…

  17. Certify, Blink, Hire: An Examination of the Process and Tools of Teacher Screening and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Harris, Douglas N.; Thompson, Cynthia T.; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2008-01-01

    While much has been written about the process of employee selection in other occupations, there has been little discussion on the process and tools of teacher selection and why it occurs as it does. To understand this question, we conduct an extensive literature review in which we compare teacher hiring with hiring in other occupations. We also…

  18. 25 CFR 122.5 - Selection/nomination process for committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection/nomination process for committee members. 122.5... OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.5 Selection/nomination process for committee members. (a... include a brief statement of interest and qualifications for serving on the committee. (b) Nominations...

  19. Selection of treatment process to meet OCPSF limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, T.L. ); Gupta, R. )

    1991-08-01

    Allied-Signal manufactures phenol, at its plant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During this process wastewater is generated which is discharged to a POTW (Publicly Owned Treatment Works). The wastewater discharged has to meet the Organic Chemicals, Plastics, and Synthetic Fibers (OCPSF) pretreatment standard as defined in the US EPA regulations. In order to reduce concentrations of the various waste products, several technologies were evaluated including biological treatment, UV oxidation, and air stripping. Air stripping (or desorption) was initially rejected because it could not remove phenol to the desired level. Phenol has a low volatility which makes it difficult to strip. During the regulatory process, phenol was remanded from the list of OCPSF regulated chemicals. Therefore, air stripping was reevaluated as a treatment alternative. Additional studies showed that air stripping was the most cost effective method for removal of the regulated chemicals as well as a large percentage of the other volatile constituents. A thermal oxidizer was designed to destroy the organic compounds in the vapor stream from the air stripper column.

  20. Selection of shuttle payload data processing drivers for the data system new technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of all payloads in the IBM disciplines and the selection of driver payloads within each discipline are described. The driver payloads were selected on the basis of their data processing requirements. These requirements are measured by a weighting scheme. The total requirements for each discipline are estimated by use of the technology payload model. The driver selection process which was both a payload by payload comparison and a comparison of expected groupings of payloads was examined.

  1. Grout pump selection process for the Transportable Grout Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, D.; Treat, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Selected low-level radioactive liquid wastes at Hanford will be disposed by grouting. Grout is formed by mixing the liquid wastes with solid materials, including Portland cement, fly ash, and clay. The mixed grouts will be pumped to disposal sites (e.g., trenches and buried structures) where the grout will be allowed to harden and, thereby, immobilize the wastes. A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) will be constructed and operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations to perform the grouting function. A critical component of the TGF is the grout pump. A preliminary review of pumping requirements identified reciprocating pumps and progressive cavity pumps as the two classes of pumps best suited for the application. The advantages and disadvantages of specific types of pumps within these two classes were subsequently investigated. As a result of this study, the single-screw, rotary positive displacement pump was identified as the best choice for the TGF application. This pump has a simple design, is easy to operate, is rugged, and is suitable for a radioactive environment. It produces a steady, uniform flow that simplifies suction and discharge piping requirements. This pump will likely require less maintenance than reciprocating pumps and can be disassembled rapidly and decontaminated easily. If the TGF should eventually require discharge pressures in excess of 500 psi, a double-acting duplex piston pump is recommended because it can operate at low speed, with only moderate flow rate fluctuations. However, the check valves, stuffing box, piston, suction, and discharge piping must be designed carefully to allow trouble-free operations.

  2. The evolutionary origins of Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis.

    PubMed

    Paquette, A M; Harahap, A; Laosombat, V; Patnode, J M; Satyagraha, A; Sudoyo, H; Thompson, M K; Yusoff, N M; Wilder, J A

    2015-08-01

    Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) is a common red blood cell disorder that is maintained as a balanced polymorphism in human populations. In individuals heterozygous for the SAO-causing mutation there are minimal detrimental effects and well-documented protection from severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum; however, the SAO-causing mutation is fully lethal in utero when homozygous. The present-day high frequency of SAO in Island Southeast Asia indicates the trait is maintained by strong heterozygote advantage. Our study elucidates the evolutionary origin of SAO by characterizing DNA sequence variation in a 9.5 kilobase region surrounding the causal mutation in the SLC4A1 gene. We find substantial haplotype diversity among SAO chromosomes and estimate the age of the trait to be approximately 10,005 years (95% CI: 4930-23,200 years). This date is far older than any other human malaria-resistance trait examined previously in Southeast Asia, and considerably pre-dates the widespread adoption of agriculture associated with the spread of speakers of Austronesian languages some 4000 years ago. Using a genealogy-based method we find no evidence of historical positive selection acting on SAO (s=0.0, 95% CI: 0.0-0.03), in sharp contrast to the strong present-day selection coefficient (e.g., 0.09) estimated from the frequency of this recessively lethal trait. This discrepancy may be due to a recent increase in malaria-driven selection pressure following the spread of agriculture, with SAO targeted as a standing variant by positive selection in malarial populations. PMID:26047685

  3. Assessing the accuracy of selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, S.O. )

    1991-01-01

    An important parameter for consideration in the screening of solvents for an extractive distillation process is selectivity at infinite dilution. The higher the selectivity, the better the solvent. This paper assesses the accuracy of using selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes. Three types of binary mixtures that are usually separated by an extractive distillation process are chosen for investigation. Having determined the optimum solvent feed rate to be two times the feed rate of the binary mixture, the total annual costs of extractive distillation processes for each of the chosen mixtures and for various solvents are carried out. The solvents are ranked on the basis of the total annual cost (obtained by design and costing equations) for the extractive distillation processes, and this ranking order is compared with that of selectivity at infinite dilution as determined by the UNIFAC method. This matching of selectivity with total annual cost does not produce a very good correlation.

  4. Development of Enhanced Avionics Flight Hardware Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K.; Watson, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the processes and feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf PC104 hardware for flight applications. This would lead to a faster, better, and cheaper approach to low-budget programs as opposed to the design, procurement. and fabrication of space flight hardware. This effort will provide experimental evaluation with results of flight environmental testing. Also, a method and/or suggestion used to bring test hardware up to flight standards will be given. Several microgravity programs, such as the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment, Self-Diffusion in Liquid Elements, and various other programs, are interested in PC104 environmental testing to establish the limits of this technology.

  5. Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing.

    PubMed

    Mengotti, Paola; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Negri, Gioia A L; Ukmar, Maja; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-08-01

    Whether motor and linguistic representations of actions share common neural structures has recently been the focus of an animated debate in cognitive neuroscience. Group studies with brain-damaged patients reported association patterns of praxic and linguistic deficits whereas single case studies documented double dissociations between the correct execution of gestures and their comprehension in verbal contexts. When the relationship between language and imitation was investigated, each ability was analysed as a unique process without distinguishing between possible subprocesses. However, recent cognitive models can be successfully used to account for these inconsistencies in the extant literature. In the present study, in 57 patients with left brain damage, we tested whether a deficit at imitating either meaningful or meaningless gestures differentially impinges on three distinct linguistic abilities (comprehension, naming and repetition). Based on the dual-pathway models, we predicted that praxic and linguistic performance would be associated when meaningful gestures are processed, and would dissociate for meaningless gestures. We used partial correlations to assess the association between patients' scores while accounting for potential confounding effects of aspecific factors such age, education and lesion size. We found that imitation of meaningful gestures significantly correlated with patients' performance on naming and repetition (but not on comprehension). This was not the case for the imitation of meaningless gestures. Moreover, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed that damage to the angular gyrus specifically affected imitation of meaningless gestures, independent of patients' performance on linguistic tests. Instead, damage to the supramarginal gyrus affected not only imitation of meaningful gestures, but also patients' performance on naming and repetition. Our findings clarify the apparent conflict between associations and dissociations

  6. 50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELLSERVICE SHED ADDITION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. HANGING FROM AND LEANING AGAINST THE WALL ARE TOOLS USED IN WATER WELL SERVICE, SUCH AS BAILER, CHAINS, WRENCHES, PULLEYS, ROPE, SAFETY BELT, CHAIN TONGS, AND LEATHER SEALS FOR PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS. CLEARLY VISIBLE ON RAFTERS IS HISTORIC ELECTRICAL WIRING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. Coordination: Southeast continental shelf studies

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.

    1989-01-26

    The objective of this investigation is to obtain model descriptions of the flow modifications in the Southeast Atlantic continental shelf due to Gulf Stream fluctuations and topographic effects. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Flying Low over Southeast Greenland

    NASA Video Gallery

    Few of us ever get to see Greenland's glaciers from 500 meters above the ice. But in this video — recorded on April 9,2013 in southeast Greenland using a cockpit camera installed and operated by ...

  9. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  10. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers.

  11. South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bain, I

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV infections in the Mekong Region countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The HIV/AIDS situation is profiled in each country. The populations at risk include legal and undocumented cross-border migrants, internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational persons, such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers, and cross-border traders. Currently, there is little regional cooperation on the issue of HIV among migrants. Prevalence is high in most of the region. Programs range from being very developed in Thailand to minimal in China. Recently, nongovernmental organizations have created innovative models. AIDSCAP studies have focused on river trade routes along the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Center for Migration has researched fishermen in 6 countries; Burmese women in Thailand; migrants along the Thai-Myanmar borders; and the impact of transportation routes on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main inter-country routes. Coordination of Action Research has engaged in research and action projects in 8 southeast Asian countries. The region would benefit from information exchanges about lessons learned and best practices. Field researchers could use better technical support. Regional strategies are useful for providing support from origin to destination. PMID:12295096

  12. Selective Interference on the Holistic Processing of Faces in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Faces and objects of expertise compete for early perceptual processes and holistic processing resources (Gauthier, Curran, Curby, & Collins, 2003). Here, we examined the nature of interference on holistic face processing in working memory by comparing how various types of loads affect selective attention to parts of face composites. In dual tasks,…

  13. Statistical considerations of the random selection process in a drug testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.; Owings, J.H.; Leete, R.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective drug testing program, individuals whose job classifications have been defined as sensitive are placed in a selection pool. On a periodic basis, individuals are chosen from this pool for drug testing. Random selection is a fair and impartial approach. A random selection process generates a Poisson distribution of probabilities that can be used to predict how many times an individual will be selected during a specific time interval. This information can be used to model the selection part of a drug testing program to determine whether specific conditions of testing are met. For example, the probability of being selected a given number of times during the testing period can be minimized or maximized by varying the frequency of the sampling process. Consequently, the Poisson distribution and the mathematics governing it can be used to structure a drug testing program to meet the needs and dictates of any given situation.

  14. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  15. A PATH INTEGRAL FORMULATION OF THE WRIGHT-FISHER PROCESS WITH GENIC SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    SCHRAIBER, JOSHUA G.

    2014-01-01

    The Wright-Fisher process with selection is an important tool in population genetics theory. Traditional analysis of this process relies on the diffusion approximation. The diffusion approximation is usually studied in a partial differential equations framework. In this paper, I introduce a path integral formalism to study the Wright-Fisher process with selection and use that formalism to obtain a simple perturbation series to approximate the transition density. The perturbation series can be understood in terms of Feynman diagrams, which have a simple probabilistic interpretation in terms of selective events. The perturbation series proves to be an accurate approximation of the transition density for weak selection and is shown to be arbitrarily accurate for any selection coefficient. PMID:24269333

  16. A path integral formulation of the Wright-Fisher process with genic selection.

    PubMed

    Schraiber, Joshua G

    2014-03-01

    The Wright-Fisher process with selection is an important tool in population genetics theory. Traditional analysis of this process relies on the diffusion approximation. The diffusion approximation is usually studied in a partial differential equations framework. In this paper, I introduce a path integral formalism to study the Wright-Fisher process with selection and use that formalism to obtain a simple perturbation series to approximate the transition density. The perturbation series can be understood in terms of Feynman diagrams, which have a simple probabilistic interpretation in terms of selective events. The perturbation series proves to be an accurate approximation of the transition density for weak selection and is shown to be arbitrarily accurate for any selection coefficient. PMID:24269333

  17. Goal selection versus process control in a brain-computer interface based on sensorimotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Royer, Audrey S; He, Bin

    2009-02-01

    In a brain-computer interface (BCI) utilizing a process control strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to control the fine motor details normally handled by other parts of the brain. In a BCI utilizing a goal selection strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to determine the overall end goal of the user, and the BCI controls the fine motor details. A BCI based on goal selection may be an easier and more natural system than one based on process control. Although goal selection in theory may surpass process control, the two have never been directly compared, as we are reporting here. Eight young healthy human subjects participated in the present study, three trained and five naïve in BCI usage. Scalp-recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) were used to control a computer cursor during five different paradigms. The paradigms were similar in their underlying signal processing and used the same control signal. However, three were based on goal selection, and two on process control. For both the trained and naïve populations, goal selection had more hits per run, was faster, more accurate (for seven out of eight subjects) and had a higher information transfer rate than process control. Goal selection outperformed process control in every measure studied in the present investigation.

  18. Goal selection versus process control in a brain-computer interface based on sensorimotor rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Audrey S.; He, Bin

    2009-02-01

    In a brain-computer interface (BCI) utilizing a process control strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to control the fine motor details normally handled by other parts of the brain. In a BCI utilizing a goal selection strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to determine the overall end goal of the user, and the BCI controls the fine motor details. A BCI based on goal selection may be an easier and more natural system than one based on process control. Although goal selection in theory may surpass process control, the two have never been directly compared, as we are reporting here. Eight young healthy human subjects participated in the present study, three trained and five naïve in BCI usage. Scalp-recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) were used to control a computer cursor during five different paradigms. The paradigms were similar in their underlying signal processing and used the same control signal. However, three were based on goal selection, and two on process control. For both the trained and naïve populations, goal selection had more hits per run, was faster, more accurate (for seven out of eight subjects) and had a higher information transfer rate than process control. Goal selection outperformed process control in every measure studied in the present investigation.

  19. Children's Choices for Recreational Reading: A Three-Part Investigation of Selection Preferences, Rationales, and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This report delineates a three-part investigation into first graders' preferences, selection rationales, and processes when choosing a picture book to own. One-hundred ninety first graders were invited to select their favorite book from among nine high-quality, well-illustrated picture books representing a variety of topics, media, and genres. In…

  20. Appointing Senior Managers in Education: Homosociability, Local Logics and Authenticity in the Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grummell, Bernie; Devine, Dympna; Lynch, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    While there is extensive research on educational leadership and management, the selection of leaders has received comparatively little attention. This article examines how educational leadership is constructed through the selection process in the context of a qualitative study of Irish education. It highlights the tensions that can exist for…

  1. Overview of Selection Process for Most Influential Paper of the 1970's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy S.; Moser, Kelsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Slides are for a presentation at the AIAA AFM conference invited session titled, 'AFM Most Influential Papers of the 1970's'. The slides describe the selection process used by the members of the technical committee to select the finalists and winning paper. The slides refer to technical papers published in the past, but have no technical data contained within them.

  2. Reasoning versus text processing in the Wason selection task: a nondeontic perspective on perspective effects.

    PubMed

    Almor, A; Sloman, S A

    2000-09-01

    We argue that perspective effects in the Wason four-card selection task are a product of the linguistic interpretation of the rule in the context of the problem text and not of the reasoning process underlying card selection. In three experiments, participants recalled the rule they used in either a selection or a plausibility rating task. The results showed that (1) participants tended to recall rules compatible with their card selection and not with the rule as stated in the problem and (2) recall was not affected by whether or not participants performed card selection. We conclude that perspective effects in the Wason selection task do not concern how card selection is reasoned about but instead reflect the inferential text processing involved in the comprehension of the problem text. Together with earlier research that showed selection performance in nondeontic contexts to be indistinguishable from selection performance in deontic contexts (Almor & Sloman, 1996; Sperber, Cara, & Girotto, 1995), the present results undermine the claim that reasoning in a deontic context elicits specialized cognitive processes.

  3. How Different Medical School Selection Processes Call upon Different Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; van der Wal, Martha A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background Research indicates that certain personality traits relate to performance in the medical profession. Yet, personality testing during selection seems ineffective. In this study, we examine the extent to which different medical school selection processes call upon desirable personality characteristics in applicants. Methods 1019 of all 1055 students who entered the Dutch Bachelor of Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. Students were admitted based on either top pre-university grades (n = 139), acceptance in a voluntary multifaceted selection process (n = 286), or lottery weighted for pre-university GPA. Within the lottery group, we distinguished between students who had not participated (n = 284) and students who were initially rejected (n = 310) in the voluntary selection process. Two months after admission, personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI, a measure of the five factor model of personality. We performed ANCOVA modelling with gender as a covariate to examine personality differences between the four groups. Results The multifaceted selection group scored higher on extraversion than all other groups(p<0.01), higher on conscientiousness than both lottery-admitted groups(p<0.01), and lower on neuroticism than the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in the voluntary selection process. The latter group scored lower on conscientiousness than all other groups(p<0.05) and lower on agreeableness than the multifaceted selection group and the top pre-university group(p<0.01). Conclusions Differences between the four admission groups, though statistically significant, were relatively small. Personality scores in the group admitted through the voluntary multifaceted selection process seemed most fit for the medical profession. Personality scores in the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in this process seemed least fit for the medical profession. It seems that in

  4. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.5 Use of pre-proposals in the selection process. To reduce...

  5. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.5 Use of pre-proposals in the selection process. To reduce...

  6. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.5 Use of pre-proposals in the selection process. To reduce...

  7. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM General § 295.5 Use of pre-proposals in the selection process. To reduce...

  8. Goal selection versus process control while learning to use a brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Audrey S.; Rose, Minn L.; He, Bin

    2011-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to accomplish a task without requiring motor output. Two major control strategies used by BCIs during task completion are process control and goal selection. In process control, the user exerts continuous control and independently executes the given task. In goal selection, the user communicates their goal to the BCI and then receives assistance executing the task. A previous study has shown that goal selection is more accurate and faster in use. An unanswered question is, which control strategy is easier to learn? This study directly compares goal selection and process control while learning to use a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI. Twenty young healthy human subjects were randomly assigned either to a goal selection or a process control-based paradigm for eight sessions. At the end of the study, the best user from each paradigm completed two additional sessions using all paradigms randomly mixed. The results of this study were that goal selection required a shorter training period for increased speed, accuracy, and information transfer over process control. These results held for the best subjects as well as in the general subject population. The demonstrated characteristics of goal selection make it a promising option to increase the utility of BCIs intended for both disabled and able-bodied users.

  9. The source of dual-task limitations: Serial or parallel processing of multiple response selections?

    PubMed Central

    Marois, René

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally recognized that the concurrent performance of two tasks incurs costs, the sources of these dual-task costs remain controversial. The serial bottleneck model suggests that serial postponement of task performance in dual-task conditions results from a central stage of response selection that can only process one task at a time. Cognitive-control models, by contrast, propose that multiple response selections can proceed in parallel, but that serial processing of task performance is predominantly adopted because its processing efficiency is higher than that of parallel processing. In the present study, we empirically tested this proposition by examining whether parallel processing would occur when it was more efficient and financially rewarded. The results indicated that even when parallel processing was more efficient and was incentivized by financial reward, participants still failed to process tasks in parallel. We conclude that central information processing is limited by a serial bottleneck. PMID:23864266

  10. Financing old age in Southeast Asia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Asher, M G

    1996-01-01

    "The main purpose here is to provide an overview of the social security arrangements in selected Southeast Asian countries. Given the significant differences in these countries in the underlying philosophy, design and detailed provisions concerning social security arrangements, a country-by-country rather than a comparative approach is adopted." The countries analyzed are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. PMID:12348604

  11. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  12. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  13. Unraveling the sub-processes of selective attention: insights from dynamic modeling and continuous behavior.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Simon; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Görner, Max; Goschke, Thomas; Scherbaum, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Selective attention biases information processing toward stimuli that are relevant for achieving our goals. However, the nature of this bias is under debate: Does it solely rely on the amplification of goal-relevant information or is there a need for additional inhibitory processes that selectively suppress currently distracting information? Here, we explored the processes underlying selective attention with a dynamic, modeling-based approach that focuses on the continuous evolution of behavior over time. We present two dynamic neural field models incorporating the diverging theoretical assumptions. Simulations with both models showed that they make similar predictions with regard to response times but differ markedly with regard to their continuous behavior. Human data observed via mouse tracking as a continuous measure of performance revealed evidence for the model solely based on amplification but no indication of persisting selective distracter inhibition. PMID:26232190

  14. Sensory evaluation based fuzzy AHP approach for material selection in customized garment design and development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Curteza, A.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Material selection is the most difficult section in the customized garment product design and development process. This study aims to create a hierarchical framework for material selection. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy sets theories have been applied to mindshare the diverse requirements from the customer and inherent interaction/interdependencies among these requirements. Sensory evaluation ensures a quick and effective selection without complex laboratory test such as KES and FAST, using the professional knowledge of the designers. A real empirical application for the physically disabled people is carried out to demonstrate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and practical background of this paper have indicated the fuzzy analytical network process can capture expert's knowledge existing in the form of incomplete, ambiguous and vague information for the mutual influence on attribute and criteria of the material selection.

  15. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  16. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  17. The Student-Selection Process: A Model of Student Courses in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, J. A.; Lancaster, G. A.

    Factors that affect college students' choice of studies and implications for colleges and universities that are competing for the declining numbers of students were assessed. A student-selection process model, derived from the innovation-decision model, provides some insights into the choice process and indicates the likely limitations of the…

  18. A PROCESS FOR SELECTING INDICATORS FOR MONITORING CONDITIONS OF RANGELAND HEALTH (COPY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on a process for selecting a suite of indicators that, in combination, can be useful in assessing the ecological conditions of rangelands. Conceptual models that depict the structural and functional properties of ecological processes were used to show the linka...

  19. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  20. 14 CFR 17.35 - Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Dispute Resolution § 17.35 Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process. (a) In... dispute resolution process. 17.35 Section 17.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... request the Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition to provide the services of a DRO or other...

  1. 14 CFR 17.35 - Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Dispute Resolution § 17.35 Selection of neutrals for the alternative dispute resolution process. (a) In... dispute resolution process. 17.35 Section 17.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... request the Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition to provide the services of a DRO or other...

  2. Selective pattern enhancement processing for digital mammography, algorithms, and the visual evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Shimura, Kazuo; Nagata, Takefumi

    2003-05-01

    In order to enhance the micro calcifications selectively without enhancing noises, PEM (Pattern Enhancement Processing for Mammography) has been developed by utilizing not only the frequency information but also the structural information of the specified objects. PEM processing uses two structural characteristics i.e. steep edge structure and low-density isolated-point structure. The visual evaluation of PEM processing was done using two different resolution CR mammography images. The enhanced image by PEM processing was compared with the image without enhancement, and the conventional usharp-mask processed image. In the PEM processed image, an increase of noises due to enhancement was suppressed as compared with that in the conventional unsharp-mask processed image. The evaluation using CDMAM phantom showed that PEM processing improved the detection performance of a minute circular pattern. By combining PEM processing with the low and medium frequency enhancement processing, both mammary glands and micro calcifications are clearly enhanced.

  3. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-01

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.

  4. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-10

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hiddenmore » sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.« less

  5. Simulation of the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer material

    SciTech Connect

    Riedlbauer, D. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de Mergheim, J. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de Steinmann, P. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    In the present contribution the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer materials is simulated to better understand the influence of process parameters on the properties of the produced part. The basis for the developed simulation tool is the nonlinear heat equation including temperature dependent functions for the heat capacity and the heat conduction which were obtained by experimental measurements. The effect of latent heat occurring in the process is also taken into account. The heat equation is discretized in time and space where a Runge-Kutta method of Radau IIA type is used for time integration. An adaptive finite element method is applied for the discretization in space and the model is implemented into the finite element library deal.II. The heat and cooling rate as important process parameters are simulated for different beam velocities. The ability for computing these process parameters makes the simulation tool suited for optimizing the process management of selective beam melting plants.

  6. 48 CFR 1436.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1436.602-5 Short selection processes... shall be obtained prior to the utilization of either of the short selection processes used for...

  7. Runoff predictions in ungauged catchments in southeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fapeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zongxue; Liu, Changming; Zhou, Yanchun; Liu, Wenfeng

    2014-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a key role on both hydrology and climate for southern and eastern Asia. Improving runoff predictions in ungauged catchments in the TP is critical for surface water hydrology and water resources management in this region. However, a detailed runoff prediction study in this region has not been reported yet. To fill the gap, this study evaluates two regionalization approaches, spatial proximity and physical similarity, for predicting runoff using two rainfall-runoff models (SIMHYD and GR4J). These models are driven by meteorological inputs from eight large non-nested catchments (4000-50,000 km2) in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin located in southeast TP. For each catchment, the two models are calibrated using data from the first two-thirds of the observation period and validated over the remaining period. The calibrated and validated Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of monthly runoff (NSE) varies from 0.73 to 0.93 for the SIMHYD model, and are similar to or slightly better than those obtained for the GR4J model. The incorporation of snowfall-snowmelt processes into the rainfall-runoff models does not noticeably improve the runoff predictions in the study area. The main reason is that monthly runoff is dominated by summer precipitation and snowfall in winter accounts for a small percentage (less than 14%). The results from both models show that the spatial proximity approach marginally outperforms the physical similarity approach and both approaches are better than random selection of a donor catchment. This is consistent with recent regionalization studies carried out in Europe and Australia. The study suggests that conceptual rainfall-runoff models are powerful and simple tools for monthly runoff predictions in large catchments in southeast TP, and incorporation of more catchments into regionalization can further improve prediction skills.

  8. Sentence processing selectivity in Broca’s area: evident for structure but not syntactic movement

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Diogo; Sprouse, Jon; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The role of Broca’s area in sentence processing is hotly debated. Prominent hypotheses include that Broca’s area supports sentence comprehension via syntax-specific processes (“syntactic movement” in particular), hierarchical structure building or working memory. In the present fMRI study we adopt a within subject, across task approach using targeted sentence-level contrasts and non-sentential comparison tasks to address these hypotheses regarding the role of Broca’s area in sentence processing. For clarity, we have presented findings as three experiments: (i) Experiment 1 examines selectivity for a particular type of sentence construction, namely those containing syntactic movement. Standard syntactic movement distance effects in Broca’s area were replicated but no difference was found between movement and non-movement sentences in Broca’s area at the group level or consistently in individual subjects. (ii) Experiment 2 examines selectivity for sentences versus non-sentences, to assess claims regarding the role of Broca’s area in hierarchical structure building. Group and individual results differ, but both identify subregions of Broca’s area that are selective for sentence structure. (iii) Experiment 3 assesses whether activations in Broca’s area are selective for sentences when contrasted with simple subvocal articulation. Group results suggest shared resources for sentence processing and articulation in Broca’s area, but individual subject analyses contradict this finding. We conclude that Broca’s area is not selectively involved in processing syntactic movement, but that subregions are selectively responsive to sentence structure. Our findings also reinforce Fedorenko & Kanwishser’s call for the use of more individual subject analyses in functional imaging studies of sentence processing in Broca’s area, as group findings can obscure selective response patterns. PMID:27135039

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  11. Fast and slow processes underlie the selection of both step frequency and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Pagliara, Renato; Snaterse, Mark; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2014-08-15

    People prefer gaits that minimize their energetic cost. Research focused on step frequency selection suggests that a fast predictive process and a slower optimization process underlie this energy optimization. Our purpose in this study was to test whether the mechanisms controlling step frequency selection are used more generally to select one of the most relevant characteristics of walking - preferred speed. To accomplish this, we contrasted the dynamic adjustments in speed following perturbations to step frequency against the dynamic adjustments in step frequency following perturbations to speed. Despite the use of different perturbations and contexts, we found that the responses were very similar. In both experiments, subjects responded to perturbations by first rapidly changing their speed or step frequency towards their preferred pattern, and then slowly adjusting their gait to converge onto their preferred pattern. We measured similar response times for both the fast processes (1.4±0.3 versus 2.7±0.6 s) and the slow processes (74.2±25.4 versus 79.7±20.2 s). We also found that the fast process, although quite variable in amplitude, dominated the adjustments in both speed and step frequency. These distinct but complementary experiments demonstrate that people appear to rely heavily on prediction to rapidly select the most relevant aspects of their preferred gait and then gradually fine-tune that selection, perhaps using direct optimization of energetic cost.

  12. Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.

    PubMed

    Pazzirota, T; Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides. PMID:23875669

  13. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    PubMed

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available.

  14. Relationship between performance characteristics and the selection process in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Casáis, Luis; Gómez-López, Maite

    2014-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to establish the anthropometric and physical profiles of elite young soccer players according to their playing position, and to determine their relevance for the selection process. One hundred and fifty-six young male soccer players participated in the study. Players were classified into the following groups: Goalkeepers (n=16), Central Defenders (n=26), External Defenders (n=29), Central Midfielders (n=34), External Midfielders (n=28), and Forwards (n=23). Anthropometric variables of participants (body height, body mass, body mass index, 6 skinfolds, 4 diameters, and 3 perimeters) were measured. Participants performed the Yo-Yo test, sprint tests (30 m flat sprint and Balsom agility test) and 2 jump tests (countermovement jump and the Abalakov test). At the end of the season, the technical staff of the club selected some of the players to continue playing on the same team and the rest were not selected. The results show that heavier and taller outfield players performed better in vertical jumps and sprint tests, whereas leaner outfield players performed better in the Yo-Yo test. Fat percentage of selected players was lower than that of the non-selected ones. The rest of the body components were similar in the selected and non-selected players within each playing position. Moreover, the selected players performed slightly better than the non-selected players in the physical test, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  15. Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Panchao; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Hongjin; Li, Tao; Haso, Fadi; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Baofang; Basca, John; Wei, Yongge; Gao, Yanqing; Hou, Yu; Li, Yang-Guang; Hill, Craig L.; Wang, En-Bo; Liu, Tianbo

    2015-03-01

    The research on chiral recognition and chiral selection is not only fundamental in resolving the puzzle of homochirality, but also instructive in chiral separation and stereoselective catalysis. Here we report the chiral recognition and chiral selection during the self-assembly process of two enantiomeric wheel-shaped macroanions, [Fe28(μ3-O)8(Tart)16(HCOO)24]20- (Tart=D- or L-tartaric acid tetra-anion). The enantiomers are observed to remain self-sorted and self-assemble into their individual assemblies in their racemic mixture solution. The addition of chiral co-anions can selectively suppress the self-assembly process of the enantiomeric macroanions, which is further used to separate the two enantiomers from their mixtures on the basis of the size difference between the monomers and the assemblies. We believe that delicate long-range electrostatic interactions could be responsible for such high-level chiral recognition and selection.

  16. Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Panchao; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Hongjin; Li, Tao; Haso, Fadi; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Baofang; Bacsa, John; Wei, Yongge; Gao, Yanqing; Hou, Yu; Li, Yang-Guang; Hill, Craig L; Wang, En-Bo; Liu, Tianbo

    2015-01-01

    The research on chiral recognition and chiral selection is not only fundamental in resolving the puzzle of homochirality, but also instructive in chiral separation and stereoselective catalysis. Here we report the chiral recognition and chiral selection during the self-assembly process of two enantiomeric wheel-shaped macroanions, [Fe28(μ3-O)8(Tart)16(HCOO)24](20-) (Tart=D- or L-tartaric acid tetra-anion). The enantiomers are observed to remain self-sorted and self-assemble into their individual assemblies in their racemic mixture solution. The addition of chiral co-anions can selectively suppress the self-assembly process of the enantiomeric macroanions, which is further used to separate the two enantiomers from their mixtures on the basis of the size difference between the monomers and the assemblies. We believe that delicate long-range electrostatic interactions could be responsible for such high-level chiral recognition and selection. PMID:25756393

  17. Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Panchao; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Hongjin; Li, Tao; Haso, Fadi; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Baofang; Bacsa, John; Wei, Yongge; Gao, Yanqing; Hou, Yu; Li, Yang-Guang; Hill, Craig L; Wang, En-Bo; Liu, Tianbo

    2015-03-10

    The research on chiral recognition and chiral selection is not only fundamental in resolving the puzzle of homochirality, but also instructive in chiral separation and stereoselective catalysis. Here we report the chiral recognition and chiral selection during the self-assembly process of two enantiomeric wheel-shaped macroanions, [Fe28(μ3-O)8(Tart)16(HCOO)24](20-) (Tart=D- or L-tartaric acid tetra-anion). The enantiomers are observed to remain self-sorted and self-assemble into their individual assemblies in their racemic mixture solution. The addition of chiral co-anions can selectively suppress the self-assembly process of the enantiomeric macroanions, which is further used to separate the two enantiomers from their mixtures on the basis of the size difference between the monomers and the assemblies. We believe that delicate long-range electrostatic interactions could be responsible for such high-level chiral recognition and selection.

  18. Selective engineering of cavity resonance for frequency matching in optical parametric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiyuan; Rogers, Steven; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-10-13

    We propose to selectively engineer a single cavity resonance to achieve frequency matching for optical parametric processes in high-Q microresonators. For this purpose, we demonstrate an approach, selective mode splitting (SMS), to precisely shift a targeted cavity resonance, while leaving other cavity modes intact. We apply SMS to achieve efficient parametric generation via four-wave mixing in high-Q silicon microresonators. The proposed approach is of great potential for broad applications in integrated nonlinear photonics.

  19. Estimating animal resource selection from telemetry data using point process models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Devin S.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Kuhn, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the analysis of telemetry data with the point process approach, we analysed a data set of telemetry locations from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Both a space–time and an aggregated space-only model were fitted. At the individual level, the space–time analysis showed little selection relative to the habitat covariates. However, at the study area level, the space-only model showed strong selection relative to the covariates.

  20. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Katie C.; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P.; Milstein, Aaron D.; Macklin, John J.; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Feature selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly via generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials are produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex (EC3) and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulate the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induce novel place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both EC3 and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps. PMID:26167906

  1. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  2. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese

    2010-01-01

    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  3. Conservation systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation describes how conservation systems that include non-inversion tillage and cover crops, a key component of conservation systems, are managed in the Southeast to maximize benefits. Benefits include weed suppression, moisture conservation, and increased organic matter contents. Mana...

  4. Management Education in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    Management needs in Southeast Asia are the focal points of a workshop held in Penang, March 1972, by the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development. Following the opening statement concerning these needs, the discussions at the workshop and a background paper, "Developing Management Competence," are presented. (MJM)

  5. 75 FR 78975 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and project...

  6. 75 FR 78679 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... benchmarks and management criteria, and project future conditions. Participants will recommend the...

  7. 75 FR 56991 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and project...

  8. 76 FR 52638 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  9. 78 FR 68817 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  10. 76 FR 13985 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... Science Center. Participants include data collectors and database managers; stock assessment...

  11. 78 FR 15706 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method.... Participants include: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists,...

  12. 78 FR 62586 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers;...

  13. 77 FR 60967 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  14. Dissociating early- and late-selection processes in recall: the mixed blessing of categorized study lists.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Mehmet A; Higham, Philip A

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments are reported in which we used type-2 signal detection theory to separate the effects of semantic categorization on early- and late-selection processes in free and cued recall. In Experiment 1, participants studied cue-target pairs for which the targets belonged to two, six, or 24 semantic categories, and later the participants were required to recall the targets either with (cued recall) or without (free recall) the studied cues. A confidence rating and a report decision were also required, so that we could compute both forced-report quantity and metacognitive resolution (type-2 discrimination), which served as our estimates of early- and late-selection processes, respectively. Consistent with prior research, having fewer categories enhanced the early-selection process (in performance, two > six > 24 categories). However, in contrast, the late-selection process was impaired (24 > six = two categories). In Experiment 2, encoding of paired associates, for which the targets belonged to either two or 20 semantic categories, was manipulated by having participants either form interactive images or engage in rote repetition. Having fewer categories again was associated with enhanced early selection (two > 20 categories); this effect was greater for rote repetition than for interactive imagery, and greater for free recall than for cued recall. However, late selection again showed the opposite pattern (20 > two categories), even with interactive-imagery encoding, which formed distinctive, individuated memory traces. The results are discussed in terms of early- and late-selection processes in retrieval, as well as overt versus covert recognition. PMID:23322359

  15. Decision making software for effective selection of treatment train alternative for wastewater using analytical hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A D; Tembhurkar, A R

    2013-10-01

    Proper selection of treatment process and synthesis of treatment train is complex engineering activity requires crucial decision making during planning and designing of any Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Earlier studies on process selection mainly considered cost as the most important selection criteria and number of studies focused on cost optimization models using dynamic programming, geometric programming and nonlinear programming. However, it has been noticed that traditional cost analysis alone cannot be applied to evaluate Treatment Train (TT) alternatives, as number of important non-tangible factors cannot be easily expressed in monetary units. Recently researches focus on use of multi-criteria technique for selection of treatment process. AHP provides a powerful tool for multi-hierarchy and multi-variable system overcoming limitation of traditional techniques. The AHP model designed to facilitate proper decision making and reduce the margin of errors during optimization due to number of parameters in the hierarchy levels has been used in this study. About 14 important factors and 13 sub factors were identified for the selection of treatment alternatives for wastewater and sludge stream although cost is one of the most important selection criteria. The present paper provides details of developing a soft-tool called "ProSelArt" using an AHP model aiding for proper decision making. PMID:25906585

  16. Age-related decline in bottom-up processing and selective attention in the very old.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Tatyana Y; Alperin, Brittany R; Haring, Anna E; Rentz, Dorene M; Holcomb, Philip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-06-01

    Previous research demonstrating age-related deficits in selective attention have not included old-old adults, an increasingly important group to study. The current investigation compared event-related potentials in 15 young-old (65-79 years old) and 23 old-old (80-99 years old) subjects during a color-selective attention task. Subjects responded to target letters in a specified color (Attend) while ignoring letters in a different color (Ignore) under both low and high loads. There were no group differences in visual acuity, accuracy, reaction time, or latency of early event-related potential components. The old-old group showed a disruption in bottom-up processing, indexed by a substantially diminished posterior N1 (smaller amplitude). They also demonstrated markedly decreased modulation of bottom-up processing based on selected visual features, indexed by the posterior selection negativity (SN), with similar attenuation under both loads. In contrast, there were no group differences in frontally mediated attentional selection, measured by the anterior selection positivity (SP). There was a robust inverse relationship between the size of the SN and SP (the smaller the SN, the larger the SP), which may represent an anteriorly supported compensatory mechanism. In the absence of a decline in top-down modulation indexed by the SP, the diminished SN may reflect age-related degradation of early bottom-up visual processing in old-old adults.

  17. Selection process for trade study: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration option for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable RHCTS is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of a scale test article to be subjected to life cycle testing. The selection process for this TA 1 trade study is the same as that for the TA 2 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within in this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  18. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  19. The importance of leptospirosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Laras, Kanti; Cao, Bao Van; Bounlu, Khanthong; Nguyen, Thi Kim Tien; Olson, James G; Thongchanh, Sisouk; Tran, Nguyen Van Anh; Hoang, Kim Loan; Punjabi, Narain; Ha, Ba Khiem; Ung, Sam An; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Watts, Douglas M; Beecham, H James; Corwin, Andrew L

    2002-09-01

    The importance of leptospirosis in Southeast Asia was assessed in conjunction with other studies supported by the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 (US NAMRU-2), Jakarta, Republic of Indonesia. These included studies of hospital-based, acute clinical jaundice in Indonesia, Lao PDR, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam; nonmalarial fever in Indonesia; and hemorrhagic fever in Cambodia. Background prevalence estimates of leptospiral infection were obtained by a cross-sectional, community-based study in Lao PDR. Laboratory testing methods involved serology, microscopic agglutination test, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Suggestive evidence of recent leptospiral infections was detected in 17%, 13%, and 3% of patients selected on the basis of non-hepatitis A through E jaundice, nonmalarial fever, and hemorrhagic fever (in the absence of acute, dengue viral infections). Leptospiral IgG antibody, reflective of prior infections, was detected in 37% of human sera, collected in Lao PDR. The predominant leptospiral serogroups identified from cases with clinical jaundice were Hurstbridge, Bataviae, and Icterohaemorrhagiae tonkini LT 96 69. Among the nonmalarial febrile cases, Bataviae was the most frequently recognized serogroup. Pyrogenes and Hurstbridge were the principal serogroups among the hemorrhagic fever case subjects. These findings further attest to the relative importance of clinical leptospirosis in Southeast Asia. The wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms associated with probable, acute, leptospiral infections contributes to the potential of significant underreporting.

  20. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. Methods We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Results Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society. PMID:20100347

  1. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection: Process Performance Package

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-06-01

    This document describes the details of implementing a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) hydrogen production plant to deploy with the Next General Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP). Technical requirements and specifications are included, and a conceptual plant design is presented. The following areas of interest are outlined in particular as a baseline for the various technology comparisons: (1) Performance Criteria - (a) Quantity of hydrogen produced, (b) Purity of hydrogen produced, (c) Flexibility to serve various applications, (d) Waste management; (2) Economic Considerations - (a) Cost of hydrogen, (b) Development costs; and (3) Risk - (a) Technical maturity of the S-I process, (b) Development risk, (c) Scale up options.

  2. Ultrasonic online monitoring of additive manufacturing processes based on selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Hans; Dillhöfer, Alexander; Spies, Martin; Bamberg, Joachim; Hess, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes have become commercially available and are particularly interesting for the production of free-formed parts. Selective laser melting allows to manufacture components by localized melting of successive layers of metal powder. In order to be able to describe and to understand the complex dynamics of selective laser melting processes more accurately, online measurements using ultrasound have been performed for the first time. In this contribution, we report on the integration of the measurement technique into the manufacturing facility and on a variety of promising monitoring results.

  3. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  4. Selected US building industry processes and characteristics. A Project SAGE report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Schoen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Selected multifamily processes were examined using a primarily graphic approach to clarify some of the operational modes into which Project SAGE (solar-assisted gas energy) must fit, both as a product and a process in the U.S. building industry. What SAGE must have or do in order to fit the building industry in the short term, that is, the multifamily submarket as it is presently configured, is delineated.

  5. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations. PMID:21987928

  6. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations.

  7. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.

  8. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context. PMID:27378978

  9. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context. PMID:27378978

  10. 9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE 771 AREA COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE 771 - AREA COMPLEX. THE 711 COMPLEX, ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS PLANT C, HOUSED ALL THE PLUTONIUM PROCESSES UNTIL 1956 WHEN BUILDING 776/777 BECAME OPERATIONAL. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Paradoxes of Modernism and Indianness in the Southeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, J. Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Discusses types of culture, levels of acculturation, and ethnic identity among various Indian groups in the Southeast. Argues that these groups have perpetuated their distinctiveness and strengthened their political identities as Indians through processes of modernization, and that the recent acquisition of modern political and business acumen has…

  12. Development of Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    This volume of essays examines some of the problems and issues in the development of higher education in Southeast Asia. Part 1 consists of studies on higher education in Singapore, South Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Khmer Republic. Part 2 consists of a number of case studies of specific universities in the process of…

  13. An Examination of Native and Immigrant Students' Social Networking Using the College Search and Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Bruce Carlton

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the use of formal and informal networks through cyber- and traditional communication methods in the college search and selection process by native and immigrant students to examine various postulates and propositions of social capital theory. In addition, the analysis of cybernetworks used by disadvantaged, college bound…

  14. Orthogonal self-assembly and selective solvent vapour annealing: simplified processing of a photovoltaic blend.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giovanna; Liscio, Andrea; Battagliarin, Glauco; Chen, Long; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù; Müllen, Klaus; Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-14

    Selective solvent vapour annealing is used on a photovoltaic blend to enhance the interaction between the electron acceptor and the electron donor, simplifying thin films post-processing for photovoltaic applications. A remarkable improvement in the interfacial charge transfer in the bulk hetero-junction is attained, as measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy.

  15. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  16. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  17. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  18. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH...

  19. 50 CFR 86.61 - What process does the Service use to select projects for grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What process does the Service use to select projects for grants? 86.61 Section 86.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH...

  20. Educational Choices and the Selection Process: Before and after Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocetti, Sauro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the selection process at work before and after compulsory schooling by assessing the determinants of school failures, dropouts, and upper secondary school decisions of young Italians. The data-set is built combining individual data by the Labor Force Survey and aggregate data on local labor markets and school…

  1. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  2. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  3. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  4. Specific and Nonspecific Neural Activity during Selective Processing of Visual Representations in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hwamee; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this fMRI study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) and visual association regions during selective information processing. We recorded behavioral responses and neural activity during a delayed recognition task with a cue presented during the delay period. A specific cue ("Face" or "Scene") was used to indicate which one of the two…

  5. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  6. Where Judgement Fails: Pitfalls in the Selection Process for Medical Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Kevin W.; Reiter, Harold I.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of maintaining a valid and transparent selection process that serves the values held by all stakeholders involved in medical education (i.e., students, faculty, society), there continue to be problems with the current state of available admissions protocols. Some problems derive from inertia induced by inaccurate…

  7. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, A. William; Vail, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been an established line of research starting with Young and Allison (1982). Administrators were asked to rate hypothetical candidates based on the information provided by the researcher. The dependent variable in several of these studies (e.g. Young & Fox, 2002; Young & Schmidt,…

  8. Selective processes in development: implications for the costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2012-07-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a genotype to develop a phenotype appropriate to the local environment, allows organisms to cope with environmental variation and has implications for predicting how organisms will respond to rapid, human-induced environmental change. This review focuses on the importance of developmental selection, broadly defined as a developmental process that involves the sampling of a range of phenotypes and feedback from the environment reinforcing high-performing phenotypes. I hypothesize that understanding the degree to which developmental selection underlies plasticity is key to predicting the costs, benefits, and consequences of plasticity. First, I review examples that illustrate that elements of developmental selection are common across the development of many different traits, from physiology and immunity to circulation and behavior. Second, I argue that developmental selection, relative to a fixed strategy or determinate (switch) mechanisms of plasticity, increases the probability that an individual will develop a phenotype best matched to the local environment. However, the exploration and environmental feedback associated with developmental selection is costly in terms of time, energy, and predation risk, resulting in major changes in life history such as increased duration of development and greater investment in individual offspring. Third, I discuss implications of developmental selection as a mechanism of plasticity, from predicting adaptive responses to novel environments to understanding conditions under which genetic assimilation may fuel diversification. Finally, I outline exciting areas of future research, in particular exploring costs of selective processes in the development of traits outside of behavior and modeling developmental selection and evolution in novel environments.

  9. 45 CFR 2522.450 - What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... receive special consideration in the selection process? 2522.450 Section 2522.450 Public Welfare... PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.450 What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process? Following the scoring...

  10. 45 CFR 2522.450 - What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... receive special consideration in the selection process? 2522.450 Section 2522.450 Public Welfare... PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.450 What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process? Following the scoring...

  11. 45 CFR 2522.450 - What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receive special consideration in the selection process? 2522.450 Section 2522.450 Public Welfare... PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.450 What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process? Following the scoring...

  12. Residential firewood in the southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Wood energy plays an important role in the economy of the southeastern states, an area with abundant forest resources and a large wood industry. A 1991 SERBEP study of industrial wood energy in the southeast documents this. A complementary study has recently been made for residential wood use using an interactive computer model, the IMPLAN input/output mode. This articles describes the results of the study and notes where the full reports are available.

  13. Silicon solar cells made by a self-aligned, selective-emitter, plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Schubert, William K.; Gee, James M.

    1999-01-01

    A potentially low-cost process for forming and passivating a selective emitter. The process uses a plasma etch of the heavily doped emitter to improve its performance. The grids of the solar cell are used to mask the plasma etch so that only the emitter in the region between the grids is etched, while the region beneath the grids remains heavily doped for low contact resistance. This process is potentially low-cost because it requires no alignment. After the emitter etch, a silicon nitride layer is deposited by plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition, and the solar cell is annealed in a forming gas.

  14. Silicon solar cells made by a self-aligned, selective-emitter, plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Gee, J.M.

    1999-02-16

    A potentially low-cost process for forming and passivating a selective emitter. The process uses a plasma etch of the heavily doped emitter to improve its performance. The grids of the solar cell are used to mask the plasma etch so that only the emitter in the region between the grids is etched, while the region beneath the grids remains heavily doped for low contact resistance. This process is potentially low-cost because it requires no alignment. After the emitter etch, a silicon nitride layer is deposited by plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition, and the solar cell is annealed in a forming gas. 5 figs.

  15. Process for selective monoaddition to silanes containing two silicon-hydrogen bonds and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crivello, James V. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for the selective monoadditon of an olefin or acetylene to a siloxane which contains two reactive Si--H bonds to produce a product in which only one of the two Si--H functions has added across the olefin or acetylene is disclosed. A process for making unsymmetrical siloxanes from symmetrical dihydrosiloxanes and products of both of these processes are also disclosed. Products are represented by the formula I in which R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are different: ##STR1##.

  16. Thermomechanical simulation of the selective laser melting process for PA12 including volumetric shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedlbauer, D.; Steinmann, P.; Mergheim, J.

    2015-05-01

    The present contribution is concerned with the finite element simulation of the thermomechanical material behavior in the selective laser melting process for PA12. In the process shrinkage of the powder material is observed when becoming melt, as the porous character of the powder vanishes due to the phase transition. A nonlinear thermomechanical finite element model is developed, which captures the shrinkage of the material and includes temperature dependent material parameters. The model is used to simulate the shrinkage of the material in the process, where an adaptive mesh refinement is applied for increasing the accuracy of the simulation. The results are qualitatively compared with experimental data and show a good agreement.

  17. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  18. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  19. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  20. Application of CBR method for adding the process of cutting tools and parameters selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    Modem enterprises must face with the dynamically changing market demand what influences the designing process. It is possible by linking computer tools with information gathered by experienced designers teams. The article describes the method basing on engineering knowledge and experience to adding the process of tools selection and cutting parameters determination for a turning operation. The method, proposed by the authors, is based on the CBR (Case Based Reasoning) method. CBR is a method of problem solving that involves searching for an analogy (similarity) between the current task to be solved, and the earlier cases that properly described, are stored in a computer memory. This article presents an algorithm and a formalized description of the developed method. It was discussed the range of its utilization, as well as it was illustrated the method of its functioning on the example of the tools and cutting parameters selection with respect to the turning process.

  1. Model selection and change detection for a time-varying mean in process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Weaver, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Process monitoring (PM) for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation is an old topic; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of alarm threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual=data-prediction. This paper briefly reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers several assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals. Four PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included. One example involves frequent by-batch material balance closures where a dissolution vessel has time-varying efficiency, leading to time-varying material holdup. Another example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals. Our main focus is model selection to select a defensible model for normal behavior with a time-varying mean in a PM residual stream. We use approximate Bayesian computation to perform the model selection and parameter estimation for normal behavior. We then describe a simple lag-one-differencing option similar to that used to monitor non-stationary times series to monitor for off-normal behavior.

  2. Talent identification and selection process of outfield players and goalkeepers in a professional soccer club.

    PubMed

    Gil, Susana María; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Aduna, Badiola; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Granados, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the talent identification process of a professional soccer club. A preselection of players (n = 64) aged 9-10 years and a final selection (n = 21) were performed by the technical staff through the observation during training sessions and matches. Also, 34 age-matched players of an open soccer camp (CampP) acted as controls. All participants underwent anthropometric, maturity and performance measurements. Preselected outfield players (OFs) were older and leaner than CampP (P < 0.05). Besides, they performed better in velocity, agility, endurance and jump tests (P < 0.05). A discriminant analysis showed that velocity and agility were the most important parameters. Finally, selected OFs were older and displayed better agility and endurance compared to the nonselected OFs (P < 0.05). Goalkeepers (GKs) were taller and heavier and had more body fat than OFs; also, they performed worse in the physical tests (P < 0.05). Finally, selected GKs were older and taller, had a higher predicted height and advanced maturity and performed better in the handgrip (dynamometry) and jump tests (P < 0.05). Thus, the technical staff selected OFs with a particular anthropometry and best performance, particularly agility and endurance, while GKs had a different profile. Moreover, chronological age had an important role in the whole selection process.

  3. Ecological mechanisms of evolution by natural selection: causal processes generating density-and-frequency dependent fitness.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T

    1998-02-21

    The current theory of natural selection explains that adaptive evolution occurs because genotypes with greater survival or reproductive tendencies, due to their particular biological properties, tend to increase in frequency over the lesser ones in a common environment; therefore, the former will eventually replace the latter. In nature, such a selection process most often occurs in a local population which is nested in a community involving local ecological dynamics which are not clearly articulated in the explanatory scheme of the theory. This paper seeks to explicate such an ecological process giving rise to the evolution of a local population with a particular focus on dynamic effects of an increase in the number of invasive, new types on the fate of old ones. Arguments using the ecological-mechanistic model, representing negative interactions among alternative types of organisms, suggest major ecological mechanisms by which the new replace the old; a selective increase in the number of one type leads to a decrease in the equilibrial abundance of a limiting resource, an increase in the density of conspecifics, and/or an increase in the density of predators, which would in turn lower the per capita reproductive rate, or raise the morality rate of another and make it extinct. Thus, replacement due to selection is associated with such dynamic shifts in equilibria occurring in a local community. The analysis of three (a resource, a prey and a predator) and four species (those plus a top predator) models suggests that evolutionary processes cannot be predicted without reference to the web structure of the community, that some fitness components causing a selective increase in a particular type can have, in some cases, nothing to do with factors causing selective decreases in alternatives, and that evolution of some traits can occur without resource competition.

  4. Food allergen selective thermal processing regimens may change oral tolerance in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kosti, R I; Triga, M; Tsabouri, S; Priftis, K N

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy can be considered a failure in the induction of oral tolerance. Recently, great interest has been focused on understanding the mechanisms and the contributing factors of oral tolerance development, hoping for new definitive interventions in the prevention and treatment of food allergy. Given that food processing may modify the properties and the nature of dietary proteins, several food processing methods could affect the allergenicity of these proteins and consequently may favour oral tolerance induction to food allergic children. Indeed, effective thermal food processing regimens of altering food proteins to reduce allergenicity have been recently reported in the literature. This article is mainly focused on the effect of selective thermal processing regimens on the main infant allergenic foods, with a potential clinical relevance on their allergenicity and therefore on oral tolerance induction. In the light of recent findings, the acquisition of tolerance in younger age and consequently the ability of young children to "outgrow" food allergy could be achieved through the application of selective thermal processing regimens on certain allergenic foods. Therefore, the ability of processed foods to circumvent clinical disease and at the same time to have an impact on the immune system and facilitate tolerance induction could be invaluable as a component of a successful therapeutic strategy. The opening in the new avenues of research in the use of processed foods in clinical practice for the amelioration of the impact on the quality of life of patients and possibly in food allergy prevention is warranted.

  5. Adolescent girls' friendship networks, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: examining selection and socialization processes.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Taylor, Alan; Hutchinson, Delyse M

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescent girls tend to resemble their friends in their level of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, no studies to date have attempted to disentangle the underlying peer selection and socialization processes that may explain this homophily. The current study used longitudinal stochastic actor-based modeling to simultaneously examine these two processes in a large community sample of adolescent girls (N = 1,197) from nine Australian girls' high schools. Friendship nominations and measures of body dissatisfaction, dieting and bulimic behaviors were collected across three annual waves. Results indicated that selection rather than socialization effects contributed to similarity within friendship groups when both processes were examined simultaneously. Specifically, girls tended to select friends who were similar to themselves in terms of body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors, but dissimilar in terms of dieting. Network and individual attribute variables also emerged as significant in explaining changes in adolescents' friendships and behaviors. As well as having important clinical implications, the findings point to the importance of controlling for friendship selection when examining the role of peers in adolescent body image and eating problems.

  6. Red Queen Processes Drive Positive Selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ejsmond, Maciej Jan; Radwan, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes code for proteins involved in the incitation of the adaptive immune response in vertebrates, which is achieved through binding oligopeptides (antigens) of pathogenic origin. Across vertebrate species, substitutions of amino acids at sites responsible for the specificity of antigen binding (ABS) are positively selected. This is attributed to pathogen-driven balancing selection, which is also thought to maintain the high polymorphism of MHC genes, and to cause the sharing of allelic lineages between species. However, the nature of this selection remains controversial. We used individual-based computer simulations to investigate the roles of two phenomena capable of maintaining MHC polymorphism: heterozygote advantage and host-pathogen arms race (Red Queen process). Our simulations revealed that levels of MHC polymorphism were high and driven mostly by the Red Queen process at a high pathogen mutation rate, but were low and driven mostly by heterozygote advantage when the pathogen mutation rate was low. We found that novel mutations at ABSs are strongly favored by the Red Queen process, but not by heterozygote advantage, regardless of the pathogen mutation rate. However, while the strong advantage of novel alleles increased the allele turnover rate, under a high pathogen mutation rate, allelic lineages persisted for a comparable length of time under Red Queen and under heterozygote advantage. Thus, when pathogens evolve quickly, the Red Queen is capable of explaining both positive selection and long coalescence times, but the tension between the novel allele advantage and persistence of alleles deserves further investigation. PMID:26599213

  7. Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.

    1997-12-01

    Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

  8. 48 CFR 36.602-5 - Short selection process for contracts not to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.602-5 Short selection process for... architect-engineer firms in accordance with 36.602-3, except that the selection report shall serve as...

  9. 48 CFR 836.602-5 - Short selection process for contracts not to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.602-5 Short selection process for....602-5 may be used to select firms for architect-engineer contracts that are not expected to exceed...

  10. Ti Alloys Processed By Selective Laser Melting And By Laser Cladding: Microstructures And Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Anne; Contrepois, Quentin; Dormal, Thierry; Lemaire, Olivier; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    In this study, samples of alloy Ti-6Al-4V have been processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and by Laser Cladding (LC), two layer-by-layer near-net-shape processes allowing for economic production of complex parts. The resulting microstructures have been characterised in details, so as to allow for a better understanding of the solidification process and of the subsequent phase transformations taking place upon cooling for both techniques. On the one hand, a new “MesoClad” laser with a maximum power of 300 W has been used successfully to produce thin wall samples by LC. On the other hand, the influence of processing parameters on the mechanical properties was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile testing performed on samples produced by SLM with different orientations with respect to the direction of mechanical solicitation. A strong anisotropy in mechanical behaviour was thus interpreted in relations with the microstructures and processing conditions.

  11. Neural classifier in the estimation process of maturity of selected varieties of apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Zbytek, Z.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Lewicki, A.

    2015-07-01

    This paper seeks to present methods of neural image analysis aimed at estimating the maturity state of selected varieties of apples which are popular in Poland. An identification of the degree of maturity of selected varieties of apples has been conducted on the basis of information encoded in graphical form, presented in the digital photos. The above process involves the application of the BBCH scale, used to determine the maturity of apples. The aforementioned scale is widely used in the EU and has been developed for many species of monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants. It is also worth noticing that the given scale enables detailed determinations of development stage of a given plant. The purpose of this work is to identify maturity level of selected varieties of apples, which is supported by the use of image analysis methods and classification techniques represented by artificial neural networks. The analysis of graphical representative features based on image analysis method enabled the assessment of the maturity of apples. For the utilitarian purpose the "JabVis 1.1" neural IT system was created, in accordance with requirements of the software engineering dedicated to support the decision-making processes occurring in broadly understood production process and processing of apples.

  12. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  13. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  14. Temporal context in speech processing and attentional stream selection: a behavioral and neural perspective.

    PubMed

    Zion Golumbic, Elana M; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the 'Cocktail Party' effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech's temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of 'Active Sensing', emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input. PMID:22285024

  15. Selection and Transmission Processes for Information in the Emerging Media Environment: Psychological Motives and Message Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Joseph N.; Kim, Hyun Suk; Albarracín, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    The emerging media environment introduced fundamental changes in the quality and format of information available to the public, which can now flexibly seek, alter, and disseminate the information they receive. Therefore, the two processes of information selection and information retransmission are crucial for understanding the reach of any information available in the online information environment. From this starting point, we examine the common psychological motives driving information selection and transmission of attitude-relevant information: Defense and accuracy motives adding a focus on interpersonal motives. We also review message factors that can activate psychological motives leading to selection of retransmission of information, such as the desire for novelty and emotional stimulation. We speculate about the directions for the next generation of research necessary to understand exposure as a core outcome in media effects research and theory. PMID:26190944

  16. Selection on synonymous codons in mammalian rhodopsins: a possible role in optimizing translational processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synonymous codon usage can affect many cellular processes, particularly those associated with translation such as polypeptide elongation and folding, mRNA degradation/stability, and splicing. Highly expressed genes are thought to experience stronger selection pressures on synonymous codons. This should result in codon usage bias even in species with relatively low effective population sizes, like mammals, where synonymous site selection is thought to be weak. Here we use phylogenetic codon-based likelihood models to explore patterns of codon usage bias in a dataset of 18 mammalian rhodopsin sequences, the protein mediating the first step in vision in the eye, and one of the most highly expressed genes in vertebrates. We use these patterns to infer selection pressures on key translational mechanisms including polypeptide elongation, protein folding, mRNA stability, and splicing. Results Overall, patterns of selection in mammalian rhodopsin appear to be correlated with post-transcriptional and translational processes. We found significant evidence for selection at synonymous sites using phylogenetic mutation-selection likelihood models, with C-ending codons found to have the highest relative fitness, and to be significantly more abundant at conserved sites. In general, these codons corresponded with the most abundant tRNAs in mammals. We found significant differences in codon usage bias between rhodopsin loops versus helices, though there was no significant difference in mean synonymous substitution rate between these motifs. We also found a significantly higher proportion of GC-ending codons at paired sites in rhodopsin mRNA secondary structure, and significantly lower synonymous mutation rates in putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) regions than in non-ESE regions. Conclusions By focusing on a single highly expressed gene we both distinguish synonymous codon selection from mutational effects and analytically explore underlying functional mechanisms

  17. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.

  18. On the location selection problem using analytic hierarchy process and multi-choice goal programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hui-Ping; Chang, Ching-Ter; Ku, Cheng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Location selection is a crucial decision in cost/benefit analysis of restaurants, coffee shops and others. However, it is difficult to be solved because there are many conflicting multiple goals in the problem of location selection. In order to solve the problem, this study integrates analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-choice goal programming (MCGP) as a decision aid to obtain an appropriate house from many alternative locations that better suit the preferences of renters under their needs. This study obtains weights from AHP and implements it upon each goal using MCGP for the location selection problem. According to the function of multi-aspiration provided by MCGP, decision makers can set multi-aspiration for each location goal to rank the candidate locations. Compared to the unaided selection processes, the integrated approach of AHP and MCGP is a better scientific and efficient method than traditional methods in finding a suitable location for buying or renting a house for business, especially under multiple qualitative and quantitative criteria within a shorter evaluation time. In addition, a real case is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to provide better quality decision than normal manual methods.

  19. Dynamics of Plant Mitochondrial Genome: Model of a Three-Level Selection Process

    PubMed Central

    Albert, B.; Godelle, B.; Atlan, A.; De-Paepe, R.; Gouyon, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial genome is composed of a set of molecules of various sizes that generate each other through recombination between repeated sequences. Molecular observations indicate that these different molecules are present in an equilibrium state. Different compositions of molecules have been observed within species. Recombination could produce deleted molecules with a high replication rate but bearing little useful information for the cell (such as ``petite'' mutants in yeast). In this paper, we use a multilevel model to examine selection among rapidly replicating incomplete molecules and relatively slowly replicating complete molecules. Our model simulates the evolution of mitochondrial information through a three-level selection process including intermolecular, intermitochondrial, and intercellular selection. the model demonstrates that maintenance of the mitochondrial genome can result from multilevel selection, but maintenance is difficult to explain without the existence of selection at the intermitochondrial level. This study shows that compartmentation into mitochondria is useful for maintenance of the mitochondrial information. Our examination of evolutionary equilibria shows that different equilibria (with different combinations of molecules) can be obtained when recombination rates are lower than a threshold value. This may be interpreted as a drift-mutation balance. PMID:8878700

  20. Development of a carbonaceous selective absorber for solar thermal energy collection and process for its formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.

    1989-02-01

    The main goal of the US Department of Energy supported part of this project is to develop information about controlling the complicated chemical processes involved in the formation of a carbonaceous selective absorber and learn what equipment will allow production of this absorber commercially. The work necessary to accomplish this goal is not yet complete. Formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber in the conveyor oven tried so far has been unsatisfactory, because the proper conditions for applying the carbonaceous coating in each conveyor oven fabricated, either have been difficult to obtain, or have been difficult to maintain over an extended period of time. A new conveyor oven is nearing completion which is expected to allow formation of the carbonaceous selective absorber on absorber tubes in a continuous operation over many days without the necessity of cleaning the conveyor oven or changing the thickness of the electroplated nickel catalyst to compensate for changes in the coating environment in the oven. Work under this project concerned with forming and sealing glass panels to test ideas on evacuated glass solar collector designs and production have been generally quite satisfactory. Delays in completion of the selective absorber work, has caused postponement of the fabrication of a small prototype evacuated glass solar collector panel. Preliminary cost estimates of the selective absorber and solar collector panel indicate that this collector system should be lower in cost than evacuated solar collectors now on the market.

  1. Modeling the Temperature Fields of Copper Powder Melting in the Process of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Babakova, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    Various process variables influence on the quality of the end product when SLM (Selective Laser Melting) synthesizing items of powder materials. The authors of the paper suggest using the model of distributing the temperature fields when forming single tracks and layers of copper powder PMS-1. Relying on the results of modeling it is proposed to reduce melting of powder particles out of the scanning area.

  2. Process for preparation of a seed layer for selective metal deposition

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for selective metal deposition comprising of the steps of: a. formation of an initial surface on a substrate, said initial surface being comprised of at least two layers of which the uppermost is inert, b. exposing the surface to a source of heat in pre-determined places wherein surface activation is desired, and c. deposition of metal on activated portions of said surface.

  3. Proper restorative material selection, digital processes allow highly esthetic shade match combined with layered porcelain.

    PubMed

    Kahng, Luke S

    2014-03-01

    Today's digital technologies are affording dentists and laboratory technicians more control over material choices for creating restorations and fabricating dental prostheses. Digital processes can potentially enable technicians to create ideal marginal areas and account for the thickness and support of layering porcelain over substructures in the design process. In this case report of a restoration of a single central incisor, a number of issues are addressed that are central to using the newest digital technology. As demonstrated, shade selection is a crucial early step in any restorative case preparation.

  4. Processing of configural and componential information in face-selective cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Wong, Alan C-N; Rhodes, Gillian; Chan, Erich K S; Chan, Winnie W L; Hayward, William G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how face-selective cortical areas process configural and componential face information and how race of faces may influence these processes. Participants saw blurred (preserving configural information), scrambled (preserving componential information), and whole faces during fMRI scan, and performed a post-scan face recognition task using blurred or scrambled faces. The fusiform face area (FFA) showed stronger activation to blurred than to scrambled faces, and equivalent responses to blurred and whole faces. The occipital face area (OFA) showed stronger activation to whole than to blurred faces, which elicited similar responses to scrambled faces. Therefore, the FFA may be more tuned to process configural than componential information, whereas the OFA similarly participates in perception of both. Differences in recognizing own- and other-race blurred faces were correlated with differences in FFA activation to those faces, suggesting that configural processing within the FFA may underlie the other-race effect in face recognition.

  5. Selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards by a novel non-acid process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-08-30

    An environmental benign, non-acid process was successfully developed for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the process, palladium was firstly enriched during copper recovery procedure and dissolved in a special solution made of CuSO4 and NaCl. The dissolved palladium was then extracted by diisoamyl sulfide (S201). It was found that 99.4% of Pd(II) could be extracted from the solution under the optimum conditions (10% S201, A/O ratio 5 and 2min extraction). In the whole extraction process, the influence of base metals was negligible due to the relatively weak nucleophilic substitution of S201 with base metal irons and the strong steric hindrance of S201 molecular. Around 99.5% of the extracted Pd(II) could be stripped from S201/dodecane with 0.1mol/L NH3 after a two-stage stripping at A/O ratio of 1. The total recovery percentage of palladium was 96.9% during the dissolution-extraction-stripping process. Therefore, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards.

  6. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process.

    PubMed

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors. PMID:27102360

  7. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space. PMID:26226930

  8. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process

    PubMed Central

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors. PMID:27102360

  9. Selective attentional processing to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults who fear falling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lesley A; White, Patti; Doan, Jonathan B; de Bruin, Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Fear of falling is known to affect more than half of community-dwelling older adults over 60 years of age. This fear is associated with physical and psychological effects that increase the risk of falling. The authors' theory is that attentional processing biases may exist in this population that serve to perpetuate fear of falling and subsequently increase fall risk. As a starting point in testing this proposition, the authors examined selective attentional processing bias to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults. Thirty older adult participants (M(age) = 70.8 ± 5.8), self-categorized to be Fearful of Falling (FF, n = 15) or Non-Fearful of Falling (NF, n = 15) completed a visual dot-probe paradigm to determine detection latencies to fall-threatening and general-threat stimuli. Attentional processing was defined using three index scores: attentional bias, congruency index, and incongruency index. Bias indicates capture of attention, whereas congruency and incongruency imply vigilance and disengagement difficulty, respectively. Both groups showed an attentional bias to fall-threat words but those who were fearful of falling also showed an incongruency effect for fall-threat words. These findings confirm that selective attentional processing profiles for fall-relevant stimuli differ between older adults who exhibit fear of falling and those who do not have this fear. Moreover, in accordance with current interpretations of selective attentional processing, the incongruency effect noted among fall-fearful older adults presents a possibility for a difficulty disengaging from fall-threatening stimuli.

  10. Reference Station Selection for Improved Geometric Spacing During Baseline Processing in OPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin; Weston, Neil

    2013-04-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) designed, implemented and continues to operate a web-based GPS processing tool known as the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). There are several versions of OPUS in operation, mainly because no one algorithm is optimized to process GPS data collected between 15 minutes and 48 hours. For short duration datasets, NGS designed OPUS Rapid Static (OPUS-RS), a version that uses up to nine CORS located nearby to interpolate the ionosphere around the rover. OPUS Static (OPUS-S) on the other hand, is one of the most heavily used versions of OPUS and processes datasets that span between two and 48 hours in duration. OPUS-S chooses five nearby CORS to form individual baselines with the rover and then each is processed independently. The latest version of OPUS to be presented here is OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net) and is currently in beta testing. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference stations and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the rover dataset. For OPUS-Net, the three CORS are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. All versions of OPUS require sets of baselines between the rover and reference stations which have known positions and velocities. Because of the nature of atmospheric corrections during relative positioning, evenly-spaced geometric distribution will result in the most stable and reliable solutions. We have developed an algorithm to choose reference stations with the best geometric distribution at a given location. Rather than selecting the stations by distance, the new algorithm builds station lists by azimuth groups (zones) and selects the closest station in a zone. The process is repeated until a predefined number of stations have been selected in each zone. Also, additional functionality has been added for the operational

  11. Quantifying the relative roles of selective and neutral processes in defining eukaryotic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Whittle, Peter; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-09-01

    We have a limited understanding of the relative contributions of different processes that regulate microbial communities, which are crucial components of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. The contributions of selective and neutral processes in defining community composition are often confounded in field studies because as one moves through space, environments also change. Managed ecosystems provide an excellent opportunity to control for this and evaluate the relative strength of these processes by minimising differences between comparable niches separated at different geographic scales. We use next-generation sequencing to characterize the variance in fungal communities inhabiting adjacent fruit, soil and bark in comparable vineyards across 1000 kms in New Zealand. By compartmentalizing community variation, we reveal that niche explains at least four times more community variance than geographic location. We go beyond merely demonstrating that different communities are found in both different niches and locations by quantifying the forces that define these patterns. Overall, selection unsurprisingly predominantly shapes these microbial communities, but we show the balance of neutral processes also have a significant role in defining community assemblage in eukaryotic microbes. PMID:25756681

  12. Quantifying the relative roles of selective and neutral processes in defining eukaryotic microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Whittle, Peter; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the relative contributions of different processes that regulate microbial communities, which are crucial components of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. The contributions of selective and neutral processes in defining community composition are often confounded in field studies because as one moves through space, environments also change. Managed ecosystems provide an excellent opportunity to control for this and evaluate the relative strength of these processes by minimising differences between comparable niches separated at different geographic scales. We use next-generation sequencing to characterize the variance in fungal communities inhabiting adjacent fruit, soil and bark in comparable vineyards across 1000 kms in New Zealand. By compartmentalizing community variation, we reveal that niche explains at least four times more community variance than geographic location. We go beyond merely demonstrating that different communities are found in both different niches and locations by quantifying the forces that define these patterns. Overall, selection unsurprisingly predominantly shapes these microbial communities, but we show the balance of neutral processes also have a significant role in defining community assemblage in eukaryotic microbes. PMID:25756681

  13. Quantifying the relative roles of selective and neutral processes in defining eukaryotic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Whittle, Peter; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-09-01

    We have a limited understanding of the relative contributions of different processes that regulate microbial communities, which are crucial components of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. The contributions of selective and neutral processes in defining community composition are often confounded in field studies because as one moves through space, environments also change. Managed ecosystems provide an excellent opportunity to control for this and evaluate the relative strength of these processes by minimising differences between comparable niches separated at different geographic scales. We use next-generation sequencing to characterize the variance in fungal communities inhabiting adjacent fruit, soil and bark in comparable vineyards across 1000 kms in New Zealand. By compartmentalizing community variation, we reveal that niche explains at least four times more community variance than geographic location. We go beyond merely demonstrating that different communities are found in both different niches and locations by quantifying the forces that define these patterns. Overall, selection unsurprisingly predominantly shapes these microbial communities, but we show the balance of neutral processes also have a significant role in defining community assemblage in eukaryotic microbes.

  14. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking. PMID:26044943

  15. Alternative selection of processing additives to enhance the lifetime of OPVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, J.; Waters, H.; Horie, M.; Smith, G. C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of processing additives is known to accelerate the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and therefore, this paper studies the impact of selecting alternative processing additives for PCPDTBT:PC71BM solar cells in order to improve the stability. The use of naphthalene-based processing additives has been undertaken, which is shown to reduce the initial power conversion efficiency by 23%-42%, primarily due to a decrease in the short-circuit current density, but also fill factor. However, the stability is greatly enhanced by using such additives, with the long term stability (T 50%) enhanced by a factor of four. The results show that there is a trade-off between initial performance and stability to consider when selecting the initial process additives. XPS studies have provided some insight into the decreased degradation and show that using 1-chloronaphthalene (ClN) leads to reduced morphology changes and reduced oxidation of the thiophene-ring within the PCPDTBT backbone.

  16. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  17. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 21, Materials and processes selection. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.R.

    1995-08-15

    This document identifies the candidate materials and manufacturing processes selected for development of the TPX Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet. Supporting rationale and selection criteria are provided for justification and the materials properties database report is included for completeness. Specific properties for each material selection are included in this document.

  18. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  19. [Association between processes of hemispheric selection of information in the modified Stroop task and creative achievements].

    PubMed

    Vol'f, N V; Razumnikova, O M; Onishchenko, M A

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between creative abilities and indices of selective attention were studied in lateralized serial Stroop Test presented in two conditions: color and word integrated or separated in a stimulus. The study enrolled 69 male and female subjects who were divided into high- and low-creative achievement groups by mean split of the originality score in figural tasks of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. It was found that features of hemispheric organization of selective attention assessed by the difference in reaction time to incongruent and a congruent color-word stimuli pairs individually administered in the right and left visual hemifields were differently correlated with creative abilities of men and women. High creativity of men was associated with lower attention-related selective processes in the right hemisphere and inversion of hemispheric asymmetry (as compared to low-creative men). There was no difference in these parameters between high- and low-creative women. Independently of gender, hemispheric asymmetry of selective attention indices reversed after transition from integrated to spatially separated presentation of color and word, which provided evidence for the use of flexible strategies.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi, H. Khalid; Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical behavior and the microstructural evolution of 17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel processed using selective laser melting have been studied. Test coupons were produced from 17-4 PH stainless steel powder in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Characterization studies were carried out using mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results show that post-process heat treatment is required to obtain typically desired tensile properties. Columnar grains of smaller diameters (<2 µm) emerged within the melt pool with a mixture of martensite and retained austenite phases. It was found that the phase content of the samples is greatly influenced by the powder chemistry, processing environment, and grain diameter.

  1. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Torre J; Allred, Brady W; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Hamilton, Robert G; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993-2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken's distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as static

  2. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Hovick, Torre J.; Allred, Brady W.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993–2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy’s Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken’s distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as

  3. Silicon cells made by self-aligned selective-emitter plasma-etchback process

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Gee, J.M.; Zaidi, S.H.

    2000-07-18

    Photovoltaic cells and methods for making them are disclosed wherein the metallized grids of the cells are used to mask portions of cell emitter regions to allow selective etching of phosphorus-doped emitter regions. The preferred etchant is SF{sub 6} or a combination of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2}. This self-aligned selective etching allows for enhanced blue response (versus cells with uniform heavy doping of the emitter) while preserving heavier doping in the region beneath the gridlines needed for low contact resistance. Embodiments are disclosed for making cells with or without textured surfaces. Optional steps include plasma hydrogenation and PECVD nitride deposition, each of which are suited to customized applications for requirements of given cells to be manufactured. The techniques disclosed could replace expensive and difficult alignment methodologies used to obtain selectively etched emitters, and they may be easily integrated with existing plasma processing methods and techniques of the invention may be accomplished in a single plasma-processing chamber.

  4. Silicon cells made by self-aligned selective-emitter plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Schubert, William K.; Gee, James M.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells and methods for making them are disclosed wherein the metallized grids of the cells are used to mask portions of cell emitter regions to allow selective etching of phosphorus-doped emitter regions. The preferred etchant is SF.sub.6 or a combination of SF.sub.6 and O.sub.2. This self-aligned selective etching allows for enhanced blue response (versus cells with uniform heavy doping of the emitter) while preserving heavier doping in the region beneath the gridlines needed for low contact resistance. Embodiments are disclosed for making cells with or without textured surfaces. Optional steps include plasma hydrogenation and PECVD nitride deposition, each of which are suited to customized applications for requirements of given cells to be manufactured. The techniques disclosed could replace expensive and difficult alignment methodologies used to obtain selectively etched emitters, and they may be easily integrated with existing plasma processing methods and techniques of the invention may be accomplished in a single plasma-processing chamber.

  5. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways.

  6. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  7. Selective Attention to Semantic and Syntactic Features Modulates Sentence Processing Networks in Anterior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified an anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region that responds preferentially to sentence-level stimuli. It is unclear, however, whether this activity reflects a response to syntactic computations or some form of semantic integration. This distinction is difficult to investigate with the stimulus manipulations and anomaly detection paradigms traditionally implemented. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study addresses this question via a selective attention paradigm. Subjects monitored for occasional semantic anomalies or occasional syntactic errors, thus directing their attention to semantic integration, or syntactic properties of the sentences. The hemodynamic response in the sentence-selective ATL region (defined with a localizer scan) was examined during anomaly/error-free sentences only, to avoid confounds due to error detection. The majority of the sentence-specific region of interest was equally modulated by attention to syntactic or compositional semantic features, whereas a smaller subregion was only modulated by the semantic task. We suggest that the sentence-specific ATL region is sensitive to both syntactic and integrative semantic functions during sentence processing, with a smaller portion of this area preferentially involved in the later. This study also suggests that selective attention paradigms may be effective tools to investigate the functional diversity of networks involved in sentence processing. PMID:18669589

  8. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  9. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  10. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  11. A water-processable organic electron-selective layer for solution-processed inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Cai, Ping; Sun, Shi; Ye, Hua; Su, Shi-Jian Cao, Yong

    2014-02-03

    A triazine- and pyridinium-containing water-soluble material of 1,1′,1″-(4,4′,4″-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-4,1-diyl)) tris(methylene)tripyridinium bromide (TzPyBr) was developed as an organic electron-selective layer in solution-processed inverted organic solar cells due to its strong anti-erosion capacity against non-polar organic solvents commonly used for the active layer. Ohmic-like contact with the adjacent active materials like fullerene derivatives is speculated to be formed, as confirmed by the work-function measurements with scanning Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Besides, considering the deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of TzPyBr, excellent hole-blocking property of the electron-selective layer is also anticipated. The inverted organic photovoltaic devices based on the TzPyBr/ITO (indium tin oxide) bilayer cathode exhibit dramatically enhanced performance compared to the control devices with bare ITO as the cathode and even higher efficiency than the conventional type devices with ITO and Al as the electrodes.

  12. Cancel and rethink in the Wason selection task: further evidence for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kazushige; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    The reasoning process in the Wason selection task was examined by measuring card inspection times in the letter-number and drinking-age problems. 24 students were asked to solve the problems presented on a computer screen. Only the card touched with a mouse pointer was visible, and the total exposure time of each card was measured. Participants were allowed to cancel their previous selections at any time. Although rethinking was encouraged, the cards once selected were rarely cancelled (10% of the total selections). Moreover, most of the cancelled cards were reselected (89% of the total cancellations). Consistent with previous findings, inspection times were longer for selected cards than for nonselected cards. These results suggest that card selections are determined largely by initial heuristic processes and rarely reversed by subsequent analytic processes. The present study gives further support for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory.

  13. Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Young, James S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 is used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop metal films on featured or non-featured silicon substrates. Components of supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID) solutions for fabricating Cu and Pd films on silicon substrates are described along with the corresponding experimental setup and procedure. Only silicon substrates exposed and reactive to SFID solutions can be coated. The highly pressurized and gas-like supercritical CO2, combined with the galvanic displacement property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium silicide in small features or to metallize porous silicon.

  14. Symmetry breaking and coarsening in spatially distributed evolutionary processes including sexual reproduction and disruptive selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Kaufman, Les; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2000-11-01

    Sexual reproduction presents significant challenges to formal treatment of evolutionary processes. A starting point for systematic treatments of ecological and evolutionary phenomena has been provided by the gene-centered view of evolution which assigns effective fitness to each allele instead of each organism. The gene-centered view can be formalized as a dynamic mean-field approximation applied to genes in reproduction and selection dynamics. We show that the gene-centered view breaks down for symmetry breaking and pattern formation within a population and show that spatial distributions of organisms with local mating neighborhoods in the presence of disruptive selection give rise to such symmetry breaking and pattern formation in the genetic composition of local populations. Global dynamics follows conventional coarsening of systems with nonconserved order parameters. The results have significant implications for the ecology of genetic diversity and species formation.

  15. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  16. 45 CFR 2522.450 - What types of programs or program models may receive special consideration in the selection process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... address educational needs, including those that carry out literacy and tutoring activities generally, and... receive special consideration in the selection process? 2522.450 Section 2522.450 Public Welfare... program models may receive special consideration in the selection process? Following the scoring...

  17. 48 CFR 2936.602-5 - Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed $100,000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2936.602-5 Short selection processes for contracts not to exceed $100,000. The selection process prescribed in FAR 36.602-5(b) must be used for architect-engineer contracts not...

  18. 1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IS VISIBLE. (11/27/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation Planning for the Southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.; Zhang, F.

    2012-12-01

    A climate change assessment is carried out for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeast US following an integrated water resources assessment and planning framework. The assessment process begins with the development/selection of consistent climate, demographic, socio-economic, and land use/cover scenarios. Historical scenarios and responses are analyzed first to establish baseline conditions. Future climate scenarios are based on GCMs available through the IPCC. Statistical and/or dynamic downscaling of GCM outputs is applied to generate high resolution (12x12 km) atmospheric forcing, such as rainfall, temperature, and ET demand, over the ACF River Basin watersheds. Physically based watershed, aquifer, and estuary models (lumped and distributed) are used to quantify the hydrologic and water quality river basin response to alternative climate and land use/cover scenarios. Demand assessments are carried out for each water sector, for example, water supply for urban, agricultural, and industrial users; hydro-thermal facilities; navigation reaches; and environmental/ecological flow and lake level requirements, aiming to establish aspirational water use targets, performance metrics, and management/adaptation options. Response models for the interconnected river-reservoir-aquifer-estuary system are employed next to assess actual water use levels and other sector outputs under a specific set of hydrologic inputs, demand targets, and management/adaptation options. Adaptive optimization methods are used to generate system-wide management policies conditional on inflow forecasts. The generated information is used to inform stakeholder planning and decision processes aiming to develop consensus on adaptation measures, management strategies, and performance monitoring indicators. The assessment and planning process is driven by stakeholder input and is inherently iterative and sequential.

  20. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  1. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  2. Experimental investigation and statistical optimisation of the selective laser melting process of a maraging steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, G.; Campanelli, S. L.; Contuzzi, N.; Ludovico, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing process (AM) that built parts from powder using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. The control of the parameters that influence the melting and the amount of energy density involved in the process is paramount in order to get valuable parts. The objective of this paper is to perform an experimental investigation and a successive statistical optimization of the parameters of the selective laser melting process of the 18Ni300 maraging steel. The experimental investigation involved the study of the microstructure, the mechanical and surface properties of the laser maraging powder. The outcomes of experimental study demonstrated that the hardness, the mechanical strength and the surface roughness correlated positively to the part density. Parts with relative density higher than 99% had a very low porosity that presented closed and regular shaped pores. The statistical optimization determined that the best part properties were produced with the laser power bigger than 90 W and the velocity smaller than 220 mm/s.

  3. Waste processing: new near infrared technologies for material identification and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesetti, M.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The awareness of environmental issues on a global scale increases the opportunities for waste handling companies. Recovery is set to become all the more important in areas such as waste selection, minerals processing, electronic scrap, metal and plastic recycling, refuse and the food industry. Effective recycling relies on effective sorting. Sorting is a fundamental step of the waste disposal/recovery process. The big players in the sorting market are pushing for the development of new technologies to cope with literally any type of waste. The purpose of this tutorial is to gain an understanding of waste management, frameworks, strategies, and components that are current and emerging in the field. A particular focus is given to spectroscopic techniques that pertains the material selection process with a greater emphasis placed on the NIR technology for material identification. Three different studies that make use of NIR technology are shown, they are an example of some of the possible applications and the excellent results that can be achieved with this technique.

  4. [Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process]. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 and DE-AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the last quarter, work was completed on the collection of the surface force and hydrophobicity data required for the estimation of the parameters in the hydrophobic interaction energy function. The estimation of these parameters will be completed in May, and the development of the extended DLVO equation for coal should be completed by the end of the next quarter. In Task 3, the mixing/coagulation characteristics of in-line mixers have been established and work with the ultrasonic horn has begun. The study of the recovery of coagula by column flotation will be completed in early May, and work on the remaining sub-tasks of Advanced Separation Methods has been accelerated in an effort to complete this task on schedule.

  5. BISA/Bibliographic Information on Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydney Univ. (Australia).

    This document outlines the Bibliographic Information on Southeast Asia data bases (BISA), a project that has been established to provide greater access to and utilization of Australian library resources on Southeast Asia. The nine sections of the report cover BISA's objectives; the project's justification, which considers Australian holdings,…

  6. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  7. Application of analytical hierarchy process for effective selection of agricultural best management practices.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan

    2014-01-01

    In this study an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for ranking best management practices (BMPs) in the Saginaw River Watershed based on environmental, economic and social factors. Three spatial targeting methods were used for placement of BMPs on critical source areas (CSAs). The environment factors include sediment, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reductions at the subbasin level and the watershed outlet. Economic factors were based on total BMP cost, including installation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. Social factors were divided into three favorability rankings (most favorable, moderately favorable, and least favorable) based on area allocated to each BMP. Equal weights (1/3) were considered for the three main factors while calculating the BMP rank by AHP. In this study three scenarios were compared. A comprehensive approach in which environmental, economic, and social aspects are simultaneously considered (Scenario 1) versus more traditional approaches in which both environmental and economic aspects were considered (Scenario 2) or only environmental aspects (sediment, TN, and TP) were considered (Scenario 3). In Scenario 1, only stripcropping (moderately favorable) was selected on all CSAs at the subbasin level, whereas stripcropping (49-69% of CSAs) and residue management (most favorable, 31-51% of CSAs) were selected by AHP based on the watershed outlet and three spatial targeting methods. In Scenario 2, native grass was eliminated by moderately preferable BMPs (stripcropping) both at the subbasin and watershed outlet levels due the lower BMP implementations cost compared to native grass. Finally, in Scenario 3, at subbasin level, the least socially preferable BMP (native grass) was selected in 100% of CSAs due to greater pollution reduction capacity compared to other BMPs. At watershed level, nearly 50% the CSAs selected stripcropping, and the remaining 50% of CSAs selected native grass and residue management equally. PMID:24309231

  8. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  9. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  10. Optimising Drug Solubilisation in Amorphous Polymer Dispersions: Rational Selection of Hot-melt Extrusion Processing Parameters.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article was to construct a T-ϕ phase diagram for a model drug (FD) and amorphous polymer (Eudragit® EPO) and to use this information to understand the impact of how temperature-composition coordinates influenced the final properties of the extrudate. Defining process boundaries and understanding drug solubility in polymeric carriers is of utmost importance and will help in the successful manufacture of new delivery platforms for BCS class II drugs. Physically mixed felodipine (FD)-Eudragit(®) EPO (EPO) binary mixtures with pre-determined weight fractions were analysed using DSC to measure the endset of melting and glass transition temperature. Extrudates of 10 wt% FD-EPO were processed using temperatures (110°C, 126°C, 140°C and 150°C) selected from the temperature-composition (T-ϕ) phase diagrams and processing screw speed of 20, 100 and 200rpm. Extrudates were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), optical, polarised light and Raman microscopy. To ensure formation of a binary amorphous drug dispersion (ADD) at a specific composition, HME processing temperatures should at least be equal to, or exceed, the corresponding temperature value on the liquid-solid curve in a F-H T-ϕ phase diagram. If extruded between the spinodal and liquid-solid curve, the lack of thermodynamic forces to attain complete drug amorphisation may be compensated for through the use of an increased screw speed. Constructing F-H T-ϕ phase diagrams are valuable not only in the understanding drug-polymer miscibility behaviour but also in rationalising the selection of important processing parameters for HME to ensure miscibility of drug and polymer.

  11. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC in the 1970's had involved the use of Oxygen Deficient Center (ODC's) such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  12. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in the 1970's had involved the use of ODC's such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  13. Optimization of process configuration and strain selection for microalgae-based biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan; Dieu, Linus Tao Jie; Harvey, Simon; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for the design of microalgae-based biodiesel production system by systematically integrating all the production stages and strain properties. Through the hypothetical case study, the model suggested the most economical system configuration for the selected microalgae strains from the available processes at each stage, thus resulting in the cheapest biodiesel production cost, S$2.66/kg, which is still higher than the current diesel price (S$1.05/kg). Interestingly, the microalgae strain properties, such as lipid content, effective diameter and productivity, were found to be one of the major factors that significantly affect the production cost as well as system configuration.

  14. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  15. The use of technical cost modeling for titanium alloy process selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, both single-melt plasma arc cold hearth melting (PAM) and electron beam cold hearth melting (EBM) followed by a vacuum arc remelting step have emerged as low-cost alternatives for producing single-melt titanium alloy slabs for critical, non-aerospace applications. Technical cost modeling was used to estimate unit cost, identify principal cost drivers, and perform sensitivity analyses for producing 25.4 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V plates for ballistic-shock resistant applications. The results showed that the principal cost drivers are raw material processing, melt processing, and plate rolling. Sensitivity analyses showed that percent revert and process yield could significantly influence or adversely impact the estimated unit cost. A comparison of the estimated unit cost for a worst case of double VAR (2XVAR) with a best case for either PAM- or EBM-processed 25.4 mm thick plate showed a potential cost savings of 57% or 58%, respectively. These results showed the utility of the technical cost modeling approach in enabling process selection and cost control.

  16. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  17. RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS #434 AND #435, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  18. Detail of door on southeast elevation. View to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of door on southeast elevation. View to northwest - Flint Creek Hydroelectric Project, Powerhouse, Approximately 3 miles southeast of Porters Corner on Powerhouse Road, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT

  19. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. 8. STATION 'L' FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, LINCOLN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATION 'L' FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, LINCOLN SUBSTATION IN FOREGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 9. STATION 'L', LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION, LINCOLN SUBSTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STATION 'L', LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION, LINCOLN SUBSTATION IN FOREGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. Pri sORF peptides induce selective proteasome-mediated protein processing.

    PubMed

    Zanet, J; Benrabah, E; Li, T; Pélissier-Monier, A; Chanut-Delalande, H; Ronsin, B; Bellen, H J; Payre, F; Plaza, S

    2015-09-18

    A wide variety of RNAs encode small open-reading-frame (smORF/sORF) peptides, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila polished-rice (pri) sORF peptides trigger proteasome-mediated protein processing, converting the Shavenbaby (Svb) transcription repressor into a shorter activator. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies an E2-E3 ubiquitin-conjugating complex, UbcD6-Ubr3, which targets Svb to the proteasome in a pri-dependent manner. Upon interaction with Ubr3, Pri peptides promote the binding of Ubr3 to Svb. Ubr3 can then ubiquitinate the Svb N terminus, which is degraded by the proteasome. The C-terminal domains protect Svb from complete degradation and ensure appropriate processing. Our data show that Pri peptides control selectivity of Ubr3 binding, which suggests that the family of sORF peptides may contain an extended repertoire of protein regulators.

  3. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  4. Size selected silicon particles in sol-gel glass by centrifugal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, David J.; McCoy, Benjamin J.; Risbud, Subhash H.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1998-02-01

    Centrifugal processing was used to induce size selectivity in Si particles suspended in a silica sol-gel precursor solution. A model was developed to describe Stokes settling of the silicon particles in the sol-gel medium whose viscosity increases exponentially with time eventually leading to hardening to a solid glassy material. An empirical modification to the theoretical model accounts for settling of particle agglomerates. Experimental results for polydisperse silicon particulates centrifuged in a sol-gel of tetraethyl orthosilicate catalyzed by phosphoric acid are reported; the particle size and spatial distribution in the gelled matrix are explained by the model. The utility of centrifugal processing to produce functionally graded materials and semiconductor nanostructures is discussed.

  5. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  6. [The selection process in the Faculty of Medicine: the usefulness of a psychological and aptitude assessment].

    PubMed

    Lia, C; Cavaggioni, G

    2013-01-01

    In almost all the universities worldwide, the admission to the Faculty of Medicine is subject to a specific selection process. In most cases tests are used to assess the cognitive abilities of the candidates. However, a growing number of universities (particularly American and Canadian) is using a set of instruments to evaluate non-cognitive skills in addition to these tests. Among the most commonly used tools are included personal interviews, Multiple Mini Interview (MMI), Personal Quality Assessment (PQA). In Italy in the last decade increasing emphasis was placed on assessing students' attitudes through the use of orientation tests (given in classrooms or online fillable), as part of several projects that involve collaboration between secondary school and university. Nevertheless, the admission to the Faculty of Medicine does not yet provide a psychological and aptitude assessment, but relies exclusively on cognitive features. In a similar way to what is already the case with the selection of personnel in law enforcement agency, we propose a selection model that includes an assessment of psychological features and aptitudes of the candidates, as well as cognitive skills.

  7. New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources.

    PubMed

    Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Ramires, Francesca A; Grieco, Francesco; Tommasi, Luca; Perbellini, Ezio; Falco, Vittorio; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mita, Giovanni; Bleve, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:26441932

  8. Selective catalytic two-step process for ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kaiwu; Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Sang, Rui; Spannenberg, Anke; Jackstell, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Li, Yuehui; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Upgrading C1 chemicals (for example, CO, CO/H2, MeOH and CO2) with C–C bond formation is essential for the synthesis of bulk chemicals. In general, these industrially important processes (for example, Fischer Tropsch) proceed at drastic reaction conditions (>250 °C; high pressure) and suffer from low selectivity, which makes high capital investment necessary and requires additional purifications. Here, a different strategy for the preparation of ethylene glycol (EG) via initial oxidative coupling and subsequent reduction is presented. Separating coupling and reduction steps allows for a completely selective formation of EG (99%) from CO. This two-step catalytic procedure makes use of a Pd-catalysed oxycarbonylation of amines to oxamides at room temperature (RT) and subsequent Ru- or Fe-catalysed hydrogenation to EG. Notably, in the first step the required amines can be efficiently reused. The presented stepwise oxamide-mediated coupling provides the basis for a new strategy for selective upgrading of C1 chemicals. PMID:27377550

  9. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach. PMID:19809138

  10. Advances in feature selection methods for hyperspectral image processing in food industry applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety, and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of online applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.

  11. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zion Golumbic, Elana M.; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the ‘Cocktail Party’ effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech’s temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of ‘active sensing’, emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input. PMID:22285024

  12. Selective catalytic two-step process for ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kaiwu; Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Sang, Rui; Spannenberg, Anke; Jackstell, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Li, Yuehui; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    Upgrading C1 chemicals (for example, CO, CO/H2, MeOH and CO2) with C-C bond formation is essential for the synthesis of bulk chemicals. In general, these industrially important processes (for example, Fischer Tropsch) proceed at drastic reaction conditions (>250 °C; high pressure) and suffer from low selectivity, which makes high capital investment necessary and requires additional purifications. Here, a different strategy for the preparation of ethylene glycol (EG) via initial oxidative coupling and subsequent reduction is presented. Separating coupling and reduction steps allows for a completely selective formation of EG (99%) from CO. This two-step catalytic procedure makes use of a Pd-catalysed oxycarbonylation of amines to oxamides at room temperature (RT) and subsequent Ru- or Fe-catalysed hydrogenation to EG. Notably, in the first step the required amines can be efficiently reused. The presented stepwise oxamide-mediated coupling provides the basis for a new strategy for selective upgrading of C1 chemicals.

  13. New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources

    PubMed Central

    Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Ramires, Francesca A.; Grieco, Francesco; Tommasi, Luca; Perbellini, Ezio; Falco, Vittorio; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Mita, Giovanni; Bleve, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:26441932

  14. Recruit, screen, and hire: staff selection and the decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Melville, S D

    1977-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the clinician-manager in staff selection. The duties of the clinician-manager in a mental health center include those tasks described as "recruit, screen, and hire" but little or no guidance on the steps involved in this sequence of events is available. The "how" of hiring is transmitted by word of mouth, by following another's example, or by trial and error. This article examines the component parts of staff selection from the assimilation of procedures, rules, and regulation of the public authority under which a particular mental health center operates, to the compilation of a "short list" of those to be screened and finally the risk taking and decision-making process by the clinician-manager who makes the choice. Some speculation on the emotional impact it has on the clinician-manager is examined. The impact of personal value judgments of the selector are considered. Recommendations are made for the inclusion of training in staff selection by academic programs for mental health administrators.

  15. Oxidation of diesel-generated volatile organic compounds in the selective catalytic reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1998-10-01

    The main part of the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in diesel exhaust ({approx}80%) is oxidized to CO and CO{sub 2} over an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst. CO is the major product of this oxidation, representing about 50--70% of the formed products (CO + CO{sub 2}). This preferential formation of CO leads to a pronounced increase of CO emissions when an SCR process is added to a diesel engine. A small fraction of the VOCs is selectively oxidized to carboxylic acids over the SCR catalyst. This selectivity is due to the acidic properties of the catalyst causing the preferential desorption at the oxidation state of the acid. The main products of these oxidation reactions are the lower monocarboxylic acids and some dicarboxylic acids forming stable anhydrides, especially maleic and phthalic acid. The highest emissions of these acids are found at low temperatures; they decrease at higher temperatures. Formic acid is preferentially decomposed into carbon monoxide and water. It must therefore be assumed that the strong increase of CO mentioned above is due to a mechanism involving the thermal decomposition of formic acid formed from various primary VOCs.

  16. The Southeast Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

  17. Southeast U.S. burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  18. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  19. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    PubMed Central

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

  20. Investigation into the Effect of Concentration of Benzotriazole on the Selective Layer Surface in the Chemical Mechanical Planarization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Filip; Laurian, Tiberiu

    2015-12-01

    During selective layer chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the surface layer is selectively oxidized and removed. Material removal rate in selective layer CMP depends on the depth of removal, pH of the solution, slurry chemistry, potential, percentage of oxidizer, and the applied load. Benzotriazole (BTA) has been used as a corrosion inhibitor in the CMP process. The role of BTA is to prevent corrosion of a pattern via a chemical reaction that forms a Cu-BTA passive film on the selective-layer surface. This paper focuses on the concentration effect of BTA in the slurry of a selective layer CMP process by measuring the friction force during CMP and the modification of the selective layer films immersed in slurries containing various concentrations of BTA. Additionally; the friction characteristics with the concentration of BTA in the selective layer CMP slurry. The effect of BTA concentration was verified using an empirical model based on the friction energy ( E f).

  1. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment.

  2. Process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, P.; Hayes, R.E.

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed is a process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate. The process includes forming a masking member on the surface of the substrate, the masking member having at least two layers including a first layer disposed on the substrate and the second layer covering the first layer. A window is then opened in a selected portion of the second layer by removing that portion to expose the first layer thereunder. The first layer is then subjected to an etchant introduced through the window to dissolve the first layer a sufficient amount to expose the substrate surface directly beneath the window, the first layer being adapted to preferentially dissolve at a substantially greater rate than the second layer so as to create an overhanging ledge portion with the second layer by undercutting the edges thereof adjacent the window. The epitaxial film is then deposited on the exposed substrate surface directly beneath the window. Finally, an etchant is introduced through the window to dissolve the remainder of the first layer so as to lift-off the second layer and materials deposited thereon to fully expose the balance of the substrate surface.

  3. Process for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Peter; Hayes, Russell E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for selectively patterning epitaxial film growth on a semiconductor substrate. The process includes forming a masking member on the surface of the substrate, the masking member having at least two layers including a first layer disposed on the substrate and the second layer covering the first layer. A window is then opened in a selected portion of the second layer by removing that portion to expose the first layer thereunder. The first layer is then subjected to an etchant introduced through the window to dissolve a sufficient amount of the first layer to expose the substrate surface directly beneath the window, the first layer being adapted to preferentially dissolve at a substantially greater rate than the second layer so as to create an overhanging ledge portion with the second layer by undercutting the edges thereof adjacent to the window. The epitaxial film is then deposited on the exposed substrate surface directly beneath the window. Finally, an etchant is introduced through the window to dissolve the remainder of the first layer so as to lift-off the second layer and materials deposited thereon to fully expose the balance of the substrate surface.

  4. Selectiveness of laser processing due to energy coupling localization: case of thin film solar cell scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Račiukaitis, G.; Grubinskas, S.; Gečys, P.; Gedvilas, M.

    2013-07-01

    Selectiveness of the laser processing is the top-most important for applications of the processing technology in thin-film electronics, including photovoltaics. Coupling of laser energy in multilayered thin-film structures, depending on photo-physical properties of the layers and laser wavelength was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Energy coupling within thin films highly depends on the film structure. The finite element and two-temperature models were applied to simulate the energy and temperature distributions inside the stack of different layers of a thin-film solar cell during a picosecond laser irradiation. Reaction of the films to the laser irradiation was conditioned by optical properties of the layers at the wavelength of laser radiation. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental data achieved in laser scribing of copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on a flexible polymer substrate using picosecond-pulsed lasers. Selection of the right laser wavelength (1064 nm or 1572 nm) enabled keeping the energy coupling in a well-defined volume at the interlayer interface. High absorption at inner interface of the layers triggered localized temperature increase. Transient stress caused by the rapid temperature rise facilitating peeling of the films rather than evaporation. Ultra-short pulses ensured high energy input rate into absorbing material permitting peeling of the layers with no influence on the remaining material.

  5. Medical student's access to information and resources for the residency selection process.

    PubMed

    Taggart, M P; Wartman, S A; Wessen, A F

    1988-01-01

    In the study reported here, the authors analyzed senior medical students' attitudes regarding the availability of information and resources pertaining to the residency selection process. Results of a nationwide survey of students showed that when the students had access to information from medical professionals (that is, faculty members, deans, house staff physicians), they felt they had greater access to information than did students who made greater use of other sources (official directories, classmates and the "grapevine"). Furthermore, the findings suggest that greater availability of information from medical professionals was related to higher levels of overall satisfaction with the residency match. While no evidence is presented that demonstrates that medical school faculty members and administrators were unwilling to devote attention to any particular group of students, the data suggest that these professionals provided information regarding the residency selection process more often to medical students at high-prestige schools, students who chose high-prestige specialties, and students who perceived themselves as having high class rank than to other students. Also, students in publicly supported schools felt the cost of travel for interviews to be more burdensome than did the students in private schools.

  6. Selective attention modulates the effect of target location probability on redundant signal processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Little, Daniel R; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the decision process underlying the detection of targets at multiple locations. In three experiments using the same observers, target location probability and attentional instructions were manipulated. A redundant-target detection task was conducted in which participants were required to detect a dot presented at one of two locations. When the dot appeared at the two locations with equal frequency (Experiment 1), those participants who were found to have limited to unlimited capacity were shown to adopt a parallel, self-terminating strategy. By contrast, those participants who had supercapacity were shown to process redundant targets in a coactive manner. When targets were presented with unequal probability, two participants adopted a parallel, self-terminating strategy regardless of whether they were informed the target location probability (Experiment 3) or not (Experiment 2). For the remaining two participants, the strategy changed from parallel, self-terminating to serial, self-terminating as a result of the probability instructions. In Experiments 2 and 3, all the participants were of unlimited to limited capacity. Taken together, these results suggest that target location probability differently affects the selection of a decision strategy and highlight the role of controlled attention in selecting a decision strategy.

  7. Feature Transformation Detection Method with Best Spectral Band Selection Process for Hyper-spectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present a newly developed feature transformation (FT) detection method for hyper-spectral imagery (HSI) sensors. In essence, the FT method, by transforming the original features (spectral bands) to a different feature domain, may considerably increase the statistical separation between the target and background probability density functions, and thus may significantly improve the target detection and identification performance, as evidenced by the test results in this paper. We show that by differentiating the original spectral, one can completely separate targets from the background using a single spectral band, leading to perfect detection results. In addition, we have proposed an automated best spectral band selection process with a double-threshold scheme that can rank the available spectral bands from the best to the worst for target detection. Finally, we have also proposed an automated cross-spectrum fusion process to further improve the detection performance in lower spectral range (<1000 nm) by selecting the best spectral band pair with multivariate analysis. Promising detection performance has been achieved using a small background material signature library for concept-proving, and has then been further evaluated and verified using a real background HSI scene collected by a HYDICE sensor.

  8. 36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S. THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-36 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Southeast Asian children in America: the impact of change.

    PubMed

    Messer, M M; Rasmussen, N H

    1986-08-01

    This is a review of the psychiatric literature on acculturation and child development in Southeast Asian refugees. Each age group suffers somewhat differently from refugee experience, and these differences are described further. In addition, to aid the acculturation and developmental processes, treatment approaches are suggested. This article should be useful to pediatricians who care for refugee children and are unfamiliar with the psychiatric literature about refugees. PMID:3526269

  11. Thermal Behavior Study of the MoVTeNb Oxide Catalyst for Selective Oxidation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, R.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.

    2009-06-01

    Several parameters involved in preparing the multi metal oxide (MMO) catalysts (Mo{sub 1}V{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.23}Nb{sub 0.12}O{sub x}) for selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid (AA) were investigated. These included the proper pre-calcined and calcinations atmosphere effect on the performance of the catalysts. It was found that each metal element plays a critical role to the performance of an effective catalyst and also the calcinations under a non-flow inert atmosphere. The characterization results from XRD, SEM, TG and DSC show the important differences depending on the activation procedures of the MoVTeNb oxide catalyst. The XRD analysis is used to identify the phase inventory of the MoVTeNb oxide catalysts. The structure of orthorhombic M1, M2, TeMo{sub 5}O{sub 16}, V{sub 0.95}Mo{sub 0.97}O{sub 5} and Mo{sub 5}O{sub 14} phase was investigated. The orthorhombic M1 phase is the most active and selective phase and is responsible for the major of the efficiently of the best catalyst for selective oxidation process. TGA and DTG allow the identification of the number and types, of reactions involving evaporation of small molecules from removal of ligands and water to condensation or drying processes. From all these analyses it was proven that the activation procedures would affect the performance of the MoVTeNb oxide catalyst.

  12. Process optimization for lattice-selective wet etching of crystalline silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald G.; Guthrie, William F.; Allen, Richard A.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Murabito, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice-selective etching of silicon is used in a number of applications, but it is particularly valuable in those for which the lattice-defined sidewall angle can be beneficial to the functional goals. A relatively small but important niche application is the fabrication of tip characterization standards for critical dimension atomic force microscopes (CD-AFMs). CD-AFMs are commonly used as reference tools for linewidth metrology in semiconductor manufacturing. Accurate linewidth metrology using CD-AFM, however, is critically dependent upon calibration of the tip width. Two national metrology institutes and at least two commercial vendors have explored the development of tip calibration standards using lattice-selective etching of crystalline silicon. The National Institute of Standards and Technology standard of this type is called the single crystal critical dimension reference material. These specimens, which are fabricated using a lattice-plane-selective etch on (110) silicon, exhibit near vertical sidewalls and high uniformity and can be used to calibrate CD-AFM tip width to a standard uncertainty of less than 1 nm. During the different generations of this project, we evaluated variations of the starting material and process conditions. Some of our starting materials required a large etch bias to achieve the desired linewidths. During the optimization experiment described in this paper, we found that for potassium hydroxide etching of the silicon features, it was possible to independently tune the target linewidth and minimize the linewidth nonuniformity. Consequently, this process is particularly well suited for small-batch fabrication of CD-AFM linewidth standards.

  13. Effects of belief and logic on syllogistic reasoning: Eye-movement evidence for selective processing models.

    PubMed

    Ball, Linden J; Phillips, Peter; Wade, Caroline N; Quayle, Jeremy D

    2006-01-01

    Studies of syllogistic reasoning have demonstrated a nonlogical tendency for people to endorse more believable conclusions than unbelievable ones. This belief bias effect is more dominant on invalid syllogisms than valid ones, giving rise to a logic by belief interaction. We report an experiment in which participants' eye movements were recorded in order to provide insights into the nature and time course of the reasoning processes associated with manipulations of conclusion validity and believability. Our main dependent measure was people's inspection times for syllogistic premises, and we tested predictions deriving from three contemporary mental-models accounts of the logic by belief interaction. Results supported recent "selective processing" theories of belief bias (e.g., Evans, 2000; Klauer, Musch, & Naumer, 2000), which assume that the believability of a conclusion biases model construction processes, rather than biasing the search for falsifying models (e.g., Oakhill & Johnson-Laird, 1985) or a response stage of reasoning arising from subjective uncertainty (e.g., Quayle & Ball, 2000). We conclude by suggesting that the eye-movement analyses in reasoning research may provide a useful adjunct to other process-tracing techniques such as verbal protocol analysis.

  14. Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-12-01

    Holistic processing (i.e., the tendency to process objects as wholes) is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. In the present study, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music-reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but were relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music-reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different natures. To characterize expert perception, it is important not only to measure the tendency to process objects as wholes, but also to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints.

  15. Towards in-situ process monitoring in selective laser sintering using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Guangying; Lu, Zeng H.; Hirsch, Matthias; Goodridge, Ruth; Childs, David T. D.; Matcher, Stephen J.; Clare, Adam T.; Groom, Kristian M.

    2016-04-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) enables fast, flexible and cost-efficient production of parts directly from 3D CAD data. However, compared with more established machine tools, there is a marked lack of process monitoring and feedback control of key process variables to optimize production parameters in-situ. We apply optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate components produced by SLS and suggest a route for its application in in-situ process monitoring within the SLS tool for real-time monitoring of the SLS process for assurance, or even dynamic correction of defects during the build. OCT is shown to be a viable technique for evaluation of both surface and sub-surface features built into a part either by design or from poor sintering or non-homogeneous powder spreading. We demonstrate detection and quantification of surface defects on a ~30 μm scale in a Polyamide (PA2200) part, resolving `built-in' fine features within a 200 to 400μm depth below the surface.

  16. Sequential Retraction Segregates SGN Processes during Target Selection in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Druckenbrod, Noah R.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of the nervous system is the presence of precise patterns of connections between different types of neurons. Many mechanisms can be used to establish specificity, including homophilic adhesion and synaptic refinement, but the range of strategies used across the nervous system remains unclear. To broaden the understanding of how neurons find their targets, we studied the developing murine cochlea, where two classes of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), type I and type II, navigate together to the sensory epithelium and then diverge to contact inner hair cells (IHCs) or outer hair cells (OHCs), respectively. Neurons with type I and type II morphologies are apparent before birth, suggesting that target selection might be accomplished by excluding type I processes from the OHC region. However, because type I processes appear to overshoot into type II territory postnatally, specificity may also depend on elimination of inappropriate synapses. To resolve these differences, we analyzed the morphology and dynamic behaviors of individual fibers and their branches as they interact with potential partners. We found that SGN processes continue to be segregated anatomically in the postnatal cochlea. Although type I-like fibers branched locally, few branches contacted OHCs, arguing against synaptic elimination. Instead, time-lapse imaging studies suggest a prominent role for retraction, first positioning processes to the appropriate region and then corralling branches during a subsequent period of exuberant growth and refinement. Thus, sequential stages of retraction can help to achieve target specificity, adding to the list of mechanisms available for sculpting neural circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During development, different types of neurons must form connections with specific synaptic targets, thereby creating the precise wiring diagram necessary for adult function. Although studies have revealed multiple mechanisms for target selection, we still know little about

  17. Experiments for practical education in process parameter optimization for selective laser sintering to increase workpiece quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutterer, Bernd; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is considered as one of the most important additive manufacturing processes due to component stability and its broad range of usable materials. However the influence of the different process parameters on mechanical workpiece properties is still poorly studied, leading to the fact that further optimization is necessary to increase workpiece quality. In order to investigate the impact of various process parameters, laboratory experiments are implemented to improve the understanding of the SLS limitations and advantages on an educational level. Experiments are based on two different workstations, used to teach students the fundamentals of SLS. First of all a 50 W CO2 laser workstation is used to investigate the interaction of the laser beam with the used material in accordance with varied process parameters to analyze a single-layered test piece. Second of all the FORMIGA P110 laser sintering system from EOS is used to print different 3D test pieces in dependence on various process parameters. Finally quality attributes are tested including warpage, dimension accuracy or tensile strength. For dimension measurements and evaluation of the surface structure a telecentric lens in combination with a camera is used. A tensile test machine allows testing of the tensile strength and the interpreting of stress-strain curves. The developed laboratory experiments are suitable to teach students the influence of processing parameters. In this context they will be able to optimize the input parameters depending on the component which has to be manufactured and to increase the overall quality of the final workpiece.

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli in surface waters of Southeast Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Kenneth; Van Ha, Nguyen Thi; Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wangsaatmaja, Setiawan; Prasetiati, Maria Angela Novi; Thanh, Nguyen Cong; Thepnoo, Kasame; Sutadian, Arief Dhany; Thao, Huynh Thi Thanh; Fapyane, Deby; San, Vibol; Vital, Pierangeli; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-11-01

    Surface water samples were collected from rivers which fed into large urban areas within Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Thailand and were processed to enumerate Escherichia coli. Selected isolates were further characterized using PCR to detect the presence of specific virulence genes. Analyzing the four countries together, the approximate mean cfu/100 ml for E. coli counts in the dry season were log 4.3, while counts in the wet season were log 2.8. Of the 564 E. coli isolates screened for the presence of pathogenic genes, 3.9 % possessed at least one virulence gene. The most common pathogenic types found were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli isolates. These results reinforce the importance of monitoring urban surface waters for fecal contamination, that E. coli in these water environments may serve as opportunistic pathogens, and may help in determining the impact water usage from these rivers have on the public health of urban populations in Southeast Asia.

  19. Selective leaching process for the recovery of copper and zinc oxide from copper-containing dust.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Fang-Chih; Wang, H Paul; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resource recovery procedure for recovering copper and zinc from dust produced by copper smelting furnaces during the manufacturing of copper-alloy wires. The concentrations of copper in copper-containing dust do not meet the regulation standards defined by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration; therefore, such waste is classified as hazardous. In this study, the percentages of zinc and copper in the dust samples were approximately 38.4% and 2.6%, respectively. To reduce environmental damage and recover metal resources for industrial reuse, acid leaching was used to recover metals from these inorganic wastes. In the first stage, 2 N of sulphuric acid was used to leach the dust, with pH values controlled at 2.0-3.0, and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10. The results indicated that zinc extraction efficiency was higher than 95%. A selective acid leaching process was then used to recover the copper content of the residue after filtration. In the second stage, an additional 1 N of sulphuric acid was added to the suspension in the selective leaching process, and the pH value was controlled at 1.5-2.0. The reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used as leachate at a pH greater than 7. A zinc hydroxide compound formed during the process and was recovered after drying. The yields for zinc and copper were 86.9-93.5% and 97.0-98.9%, respectively.

  20. Selective leaching process for the recovery of copper and zinc oxide from copper-containing dust.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Fang-Chih; Wang, H Paul; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resource recovery procedure for recovering copper and zinc from dust produced by copper smelting furnaces during the manufacturing of copper-alloy wires. The concentrations of copper in copper-containing dust do not meet the regulation standards defined by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration; therefore, such waste is classified as hazardous. In this study, the percentages of zinc and copper in the dust samples were approximately 38.4% and 2.6%, respectively. To reduce environmental damage and recover metal resources for industrial reuse, acid leaching was used to recover metals from these inorganic wastes. In the first stage, 2 N of sulphuric acid was used to leach the dust, with pH values controlled at 2.0-3.0, and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10. The results indicated that zinc extraction efficiency was higher than 95%. A selective acid leaching process was then used to recover the copper content of the residue after filtration. In the second stage, an additional 1 N of sulphuric acid was added to the suspension in the selective leaching process, and the pH value was controlled at 1.5-2.0. The reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used as leachate at a pH greater than 7. A zinc hydroxide compound formed during the process and was recovered after drying. The yields for zinc and copper were 86.9-93.5% and 97.0-98.9%, respectively. PMID:25191877