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Sample records for selective internet-based chlamydia

  1. Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among users of an internet-based testing service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Novak, Masuma; Novak, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to assess potential risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among users of an Internet-based testing service in Sweden. Users of an Internet-based C. trachomatis testing service sent in home urine samples by post which were analysed for C. trachomatis and answered a questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic background, sexual risk behaviour, and sexual health. Potential risk factors for C. trachomatis were determined by logistic regression models. The questionnaire response rate was 86% (6025/6978) with a male and female response rate of 77% and 93%, respectively. 5763 subjects both answered questionnaire and supplied urine sample. Mean age was 24.4 years (range 15-67 years) and 62% were women. The participants'C. trachomatis prevalence in men was 8.0% (73/2163) and 5.6% in women (201/3600). Compared to non-infected individuals, the C. trachomatis infected men and women were younger, had a higher number of sexual partners, more intercourse without condom (only men). After adjusting for age, civil status, and geographical region, the risk factors significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection were multiple partners during the previous year, non-condom usage, and having symptoms (only men). A novel finding was that, in women, believing to be infected and having been requested to be tested by a sexual partner, was associated with an increased risk of having a C. trachomatis infection. The Internet-based C. trachomatis testing service reaches a risk group of men and women. The results emphasise the value of self-risk assessment for C. trachomatis infection and the importance of easy accessible and simple sexual transmitted infection testing services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Young men's views toward the barriers and facilitators of Internet-based Chlamydia trachomatis screening: qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Karen; McDaid, Lisa

    2013-12-03

    There is a growing number of Internet-based approaches that offer young people screening for sexually transmitted infections. This paper explores young men's views towards the barriers and facilitators of implementing an Internet-based screening approach. The study sought to consider ways in which the proposed intervention would reach and engage men across ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. This qualitative study included 15 focus groups with 60 heterosexual young men (aged 16-24 years) across central Scotland, drawn across age and socioeconomic backgrounds. Focus groups began by obtaining postcode data to allocate participants to a high/low deprivation category. Focus group discussions involved exploration of men's knowledge of chlamydia, use of technology, and views toward Internet-based screening. Men were shown sample screening invitation letters, test kits, and existing screening websites to facilitate discussions. Transcripts from audio recordings were analyzed with "Framework Analysis". Men's Internet and technology use was heterogeneous in terms of individual practices, with greater use among older men (aged 20-24 years) than teenagers and some deprivation-related differences in use. We detail three themes related to barriers to successful implementation: acceptability, confidentiality and privacy concerns, and language, style, and content. These themes identify ways Internet-based screening approaches may fail to engage some men, such as by raising anxiety and failing to convey confidentiality. Men wanted screening websites to frame screening as a serious issue, rather than using humorous images and text. Participants were encouraged to reach a consensus within their groups on their broad design and style preferences for a screening website; this led to a set of common preferences that they believed were likely to engage men across age and deprivation groups and lead to greater screening uptake. The Internet provides opportunities for re-evaluating how we

  3. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Karen; Martin, Susan; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-06-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people's and health professionals' attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing innovative efforts as part of a multi

  4. Chlamyweb Study I: rationale, design and acceptability of an internet-based chlamydia testing intervention.

    PubMed

    Lydié, Nathalie; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bluzat, Lucile; Le Roy, Chloé; Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the internet has widely facilitated Chlamydia trachomatis home-sampling. In France (2012), the Chlamyweb Study evaluated an intervention (Chlamyweb) involving home-based self-sampling via the internet. One element of the study consisted of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), which is reported in detail elsewhere. The focus of this paper, however, is on describing the Chlamyweb Intervention and reporting on the non-RCT element of the evaluation of that intervention by the Chlamyweb Study. This involves (1) describing the design and roll-out of the Chlamyweb Intervention, (2) comparing the socio-behavioural profiles of the participants in the intervention with a nationally representative general population sample and (3) examining the factors that influence the acceptance and return of a self-sampling kit supplied to participants in the course of the intervention. Self-sampling kits were offered to sexually active people aged 18-24 years living on the mainland French. Participants' characteristics were compared with the general population to describe recruited and participant populations. Multivariate analyses by conditional logistic regression were performed to determine factors that were predictors of kit acceptation and use. 7215 people aged 18-24 years were included. Compared with the general population, Chlamyweb reached larger proportions of women, younger people and people with several partners in the previous year. 3372 (46.7%) agreed to receive a self-sampling kit and 2084 (61.8%) returned it, with more women doing so than men. The participation rate was associated with age, place of birth, occupational status, number of partners and condom use, differently for men and women. The offer of easy-to-use, self-sampling kits free of charge appeared to be a logistically feasible strategy for testing in France and reached a large and diverse population including individuals who have limited access to the traditional healthcare system. AFFSAPS

  5. Impact of Menu Sequencing on Internet-Based Educational Module Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Robert; Brusk, John J.; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith V.

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of Internet-based menu item selection can occur for a number of reasons, many of which may not be based on interest in topic. It then becomes important to ensure menu order is devised in a way that ensures the greatest accuracy in matching user need with selection. This study examined the impact of menu rotation on the selection of…

  6. An Internet-based Expert System for Selecting an Academic Major: www.MyMajors.com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based expert system found at http://www.MyMajors.com which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major by emulating a professional academic advisor. Highlights include computer-assisted advisement programs; knowledge acquisition; evaluating expert…

  7. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... STI test if you are at risk. 6 Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  8. Evaluation of Selection Bias in an Internet-based Study of Pregnancy Planners.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Hahn, Kristen A; Wise, Lauren A; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Kumar, Ramya; Fox, Matthew P; Brooks, Daniel R; Riis, Anders H; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias is a potential concern in all epidemiologic studies, but it is usually difficult to assess. Recently, concerns have been raised that internet-based prospective cohort studies may be particularly prone to selection bias. Although use of the internet is efficient and facilitates recruitment of subjects that are otherwise difficult to enroll, any compromise in internal validity would be of great concern. Few studies have evaluated selection bias in internet-based prospective cohort studies. Using data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry from 2008 to 2012, we compared six well-known perinatal associations (e.g., smoking and birth weight) in an internet-based preconception cohort (Snart Gravid n = 4,801) with the total population of singleton live births in the registry (n = 239,791). We used log-binomial models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each association. We found that most results in both populations were very similar. For example, maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in Snart Gravid (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) and the total population (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.45, 1.53), and maternal smoking of >10 cigarettes per day was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight (RR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.9 vs. RR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.6, 3.1) in Snart Gravid and the total population, respectively. We cannot be certain that our results would apply to other associations or different populations. Nevertheless, our results suggest that recruitment of reproductive aged women via the internet may be no more prone to selection bias than traditional methods of recruitment.

  9. An internet-based method of selecting control populations for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; White, George L; Alder, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    Identifying control subjects for epidemiologic studies continues to increase in difficulty because of changes in telephone technology such as answering services and machines, caller identification, and cell phones. An Internet-based method for obtaining study subjects that may increase response rates has been developed and is described. This method uses information from two websites that, when combined, provide accurate and complete lists of names, addresses, and listed phone numbers. This method was developed by use of randomly selected streets in a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, in June 2005.

  10. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  11. Evaluation of Selection Bias in an Internet-based Study of Pregnancy Planners

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Hahn, Kristen A.; Wise, Lauren A.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Kumar, Ramya; Fox, Matthew P.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Riis, Anders H.; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias is a potential concern in all epidemiologic studies, but it is usually difficult to assess. Recently, concerns have been raised that internet-based prospective cohort studies may be particularly prone to selection bias. Although use of the internet is efficient and facilitates recruitment of subjects that are otherwise difficult to enroll, any compromise in internal validity would be of great concern. Few studies have evaluated selection bias in internet-based prospective cohort studies. Using data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry from 2008 to 2012, we compared six well-known perinatal associations (e.g., smoking and birth weight) in an inter-net-based preconception cohort (Snart Gravid n = 4,801) with the total population of singleton live births in the registry (n = 239,791). We used log-binomial models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each association. We found that most results in both populations were very similar. For example, maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in Snart Gravid (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) and the total population (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.45, 1.53), and maternal smoking of >10 cigarettes per day was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight (RR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.9 vs. RR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.6, 3.1) in Snart Gravid and the total population, respectively. We cannot be certain that our results would apply to other associations or different populations. Nevertheless, our results suggest that recruitment of reproductive aged women via the internet may be no more prone to selection bias than traditional methods of recruitment. PMID:26484423

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis age-specific prevalence in women who used an internet-based self-screening program compared to women who were screened in family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Barnes, Mathilda; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Quinn, Nicole; Wright, Catherine; Agreda, Patricia; Whittle, Pamela; Hogan, Terry

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether women who collect self-collected vaginal swabs at home demonstrated a higher positivity of Chlamydia trachomatis than women in family planning clinics. Collection kits for vaginal swabs were internet requested, collected at home, and mailed to a laboratory for testing; questionnaires were completed about acceptability and sexual risk history. Infected women received treatment at participating clinics. Age-specific prevalences were compared to those from family planning clinics. Chlamydia positivity was 10.3% for 1171 females mailing swabs; prevalences ranged from 3.3% to 5.5% in family planning. Positivity for internet age groups was much higher than those for family planning age groups. The positivity for internet participants ranged from a low of 4.4% in Baltimore in 2005 to a high of 15.2% Baltimore in 2007. Family planning clinic prevalence in Baltimore and Maryland ranged from a low of 3.3% in Baltimore in 2006 to a high of 5.5% in Baltimore in 2008. The median age for all years for internet users in Baltimore and Maryland combined was 23 years; the median age for all years for attendees to family planning clinics who had chlamydia testing performed was 23 years. Internet recruited women demonstrated higher positivity of chlamydia than those in family planning, providing new options for chlamydia screening programs.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Age-Specific Prevalence in Women Who Used an Internet-Based Self-screening Program Compared to Women Who Were Screened in Family Planning Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Barnes, Mathilda; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Quinn, Nicole; Wright, Catherine; Agreda, Patricia; Whittle, Pamela; Hogan, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether women who collect self-collected vaginal swabs at home demonstrated a higher positivity of Chlamydia trachomatis than women in family planning clinics. Methods Collection kits for vaginal swabs were internet requested, collected at home, and mailed to a laboratory for testing; questionnaires were completed about acceptability and sexual risk history. Infected women received treatment at participating clinics. Age-specific prevalences were compared to those from family planning clinics. Results Chlamydia positivity was 10.3% for 1171 females mailing swabs; prevalences ranged from 3.3% to 5.5% in family planning. Positivity for internet age groups was much higher than those for family planning age groups. The positivity for internet participants ranged from a low of 4.4% in Baltimore in 2005 to a high of 15.2% Baltimore in 2007. Family planning clinic prevalence in Baltimore and Maryland ranged from a low of 3.3% in Baltimore in 2006 to a high of 5.5% in Baltimore in 2008. The median age for all years for internet users in Baltimore and Maryland combined was 23 years; the median age for all years for attendees to family planning clinics who had chlamydia testing performed was 23 years. Conclusions Internet recruited women demonstrated higher positivity of chlamydia than those in family planning, providing new options for chlamydia screening programs. PMID:21173720

  14. A prediction rule for selective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Gotz, H; van Bergen, J E A M; Veldhuijzen, I; Broer, J; Hoebe, C; Richardus, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections is aimed at the reduction of these infections and subsequent complications. Selective screening may increase the cost effectiveness of a screening programme. Few population based systematic screening programmes have been carried out and attempts to validate selective screening criteria have shown poor performance. This study describes the development of a prediction rule for estimating the risk of chlamydial infection as a basis for selective screening. Methods: A population based chlamydia screening study was performed in the Netherlands by inviting 21 000 15–29 year old women and men in urban and rural areas for home based urine testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for chlamydial infection among 6303 sexually active participants, and the discriminative ability was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with bootstrap resampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis (CT) infection was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.2) in women and 2.0% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) in men. Chlamydial infection was associated with high level of urbanisation, young age, Surinam/Antillian ethnicity, low/intermediate education, multiple lifetime partners, a new contact in the previous two months, no condom use at last sexual contact, and complaints of (post)coital bleeding in women and frequent urination in men. A prediction model with these risk factors showed adequate discriminative ability at internal validation (AUC 0.78). Conclusion: The prediction rule has the potential to guide individuals in their choice of participation when offered chlamydia screening and is a promising tool for selective CT screening at population level. PMID:15681717

  15. Preconception sex selection: a survey of visitors to an internet-based health forum.

    PubMed

    Himmel, W; Dahl, E; Michelmann, Hw

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards gender selection, focusing on people who were affected by infertility and also familiar with advanced technologies such as the internet. A questionnaire was posted on a German internet site targeting infertile people with a wish for a first or another child. Nearly all respondents (736/742) were female. Most respondents (82.7%) were firmly against sex selection if the techniques used would require several treatment cycles and corresponding costs for the couple. Even if, hypothetically, sex selection could be achieved by simply taking a 'pink' or 'blue' pill before intercourse, only 19% would take this option. More respondents had some interest, if any, in conceiving a girl as first child or next child (27% girl versus 11% boy). A positive attitude towards sex selection was more likely if the respondents had a preference for either a boy or a girl (odds ratio [OR] = 12.8, P < 0.01) and, or had an unbalanced family (OR = 1.8, P = 0.03). Although this survey is based almost exclusively on answers from women, it seems reasonable to conclude that a widely available service for preconception sex selection for non-medical reasons would not cause a severe gender imbalance in Germany.

  16. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  17. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  18. Risk selection and targeted interventions in community-based control of chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Götz, Hannelore M

    2007-02-01

    To describe recent developments in the community-based approach of high-risk groups for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and to discuss the assessment of impact of selective systematic screening on the transmission of C. trachomatis in the community. Two large home-based screening programs in Europe have recently shown that systematic postal screening for C. trachomatis infection is feasible, but certain high-risk groups are poor participators. This underscores the need for risk selection and targeted approaches. A prediction rule has been developed which can assist in identifying high-risk groups and can be used as a tool for (self) selection for screening. The Internet has been shown to be a promising medium to promote chlamydia testing. School-based programs also succeed in including high-risk groups in screening programs. Recently developed dynamic simulation models, which take into account transmission of C. trachomatis, can assist in the development and evaluation of targeted screening strategies. Chlamydia will not likely be controlled by one standard approach. Risk selection strategies need further development and different systematic approaches at the community level, including postal screening, school-based screening, and the Internet may produce the desired public health effect of decreasing morbidity and reducing the transmission of C. trachomatis in the community.

  19. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... GC STD Panel Formal name: Chlamydia trachomatis by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis ... months after a person has completed treatment. The nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is the recommended method of ...

  20. Internet-Based Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702

  1. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2016-09-02

    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct. Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. PMID:27576537

  3. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify potential vaccine targets. To accelerate discoveries toward this goal, here we analyzed the broadest diversity of C. trachomatis genomes to date, including 25 geographically dispersed clinical and seven reference strains representing 14 of the 19 known serotypes. Strikingly, all 32 genomes were found to have evidence of DNA acquisition by homologous recombination in their history. Four distinct clades were identified, which correspond to all C. trachomatis disease phenotypes: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV; Clade 1); noninvasive urogenital infections (Clade 2); ocular trachoma (Clade 3); and protocolitis (Clade 4; also includes some noninvasive urogenital infections). Although the ancestral relationship between clades varied, most strains acted as donor and recipient of recombination with no evidence for barriers to genetic exchange. The niche-specific LGV and trachoma clades have undergone less recombination, although the opportunity for mixing with strains from other clades that infect the rectal and ocular mucosa, respectively, is evident. Furthermore, there are numerous occasions for gene conversion events through sequential infections at the same anatomic sites. The size of recombinant segments is relatively small (∼357 bp) compared with in vitro experiments of various C. trachomatis strains but is consistent with in vitro estimates for other bacterial species including Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. Selection has also played a crucial role during the diversification of the organism. Clade 2 had the lowest nonsynonymous to synonymous ratio (dN/dS) but the highest effect of recombination, which is consistent with the widespread occurrence of synonymous

  4. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment

  5. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment

  6. Interplay of recombination and selection in the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, which causes several severe and debilitating diseases in humans. This study uses comparative genomic analyses of 12 complete published C. trachomatis genomes to assess the contribution of recombination and selection in this pathogen and to understand the major evolutionary forces acting on the genome of this bacterium. Results The conserved core genes of C. trachomatis are a large proportion of the pan-genome: we identified 836 core genes in C. trachomatis out of a range of 874-927 total genes in each genome. The ratio of recombination events compared to mutation (ρ/θ) was 0.07 based on ancestral reconstructions using the ClonalFrame tool, but recombination had a significant effect on genetic diversification (r/m = 0.71). The distance-dependent decay of linkage disequilibrium also indicated that C. trachomatis populations behaved intermediately between sexual and clonal extremes. Fifty-five genes were identified as having a history of recombination and 92 were under positive selection based on statistical tests. Twenty-three genes showed evidence of being under both positive selection and recombination, which included genes with a known role in virulence and pathogencity (e.g., ompA, pmps, tarp). Analysis of inter-clade recombination flux indicated non-uniform currents of recombination between clades, which suggests the possibility of spatial population structure in C. trachomatis infections. Conclusions C. trachomatis is the archetype of a bacterial species where recombination is relatively frequent yet gene gains by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and losses (by deletion) are rare. Gene conversion occurs at sites across the whole C. trachomatis genome but may be more often fixed in genes that are under diversifying selection. Furthermore, genome sequencing will reveal patterns of serotype specific gene exchange and selection that will generate important research questions for

  7. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  8. Why internet-based education?

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    This essay illustrates five ways that Internet-based higher education can capitalize on fundamental principles of learning. Internet-based education can enable better mastery through distributed (shorter, more frequent) practice rather than massed (longer, less frequent) practice; it can optimize performance because it allows students to learn at their peak time of their day; it can deepen memory because it requires cheat-proof assignments and tests; it can promote critical thinking because it necessitates intellectual winnowing and sifting; and it can enhance writing skills by requiring students to write frequently and for a broad audience. PMID:25653625

  9. Why internet-based education?

    PubMed

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    This essay illustrates five ways that Internet-based higher education can capitalize on fundamental principles of learning. Internet-based education can enable better mastery through distributed (shorter, more frequent) practice rather than massed (longer, less frequent) practice; it can optimize performance because it allows students to learn at their peak time of their day; it can deepen memory because it requires cheat-proof assignments and tests; it can promote critical thinking because it necessitates intellectual winnowing and sifting; and it can enhance writing skills by requiring students to write frequently and for a broad audience.

  10. Rationale, design, and results of the first screening round of a comprehensive, register-based, Chlamydia screening implementation programme in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Implementing Chlamydia trachomatis screening in the Netherlands has been a point of debate for several years. The National Health Council advised against implementing nationwide screening until additional data collected from a pilot project in 2003 suggested that screening by risk profiles could be effective. A continuous increase in infections recorded in the national surveillance database affirmed the need for a more active approach. Here, we describe the rationale, design, and implementation of a Chlamydia screening demonstration programme. Methods A systematic, selective, internet-based Chlamydia screening programme started in April 2008. Letters are sent annually to all 16 to 29-year-old residents of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and selected municipalities of South Limburg. The letters invite sexually active persons to login to http://www.chlamydiatest.nl with a personal code and to request a test kit. In the lower prevalence area of South Limburg, test kits can only be requested if the internet-based risk assessment exceeds a predefined value. Results We sent invitations to 261,025 people in the first round. One-fifth of the invitees requested a test kit, of whom 80% sent in a sample for testing. The overall positivity rate was 4.2%. Conclusions This programme advances Chlamydia control activities in the Netherlands. Insight into the feasibility, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact of this large-scale screening programme will determine whether the programme will be implemented nationally. PMID:20925966

  11. [Chlamydiae. 2. Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Del Piano, M; Nicosia, R; Pustorino, R; Santino, I; Sessa, R

    1989-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) causes trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum and it is the more frequent responsible of sexually transmitted infections; in fact, only in the United States, 3-4 million of people suffer from these infections each year. Besides, there are many secondary infections that may cause sterility in man and woman. Risk factors, for venereal infections owed to C.t., are related to the number of sexual partners, age, socioeconomics status and sexual preference. More frequently, the C.t. infects persons that begin sexual activity earlier, those who have many sexual partners and an higher level of education. The direct diagnosis for detecting C.t. can be performed with the citologic test, cell culture, direct immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay. Although, the cell culture is the technique of choice, at present the immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay are the methods preferred because of rapidity and esecution. The indirect diagnosis can be achieved by the complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay tests. In this case, excluding the complement fixation test not more reliable, the method of choice depends, above all, upon the kind of infection in progress. Tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and cloramphenicol are considered the treatment of choice.

  12. Multimedia Presentation Software Solutions for Internet-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Larry A.; Kelley, Frances A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss multimedia presentation software (MPS) solutions in the context of the growth of Internet-based courses. Representative solutions for creating multimedia course lectures at the desktop and enterprise levels are described and evaluated. The authors suggest criteria to assist in the selection, implementation, and administration…

  13. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  14. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  15. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  16. Chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gudka, Sajni; Afuwape, Folasade E; Wong, Bessie; Yow, Xuan Li; Anderson, Claire; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Increasing the number of people aged 16-25 years being tested for chlamydia has become a key objective. The strategy recommends that chlamydia screening sites should be easy to access. Community pharmacies are conveniently located and easily accessible. This review aimed to determine the different types of pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions, describe their uptake rates, and understand issues around the acceptability of and barriers to testing. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published up to 30 October 2011 for studies that reported chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies, or had qualitative evidence on acceptability or barriers linked with interventions. Of the 163 publications identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nine reported chlamydia screening interventions in a pharmacy setting, whereas three focussed on perspectives on chlamydia screening. Pharmacists could offer a chlamydia test to consumers attending the pharmacy for a sexual health-related consultation, or consumers could request a chlamydia test as part of a population-based intervention. Participating consumers said pharmacies were accessible and convenient, and pharmacists were competent when offering a chlamydia test. Pharmacists reported selectively offering tests to women they thought would be most at risk, undermining the principles of opportunistic interventions. Chlamydia screening from community pharmacies is feasible, and can provide an accessible, convenient venue to get a test. Professional implementation support, alongside resources, education and training programs, and incentives may overcome the issue of pharmacists selectively offering the test.

  17. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-C-0083 TITLE: Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening...DEC 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-C-0083 5c...care information systems, cervical cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  18. In Vitro Passage Selects for Chlamydia muridarum with Enhanced Infectivity in Cultured Cells but Attenuated Pathogenicity in Mouse Upper Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Conrad, Turner; Yang, Zhangsheng; Dai, Jin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    Although modern Chlamydia muridarum has been passaged for decades, there are no reports on the consequences of serial passage with strong selection pressure on its fitness. In order to explore the potential for Pasteurian selection to induce genomic and phenotypic perturbations to C. muridarum, a starter population was passaged in cultured cells for 28 generations without standard infection assistance. The resultant population, designated CMG28, displays markedly reduced in vitro dependence on centrifugation for infection and low incidence and severity of upper genital tract pathology following intravaginal inoculation into mice compared to the parental C. muridarum population, CMG0. Deep sequencing of CMG0 and CMG28 revealed novel protein variants in the hypothetical genes TC0237 (Q117E) and TC0668 (G322R). In vitro attachment assays of isogenic plaque clone pairs with mutations in either TC0237 and TC0668 or only TC0237 reveal that TC0237(Q117E) is solely responsible for enhanced adherence to host cells. Paradoxically, double mutants, but not TC0237(Q117E) single mutants, display severely attenuated in vivo pathogenicity. These findings implicate TC0237 and TC0668 as novel genetic factors involved in chlamydial attachment and pathogenicity, respectively, and show that serial passage under selection pressure remains an effective tool for studying Chlamydia pathogenicity. PMID:25712926

  19. Understanding Patient Experience Using Internet-based Email Surveys: A Feasibility Study at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.

  20. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear the word chlamydia, you might think of the sexually transmitted disease ( ...

  1. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  2. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  3. Issues on Internet-Based Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes experiments of Internet modeling and of Internet-based teleoperation aimed at developing suitable control laws to overcome the variable time-delay and the data losses typical of Internet communication. The effects of packet delay jitter and losses on teleoperation performance are demonstrated using a 2-dof force feedback master.

  4. Issues on Internet-Based Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes experiments of Internet modeling and of Internet-based teleoperation aimed at developing suitable control laws to overcome the variable time-delay and the data losses typical of Internet communication. The effects of packet delay jitter and losses on teleoperation performance are demonstrated using a 2-dof force feedback master.

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci–positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance. PMID:26501593

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  7. Internet-based interface for STRMDEPL08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    The core of the computer program STRMDEPL08 that estimates streamflow depletion by a pumping well with one of four analytical solutions was re-written in the Javascript software language and made available through an internet-based interface (web page). In the internet-based interface, the user enters data for one of the four analytical solutions, Glover and Balmer (1954), Hantush (1965), Hunt (1999), and Hunt (2003), and the solution is run for constant pumping for a desired number of simulation days. Results are returned in tabular form to the user. For intermittent pumping, the interface allows the user to request that the header information for an input file for the stand-alone executable STRMDEPL08 be created. The user would add the pumping information to this header information and run the STRMDEPL08 executable that is available for download through the U.S. Geological Survey. Results for the internet-based and stand-alone versions of STRMDEPL08 are shown to match.

  8. 77 FR 1039 - Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering AGENCY: Federal... rules that govern access to toll-free numbers by users of Internet- based Telecommunications Relay... an impact on any rules of particular applicability. Subject: Internet-Based Telecommunications...

  9. Internet-based instruction in college teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flickinger, Kathleen Anne

    Distance education and Internet instruction are increasingly being used in college science teaching. In an effort to reach more students, Iowa State University's Human Anatomy and Physiology course was offered via Internet as well as via traditional lecture format. To assess the educational ramifications of this offering, three studies were conducted. In the first study, a collective case study approach was utilized to describe the learning environment created by an Internet-based college science course. In this study, three students were followed as they worked their way through the course. Collective case study methodologies were used to provide a rich description of the learning environment experienced by these students. Motivation, computer savvy, and academic and personal self-confidence appeared to impact the satisfaction level of the students enrolled in the class. To evaluate the effectiveness of the learning environment offered through the Internet-based science course, a quantitative comparison study was undertaken. In this study a comparison of achievement scores and study habits between students enrolled in the Internet-based class and those enrolled in the traditional section was made. Results from this study indicated that content understanding and retention did not appear to be effected by the type of instruction. Desirable study habits were reportedly used more frequently in the Internet section of the class than in the traditional class. To complete the description of the Internet course experience, a qualitative examination of Internet instructors' time commitment and level of teaching satisfaction was conducted. Data for this study consisted of interviews and researcher observations. Instructor time-on-task was initially quite high, and remained above the average spent on average face-to-face instruction in subsequent semesters. Additionally the role of the faculty member changed dramatically, causing some lessening of job satisfaction. Taken as

  10. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  12. Internet-based psychological treatments for depression.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Major depression is highly prevalent, and is associated with high societal costs and individual suffering. Evidence-based psychological treatments obtain good results, but access to these treatments is limited. One way to solve this problem is to provide internet-based psychological treatments, for example, with therapist support via email. During the last decade, internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been tested in a series of controlled trials. However, the ICBT interventions are delivered with different levels of contact with a clinician, ranging from nonexisting to a thorough pretreatment assessment in addition to continuous support during treatment. In this review, the authors have found an evidence for a strong correlation between the degree of support and outcome. The authors have also reviewed how treatment content in ICBT varies among treatments, and how various therapist factors may influence outcome. Future possible applications of ICBT for depression and future research needs are also discussed.

  13. Developing an Internet-Based Chemistry Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Mary Jane

    2000-05-01

    With the increasing popularity of Internet-based classes, more faculty are being asked to develop them (1). In Texas, the Virtual College of Texas (http://www.vct.org) even provides a forum that allows community colleges to advertise their distance-learning classes, and it paves the way for a college to offer a distance-learning class from any other college in the state. The two colleges simply work out a Memorandum of Understanding, mutually deciding how to administer the class, divide fees, set enrollment limits, among other details. While some classes are easily adapted to an Internet format, lab sciences raise a number of issues that must be tackled before a quality course can be developed in this new medium. I will raise some of those issues and offer a few possibilities.

  14. The effectiveness of Internet-based technology in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Rosemarie Maffei

    This research provides engineering educators analytical evidence as to the effectiveness of Internet-based course instruction. The research examined the University of Missouri-Rolla's Internet-based Advanced Production and Operations Management course, with a focus on determining the effectiveness of the Internet-based education tools used. Students in five Internet-based classes and one traditional, in-class control group were given three sets of surveys and two learning style assessments, accompanied by a course pre-test and a course final examination. Multiple conclusions were made from this study based on the analyses of the data collected. First, the Internet-based students performed equally as well as the control group. Second, the Internet-based students were found to have had exaggerated time requirement expectations for taking a course in the Internet environment. Third, the Internet-based students had positive course effectiveness and satisfaction experiences in the Internet classroom format. Fourth, the Internet-based students were skeptical of electronic lectures but their experiences were positive. Furthermore, Internet-based communications media such as Chat rooms and EMail must be further examined as students experiences did not meet expectations in this study.

  15. The chlamydia screening studies: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    Low, N; McCarthy, A; Macleod, J; Salisbury, C; Horner, P; Roberts, T; Campbell, R; Herring, A; Skidmore, S; Sanford, E; Sterne, J; Davey, S; Graham, A; Huengsberg, M; Ross, J; Egger, M; t for

    2004-01-01

    Background: Screening has been recommended to reduce the prevalence and morbidity associated with genital chlamydia infection in the United Kingdom. Methods: We describe the rationale and study design of the Chlamydia Screening Studies (ClaSS), a collaborative project designed to evaluate screening outside genitourinary medicine clinics. A non-selective, active screening approach in 16–39 year olds randomly sampled from 27 general practice lists in the Bristol and Birmingham areas formed the basis of interlinked studies: a case-control study was used to investigate factors to improve the targeting of screening; participants with chlamydia were invited to enrol in a randomised controlled trial to evaluate partner notification conducted in primary care; and laboratory based studies were used to assess the best specimens and tests. We also explored psychosocial effects of screening and partner notification and modelled the cost effectiveness of the programme. Conclusion: Results from four pilot practices show that mailing of specimens for chlamydia testing is feasible but that it is difficult to achieve high response rates with postal screening. The high prevalence of asymptomatic infection in men suggests that efforts to screen men for chlamydia should be strengthened. PMID:15459400

  16. Can chlamydia be stopped?

    PubMed

    Ojcius, David M; Darville, Toni; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2005-05-01

    Chlamydia is a rampant sexually transmitted disease, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness and a possible contributor to heart disease. Recent discoveries are suggesting new ways to curtail its spread

  17. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/chlamydia.htm . Accessed July 14, 2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... JE, Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap ...

  18. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through coughing and sneezing, and Chlamydia psittaci, which birds can pass to humans. This article refers specifically ... be tested for other STDs, and should have time alone with the doctor to openly discuss issues ...

  19. Internet-based Prescription of Sildenafil: A 2104-Patient Series

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    history obtained from Internet patients with that recorded in clinic patients' charts revealed that the former was far more complete. No clinic patient received any examination or laboratory test specific for erectile dysfunction or its causes. There were no reported deaths or serious complications in either group. Conclusions Internet-based prescription of sildenafil provides the physician with a complete and very detailed medical and sexual history for 100% of patients without denying any information routinely obtained in a direct patient contact setting. Internet-based practice, which may be expected to require far fewer healthcare resources than traditional settings, rates very high in patient satisfaction among patients requesting a refill; no negative comments were received from all other patients. Overall, these data support the safety and effectiveness of Internet prescribing of selected medications. PMID:11720944

  20. A Review of Research Ethics in Internet-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convery, Ian; Cox, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based research methods can include: online surveys, web page content analysis, videoconferencing for online focus groups and/or interviews, analysis of "e-conversations" through social networking sites, email, chat rooms, discussion boards and/or blogs. Over the last ten years, an upsurge in internet-based research (IBR) has led…

  1. Internet-Based Science Learning: A Review of Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science…

  2. Internet-Based Science Learning: A Review of Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science…

  3. Internet-based Science Learning: A review of journal publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Yu Lee, Silvia; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-09-01

    Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science learning, such as demographic background, prior knowledge, and self-efficacy; and (2) the learning outcomes derived from Internet-based science learning, such as attitude, motivation, conceptual understanding, and conceptual change. Some important conclusions are drawn from the review. For example, Internet-based science learning is equally favorable, or in some cases more so, to learning for female students compared to male students. The learner's control is essential for enhancing students' attitudes and motivation toward learning in Internet-based science learning environments. Nevertheless, appropriate guidance from teachers, moderators, or the Internet-based learning environment itself is still quite crucial in Internet-based science learning. Recommendations for future research related to the effects of Internet-based science learning on students' metacognitive reflections, epistemological development, and worldviews are suggested.

  4. Internet-based support programs to alleviate psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Jolien M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Reyners, Anna K L

    2015-07-01

    In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing quantitative psychosocial and/or physical outcomes of an internet-based support program with (a) comparison group(s). Literature search yielded 2032 studies of which 16 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three different internet-based support programs were identified: social support groups, online therapy for psychosocial/physical symptoms, and online systems integrating information, support, and coaching services. Outcomes improved by these programs in nine studies. Especially fatigue, social support, and distress improved, regardless of the program type. All online systems showed positive effects, mainly for social support and quality of life. This analysis indicates that internet-based support programs are effective in improving psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients.

  5. Informing the development of an Internet-based chronic pain self-management program.

    PubMed

    Gogovor, Amédé; Visca, Regina; Auger, Claudine; Bouvrette-Leblanc, Lucie; Symeonidis, Iphigenia; Poissant, Lise; Ware, Mark A; Shir, Yoram; Viens, Natacha; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Self-management can optimize health outcomes for individuals with chronic pain (CP), an increasing fiscal and social burden in Canada. However, self-management is rarely integrated into the regular care (team activities and medical treatment) patients receive. Health information technology offers an opportunity to provide regular monitoring and exchange of information between patient and care team. To identify information needs and gaps in chronic pain management as well as technology features to inform the development of an Internet-based self-management program. Two methods were used. First was a structured literature review: electronic databases were searched up to 2015 with combinations of MeSH terms and text-words such as chronic pain, self-management, self-efficacy, technology, Internet-based, patient portal, and e-health. A narrative synthesis of the characteristics and content of Internet-based pain management programs emerging from the literature review and how they relate to gaps in chronic pain management were completed. Second, four audiotaped focus group sessions were conducted with individuals with chronic pain and caregivers (n=9) and health professionals (n=7) recruited from three multidisciplinary tertiary and rehabilitation centres. A thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted. Thirty-nine primary articles related to 20 patient-oriented Internet-based programs were selected. Gaps in CP management included lack of knowledge, limited access to health care, suboptimal care, and lack of self-management support. Overall, 14 themes related to information needs and gaps in care were identified by both health professionals and patients, three were exclusive to patients and five to health professionals. Common themes from the focus groups included patient education on chronic pain care, attitude-belief-culture, financial and legal issues, end-of-program crash, and motivational content. Internet-based programs contain automated

  6. An Internet-based migraine headache diary: issues in Internet-based research.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Margaret F; Aycock, Dawn M; Cotsonis, George A; Myerburg, Stuart; Farino, Christopher; Lentz, Martha

    2009-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of using an Internet-based headache diary to obtain acceptable completion rates of daily diaries. Migraine sufferers often perceive that headaches are unpredictable, but 70% have prodromal warning symptoms that may be identified via daily headache diaries. Although diaries are widely used for tracking headaches, Internet-based diaries have not been used previously. A conventional headache diary was formatted for the Internet to collect daily headache data over 4 months using a time-series design.Women between 18 and 55 years who were not pregnant or postmenopausal, and whose headaches met migraine criteria, were recruited primarily via the Internet, completed online consent forms, and were screened via telephone. They completed health history questionnaires and daily diary pages containing scales and open-ended questions,which were saved to a database. Diaries were reviewed and participants were contacted weekly. Completion dates were tracked electronically. Follow-up interviews addressed perceptions about study experiences, and participants received feedback about headache patterns. The majority of participants were recruited from discussion boards and free classified web sites. Of the 101 participants enrolled, 24 withdrew prior to completing 4 months of diary entries. Participants (n = 77) had a mean age of 37.5(7.5) years and were primarily white (82%) and well-educated (93%). They lived in 21 US states, and one in the UK. The majority (68%) completed at least 50% of their diary pages within 24 hours; 75% of all pages were completed within 2 days. At least 64 (83%) kept notes or printed pages when they lacked Internet access. In a follow-up survey (n = 67), 87% would have been willing to continue the diary for another 2 months; 69% had not previously participated in any research. Participants also reported that the study helped them better understand their headache patterns, that

  7. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  8. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  9. Interactive Internet Based Pendulum for Learning Mechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethson, Magnus R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an Internet based remote experimental setup of a double lined pendulum mechanism for students experiments at the M. Sc. Level. Some of the first year experience using this web-based setup in classes is referred. In most of the courses given at the division of mechanical engineering systems at Linkoeping Institute of Technology we provide experimental setups to enhance the teaching Of M.Sc. students. Many of these experimental setups involve mechatronical systems. Disciplines like fluid power, electronics, and mechanics and also software technologies are used in each experiment. As our campus has recently been split into two different cities some new concepts for distance learning have been studied. The one described here tries to implement remotely controlled mechatronic setups for teaching basic programming of real-time operating systems and analysis of the dynamics of mechanical systems. The students control the regulators for the pendulum through a web interface and get measurement results and a movie back through their email. The present setup uses a double linked pendulum that is controlled by a DC-motor and monitored through both camera and angular position sensors. All software needed is hosted on a double-processor PC running the RedHat 7.1. distribution complemented with real-time scheduling using DIAPM-RTAI 1.7. The Internet site is presented to the students using PHP, Apache and MySQL. All of the used software originates from the open source domain. The experience from integrating these technologies and security issues is discussed together with the web-camera interface. One of the important experiences from this project so far is the need for a good visual feedback. This is both in terms of video speed but also in resolution. It has been noticed that when the students makes misstates and wants to search the failure they want clear, large images with high resolution to support their personal believes in the cause of the failure. Even

  10. A Design and Control Environment for Internet-Based Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oboe, Roberto; Fiorini, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an environment for the design, simulation and control of Internet-based force-relflecting telerobotc systems. We define these systems as using a segment of the computer network to connect the master to the slave.

  11. Effect of Tailoring in an Internet-Based Intervention for Smoking Cessation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Olav; Antypas, Konstantinos; Gram, Inger Torhild

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that tailored materials are superior to nontailored materials in supporting health behavioral change. Several trials on tailored Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation have shown good effects. There have, however, been few attempts to isolate the effect of the tailoring component of an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation and to compare it with the effectiveness of the other components. Objective The study aim was to isolate the effect of tailored emails in an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation by comparing two versions of the intervention, with and without tailored content. Methods We conducted a two-arm, randomized controlled trial of the open and free Norwegian 12-month follow-up, fully automated Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation, slutta.no. We collected information online on demographics, smoking, self-efficacy, use of the website, and participant evaluation at enrollment and subsequently at 1, 3, and 12 months. Altogether, 2298 self-selected participants aged 16 years or older registered at the website between August 15, 2006 and December 7, 2007 and were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent, nontailored Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (control) or a version of the same Internet-based intervention with tailored content delivered on the website and via email. Results Of the randomly assigned participants, 116 (of 419, response rate = 27.7%) in the intervention group and 128 (of 428, response rate = 29.9%) in the control group had participated over the 12 months and responded at the end of follow-up. The 7-day intention-to-treat abstinence rate at 1 month was 15.2% (149/982) among those receiving the tailored intervention, compared with 9.4% (94/999) among those who received the nontailored intervention (P < .001). The corresponding figures at 3 months were 13.5% (122/902) and 9.4% (84/896, P =.006) and at 12 months were 11.2% (47/419) and 11.7% (50

  12. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system. This can make it difficult or impossible for ... chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system. An abnormal vaginal discharge; A burning sensation when ...

  13. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible for her to ... chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system. Women with symptoms may notice •• An abnormal vaginal ...

  14. Contingent approach to Internet-based supply network integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jessica; Boughton, Nick; Kehoe, Dennis; Michaelides, Zenon

    2001-10-01

    The Internet is playing an increasingly important role in enhancing the operations of supply networks as many organizations begin to recognize the benefits of Internet- enabled supply arrangements. However, the developments and applications to-date do not extend significantly beyond the dyadic model, whereas the real advantages are to be made with the external and network models to support a coordinated and collaborative based approach. The DOMAIN research group at the University of Liverpool is currently defining new Internet- enabled approaches to enable greater collaboration across supply chains. Different e-business models and tools are focusing on different applications. Using inappropriate e- business models, tools or techniques will bring negative results instead of benefits to all the tiers in the supply network. Thus there are a number of issues to be considered before addressing Internet based supply network integration, in particular an understanding of supply chain management, the emergent business models and evaluating the effects of deploying e-business to the supply network or a particular tier. It is important to utilize a contingent approach to selecting the right e-business model to meet the specific supply chain requirements. This paper addresses the issues and provides a case study on the indirect materials supply networks.

  15. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Linan

    Chlamydia trachomatis is detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a mouse monoclonal IgG2a anti-MOMP antibody immobilized onto a Si electrode. Two types of electrochemical cells are used in this study, one with the electrode at the bottom and the other will the electrode on the side. Control experiments with Escherichia coli demonstrate this biosensor is not selective to Chlamydia trachomatis. Another control experiment with Chlamydia trachomatis immobilized onto mouse monoclonal IgG2a isotype antibody coated electrode obtains an increased charge transfer resistance (Rct) which is inversely proportional to the rate of electron transfer. These results demonstrate further investigations are needed to develop the Chlamydia trachomatis impedance biosensor.

  16. Quality and methodological challenges in Internet-based mental health trials.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Bapuji, Sunita Bayyavarapu; Winters, Shannon; Metge, Colleen; Raynard, Mellissa

    2014-08-01

    To review the quality of Internet-based mental health intervention studies and their methodological challenges. We searched multiple literature databases to identify relevant studies according to the Population, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, and Study Design framework. Two reviewers independently assessed selection bias, allocation bias, confounding bias, blinding, data collection methods, and withdrawals/dropouts, using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. We rated each component as strong, moderate, or weak and assigned a global rating (strong, moderate, or weak) to each study. We discussed methodological issues related to the study quality. Of 122 studies included, 31 (25%), 44 (36%), and 47 (39%) were rated strong, moderate, and weak, respectively. Only five studies were rated strong for all of the six quality components (three of them were published by the same group). Lack of blinding, selection bias, and low adherence were the top three challenges in Internet-based mental health intervention studies. The overall quality of Internet-based mental health intervention needs to improve. In particular, studies need to improve sample selection, intervention allocation, and blinding.

  17. Internet-Based Interventions for Addictive Behaviours: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Jaymee-Lee; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-12-01

    Internet-based interventions have emerged as a new treatment and intervention modality for psychological disorders. Given their features of treatment flexibility, anonymity and confidentiality, this modality may be well suited in the management of addictive behaviours. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness and treatment outcomes of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, problematic alcohol use, substance abuse and gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: clients received a structured therapeutic Internet-based intervention for a problematic and addictive behaviour; included more than five clients; effectiveness was based on at least one outcome; outcome variables were measured before and immediately following the interventions; had a follow-up period; and involved at least minimal therapist contact over the course of the program. Sixteen relevant studies were found; nine addressed the effects of Internet-based interventions on smoking cessation, four on gambling, two on alcohol and one on opioid dependence. All studies demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for their respective addictive behaviours. The current review concluded that Internet-based interventions are effective in achieving positive behavioural change through reducing problematic behaviours. This mode of therapy has been found to have the capacity to provide effective and practical services for those who might have remained untreated, subsequently reducing the barriers for help-seekers. This in turn provides imperative information to treatment providers, policy makers, and academic researchers.

  18. [Internet-based approaches in the therapy of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fichter, M M; Quadflieg, N; Nisslmüller, K; Lindner, S; Voderholzer, U; Wünsch-Leiteritz, W; Osen, B; Huber, T; Zahn, S; Meermann, R; Irrgang, V; Bleichner, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent technological developments of communication media offer new approaches to diagnostic and therapeutic interactions with patients. One major development is Internet-based primary prevention in vulnerable individuals not yet suffering as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches for affected individuals based on the experiences of guided self-help through CD, DVD or bibliotherapy. The eating disorder literature shows several interesting, partly controlled and randomized, studies on bulimia nervosa, a few studies on binge eating disorder and no studies on anorexia nervosa. As part of the German Eating Disorder Network on Psychotherapy (EDNET) a 9-month Internet-based relapse prevention program for patients with anorexia nervosa after inpatient treatment was evaluated. Conception, first experiences and first results of the Internet-based relapse prevention program for anorexia nervosa are reported.

  19. The ethics and editorial challenges of internet-based research.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-07-15

    The internet has opened up vast possibilities for research. An increasing number of studies are being conducted using the internet as both a source of data and a venue for research. Use of the internet in research has created many challenges, not just for those conducting and reviewing the studies, but also for editors publishing this work. Two key issues raised by internet-based research are ethics approval and informed consent. While some guidance exists regarding the ethics and consent of internet-based research, and some institutions provide their own guidelines, there appears to be a lack of definitive national standards. We discuss the issues surrounding ethics and consent for internet-based research and the need for a consensus on how to address these issues to ensure consistency.

  20. The ethics and editorial challenges of internet-based research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The internet has opened up vast possibilities for research. An increasing number of studies are being conducted using the internet as both a source of data and a venue for research. Use of the internet in research has created many challenges, not just for those conducting and reviewing the studies, but also for editors publishing this work. Two key issues raised by internet-based research are ethics approval and informed consent. While some guidance exists regarding the ethics and consent of internet-based research, and some institutions provide their own guidelines, there appears to be a lack of definitive national standards. We discuss the issues surrounding ethics and consent for internet-based research and the need for a consensus on how to address these issues to ensure consistency. PMID:25023080

  1. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. 113.71 Section 113.71 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. 113.71 Section 113.71 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall be...

  3. Ethical and legal considerations for internet-based psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dever Fitzgerald, Theresa; Hunter, Paulette V; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Koocher, Gerald P

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mental health services over the Internet is becoming increasingly commonplace as new technologies continue to develop. Evidence in support of the efficacy of many such interventions is accumulating. Given the potential global reach of Internet-based psychological services, the authors examine ethical issues relating to this growing area of practice through the lens of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists (International Union of Psychological Science, 2008). They also raise issues relating to potential liability risks and offer recommendations intended to guide mental health practitioners who are considering involvement in the provision of Internet-based services.

  4. Technology and Curriculum Standards: How Well Do Internet-Based Learning Games Support Common Core Standards for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Teri; Ray, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to keep up with the new generation of digital learners, educators are integrating multiple forms of technology into their teaching, including online learning game applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which internet-based learning game applications selected by preservice teachers were aligned with the…

  5. Screening for genital chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Low, Nicola; Redmond, Shelagh; Uusküla, Anneli; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects and safety of chlamydia screening in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men, compared with standard care, on chlamydia transmission and on complications of infection.

  6. KM Quest: A Collaborative Internet-Based Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemkuil, Henny; de Jong, Ton; de Hoog, Robert; Christoph, Noor

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of a collaborative Internet-based simulation game for learning to solve knowledge management problems. The game builds on two starting points: on psychological and pedagogical developments in learning and instruction, and on a perceived need for better training of people working in the emerging field of knowledge…

  7. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet-Based Treatment for Insomnia: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Lars; Pettersson, Richard; Andersson, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an Internet-based intervention for insomnia. Participants who met criteria for insomnia (N = 109) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment or a waiting list control condition. The 5-week intervention mainly consisted of sleep restriction, stimulus control, and cognitive…

  9. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  10. Internet-based Interactive Construction Management Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, Anil; Mund, Andre; Koczenasz, Jeremy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a way to incorporate practical content into the construction engineering and management curricula: the Internet-based Interactive Construction Management Learning System, which uses interactive and adaptive learning environments to train students in the areas of construction methods, equipment and processes using multimedia, databases,…

  11. Internet-Based Treatment for Insomnia: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Lars; Pettersson, Richard; Andersson, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an Internet-based intervention for insomnia. Participants who met criteria for insomnia (N = 109) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment or a waiting list control condition. The 5-week intervention mainly consisted of sleep restriction, stimulus control, and cognitive…

  12. 76 FR 72124 - Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... VRS or IP Relay user's request, facilitate the transfer of the toll free number to a toll free... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved, for a period of three years, the information collection associated with the Commission's Internet- Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering...

  13. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  14. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  15. Components and Outcomes of Internet-Based Interventions for Caregivers of Older Adults: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Guay, Cassioppée; Auger, Claudine; Demers, Louise; Mortenson, W Ben; Miller, William C; Gélinas-Bronsard, Dominique; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-09-19

    combinations of instructions to guide behavior change and barrier identification (n=5). The design and aim of the included studies did not permit determining exactly which component and/or behavior change technique was more efficacious in producing positive outcomes in caregivers. The risk for selection bias was low for all the studies, and low to high for performance, detection, and attrition biases. In sum, Internet-based interventions that incorporate professional and social support, and provide instructions to change behavior and problem solve in an interactive manner appear to lead to positive outcomes in caregivers. Studies isolating the specific effect of components are needed to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism of action.

  16. An Internet-Based Intervention for Depression in Primary Care in Spain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Araya, Ricardo; Pérez-Yus, María C; Mayoral, Fermín; Gili, Margalida; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Castro, Adoración; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Vives, Margarita; Riera, Antoni; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-08-26

    Depression is the most prevalent cause of illness-induced disability worldwide. Face-to-face psychotherapeutic interventions for depression can be challenging, so there is a need for other alternatives that allow these interventions to be offered. One feasible alternative is Internet-based psychological interventions. This is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of an Internet-based intervention on depression in primary health care in Spain. Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of a low-intensity therapist-guided (LITG) Internet-based program and a completely self-guided (CSG) Internet-based program with improved treatment as usual (iTAU) care for depression. Multicenter, three-arm, parallel, RCT design, carried out between November 2012 and January 2014, with a follow-up of 15 months. In total, 296 adults from primary care settings in four Spanish regions, with mild or moderate major depression, were randomized to LITG (n=96), CSG (n=98), or iTAU (n=102). Research completers at follow-up were 63.5%. The intervention was Smiling is Fun, an Internet program based on cognitive behavioral therapy. All patients received iTAU by their general practitioners. Moreover, LITG received Smiling is Fun and the possibility of psychotherapeutic support on request by email, whereas CSG received only Smiling is Fun. The main outcome was the Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3 months from baseline. Mixed-effects multilevel analysis for repeated measures were undertaken. There was no benefit for either CSG [(B coefficient=-1.15; P=.444)] or LITG [(B=-0.71; P=.634)] compared to iTAU, at 3 months. There were differences at 6 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-4.22; P=.007); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.34; P=.005)] and 15 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-5.10; P=.001); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.62; P=.002)]. There were no differences between CSG and LITG at any time. Adjusted and intention-to-treat models confirmed these findings. An Internet-based intervention for depression combined with i

  17. An Internet-Based Intervention for Depression in Primary Care in Spain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Araya, Ricardo; Mayoral, Fermín; Gili, Margalida; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Castro, Adoración; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Vives, Margarita; Riera, Antoni; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is the most prevalent cause of illness-induced disability worldwide. Face-to-face psychotherapeutic interventions for depression can be challenging, so there is a need for other alternatives that allow these interventions to be offered. One feasible alternative is Internet-based psychological interventions. This is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of an Internet-based intervention on depression in primary health care in Spain. Objective Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of a low-intensity therapist-guided (LITG) Internet-based program and a completely self-guided (CSG) Internet-based program with improved treatment as usual (iTAU) care for depression. Methods Multicenter, three-arm, parallel, RCT design, carried out between November 2012 and January 2014, with a follow-up of 15 months. In total, 296 adults from primary care settings in four Spanish regions, with mild or moderate major depression, were randomized to LITG (n=96), CSG (n=98), or iTAU (n=102). Research completers at follow-up were 63.5%. The intervention was Smiling is Fun, an Internet program based on cognitive behavioral therapy. All patients received iTAU by their general practitioners. Moreover, LITG received Smiling is Fun and the possibility of psychotherapeutic support on request by email, whereas CSG received only Smiling is Fun. The main outcome was the Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3 months from baseline. Mixed-effects multilevel analysis for repeated measures were undertaken. Results There was no benefit for either CSG [(B coefficient=-1.15; P=.444)] or LITG [(B=-0.71; P=.634)] compared to iTAU, at 3 months. There were differences at 6 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-4.22; P=.007); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.34; P=.005)] and 15 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-5.10; P=.001); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.62; P=.002)]. There were no differences between CSG and LITG at any time. Adjusted and intention-to-treat models confirmed these findings. Conclusions An Internet-based

  18. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  19. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens. PMID:27108705

  20. Chlamydia (uncomplicated, genital)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Genital chlamydia is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in resource-rich countries. In women, infection occurs most commonly between the ages of 16 and 19 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of antibiotic treatment in men, non-pregnant women, and pregnant women with uncomplicated genital chlamydia infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 24 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, lymecycline, minocycline, ofloxacin, pivampicillin, rifampicin, roxithromycin, sparfloxacin, tetracycline, and trovafloxacin. PMID:19450291

  1. Internet-Based Dementia Resources: Physician Attitudes and Practices.

    PubMed

    Galvin, James E; Meuser, Thomas M; Boise, Linda; Connell, Cathleen M

    2011-08-01

    Despite the potential of the internet for informing clinical practice, little is know about physicians' use of and attitudes about internet use for dementia care. We surveyed 373 physicians to inform development of on-line dementia education resources. Two thirds reported using internet-based resources in their clinical practices at least three times per week; 61% participated in on-line continuing medical education. Three fourths agreed that internet-based resources are helpful in clinical care but most expressed mixed views about quality of available information. Respondents reported limited awareness and use of dementia-specific internet resources, but expressed an interest in such information regarding screening, treatment, community resources, and patient education. National Institute on Aging-funded Alzheimer's Disease Centers are in a unique position to disseminate on-line resources for physicians on dementia diagnosis, treatment, and care. Our study suggests that such a resource would be well received and utilized by physicians.

  2. Design and implementation of internet based healthcare robot system.

    PubMed

    Dehuai, Zeng; Cunxi, Xie; Xuemei, Li

    2005-01-01

    with the increase of aging people, the task to maintain the health care level becomes heavier. To compensate for shortages of nurses and reduce the stress of nursing work, we have attempted to create an Internet based mobile robot system for hospitals or home healthcare. In this paper, we described a feasibility study and a basic platform design of a teleoperated healthcare service system via the Internet. We started from a literature review in the research on this topic. We then presented HSR-I, a new modular platform for Internet based mobile robotic systems including design principles, hardware and software architecture. Field tests at hospital facilities have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system equipped with the capability for navigation by visual information and friendly human-robot interface.

  3. [Personalized Internet-based treatment services for posttraumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Maercker, A; Hecker, T; Heim, E

    2015-11-01

    Among the most important innovations within the psychotherapeutic care system are the new opportunities in the field of e-mental health. During the past decade, Internet-based and other e-mental health approaches for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and related stress-associated symptoms have been developed in great variety. Solely Internet-based self-help programs are the lowest-threshold approaches in a stepped-care system. By contrast, individualized online psychotherapy and virtual reality programs are at the opposite pole of the spectrum. Approaches in the field of m(obile)-mental health complement these new developments in psychotherapy. The existing evidence supports the clinical efficacy of all the described approaches, although not all have been tested rigorously analog to phase III studies in psychopharmacology. Nonetheless, e-mental health approaches will shape our field more and more in the future.

  4. Technical aspects of internet-based knowledge presentation in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lütttgau, A; Bendl, R

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning is a complex and time-consuming optimization process which requires much experience. To simplify and to speed up the process of treatment planning as well as to exchange experience and therapeutic knowledge, the department of Medical Physics at the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is developing an Internet-based 3D Radiotherapy planning and Information System (IRIS). IRIS designed internet-based client-server application, implemented using Java, CORBA and PVM. The concept of IRIS combines the functionality of an interactive tutorial with a discussion forum, teleconferencing tool and an atlas of dose distributions. Furthermore an integral knowledge-based system provides automatically generated, preoptimized treatment plans. This paper explains the technical design of the system and gives an overview of experiences gained by the technical realization of a first prototype using currently available internet technology. The prototype is currently running for testing in the intranet of DKFZ.

  5. Innovative resources could help improve partner notification for chlamydia in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bilardi, Jade E; Hopkins, Carol A; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Tomnay, Jane E; Pavlin, Natasha L; Parker, Rhian M; Temple-Smith, Meredith J; Bowden, Francis J; Russell, Darren B; Pitts, Marian; Chen, Marcus Y

    2009-12-01

    To examine practices of general practitioners' (GPs) in relation to partner notification for chlamydia and identify the supports they would find most useful to assist them. To identify innovative resources that could improve partner notification for chlamydia in primary care. A postal survey was undertaken that involved GPs from several jurisdictions across Australia between August and December 2007. GPs were randomly selected from a national database. Of 521 eligible GPs, 234 (45%) returned a completed questionnaire. Ninety-five percent (n = 223) felt that it was their role to discuss partner notification with patients diagnosed with chlamydia; however, only 45% (105/232) were sure how best to assist their patients with this. Considerable variation was shown in the way partner notification was undertaken, including how far back in time GPs recommended contacting partners. GPs considered a wide range of possible resources useful, including a website supporting patients (90%), information sheets generated by practice software when chlamydia is diagnosed (90%), printed information packs for patients (85%), a website designed to assist GPs (80%), and referral to these websites via positive laboratory results (85%). Forty-three percent currently undertook patient delivered partner therapy for chlamydia. GPs want and need greater guidance and resources to assist them with partner notification for chlamydia. Resources utilizing the internet and practice software and mechanisms where GPs are automatically directed to these when chlamydia is diagnosed have wide appeal and the potential to improve the effectiveness of partner notification for chlamydia.

  6. Zephyr: an internet-based process to streamline engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, F A; Cavitt, R E; Jordan, C W; Mauvais, M J; Niven, W A; Taylor, J M; Taylor, S S; Vickers, D L; Warren, F E; Weaver, R L

    1998-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is implementing an Internet-based process pilot called 'Zephyr' to streamline engineering and commerce using the internet. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in facilitating industrial collaboration, speeding the engineering development cycle, reducing procurement time, and lowering overall costs. Programs at LLNL are potentializing the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr. Zephyr"s pilot functionality is undergoing full integration with Business Systems, Finance, and Vendors to support major programs at the Laboratory.

  7. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New Zealand. Methods The cohorts utilized various online/offline methods to recruit participants. Pregnant women who became aware volunteered, completed an online questionnaire, thus obtaining baseline information. Results The NINFEA study has recruited 7003 pregnant women, while the ELF study has recruited 2197 women. The cohorts targeted the whole country, utilizing a range of support processes to reduce the attrition rate of the participants. For the NINFEA and ELF cohorts, online participants were predominantly older (35% and 28.9%, respectively), highly educated (55.6% and 84.9%, respectively), and were in their final trimester of pregnancy (48.5% and 53.6%, respectively). Conclusions Internet-based cohort epidemiological studies are feasible, however, it is clear that participants are self-selective samples, as is the case for many birth cohorts. Internet-based cohort studies are potentially cost-effective and novel methodology for conducting long-term epidemiology research. However, from our experience, participants tend to be self-selective. In marked time, if the cohorts are to form part of a larger research program they require further use and exploration to address biases and overcome limitations. PMID:26071071

  8. 47 CFR 64.613 - Numbering directory for internet-based TRS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering directory for internet-based TRS... for internet-based TRS users. (a) TRS Numbering Directory. (1) The TRS Numbering Directory shall contain records mapping the NANP telephone number of each Registered Internet-based TRS User to a...

  9. [Chlamydia trachomatis and cervix dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Alaniz Sánchez, A; Flores Martínez, A; León Vistrain, M C; Castañeda Cano, E

    1995-09-01

    Fifty patients between 18 and 70 years of age from Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Hospital General "Gonzalo Castañeda" ISSSTE, were studied. Patients were referred for bearing positive cytology with mild, moderate and severe dysplasia; also intentional search for Chlamydia trachomatis was made, both in cytology as well as with the immunofluorescence method, and also directed biopsy. A positive association was found in 10 patients (20%) proving that Chlamydia trachomatis is a promotor and modifier of cervical atypia.

  10. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377

  12. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n = 663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n = 654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P = 0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n = 3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal

  13. Incentive and Reminder Strategies to Improve Response Rate for Internet-Based Physician Surveys: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Wittich, Christopher M; Daniels, Wendlyn L; West, Colin P; Harris, Ann M; Beebe, Timothy J

    2016-09-16

    Most research on how to enhance response rates in physician surveys has been done using paper surveys. Uncertainties remain regarding how to enhance response rates in Internet-based surveys. To evaluate the impact of a low-cost nonmonetary incentive and paper mail reminders (formal letter and postcard) on response rates in Internet-based physician surveys. We executed a factorial-design randomized experiment while conducting a nationally representative Internet-based physician survey. We invited 3966 physicians (randomly selected from a commercial database of all licensed US physicians) via email to complete an Internet-based survey. We used 2 randomly assigned email messages: one message offered a book upon survey completion, whereas the other did not mention the book but was otherwise identical. All nonrespondents received several email reminders. Some physicians were further assigned at random to receive 1 reminder via paper mail (either a postcard or a letter) or no paper reminder. The primary outcome of this study was the survey response rate. Of the 3966 physicians who were invited, 451 (11.4%) responded to at least one survey question and 336 (8.5%) completed the entire survey. Of those who were offered a book, 345/2973 (11.6%) responded compared with 106/993 (10.7%) who were not offered a book (odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.38, P=.42). Regarding the paper mail reminder, 168/1572 (10.7%) letter recipients, 148/1561 (9.5%) postcard recipients, and 69/767 (9.0%) email-only recipients responded (P=.35). The response rate for those receiving letters or postcards was similar (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.44, P=.26). Offering a modest nonmonetary incentive and sending a paper reminder did not improve survey response rate. Further research on how to enhance response rates in Internet-based physician surveys is needed.

  14. Generic Divide and Conquer Internet-Based Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radenski, Atanas; Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of new, internet-oriented software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high -performance computing applications community. The general goal of this research project is to contribute to better understanding of the transition to internet-based high -performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the difficulties of this transition. More specifically, our goal is to design an architecture for generic divide and conquer internet-based computing, to develop a portable implementation of this architecture, to create an example library of high-performance divide-and-conquer computing agents that run on top of this architecture, and to evaluate the performance of these agents. We have been designing an architecture that incorporates a master task-pool server and utilizes satellite computational servers that operate on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. Our designed architecture is intended to be complementary to and accessible from computational grids such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing high-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of lower-end internet nodes. Our project is focused on a generic divide-and-conquer paradigm and its applications that operate on a loose and ever changing pool of lower-end internet nodes.

  15. Generic Divide and Conquer Internet-Based Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radenski, Atanas; Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of new, internet-oriented software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high -performance computing applications community. The general goal of this research project is to contribute to better understanding of the transition to internet-based high -performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the difficulties of this transition. More specifically, our goal is to design an architecture for generic divide and conquer internet-based computing, to develop a portable implementation of this architecture, to create an example library of high-performance divide-and-conquer computing agents that run on top of this architecture, and to evaluate the performance of these agents. We have been designing an architecture that incorporates a master task-pool server and utilizes satellite computational servers that operate on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. Our designed architecture is intended to be complementary to and accessible from computational grids such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing high-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of lower-end internet nodes. Our project is focused on a generic divide-and-conquer paradigm and its applications that operate on a loose and ever changing pool of lower-end internet nodes.

  16. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based, or computerised, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to treat patients with depression or anxiety. Patients are engaged in structured programs of care, with several programs available either at no cost or moderate cost. Internet CBT (iCBT) may be particularly suited to patients with mobility issues or living in rural or remote areas. Although there are no adverse effects, clinicians should assess patients for risk issues and the need for more immediate assistance before recommending iCBT. Monitoring effectiveness of any intervention for the patient is important. iCBT has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy.

  17. An eight-year study of internet-based remote medical counselling.

    PubMed

    Labiris, G; Coertzen, I; Katsikas, A; Karydis, A; Petounis, A

    2002-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study of an Internet-based remote counselling service. A total of 15456 Internet users visited the Website over eight years. From these, 1500 users were randomly selected for analysis. Medical counselling had been granted to 901 of the people requesting it (60%). One hundred and sixty-four physicians formed project groups to process the requests and responded using email. The distribution of patients using the service was similar to the availability of the Internet: 78% were from the European Union, North America and Australia. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients lived in urban areas and the remainder were residents of remote rural areas with limited local medical coverage. Sixty-five per cent of the requests were about problems of internal medicine and 30% of the requests concerned surgical issues. The remaining 5% of the patients sought information about recent developments, such molecular medicine or aviation medicine. During the project, our portal became inaccessible five times, and counselling was not possible on 44 days. There was no hacking of the Website. Internet-based medical counselling is a helpful addition to conventional practice.

  18. The Spacebridge to Russia Project: internet-based telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Angood, P B; Doarn, C R; Holaday, L; Nicogossian, A E; Merrell, R C

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a pioneer in telemedicine since the beginning of the human spaceflight program in the early 1960s. With the rapid evolution in computer technology and equally rapid development of computer networks, NASA and the Department of Surgery in Yale University's School of Medicine created a telemedicine testbed with the Russia Space Agency, the Spacebridge to Russia Project, using multimedia computers connected via the Internet. Clinical consultations were evaluated in a store-and-forward mode using a variety of electronic media, packaged as digital files, and transmitted using Internet and World Wide Web tools. These systems allow real-time Internet video teleconferencing between remotely located users over computer systems. This report describes the project and the evaluation methods utilized for monitoring effectiveness of the communications. The Spacebridge to Russia Project is a testbed for Internet-based telemedicine. The Internet and current computer technologies (hardware and software) make telemedicine readily accessible and affordable for most health care providers. Internet-based telemedicine is a communication tool that should become integral to global health care.

  19. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  20. A chlamydia prevalence survey of young women living in Melbourne, Victoria.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Jane S; Willis, Jessika; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Fairley, Christopher K; Garland, Suzanne M; Hellard, Margaret

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the population-based chlamydia prevalence among women aged 18 to 35 years living in Melbourne, Victoria, and to assess the feasibility of using mailed urine specimens to test women. A simple random sample of 11,001 households in Melbourne was selected from the telephone directory. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided urine specimens through the mail for chlamydia testing. Urines were tested using polymerase chain reaction. 11,001 households were contacted, with 1532 households identified as including eligible women; telephone interviews were completed, with 979 women giving a response rate of 64%. Six hundred and fifty-seven women provided a urine specimen with a response rate of 43%. Among sexually active women aged 18-24 years, the chlamydia prevalence was 3.7% (95% CI: 1.2%, 8.4%) and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.0%, 1.1%) among 25-35 year olds. Chlamydia prevalence increased significantly with an increasing number of male sexual partners. This is the first study of its kind in Australia and shows that chlamydia prevalence increases with an increasing number of male sexual partners in the last 12 months. Mailed urine specimens are feasible for conducting population-based chlamydia-prevalence surveys but it is difficult to obtain high response rates with this methodology. Public health resources should now be directed towards investigating how to reach young women at increased risk of infection, ensuring that they are tested for chlamydia.

  1. Chlamydia (uncomplicated, genital)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Genital chlamydia is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in developed countries. In women, infection occurs most commonly between the ages of 16 and 19 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of antibiotic treatment for men and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated genital chlamydial infection?What are the effects of antibiotic treatment for pregnant women with uncomplicated genital chlamydial infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 24 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, lymecycline, minocycline, ofloxacin, pivampicillin, rifampicin, roxithromycin, sparfloxacin, tetracycline, and trovafloxacin. PMID:21718568

  2. Understanding ethics guidelines using an internet-based expert system.

    PubMed

    Shankar, G; Simmons, A

    2009-01-01

    National and international guidelines outlining ethical conduct in research involving humans and animals have evolved into large and complex documents making the process of gaining ethics approval a complicated task for researchers in the area. Researchers, in particular those who are relatively new to the ethics approval process, can struggle to understand the parts of an ethics guideline that apply to their research and the nature of their ethical obligations to trial participants. With the scope of medical research likely to continue to expand in the future, it is clear that ethics guidelines will only increase in complexity and number. This paper describes one possible solution to the the use of an internet-based expert system to intelligently and interactively distribute the information stored in ethics guidelines to individual researchers. This paper also details how one such system was designed and tested with respect to Australian medical research ethics guidelines.

  3. Value-based metrics and Internet-based enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Krishan M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.

  4. Who participates in internet-based worksite weight loss programs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reach and representativeness are seldom examined in worksite weight loss studies. This paper describes and illustrates a method for directly assessing the reach and representativeness of a internet-based worksite weight loss program. Methods A brief health survey (BHS) was administered, between January 2008 and November 2009, to employees at 19 worksites in Southwest Virginia. The BHS included demographic, behavioral, and health questions. All employees were blinded to the existence of a future weight loss program until the completion of the BHS. Results The BHS has a participation rate of 66 percent and the subsequent weight loss program has a participation rate of 30 percent. Employees from higher income households, with higher education levels and health literacy proficiency were significantly more likely to participate in the program (p's < .01). Conclusions Worksite weight loss programs should include targeted marketing strategies to engage employees with lower income, education, and health literacy. PMID:21933429

  5. Economic analysis of an internet-based depression prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Alexander; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2013-09-01

    The transition through adolescence places adolescents at increased risk of depression, yet care-seeking in this population is low, and treatment is often ineffective. In response, we developed an Internet-based depression prevention intervention (CATCH-IT) targeting at-risk adolescents. We explore CATCH-IT program costs, especially safety costs, in the context of an Accountable Care Organization as well as the perceived value of the Internet program. Total and per-patient costs of development were calculated using an assumed cohort of a 5,000-patient Accountable Care Organization. Total and per-patient costs of implementation were calculated from grant data and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and were compared to the willingness-to-pay for CATCH-IT and to the cost of current treatment options. The cost effectiveness of the safety protocol was assessed using the number of safety calls placed and the percentage of patients receiving at least one safety call. The willingness-to-pay for CATCH-IT, a measure of its perceived value, was assessed using post-study questionnaires and was compared to the development cost for a break-even point. We found the total cost of developing the intervention to be USD 138,683.03. Of the total, 54% was devoted to content development with per patient cost of USD 27.74. The total cost of implementation was found to be USD 49,592.25, with per patient cost of USD 597.50. Safety costs accounted for 35% of the total cost of implementation. For comparison, the cost of a 15-session group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention aimed at at-risk adolescents was USD 1,632 per patient. Safety calls were successfully placed to 96.4% of the study participants. The cost per call was USD 40.51 with a cost per participant of USD 197.99. The willingness-to-pay for the Internet portion of CATCH-IT had a median of USD 40. The break-even point to offset the cost of development was 3,468 individuals. Developing Internet-based

  6. An Internet-based ontology editor for medical appropriateness criteria.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C E

    1998-04-01

    Appropriateness criteria and practice guidelines seek to promote the cost-effectiveness use of medical interventions, and can be most useful when integrated with computer-based patient records and order-entry systems. Building an abstract model (ontology) of appropriateness criteria can require considerable effort among investigators at geographically dispersed institutions. To facilitate the construction and maintenance of ontologies for clinical appropriateness criteria, the author developed an Internet-based system for viewing and editing the knowledge model. The system, called NEON (Network-based Editor for ONtologies), uses the World Wide Web as a platform-independent user interface. NEON allows users to edit the indexing terms and the semantic network that form the ontology for a set of appropriateness criteria. Ontologies built using the system can be imported and exported using an open, internationally standardized format based on the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

  7. Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-12-19

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  8. Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-04-17

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  9. Internet-based assessment of image sharpness enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay; Bouzit, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Two internet-based psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of an image sharpness enhancement method, based on adjustment of spatial frequencies in the image according to the contrast sensitivity function and compensation of MTF losses of the display. The method was compared with the widely-used unsharp mask (USM) filter from PhotoShop. The experiment was performed in two locations with different groups of observers: one in the UK, and the second in the USA. Three Apple LCD displays (15" studio, 23" HD cinema and 15" PowerBook) were used at both sites. Observers assessed the sharpness and pleasantness of the displayed images. Analysis of the results led to four major conclusions: (1) Performance of the sharpening methods; (2) Influence of MTF compensation; (3) Image dependency; and (4) Comparison between sharpness perception and preference judgement at both sites.

  10. The digital divide in Internet-based patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gordon H

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquity of the Internet has led to the widespread availability of health-related information to the public, and the subsequent empowerment of patients has fundamentally altered the patient-physician relationship. Among several concerns of physicians is the possibility that patients may be misinformed by information obtained from the Internet. One opportunity for health care providers to address this problem exists within Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs). According to recent research in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, IPEMs found within professional otolaryngology websites are written at the 8th- to 18th-grade reading comprehension level, essentially unchanged over the past 3 years. This greatly exceeds the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Benefits, strategies, and challenges to improving the readability of IPEMs are discussed.

  11. Internet-based randomized controlled trials: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Erin; McGeechan, Kevin; Barratt, Alexandra; Herbert, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background The internet is increasingly being used to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Knowledge of the types of interventions evaluated and the methodological quality of these trials could inform decisions about whether to conduct future trials using conventional methods, fully online or a mixture of the two. Objective To identify and describe the scope of internet-based RCTs for human health condition interventions and evaluate their methodological quality. Methods A systematic review of RCTs of any health intervention conducted fully or primarily on the internet was carried out. Results 23 fully and 27 primarily internet-based RCTs were identified. The first was conducted in 2000. The majority of trials evaluated interventions that involved providing health information to participants, but a few evaluated self-administered interventions (eg, valerian, stretching). Methodological quality was variable and the methods were generally poorly reported. The risk of bias was low in only a small number of trials; most had substantial methodological shortcomings. Only one trial was identified as meeting all criteria for adequate methodological quality. A particular problem was high rates of loss to follow-up (fully online: mean 47%; primarily online: mean 36%). Conclusions It is theoretically possible but perhaps difficult to test the effectiveness of health interventions rigorously with RCTs conducted fully or primarily over the internet. The use of the internet to conduct trials is more suited to pragmatic rather than explanatory trials. The main limitation of these trials is that they typically experience high rates of loss to follow-up. Methodological standards now accepted for traditional RCTs needs to be evident for online RCTs as well, especially in reporting of their methods. PMID:23065196

  12. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:27030552

  13. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Development of the Internet-Based Customer-Oriented Ordering System Framework for Complicated Mechanical Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Mingwei; Watanuki, Keiichi

    Recently, as consumers gradually prefer buying products that reflect their own personality, there exist some consumers who wish to involve in the product design process. Parallel with the popularization of e-business, many manufacturers have utilized the Internet to promote their products, and some have even built websites that enable consumers to select their desirable product specifications. Nevertheless, this method has not been applied on complicated mechanical product due to the facts that complicated mechanical product has a large number of specifications that inter-relate among one another. In such a case, ordinary consumers who are lacking of design knowledge, are not capable of determining these specifications. In this paper, a prototype framework called Internet-based consumer-oriented product ordering system has been developed in which it enables ordinary consumers to have large freedom in determining complicated mechanical product specifications, and meanwhile ensures that the manufacturing of the determined product is feasible.

  15. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. 113.71 Section 113.71 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... prepared from chlamydia-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed which has...

  16. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. 113.71 Section 113.71 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... prepared from chlamydia-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed which has...

  17. Internet-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing in British Columbia, Canada: Opinions and Expectations of Prospective Clients

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Farrell, Janine; Bondyra, Mark; Haag, Devon; Shoveller, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of Internet-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing have been demonstrated; however, few programs have included testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In British Columbia, Canada, a new initiative will offer online access to chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV testing, integrated with existing clinic-based services. We presented the model to gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and existing clinic clients through a series of focus groups. Objective To identify perceived benefits, concerns, and expectations of a new model for Internet-based STI and HIV testing among potential end users. Methods Participants were recruited through email invitations, online classifieds, and flyers in STI clinics. A structured interview guide was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, and an observer took detailed field notes. Analysts then listened to audio recordings to validate field notes. Data were coded and analyzed using a scissor-and-sort technique. Results In total, 39 people participated in six focus groups. Most were MSM, and all were active Internet users and experienced with STI/HIV testing. Perceived benefits of Internet-based STI testing included anonymity, convenience, and client-centered control. Salient concerns were reluctance to provide personal information online, distrust of security of data provided online, and the need for comprehensive pretest information and support for those receiving positive results, particularly for HIV. Suggestions emerged for mitigation of these concerns: provide up-front and detailed information about the model, ask only the minimal information required for testing, give positive results only by phone or in person, and ensure that those testing positive are referred for counseling and support. End users expected Internet testing to offer continuous online service delivery, from booking appointments, to transmitting information to the laboratory, to

  18. Chlamydia screening for pregnant women aged 16-25 years attending an antenatal service: a cost-effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Ong, J J; Chen, M; Hocking, J; Fairley, C K; Carter, R; Bulfone, L; Hsueh, A

    2016-06-01

    Determine the cost-effectiveness of screening all pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia compared with selective screening or no screening. Cost effectiveness based on a decision model. Antenatal clinics in Australia. Pregnant women, aged 16-25 years. Using clinical data from a previous study, and outcomes data from the literature, we modelled the short-term perinatal (12-month time horizon) incremental direct costs and outcomes from a government (as the primary third-party funder) perspective for chlamydia screening. Costs were derived from the Medicare Benefits Schedule, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, and average cost-weights reported for hospitalisations classified according to the Australian refined diagnosis-related groups. Direct costs of screening and managing chlamydia complications, number of chlamydia cases detected and treated, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated and subjected to sensitivity analyses. Assuming a chlamydia prevalence rate of 3%, screening all antenatal women aged 16-25 years at their first antenatal visit compared with no screening was $34,931 per quality-adjusted life-years gained. Screening all women could result in cost savings when chlamydia prevalence was higher than 11%. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were most sensitive to the assumed prevalence of chlamydia, the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease, the utility weight of a positive chlamydia test and the cost of the chlamydia test and doctor's appointment. From an Australian government perspective, chlamydia screening of all women aged 16-25 years old during one antenatal visit was likely to be cost-effective compared with no screening or selective screening, especially with increasing chlamydia prevalence. Chlamydia screening for all pregnant women aged 16-25 years during an antenatal visit is cost effective. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Time and Learning Efficiency in Internet-Based Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Levinson, Anthony J.; Garside, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Authors have claimed that Internet-based instruction promotes greater learning efficiency than non-computer methods. Objectives Determine, through a systematic synthesis of evidence in health professions education, how Internet-based instruction compares with non-computer instruction in time spent learning, and what features of Internet-based…

  20. Self-Efficacy in Internet-Based Learning Environments: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chuang, Shih-Chyueh; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews 46 papers from 1999 to 2009 regarding self-efficacy in Internet-based learning environments, and discusses three major categories of research: (1) learners' Internet self-efficacy, assessing learners' confidence in their skills or knowledge of operating general Internet functions or applications in Internet-based learning; (2)…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of User Preferences for for Major Internet Based Education Media in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chunyang; Jiang, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Internet based education media are developing at an amazing rate and being seen as an upstart that will likely take the place of traditional education means worldwide in the future. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis on user preferences for four major categories of internet-based media used in China. In this paper, we first…

  2. 31 CFR 515.578 - Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incident to Internet-based communications. 515.578 Section 515.578 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking, sharing of photos and movies,...

  3. College Student Intentions to Participate in Internet-Based Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Michael; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jun, Mi Kyung

    2006-01-01

    To explore factors associated with college students' intentions to participate in Internet-based health research, data were collected from 502 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level business courses at a large midwestern university. Findings suggest that intentions to participate in Internet-based research are influenced by one's…

  4. Self-Efficacy in Internet-Based Learning Environments: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chuang, Shih-Chyueh; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews 46 papers from 1999 to 2009 regarding self-efficacy in Internet-based learning environments, and discusses three major categories of research: (1) learners' Internet self-efficacy, assessing learners' confidence in their skills or knowledge of operating general Internet functions or applications in Internet-based learning; (2)…

  5. Predicting the Continued Use of Internet-Based Learning Technologies: The Role of Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limayem, Moez; Cheung, Christy M. K.

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation and advance of Internet-based technologies create expanded opportunities for educators to provide students with better learning experiences. Although current studies focus mostly on the learning processes and learning outcomes, this article examines the students' usage behaviour with Internet-based learning technologies across…

  6. Trichotillomania: the impact of treatment history on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Bruehl, Annette Beatrix; Delsignore, Aba; Zai, Gwyneth; Kuenburg, Alexa; Klaghofer, Richard; Rufer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM) have never undergone treatment. Without treatment, TTM often presents with a chronic course. Characteristics of TTM individuals who have never been treated (untreated) remain largely unknown. Whether treatment history impacts Internet-based interventions has not yet been investigated. We aimed to answer whether Internet-based interventions can reach untreated individuals and whether treatment history is associated with certain characteristics and impacts on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention. We provided Internet-based interventions. Subjects were characterized at three time points using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Of 105 individuals, 34 were untreated. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was markedly impaired in untreated and treated individuals. Symptom severity did not differ between untreated and treated individuals. Nontreatment was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (P=0.002). Treatment history demonstrated no impact on the outcome of Internet-based interventions. Results demonstrate that Internet-based interventions can reach untreated TTM individuals. They show that untreated individuals benefit as much as treated individuals from such interventions. Future Internet-based interventions should focus on how to best reach/support untreated individuals with TTM. Additionally, future studies may examine whether Internet-based interventions can reach and help untreated individuals suffering from other psychiatric disorders.

  7. Generic Divide and Conquer Internet-Based Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor); Radenski, Atanas

    2003-01-01

    The growth of Internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of Peer to Peer (P2P) software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high-performance computing applications community. The general goal of this project is to achieve better understanding of the transition to Internet-based high-performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the technical challenges of this transition. In particular, we are interested in creating long-term motivation for end users to provide their idle processor time to support computationally intensive tasks. We believe that a practical P2P architecture should provide useful service to both clients with high-performance computing needs and contributors of lower-end computing resources. To achieve this, we are designing dual -service architecture for P2P high-performance divide-and conquer computing; we are also experimenting with a prototype implementation. Our proposed architecture incorporates a master server, utilizes dual satellite servers, and operates on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. A dual satellite server comprises a high-performance computing engine and a lower-end contributor service engine. The computing engine provides generic support for divide and conquer computations. The service engine is intended to provide free useful HTTP-based services to contributors of lower-end computing resources. Our proposed architecture is complementary to and accessible from computational grids, such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing higher-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of

  8. Generic Divide and Conquer Internet-Based Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor); Radenski, Atanas

    2003-01-01

    The growth of Internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of Peer to Peer (P2P) software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high-performance computing applications community. The general goal of this project is to achieve better understanding of the transition to Internet-based high-performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the technical challenges of this transition. In particular, we are interested in creating long-term motivation for end users to provide their idle processor time to support computationally intensive tasks. We believe that a practical P2P architecture should provide useful service to both clients with high-performance computing needs and contributors of lower-end computing resources. To achieve this, we are designing dual -service architecture for P2P high-performance divide-and conquer computing; we are also experimenting with a prototype implementation. Our proposed architecture incorporates a master server, utilizes dual satellite servers, and operates on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. A dual satellite server comprises a high-performance computing engine and a lower-end contributor service engine. The computing engine provides generic support for divide and conquer computations. The service engine is intended to provide free useful HTTP-based services to contributors of lower-end computing resources. Our proposed architecture is complementary to and accessible from computational grids, such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing higher-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of

  9. Internet-based interventions for eating disorders in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of different eating disorders in adults. Method A search for peer reviewed journal articles detailing Randomised Control Trials (RCT) and Controlled Trials (CT) addressing participants with eating disorders aged at least 16 was completed in the electronic databases Web of Science, PsycInfo and PubMed. The quality of the included articles was assessed, results were reviewed and effect sizes and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Results Eight studies, including a total of N = 609 participants, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included. The majority of treatments applied in these studies were based on CBT principles. Six studies described guided self-help interventions that showed significant symptom reduction in terms of primary and secondary outcomes regarding eating behaviour and abstinence rates. These studies produced significant medium to high effect sizes both within and between the groups after utilisation of guided self-help programs or a self-help book backed up with supportive e-mails. The two remaining studies utilised a specific writing task or e-mail therapy that did not follow a structured treatment program. Here, no significant effects could be found. Treatment dropout rates ranged from 9% to 47.2%. Furthermore, reductions in other symptoms, for example depression and anxiety, and an increase in quality of life were found by four studies. Conclusions Overall, the results support the value of internet-based interventions that use guided self-help to tackle eating disorders, but further research is needed due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:23919625

  10. Chlamydiae, cervicitis, and abnormal Papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Carr, M C; Hanna, L; Jawetz, E

    1979-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities accompanied by Papanicolaou Class II or Class III cytologic results are commonly encountered in gynecologic office practice. Chlamydiae are a common cause of genital tract infection, with or without manifest symptoms or signs. An immunofluorescence method was used to determine the presence of antichlamydial antibodies in cervical secretions. Eleven of 15 patients in whom such antibodies were found (73.3%) had Papanicolaou Class II or Class III smears, in contrast to only 3 of 18 patients (16.7%) without antichlamydial antibodies. The determination of antichlamydial antibodies in cervical mucus was highly reproducible, and specimens were readily collected in the office, without the need of prompt laboratory procedures. In selected patients, tetracycline treatment of early chlamydial infection resulted both in the disappearance of the antibody from cervical secretions and in the reversion of the Papanicolaou smear from Class II or Class III to Class I.

  11. Willingness to offer chlamydia testing in general practice in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asaduzzaman; Hussain, Rafat; Plummer, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2006-06-01

    To assess willingness of general practitioners (GPs) to offer chlamydia testing to patients, and to identify demographic and practice correlates associated with willingness to offer chlamydia testing. A postal survey of practising GPs in New South Wales was undertaken in 2002 to assess management of STIs in general practice. A 15% (n = 1,020) stratified random sample, based on sex and area of practice, was selected. The overall response rate was 45.4% (n = 409). More than four out of five study participants reported that chlamydia testing should usually be offered to patients who had recently changed sexual partners or inconsistently used barrier methods such as condoms. While 76% of GPs would like to offer testing to young women, 65% were in favour of testing young men. Just over half (56%) felt that chlamydia testing should usually be offered to patients at the time of a Pap smear. Multivariate analyses revealed that female GPs were more likely to offer testing to young patients and to female patients at the time of a Pap smear. GPs who had postgraduate training in STls had double the odds of offering testing to young men and to female patients at the time of a Pap smear. This paper reveals variations in GPs' willingness to offer chlamydia testing to patients. Special education programs highlighting the adverse health effects of chlamydial infection have the potential to improve GP involvement in chlamydia screening.

  12. Possibilities and limits of Internet-based registers.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Candrian, Aron; Wenda, Klaus

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is an inexpensive platform for the investigation of medical questions in case of low prevalence. By accessing www.ao-nailregister.org, every interested participant may participate in the English-language survey of the complications specific to the femoral nail. The address data of the participant, the anonymised key data of the patients and the medical parameters are entered. In real time, these data are checked for plausibility, evaluated and published on the Internet where they are freely accessible immediately. Because of national differences, data acquisition caused considerable difficulties at the beginning. In addition, wrong data were entered because of linguistic or contextual misunderstandings. After having reworked the questionnaire completely, facilitating data input and implementing an automated plausibility check, these difficulties could be cleared. In a next step, the automatic evaluation of the data was implemented. Only very few data still have to be checked for plausibility manually to exclude wrong entries, which cannot be verified by the computer. The effort required for data acquisition and evaluation of the Internet-based femoral nail register was reduced distinctly. The possibility of free international participation as well as the freely accessible representation of the results offers transparency.

  13. Internet-based neuro-oncology patient recruitment.

    PubMed

    Komotar, Ricardo J; Zacharia, Brad E; Mocco, J; Ransom, Evan R; Davis, Jeffrey P; Gasparis, George; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Anderson, Richard C E

    2006-05-01

    THE PRIVACY RULE, as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, was implemented in 2003 as a response to public concern over potential abuses of private health information. Although the Privacy Rule was not intended to place limits on clinical research, its complexity has caused much confusion throughout the academic medicine and research communities. Many clinical and translational researchers have created clinical databases or human tissue banks to facilitate future research. Maintenance of such databases is considered a research activity under the Privacy Rule, and researchers are, therefore, subject to its regulations. We present a novel Internet-based method to generate and maintain a neurooncology patient registry and human tissue bank. Through our web site, we secure both Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act research authorization and informed consent, enabling us to contact the treating physician for clinical data and pathological specimens. Considering the importance of continued use of clinical databases and tissue banks in the genetic era of medicine, our method offers one way for researchers to adapt to the changing world of clinical research.

  14. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  15. Designing an Internet-based collaboratory for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Rex E

    2002-01-01

    Several recent grants from the National Institutes of Health to the Universities of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana have created a unique opportunity for collaboration in biomedical research among the three schools, as well as the community colleges in the region. NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) programs at Wyoming have been established to study the biological effect of nitric oxide and to investigate stressors that can contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. Funding from these and related grants have significantly upgraded Wyoming bioimaging and microscopy facilities, as well as provided support for faculty and students in a variety of research disciplines. In order to enhance these research efforts, the Center for Rural Health Research and Education at the University of Wyoming is spearheading an effort to create an Internet-based system for sharing data and research resources among the involved sites. This paper describes how such a "collaboratory" could be designed, using techniques developed for distributed research and development in the computer industry. The system, as envisioned, will support remote data acquisition, management, and visualization, while providing security in the form of authorization and authentication of users and virtual private networking for data transmitted between nodes of the network.

  16. Effectiveness of internet-based interventions for children, youth, and young adults with anxiety and/or depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Bapuji, Sunita Bayyavarapu; Winters, Shannon Elizabeth; Struthers, Ashley; Raynard, Melissa; Metge, Colleen; Kreindler, Sara Adi; Charette, Catherine Joan; Lemaire, Jacqueline Angela; Synyshyn, Margaret; Sutherland, Karen

    2014-07-18

    The majority of internet-based anxiety and depression intervention studies have targeted adults. An increasing number of studies of children, youth, and young adults have been conducted, but the evidence on effectiveness has not been synthesized. The objective of this research is to systematically review the most recent findings in this area and calculate overall (pooled) effect estimates of internet-based anxiety and/or depression interventions. We searched five literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar) for studies published between January 1990 and December 2012. We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for children, youth, and young adults (age <25 years) with anxiety and/or depression and their parents. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias regarding selection bias, allocation bias, confounding bias, blinding, data collection, and withdrawals/dropouts. We included studies rated as high or moderate quality according to the risk of bias assessment. We conducted meta-analyses using the random effects model. We calculated standardized mean difference and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for anxiety and depression symptom severity scores by comparing internet-based intervention vs. waitlist control and internet-based intervention vs. face-to-face intervention. We also calculated pooled remission rate ratio and 95% CI. We included seven studies involving 569 participants aged between 7 and 25 years. Meta-analysis suggested that, compared to waitlist control, internet-based interventions were able to reduce anxiety symptom severity (standardized mean difference and 95% CI = -0.52 [-0.90, -0.14]) and increase remission rate (pooled remission rate ratio and 95% CI =3.63 [1.59, 8.27]). The effect in reducing depression symptom severity was not statistically significant (standardized mean difference and 95% CI = -0.16 [-0.44, 0.12]). We found no statistical difference in anxiety

  17. Effectiveness of internet-based interventions for children, youth, and young adults with anxiety and/or depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of internet-based anxiety and depression intervention studies have targeted adults. An increasing number of studies of children, youth, and young adults have been conducted, but the evidence on effectiveness has not been synthesized. The objective of this research is to systematically review the most recent findings in this area and calculate overall (pooled) effect estimates of internet-based anxiety and/or depression interventions. Methods We searched five literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar) for studies published between January 1990 and December 2012. We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for children, youth, and young adults (age <25 years) with anxiety and/or depression and their parents. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias regarding selection bias, allocation bias, confounding bias, blinding, data collection, and withdrawals/dropouts. We included studies rated as high or moderate quality according to the risk of bias assessment. We conducted meta-analyses using the random effects model. We calculated standardized mean difference and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for anxiety and depression symptom severity scores by comparing internet-based intervention vs. waitlist control and internet-based intervention vs. face-to-face intervention. We also calculated pooled remission rate ratio and 95% CI. Results We included seven studies involving 569 participants aged between 7 and 25 years. Meta-analysis suggested that, compared to waitlist control, internet-based interventions were able to reduce anxiety symptom severity (standardized mean difference and 95% CI = −0.52 [−0.90, −0.14]) and increase remission rate (pooled remission rate ratio and 95% CI =3.63 [1.59, 8.27]). The effect in reducing depression symptom severity was not statistically significant (standardized mean difference and 95% CI = −0.16 [−0.44, 0

  18. Rectal chlamydia infection in women at high risk of chlamydia attending Canberra Sexual Health Centre.

    PubMed

    Musil, Kate; Currie, Marian; Sherley, Miranda; Martin, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Australian guidelines recommend urogenital screening in asymptomatic men and women, and rectal screening in men who have sex with men or women reporting anal sex/symptoms. International studies describe a rectal chlamydia prevalence in women of 5% to 21%. We found that in women at high risk of chlamydia, 57% (32/56) tested positive for rectal chlamydia. Of these, 97% (31/32) had concurrent urogenital chlamydia. Women with urogenital chlamydia were significantly more likely to have a positive rectal result (χ(2), p = 0.000). Neither anal symptoms nor reported anal sex were associated with a positive rectal chlamydia test. The recommended treatment of rectal chlamydia differs substantially from that of urogenital chlamydia, raising the possibility that Australian women are being regularly undertreated due to a lack of rectal testing. Untreated rectal chlamydia may increase the risk of persistent infection, reproductive tract reinfection, complications and transmission. Further work is needed to determine the optimal management of chlamydia in women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Incentive and Reminder Strategies to Improve Response Rate for Internet-Based Physician Surveys: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M; Daniels, Wendlyn L; West, Colin P; Harris, Ann M; Beebe, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Background Most research on how to enhance response rates in physician surveys has been done using paper surveys. Uncertainties remain regarding how to enhance response rates in Internet-based surveys. Objective To evaluate the impact of a low-cost nonmonetary incentive and paper mail reminders (formal letter and postcard) on response rates in Internet-based physician surveys. Methods We executed a factorial-design randomized experiment while conducting a nationally representative Internet-based physician survey. We invited 3966 physicians (randomly selected from a commercial database of all licensed US physicians) via email to complete an Internet-based survey. We used 2 randomly assigned email messages: one message offered a book upon survey completion, whereas the other did not mention the book but was otherwise identical. All nonrespondents received several email reminders. Some physicians were further assigned at random to receive 1 reminder via paper mail (either a postcard or a letter) or no paper reminder. The primary outcome of this study was the survey response rate. Results Of the 3966 physicians who were invited, 451 (11.4%) responded to at least one survey question and 336 (8.5%) completed the entire survey. Of those who were offered a book, 345/2973 (11.6%) responded compared with 106/993 (10.7%) who were not offered a book (odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.38, P=.42). Regarding the paper mail reminder, 168/1572 (10.7%) letter recipients, 148/1561 (9.5%) postcard recipients, and 69/767 (9.0%) email-only recipients responded (P=.35). The response rate for those receiving letters or postcards was similar (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.44, P=.26). Conclusions Offering a modest nonmonetary incentive and sending a paper reminder did not improve survey response rate. Further research on how to enhance response rates in Internet-based physician surveys is needed. PMID:27637296

  20. [Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted bacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Clad, A

    2002-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. In Western Europe, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased by more than 95% since the 1970ies; "tripper" and syphilis are essentially confined to high-risk groups while genital chlamydial infections affect people of all social classes, but information about chlamydia is still scarce in many European countries. Clinically genital chlamydial infections resemble gonorrhoea (dysuria, discharge, irregular bleeding, dyspareunia, perihepatitis) and may be mistaken for appendicitis. However, Chlamydia trachomatis persists longer and more often asymptomatic than Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the urogenital tract of men and women. About 20% of all chlamydia infected women suffer from partial or complete tubal occlusion. Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of female infertility, but most of these women never experienced any clinical sign of pelvic inflammatory disease. Since particle concentrations are often very low in urine and cervical secretions only DNA-amplification tests, e.g. PCR or LCR, exhibit sufficient sensitivity for direct detection Chlamydia trachomatis. While Neisseria gonorrhoeae is eradicated by single-shot treatment with commonly used antibiotics like penicillins or cephalosporins Chlamydia trachomatis affords treatment for at least 10 days with doxycyline or macrolides. Partner treatment is essential to avoid reinfections. Condoms not only protect against HIV, but also against chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis.

  1. Chlamydia prevalence in Polish pig herds.

    PubMed

    Rypuła, K; Kumala, A; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Karuga-Kuźniewska, E; Dudek, K; Chorbiński, P

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydiae are frequently encountered intracellular Gram-negative bacteria. In pigs, these bacteria in combination with other pathogens contribute to the induction of a multi-aetiological syndrome. One of the major characteristics of Chlamydia spp. is their ability to cause prolonged, often subclinical infections. While the economic consequences of Chlamydia spp. infections in pig farms are not fully established, we know that reproductive disorders and other syndromes correlated with Chlamydia infection can lead to financial loss as a result of a reduction in pork production. Additionally, Chlamydia spp. presents a potential zoonotic hazard, therefore determining the prevalence of Chlamydia in pig populations is critical. In the present study 97 pig herds from Poland were involved. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia PCR and CFT tests were used. In total 797 vaginal samples, 797 conjunctival samples, and 235 serum samples were collected and tested. The study took place from 2011 to 2014. We found Chlamydia spp. present in 71·2% of all tested farms. The percentage of animals testing positive on any given farm varied from 20% to 100%.

  2. Patients' acceptance of Internet-based home asthma telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, J; Hripcsak, G; Cabrera, M R

    1998-01-01

    We studied asthma patients from a low-income inner-city community without previous computer experience. The patients were given portable spirometers to perform spirometry tests and palmtop computers to enter symptoms in a diary, to exchange messages with physician and to review test results. The self-testing was performed at home on a daily basis. The results were transmitted to the hospital information system immediately after completion of each test. Physician could review results using an Internet Web browser from any location. A constantly active decision support server monitored all data traffic and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Seventeen patients, out of 19 invited, agreed to participate in the study and have been monitored for three weeks. They have been surveyed then using standardized questionnaire. Most of the patients (82.4%) characterized self-testing procedures as "not complicated at all." In 70.6% of cases self-testing did not interfere with usual activities, and 82.4% of patients felt the self-testing required a "very little" amount of their time. All patients stated that it is important for them to know that the results can be reviewed by professional staff in a timely manner. However, only 29.5% of patients reviewed their results at least once a week at home independently. The majority of the patients (94.1%) were strongly interested in using home asthma telemonitoring in the future. We concluded that Internet-based home asthma telemonitoring can be successfully implemented in the group of patients without previous computer background.

  3. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  4. Internet-based peer support for parents: a systematic integrative review.

    PubMed

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Salanterä, Sanna; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2014-11-01

    The Internet and social media provide various possibilities for online peer support. The aim of this review was to explore Internet-based peer-support interventions and their outcomes for parents. A systematic integrative review. The systematic search was carried out in March 2014 in PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently screened the titles (n=1793), abstracts and full texts to decide which articles should be chosen. The inclusion criteria were: (1) an Internet-based community as an intervention, or at least as a component of an intervention; (2) the participants in the Internet-based community had to be mothers and/or fathers or pregnant women; (3) the parents had to interact and communicate with each other through the Internet-based community. The data was analysed using content analysis. When analysing peer-support interventions only interventions developed by researchers were included and when analysing the outcomes for the parents, studies that focused on mothers, fathers or both parents were separated. In total, 38 publications met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies focused on Internet-based peer support between mothers (n=16) or both parents (n=15) and seven focused on fathers. In 16 studies, the Internet-based interventions had been developed by researchers and 22 studies used already existing Internet peer-support groups, in which any person using the Internet could participate. For mothers, Internet-based peer support provided emotional support, information and membership in a social community. For fathers, it provided support for the transition to fatherhood, information and humorous communication. Mothers were more active users of Internet-based peer-support groups than fathers. In general, parents were satisfied with Internet-based peer support. The evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based peer support was inconclusive but no harmful effects were reported in these reviewed studies. Internet-based

  5. Effects of an internet-based lifestyle intervention on cardio-metabolic risks and stress in Korean workers with metabolic syndrome: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Kang, Se-Won; Park, Jae-Bum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an Internet-based Best Exerciser Super Trainer (BEST) program on cardio-metabolic risks and stress among workers with metabolic syndrome. This study utilized a non-randomized, pretest, and posttest, controlled design with a convenience sample of 48 Korean male workers. The workers in the BEST group participated in a 16-week Internet-based program: 150 min of regular physical activity per week, 200- to 300-kcal reduced daily diet for weight control, one-on-one counseling, and mobile phone text messages. Workers in the Education group received text messages and an educational booklet. There were significant group by time interactions in cardio-metabolic risks: body weight (p = .022), visceral fat mass (p = .033), and waist circumference (p = .037). There was no group by time interaction in stress (p > .05); however, the BEST group showed a significantly greater reduction in health-related stress than those in the Education group (p = .025). This study yielded evidence of the beneficial impact of the Internet-based BEST program for workers with metabolic syndrome on selected cardio-metabolic risks and health-related stress. Internet-based one-on-one counseling and mobile phone text messages can assist individuals with targeted lifestyle modifications for metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Baseline predictors of treatment outcome in Internet-based alcohol interventions: a recursive partitioning analysis alongside a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are seen as attractive for harmful users of alcohol and lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Some participants will however not achieve the desired results. In this study, harmful users of alcohol have been partitioned in subgroups with low, intermediate or high probability of positive treatment outcome, using recursive partitioning classification tree analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two Internet-based alcohol interventions. The main outcome variable was treatment response, a dichotomous outcome measure for treatment success. Candidate predictors for the classification analysis were first selected using univariate regression. Next, a tree decision model to classify participants in categories with a low, medium and high probability of treatment response was constructed using recursive partitioning software. Results Based on literature review, 46 potentially relevant baseline predictors were identified. Five variables were selected using univariate regression as candidate predictors for the classification analysis. Two variables were found most relevant for classification and selected for the decision tree model: ‘living alone’, and ‘interpersonal sensitivity’. Using sensitivity analysis, the robustness of the decision tree model was supported. Conclusions Harmful alcohol users in a shared living situation, with high interpersonal sensitivity, have a significantly higher probability of positive treatment outcome. The resulting decision tree model may be used as part of a decision support system but is on its own insufficient as a screening algorithm with satisfactory clinical utility. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (Cochrane Collaboration): NTR-TC1155. PMID:23651767

  7. Pharmacists' online information literacy: an assessment of their use of Internet-based medicines information.

    PubMed

    Peterson-Clark, Geraldine; Aslani, Parisa; Williams, Kylie Anne

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacists need effective skills in accessing and using Internet-based medicines information (IBMI) for themselves and their consumers. However, there is limited information regarding how pharmacists use the Internet. To develop and use a research instrument to measure pharmacists' Internet knowledge, search skills, evaluation of and opinions about using IBMI. A structured questionnaire examining general Internet knowledge, ability to search for and select pertinent IBMI, evaluation of IBMI, opinions about using IBMI and current Internet use was developed. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse IBMI evaluation. 208 pharmacists responded (response rate 20.6%). There was a large variation in pharmacists' scores. Mean scores were low for General Internet Knowledge (mean 7.91 +/- 3.62; scale 0-16), Search and Selection of IBMI (4.98 +/- 2.91; 0-10) and Opinions on IBMI (44.51 +/- 9.61; 0-80). Four factors [Professionalism of website (4 items; factor loading 0.62-0.87; Cronbach's alpha 0.84), Disclosure (5; 0.37-0.79; 0.73), Appropriateness of content (5; 0.32-0.50; 0.65), Standard of information (6; 0.31-0.48; 0.58)] were extracted from the evaluation scale, explaining 36.89% of the total variance. A tool was developed to evaluate pharmacists' skills and opinions in using IBMI. A wide range of skills and opinions highlighted the need for training in online information literacy.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Intervention Using Random-Digit-Dial Recruitment: The Disaster Recovery Web Project

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Paul, Lisa A.; Gros, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna L.; Acierno, Ron; Morgan, Mark; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Disasters occur with high frequency throughout the world and increase risk for development of mental health problems in affected populations. Research focused on the development and evaluation of secondary prevention interventions addressing post-disaster mental health has high potential public-health impact. Toward this end, internet-based interventions (IBIs) are particularly attractive in that they: (1) offer a low-cost means of delivering standardized, targeted, personalized intervention content to a broad audience; and (2) are easily integrated within a stepped care approach to screening and service delivery. We describe a unique study design intended to evaluate an IBI with a disaster-affected population-based sample. Description and rationale are provided for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this intervention include the use of a population-based sample, telephone and internet-based assessments, and development of a highly individualized web-based intervention. Challenges related to the development and large-scale evaluation of IBIs targeting post-disaster mental health problems, as well as implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22008248

  9. A study of emerging teacher practices in internet-based lesson plan development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Robyn; Hawkins, Isabel

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we describe two aspects of an Internet-based lesson plan development project called "Science On-Line-Earth and Space Science for the Classroom." First, we discuss the design of the Science On-Line (SOL) Project, which focuses on building a community of practice, appropriate task and setting, and contact with the scientific workplace. Second, we examine strategies teachers used as they approached the task of creating Internet-based science lesson plans for the World Wide Web. Based on the analysis of data gathered during the various project phases, results show that the teacher-developed strategies have varying degrees of effectiveness in facilitating Internet-based lesson plan design, information-gathering, and organization. We describe how the strategies began to evolve into formulated practices for Internet-based lesson development within the SOL teacher community. The SOL investigation develops a case study of the strategies and emerging practices in the context of the creation and pilot-testing of Internet-based lesson plans. This case study may serve as an exemplar of tested Internet-based lesson development strategies and practices for the educational community.

  10. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  11. Determinants of Follow-Up Participation in the Internet-Based European Influenza Surveillance Platform Influenzanet

    PubMed Central

    Bajardi, Paolo; Vespignani, Alessandro; Funk, Sebastian; Eames, Ken TD; Edmunds, W John; Turbelin, Clément; Debin, Marion; Colizza, Vittoria; Smallenburg, Ronald; Koppeschaar, Carl E; Franco, Ana O; Faustino, Vitor; Carnahan, Annasara; Rehn, Moa

    2014-01-01

    Background “Influenzanet” is a network of Internet-based platforms aimed at collecting real-time data for influenza surveillance in several European countries. More than 30,000 European volunteers participate every year in the study, representing one of the largest existing Internet-based multicenter cohorts. Each week during the influenza season, participants are asked to report their symptoms (if any) along with a set of additional questions. Objective Focusing on the first influenza season of 2011-12, when the Influenzanet system was completely harmonized within a common framework in Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy, and Portugal, we investigated the propensity of users to regularly come back to the platform to provide information about their health status. Our purpose was to investigate demographic and behavioral factors associated with participation in follow-up. Methods By means of a multilevel analysis, we evaluated the association between regular participation during the season and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics as measured by a background questionnaire completed by participants on registration. Results We found that lower participation in follow-up was associated with lower educational status (odds ratio [OR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.85), smoking (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.59-0.70), younger age (OR ranging from 0.30, 95% CI 0.26-0.33 to 0.70, 95% CI 0.64-0.77), not being vaccinated against seasonal influenza (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), and living in a household with children (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.65-0.74). Most of these results hold when single countries are analyzed separately. Conclusions Given the opportunistic enrollment of self-selected volunteers in the Influenzanet study, we have investigated how sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics may be associated with follow-up participation in the Influenzanet cohort. The study described in this paper shows that, overall, the most important determinants of

  12. Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    is the web-service, which realizes the interaction of all parts of the system and controls whole the way of the request from the user to the database and back, adopted to the GeoSciML and EarthResourceML view. The experience of creation the Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing, and also previous works, including the developing of web-service of NGKIS-system, allows to tell, that technological realization of presenting Russian geological-cartographical data with using of international standards is possible. While realizing, it could be some difficulties, associated with geological material depth. Russian informational geological model is more deep and wide, than foreign. This means the main problem of using international standards and formats: Russian geological data presentation is possible only with decreasing the data detalisation. But, such a problem becomes not very important, if the service publishes also Russian vocabularies, not associated with international vocabularies. In this case, the international format could be the interchange format to change data between Russian users. The integration into the international projects reaches developing of the correlation schemes between Russian and foreign classificators and vocabularies.

  13. Internet based computer tailored feedback on sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Hein; Logister, Matti; Krekels, Gertruud; Klaasse, Frits; Servranckx, Verina; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2012-04-30

    Skin cancer incidence rates signify the need for effective programs for the prevention of skin cancer and for helping skin cancer patients. Internet and computer tailored (CT) technology fosters the development of highly individualized health communication messages. Yet, reactions to Internet CT programs may differ per level of involvement and education level and remain understudied. First, we identified perceptions concerning sunscreen use in Dutch adults and assessed differences in differences between the general public and skin cancer patients, and between low and high educated respondents. Second, we assessed program evaluations of these groups about a new Dutch CT Internet-based program promoting sunscreen use, and potential differences between groups A cross-sectional research design was used. In total, 387 respondents participated and filled out an online questionnaire based on the I-Change Model assessing socio-demographics, history of skin cancer, sunscreen use, and beliefs about sunscreen use. The responses were fed into a computer program that generated personal tailored feedback on screen; next we assessed their program evaluations Of the 132 patients, 92 were female (69.7%) and 40 were male (30.3%). In the general population (N = 225), 139 (54.5%) respondents were female and 116 (45.5%) were male. Men (50.9 years) were 8 years older than women (43.1 years). Most patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma (N = 65; 49.2%), followed by melanoma (N = 28; 21.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (N = 10; 7.6%); 22% (N = 29) did not remember their skin cancer type. Patients had higher knowledge levels, felt significantly more at risk, were more convinced of the pros of sunscreen, experienced more social support to use sunscreen, had higher self-efficacy, and made more plans to use sunscreen than respondents without skin cancer (N=255; all P's< .01). Low (N=196) educated respondents scored lower on knowledge (P<.003) but made more action plans (P<.03) than

  14. Internet-Based Computer Tailored Feedback on Sunscreen Use

    PubMed Central

    Logister, Matti; Krekels, Gertruud; Klaasse, Frits; Servranckx, Verina; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancer incidence rates signify the need for effective programs for the prevention of skin cancer and for helping skin cancer patients. Internet and computer tailored (CT) technology fosters the development of highly individualized health communication messages. Yet, reactions to Internet CT programs may differ per level of involvement and education level and remain understudied. Objective First, we identified perceptions concerning sunscreen use in Dutch adults and assessed differences in differences between the general public and skin cancer patients, and between low and high educated respondents. Second, we assessed program evaluations of these groups about a new Dutch CT Internet-based program promoting sunscreen use, and potential differences between groups Methods A cross-sectional research design was used. In total, 387 respondents participated and filled out an online questionnaire based on the I-Change Model assessing socio-demographics, history of skin cancer, sunscreen use, and beliefs about sunscreen use. The responses were fed into a computer program that generated personal tailored feedback on screen; next we assessed their program evaluations Results Of the 132 patients, 92 were female (69.7%) and 40 were male (30.3%). In the general population (N = 225), 139 (54.5%) respondents were female and 116 (45.5%) were male. Men (50.9 years) were 8 years older than women (43.1 years). Most patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma (N = 65; 49.2%), followed by melanoma (N = 28; 21.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (N = 10; 7.6%); 22% (N = 29) did not remember their skin cancer type. Patients had higher knowledge levels, felt significantly more at risk, were more convinced of the pros of sunscreen, experienced more social support to use sunscreen, had higher self-efficacy, and made more plans to use sunscreen than respondents without skin cancer (N=255; all P’s< .01). Low (N=196) educated respondents scored lower on knowledge (P<.003

  15. Effectiveness of Internet-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Leonie; Baumeister, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent and associated with considerable disease burden and personal and societal costs. However, they can be effectively reduced through prevention measures. The Internet as a medium appears to be an opportunity for scaling up preventive interventions to a population level. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the current state of research on Internet-based interventions for the prevention of mental disorders to give a comprehensive overview of this fast-growing field. Methods A systematic database search was conducted (CENTRAL, Medline, PsycINFO). Studies were selected according to defined eligibility criteria (adult population, Internet-based mental health intervention, including a control group, reporting onset or severity data, randomized controlled trial). Primary outcome was onset of mental disorder. Secondary outcome was symptom severity. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analytical pooling of results took place if feasible. Results After removing duplicates, 1169 studies were screened of which 17 were eligible for inclusion. Most studies examined prevention of eating disorders or depression or anxiety. Two studies on posttraumatic stress disorder and 1 on panic disorder were also included. Overall study quality was moderate. Only 5 studies reported incidence data assessed by means of standardized clinical interviews (eg, SCID). Three of them found significant differences in onset with a number needed to treat of 9.3-41.3. Eleven studies found significant improvements in symptom severity with small-to-medium effect sizes (d=0.11- d=0.76) in favor of the intervention groups. The meta-analysis conducted for depression severity revealed a posttreatment pooled effect size of standardized mean difference (SMD) =−0.35 (95% CI, −0.57 to −0.12) for short-term follow-up, SMD = −0.22 (95% CI, −0.37 to −0.07) for medium-term follow-up, and SMD = −0

  16. Experiences of guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for depression: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet-based self-help treatment with minimal therapist contact has been shown to have an effect in treating various conditions. The objective of this study was to explore participants' views of Internet administrated guided self-help treatment for depression. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 strategically selected participants and qualitative methods with components of both thematic analysis and grounded theory were used in the analyses. Results Three distinct change processes relating to how participants worked with the treatment material emerged which were categorized as (a) Readers, (b) Strivers, and (c) Doers. These processes dealt with attitudes towards treatment, views on motivational aspects of the treatment, and perceptions of consequences of the treatment. Conclusions We conclude that the findings correspond with existing theoretical models of face-to-face psychotherapy within qualitative process research. Persons who take responsibility for the treatment and also attribute success to themselves appear to benefit more. Motivation is a crucial aspect of guided self-help in the treatment of depression. PMID:21718523

  17. A Coming of Age Story: Chlamydia in the Post-Genetic Era

    PubMed Central

    Hooppaw, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are ubiquitous, obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the infectious, extracellular elementary body and the replicative, intracellular reticulate body. The primary Chlamydia species associated with human disease are C. trachomatis, which is the leading cause of both reportable bacterial sexually transmitted infections and preventable blindness, and C. pneumoniae, which infects the respiratory tract and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Collectively, these pathogens are a significant source of morbidity and pose a substantial financial burden on the global economy. Past efforts to elucidate virulence mechanisms of these unique and important pathogens were largely hindered by an absence of genetic methods. Watershed studies in 2011 and 2012 demonstrated that forward and reverse genetic approaches were feasible with Chlamydia and that shuttle vectors could be selected and maintained within the bacterium. While these breakthroughs have led to a steady expansion of the chlamydial genetic tool kit, there are still roads left to be traveled. This minireview provides a synopsis of the currently available genetic methods for Chlamydia along with a comparison to the methods used in other obligate intracellular bacteria. Limitations and advantages of these techniques will be discussed with an eye toward the methods still needed, and how the current state of the art for genetics in obligate intracellular bacteria could direct future technological advances for Chlamydia. PMID:26667838

  18. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Chlamydia Species.

    PubMed

    Sixt, Barbara S; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-09-08

    Species of Chlamydia are the etiologic agent of endemic blinding trachoma, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, significant respiratory pathogens, and a zoonotic threat. Their dependence on an intracellular growth niche and their peculiar developmental cycle are major challenges to elucidating their biology and virulence traits. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in our ability to perform a molecular genetic analysis of Chlamydia species. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains, now available for forward- and reverse-genetic applications, and the introduction of a system for plasmid-based transformation enabling complementation of mutations; expression of foreign, modified, or reporter genes; and even targeted gene disruptions. This review summarizes the current status of the molecular genetic toolbox for Chlamydia species and highlights new insights into their biology and new challenges in the nascent field of Chlamydia genetics.

  19. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2015-07-21

    Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change -2.99 cm, 95% CI -3.68 to -2.30, I(2)=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I(2)=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention.

  20. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. Methods This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Results Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change –2.99 cm, 95% CI −3.68 to −2.30, I2=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I2=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Conclusions Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:26199208

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Mentoring Program for Type 1 Diabetes Patients with Inadequate Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sunghwan; Jean, Cheol; Koo, Mihyun; Lee, Sun Young; Cho, Min Ja; Sim, Kang-Hee; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether an internet-based mentoring program can improve glycemic control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Subjects with T1DM on intensive insulin therapy and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥8.0% were randomized to mentored (glucometer transmission with feedback from mentors) or control (glucometer transmission without feedback) groups and were examined for 12 weeks. Five mentors were interviewed and selected, of which two were T1DM patients themselves and three were parents with at least one child diagnosed with T1DM since more than 5 years ago. Results A total of 57 T1DM adult subjects with a mean duration after being diagnosed with diabetes of 7.4 years were recruited from Samsung Medical Center. Unfortunately, the mentored group failed to show significant improvements in HbA1c levels or other outcomes, including the quality of life, after completion of the study. However, the mentored group monitored their blood glucose (1.41 vs. 0.30) and logged into our website (http://ubisens.co.kr/) more frequently (20.59 times vs. 5.07 times) than the control group. Conclusion A 12-week internet-based mentoring program for T1DM patients with inadequate glycemic control did not prove to be superior to the usual follow-up. However, the noted increase in the subjects' frequency of blood glucose monitoring may lead to clinical benefits. PMID:24851207

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a minimal versus extended Internet-based intervention for problem drinkers: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Hendershot, Christian S; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-21

    Problem drinking causes great harm to the person and to society. Most problem drinkers will never seek treatment. The current trial will test the efficacy of two Internet interventions for problem drinking - one minimal and the other extended - as an alternate means of providing help to those in need. A double blinded, four-wave panel design with random assignment to two experimental conditions will be used in this study. Participants will be recruited through a comprehensive recruitment strategy consisting of online and print advertisements asking for people who are 'interested in helping us develop and evaluate Internet-based interventions for problem drinkers.' Potential participants will be screened to select problem drinkers who have home access to the Internet. Participants will be sent to a password-protected Internet site and, upon signing in, will be randomized to be provided access to the minimal or extended Internet-based intervention. Six-month, twelve-month, and two-year drinking outcomes will be compared between experimental conditions. The primary hypothesis is that participants in the extended Internet intervention condition will display significantly improved drinking outcomes at twelve months compared to participants in the minimal intervention. The findings of this trial will contribute to the growing literature on Internet interventions for problem drinkers. In addition, findings from this trial will contribute to the scarce literature available evaluating the long-term efficacy of brief interventions for alcohol problems. Clinical Trials.gov # NCT01874509; First submitted June 17, 2013.

  3. Consistency of patient preferences about a secure Internet-based patient communications portal: contemplating, enrolling, and using.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Douglas S; Kruse, Robin L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Koopman, Richelle J; Keplinger, Lynn E; Canfield, Shannon M; Mehr, David R

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based secure communication portals (portal) have the potential to enhance patient care via improved patient-provider communications. This study examines differences among primary care patients' perceptions when contemplating using, enrolling to use, and using a portal for health care purposes. A total of 3 groups of patients from 1 Midwestern academic medical center were surveyed at different points in time: (1) Waiting Room survey asking about hypothetical interest in using a portal to communicate with their physicians; (2) patient portal Enrollment survey; and (3) Follow-up postenrollment experience survey. Those who enroll and use a patient portal have different demographic characteristics and interest levels in selected portal functions (eg, e-mailing providers, viewing medical records online, making appointments) and initially perceive only limited improvements in care because of the portal. These differences have potential market implications and provide insight into selecting and maintaining portal functions of greater interest to patients who use the portal.

  4. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  5. The significant impact of education, poverty, and race on Internet-based research participant engagement

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Quan, Tiffany; Ibiebele, Abiye; Fisher, Sherri L.; Olfson, Emily; Salyer, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Internet-based technologies are increasingly being used for research studies. However, it is not known whether Internet-based approaches will effectively engage participants from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: A total of 967 participants were recruited and offered genetic ancestry results. We evaluated viewing Internet-based genetic ancestry results among participants who expressed high interest in obtaining the results. Results: Of the participants, 64% stated that they were very or extremely interested in their genetic ancestry results. Among interested participants, individuals with a high school diploma (n = 473) viewed their results 19% of the time relative to 4% of the 145 participants without a diploma (P < 0.0001). Similarly, 22% of participants with household income above the federal poverty level (n = 286) viewed their results relative to 10% of the 314 participants living below the federal poverty level (P < 0.0001). Among interested participants both with a high school degree and living above the poverty level, self-identified Caucasians were more likely to view results than self-identified African Americans (P < 0.0001), and females were more likely to view results than males (P = 0.0007). Conclusion: In an underserved population, engagement in Internet-based research was low despite high reported interest. This suggests that explicit strategies should be developed to increase diversity in Internet-based research. Genet Med 19 2, 240–243. PMID:27467456

  6. Comparing live lecture, internet-based & computer-based instruction: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Emami, Amir Hossein; Rahmani, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Comparing computer and internet based instruction with traditional giving lecture would provide enough evidence to identify best teaching practice. In this study, we compared lecture, interactive internet based and computer based learning regarding medical students' knowledge acquisition and satisfaction in teaching pathophysiology of hematology and oncology. Eighty four medical students were randomized into three groups and an identical faculty member conducted the instructions through the above mentioned methods. Students' knowledge was assessed one week before and immediately after the interventions by pre and posttest. Students' satisfaction was assessed using a validated 5-point Likert scale. The results showed that students' satisfaction was significantly higher in interactive internet based group than other ones (p=0.05). There were a significant increase between pre and posttest scores in all groups (p=0.000). We used ANCOVA to compare score changes in the study groups, with posttest scores as the dependent factor and pretest scores as covariate and knowledge acquisition was significantly higher in interactive internet based group than other two groups (p=0.026). The study showed that although interactive internet based instruction is a difficult and time consuming method, it is recommended to integrate this method to medical curricula.

  7. Two-year outcome of internet-based relapse prevention for partially remitted depression.

    PubMed

    Holländare, Fredrik; Anthony, Susanne A; Randestad, Mia; Tillfors, Maria; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of internet-based relapse prevention for sufferers of partially remitted depression. Eighty-four individuals with partially remitted unipolar depression were randomized to either internet-based CBT (iCBT) or to a control group. After the ten week intervention period the participants were followed for 24 months and diagnostic interviews conducted to detect relapse. The intervention and monthly self-ratings of depressive symptoms were administered via an internet-based platform that ensured secure communication with all participants. Significantly fewer participants in the iCBT group had experienced a relapse compared with those in the control group two years after the internet-based intervention. The relapse rate in the iCBT group was 13.7% (CI 95%=2.5-24.9) and in the control group it was 60.9% (CI 95%=44.8-77). Furthermore, a significantly larger proportion of the iCBT group experienced remission two years after the intervention compared with the control group. Internet-based CBT seems promising for preventing relapse in sufferers of partially remitted depression.

  8. Incorporating Internet-based Interventions into Couple Therapy: Available Resources and Recommended Uses

    PubMed Central

    Cicila, Larisa N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are a number of highly efficacious in-person treatments designed to ameliorate relationship distress, only a small proportion of distressed couples seek out in-person treatment. Recently developed internet-based interventions based on these in-person treatments are a promising way to circumvent common barriers to in-person treatment and give more distressed couples access to these efficacious interventions. The overarching aims of this review are to provide couple and family therapists with a broad overview of the available internet-based interventions and provide suggestions about how these interventions might be utilized before, during, or after in-person treatment. First, we review internet-based interventions targeting individual psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). These interventions would be particularly useful as an adjunctive resource for in-person couple or family therapy when referrals for a concurrent in-person individual therapist are not feasible (because of time, financial, or geographic constraints). The majority of the review centers on internet-based interventions for distressed couples and covers four distinct types of resources: relationship advice websites, assessment/feedback interventions, enrichment interventions for satisfied couples, and interventions targeting at-risk or distressed couples. We close with a case study of one couple’s journey through a newly developed intervention targeting at-risk couples, OurRelationship.com, and provide two appendices with information on currently available internet-based interventions. PMID:26405375

  9. Efficacy of Internet-Based Self-Monitoring Interventions on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Perinatal Diabetic Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring using the Internet offers new opportunities to engage perinatal diabetic women in self-management to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. Objective This review aims to synthesize the best available evidence to evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based self-monitoring interventions in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes among perinatal diabetic women. Methods The review was conducted using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsyINFO, Scopus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses to search for English-language research studies without any year limitation. A risk of bias table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan software. Cochran Q and I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity. The overall effect was assessed using z tests at P<.05. Of the 438 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, nine experimental studies from 10 publications were selected. Results Half of the selected studies showed low risk of bias and comprised 852 perinatal diabetic women in six countries. The meta-analysis revealed that Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the level of maternal glycated hemoglobin A1c (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among perinatal diabetic women at postintervention. Moreover, Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the cesarean delivery rate (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among the mixed group at postintervention. Conclusions This review shows neonatal or other maternal outcomes are similar between Internet-based self-monitoring interventions and usual diabetes care among perinatal diabetic women. The long-term effects of the intervention must be confirmed in future studies using randomized controlled trials and follow-up data. PMID:27526637

  10. Efficacy of Internet-Based Self-Monitoring Interventions on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Perinatal Diabetic Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-08-15

    Self-monitoring using the Internet offers new opportunities to engage perinatal diabetic women in self-management to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. This review aims to synthesize the best available evidence to evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based self-monitoring interventions in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes among perinatal diabetic women. The review was conducted using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsyINFO, Scopus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses to search for English-language research studies without any year limitation. A risk of bias table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan software. Cochran Q and I(2) tests were used to assess heterogeneity. The overall effect was assessed using z tests at P<.05. Of the 438 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, nine experimental studies from 10 publications were selected. Half of the selected studies showed low risk of bias and comprised 852 perinatal diabetic women in six countries. The meta-analysis revealed that Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the level of maternal glycated hemoglobin A1c (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among perinatal diabetic women at postintervention. Moreover, Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the cesarean delivery rate (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among the mixed group at postintervention. This review shows neonatal or other maternal outcomes are similar between Internet-based self-monitoring interventions and usual diabetes care among perinatal diabetic women. The long-term effects of the intervention must be confirmed in future studies using randomized controlled trials and follow-up data.

  11. A cost analysis of an internet based medication adherence intervention for people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Horvath, Keith J.; Danilenko, Gene P.; Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document development costs and estimate implementation costs of an internet based medication adherence intervention for people living with HIV in the US. Participants (n=61) were enrolled in the 8 week study in 2011 and entered the intervention website remotely in the setting of their choice. Development costs were obtained from a feasibility and acceptability study of an internet based medication adherence intervention. Implementation costs were estimated based on an 8 week trial period during the feasibility and acceptability study. Results indicated that although developing an internet based medication adherence intervention is expensive, the monthly cost of implementing and delivering the intervention is low. If the efficacy of similar interventions can be established, these results suggest the internet could be an effective method for delivering medication adherence interventions to persons residing in areas with limited access to in-person adherence services. PMID:22362156

  12. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  13. Efficacy of an Internet-Based Intervention for Infant and Toddler Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Du Mond, Courtney E.; Sadeh, Avi; Telofski, Lorena S.; Kulkarni, Neema; Gunn, Euen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems occur in 20% to 30% of young children. Although behaviorally based interventions are highly efficacious, most existing interventions require personal contact with a trained professional, and unfortunately many children remain untreated. However, the use of an internet-based intervention could provide widespread access. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an internet-based intervention for infant and toddler sleep disturbances, as well as to assess any indirect benefits to maternal sleep, mood, and confidence. Methods: 264 mothers and their infant or toddler (ages 6-36 months) participated in a 3-week study. Families were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups (algorithmic internet-based intervention alone or in combination with a prescribed bedtime routine) or a control group. After a one-week baseline (usual routine), the intervention groups followed personalized recommendations during weeks 2 and 3. All mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Profile of Mood States weekly. Results: Both internet-based interventions resulted in significant reductions in problematic sleep behaviors. Significant improvements were seen in latency to sleep onset and in number/duration of night wakings, P < 0.001. Sleep continuity increased as well as mothers' confidence in managing their child's sleep. Improvements were seen by one week, with additional benefits by week two. Maternal sleep and mood were also significantly improved. Conclusions: This internet-based intervention (with and without routine) is beneficial in improving multiple aspects of infant and toddler sleep, especially wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep continuity, as well as improving maternal sleep and mood. Citation: Mindell JA; Du Mond CE; Sadeh A; Telofski LS; Kulkarni N; Gunn E. Efficacy of an internet-based intervention for infant and toddler sleep disturbances. SLEEP 2011

  14. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Peptidoglycan Synthesis in Chlamydia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Despite having a cell envelope that resembles other gram -negative bacteria, the presence of peptidoglycan in the Chlamydia cell envelope has long... PEPTIDOGLYCAN SYNTHESIS AND FOSFOMYCIN RESISTANCE ABSTRACT Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular, gram -negative bacteria with a dimorphic... gram -positive bacteria, chlamydiae do not contain detectable levels of peptidoglycan (PG). PG is a polymer of alternating N-acetylglucosamine 32

  15. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  18. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-12-20

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM seropositivity during pregnancy and assessment of its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Chowdhury, S B; Akhtar, N; Jahan, M; Jahan, M K; Jebunnahar, S

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomaties IgM seropositivity during pregnancy. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out in the obstetrics outdoor of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh in collaboration with the department of Virology between the periods from July 2007 to December 2008. Pregnant women at their first visit to the hospital were approached consecutively and asked to complete a questionnaire and 2cc blood was collected from each subject for Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody testing using ELISA method. The study population was divided into two groups according to the presence and absence of serum Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody. Finally socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors were compared between the groups. Among 172 women the sero-prevalence of Chlamydia IgM was 41%. The multiple logistic regression model (step wise) finally extracted for characteristics correlated with seropositivity. Ten years or less (≤SSC) education (OR 2.6 95% CI 1.1to 5.9), history of adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 2.8 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5) and multiple sex partner of husband (OR 4.1 95% CI 1.2 to 14.8) were associated with chlamydia infection. The use of condom (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63) was associated with decreased risk of infection. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy is associated with risk factors on the basis of which selective screening can be done.

  20. The MovieClassroom: An Internet Based Application for Students and Instructors to Create Captioned Animations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbano, L.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed and tested an internet based application that facilitates the creation of animations for use in lectures and permits movie production by students in laboratory classes. Animation have been found to be extremely useful educational aids in the geosciences, particularly relating to topics requiring comprehension of geospatial relationships. With this program, instructors are able to assemble and caption animations using an online video clip catalogue and present these movies through a standard internet browser. Captioning increases student comprehension by increasing the multimodality of information delivery. For student use, we developed an exercise for introductory, undergraduate, laboratory class sections that was informed by learning pedagogy, particularly as related to game-based learning. Students were asked to assemble video clips and captions into a coherent movie to explain geospatial concepts, with questions such as "Explain why we have seasons?" The affinity of students to digital technology, particularly computer games and digital media, makes this type of exercise particularly captivating to the typical undergraduate. The opportunity to select and arrange video clips (and add background music) into a unique production offers students a greater degree of ownership of the learning process and allows unique non-linear pathways for accomplishing learning objectives. Use in a laboratory section permitted rapid feedback from the instructor. The application was created using open-sourced software and the database populated with video clips and music contributed by faculty and students under a non-commercial-use license. This tool has the potential to permit the wider dissemination of scientific research results given the increasing use animations for scientific visualization, because it eases the creation of multiple presentations targeted to various audiences and allows user participation in the creation of multimedia.

  1. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Li, Xue; Pei, Ye; Gao, Jianan; Kong, Junhui

    2016-10-21

    Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals' subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs) have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of iCBT programs with control groups for participants with subthreshold depression were selected. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the efficacy of iCBT interventions. Tenarticles from 8 randomized controlled trials were identified in this systematic review. The results suggested that iCBT programs had a superior efficacy compared to results from a non-active control group at the post-intervention stage (SMD = - 0.28, CI [- 0.42, - 0.14]; I(2) = 49 %). However, evidence on the long-term efficacy of iCBT programs is still insufficient and needs further exploration. There has been substantial evidence that iCBT intervention has a superior short-term efficacy compared to the results of control groups, while its long-term efficacy of iCBT for subthreshold depressive symptoms is inconclusive and must be examined in further research. The protocol of this review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), Protocol No. CRD42015023390 .

  2. Internet-based behavioral activation and acceptance-based treatment for depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carlbring, Per; Hägglund, Malin; Luthström, Anne; Dahlin, Mats; Kadowaki, Åsa; Vernmark, Kristofer; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression has been tested in several trials but there are no internet studies on behavioral activation (BA), and no studies on BA over the internet including components of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The aim of this study was to develop and test the effects of internet-delivered BA combined with ACT against a waiting list control condition as a first test of the effects of treatment. Selection took place with a computerized screening interview and a subsequent semi-structured telephone interview. A total of 80 individuals from the general public were randomized to one of two conditions. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks after which both groups were assessed. We also included a 3 month follow-up. The treatment included interactive elements online and a CD-ROM for mindfulness and acceptance exercises. In addition, written support and feedback was given by a therapist every week. Results at posttreatment showed a large between group effect size on the Beck Depression inventory II d=0.98 (95%CI=0.51-1.44). In the treated group 25% (10/40) reached remission defined as a BDI score ≤ 10 vs. 5% (2/40) in the control group. Results on secondary measures were smaller. While few dropped out from the study (N=2) at posttreatment, the average number of completed modules was M=5.1 out of the seven modules. The study only included a waiting-list comparison and it is not possible to determine which treatment components were the most effective. We conclude that there is initial evidence that BA with components of ACT can be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of an internet-based self-help program for better quality of sleep among Japanese workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kawakami, Norito

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of Internet-based self-help programs for insomnia is still unclear. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of an Internet-based self-help program for better quality of sleep among adult workers. Forty-three volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n=21) or a waiting-list group (n=22). The intervention group participated in a two-week Internet-based program, including selecting and daily practicing sleep-related target behaviors and monitoring those behaviors along with sleep quality. At the same time, each participant received automatically generated, personalized messages and reports both daily and weekly. A total of 12 intervention group participants and 18 waiting-list group participants completed questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, and at a 3-wk follow-up. Subjective sleep quality was measured by a self-reported questionnaire developed for this study. The sleep quality score increased in the intervention group at post-intervention, with a significant interaction effect [F(1,28)=5.19, p=0.031]. Sleep-related behaviors also greatly increased in the intervention group at post-intervention, with a significant interaction effect [F(1,28)=7.14, p=0.012]. Sleep-onset latency reduced in the intervention group at follow-up, with a marginally significant effect [F(1,28)=3.52, p=0.071]. The Internet-based self-help program improves subjective sleep quality and sleep-onset latency among adult workers.

  4. Resistance to a novel antichlamydial compound is mediated through mutations in Chlamydia trachomatis secY.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Eriksen, Steven G; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Suchland, Robert J; Putman, Timothy E; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert; Rockey, Daniel D

    2012-08-01

    A novel and quantitative high-throughput screening approach was explored as a tool for the identification of novel compounds that inhibit chlamydial growth in mammalian cells. The assay is based on accumulation of a fluorescent marker by intracellular chlamydiae. Its utility was demonstrated by screening 42,000 chemically defined compounds against Chlamydia caviae GPIC. This analysis led to the identification of 40 primary-hit compounds. Five of these compounds were nontoxic to host cells and had similar activities against both C. caviae GPIC and Chlamydia trachomatis. The inhibitory activity of one of the compounds, (3-methoxyphenyl)-(4,4,7-trimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-[1,2]dithiolo[3,4-C]quinolin-1-ylidene)amine (MDQA), was chlamydia specific and was selected for further study. Selection for resistance to MDQA led to the generation of three independent resistant clones of C. trachomatis. Amino acid changes in SecY, a protein involved in Sec-dependent secretion in Gram-negative bacteria, were associated with the resistance phenotype. The amino acids changed in each of the resistant mutants are located in the predicted central channel of a SecY crystal structure, based on the known structure of Thermus thermophilus SecY. These experiments model a process that can be used for the discovery of antichlamydial, anti-intracellular, or antibacterial compounds and has led to the identification of compounds that may have utility in both antibiotic discovery and furthering our understanding of chlamydial biology.

  5. Teaching Business Strategy for an Emerging Economy: An Internet-Based Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Van V.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based simulation used in a course about business strategy in an emerging economy. The simulation, when coupled with today's dominant strategy paradigm, the Resource Based View, appears to yield a course design that attracts students while emphasizing the actual substance which is crucial in such a course. (EV)

  6. Taiwanese College Students' Reading Practices and Profiles in Both Print- and Internet-Based Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fang, Sheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study expanded the definition of reading practices to include both print- and Internet-based reading, and examined the relationship of reading profiles to Taiwanese college students' performance on various practices. The results showed that more time was spent on Internet-than print-based extracurricular reading, and that the three…

  7. Developing an Internet-based Survey to Collect Program Cost Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffray, Christine M.; Chatterji, Pinka

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and testing of an Internet-based cost survey that was designed by the authors for the National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) to capture the costs of school-based health programs. The intent of the survey was twofold. First, the survey was designed to collect comprehensive data on costs in a…

  8. Taiwanese College Students' Reading Practices and Profiles in Both Print- and Internet-Based Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fang, Sheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study expanded the definition of reading practices to include both print- and Internet-based reading, and examined the relationship of reading profiles to Taiwanese college students' performance on various practices. The results showed that more time was spent on Internet-than print-based extracurricular reading, and that the three…

  9. 31 CFR 542.511 - Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hosting services that are for purposes other than personal communications (e.g., web-hosting services for... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exportation of certain services....511 Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications authorized. (a) To the...

  10. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  11. Evaluation of Nontraditional Age Learners' Experiences in Internet-Based Clinical Social Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…

  12. Measuring Japanese EFL Student Perceptions of Internet-Based Tests with the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizon, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has made it possible for teachers to administer online assessments with affordability and ease. However, little is known about Japanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' attitudes of internet-based tests (IBTs). Therefore, this study aimed to measure the perceptions of IBTs among Japanese English language learners with the…

  13. 4Kids.org: Topical, Searchable, and Safe Internet-Based Resource for Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Melanie; Blood, Leslie; Ault, Marilyn; Adams, Doug

    2008-01-01

    4Kids.org is an online resource with an accompanying syndicated print publication created to promote safe access to websites and technology literacy. 4Kids.org, created by ALTEC at the University of Kansas in 1995, provides a variety of Internet-based activities as well as access to a database of websites reviewed for educational content,…

  14. Zephyr: A secure Internet-based process to streamline engineering procurements using the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.W.; Cavitt, R.E.; Niven, W.A.; Warren, F.E.; Taylor, S.S.; Sharick, T.M.; Vickers, D.L.; Mitschkowetz, N.; Weaver, R.L.

    1996-08-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is piloting an Internet- based paperless process called `Zephyr` to streamline engineering procurements. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in reducing procurement time, speeding the engineering development cycle, facilitating industrial collaboration, and reducing overall costs. Programs at LLNL are benefiting by the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr`s engineering and commerce on the Internet.

  15. Collaborative Processes in Species Identification Using an Internet-Based Taxonomic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri

    2016-01-01

    Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are…

  16. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  17. E-Activities: Internet-based Activities To Expand Your History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbauer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Presents three Internet-based activities for teaching elementary students about the Underground Railroad. The activities include creating a freight-train of facts about the Underground Railroad, mapping the routes of the Underground Railroad, and participating in an electronic simulation of life as a fugitive slave. (SM)

  18. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  19. Teaching Business Strategy for an Emerging Economy: An Internet-Based Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Van V.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based simulation used in a course about business strategy in an emerging economy. The simulation, when coupled with today's dominant strategy paradigm, the Resource Based View, appears to yield a course design that attracts students while emphasizing the actual substance which is crucial in such a course. (EV)

  20. Developing and Implementing an Internet-Based Financial System Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Financial System Simulator game, an Internet-based, interactive teaching aid that introduces undergraduate students to the domestic and international consequences of monetary policy. States that student surveys indicate the game keeps learners motivated and interested and helps them understand monetary policy. (JEH)

  1. Science-On Line: Partnership Approach for the Creation of Internet-based Classroom Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Isabel; Battle, Robyn

    Research has been conducted which develops case studies on how to engage scientists in partnerships with teachers. Studies have focused on the Internet and the World Wide Web as potential conduits of research results to the classroom, particularly if scientists and teachers were involved in joint creation of Internet-based curriculum and lesson…

  2. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…

  3. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…

  4. Predictors of outcome in Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Gerhard; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Rück, Christian; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2013-10-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for severe health anxiety can be effective, but not all patients achieve full remission. Under these circumstances, knowledge about predictors is essential for the clinician in order to make reliable treatment recommendations. The primary aim of this study was to investigate clinical, demographic, and therapy process-related predictors of Internet-based CBT for severe health anxiety. We performed three types of analyses on data from a sample comprising participants (N = 81) who had received Internet-based CBT in a randomized controlled trial. Outcomes were a) end state health anxiety, b) improvement in health anxiety (continuous change scores), and c) clinically significant improvement. Outcomes were assessed at six-month follow-up. The results showed that the most stable predictors of both end state health anxiety and improvement were baseline health anxiety and depressive symptoms. Treatment adherence, i.e. the number of completed treatment modules, also significantly predicted outcome. Notably, health anxiety at baseline was positively associated with symptom improvement while depressive symptoms was negatively related to improvement. Demographic factors were largely without significant impact on end state symptoms or improvement. We conclude that baseline symptom burden and adherence to treatment have strong predictive effects in Internet-based CBT for severe health anxiety.

  5. Sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for severe health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian; Hofmann, Stefan G; Andersson, Erik; Andersson, Gerhard; Schulz, Stefan M

    2014-03-01

    A sudden gain is defined as a large and stable individual improvement occurring between two consecutive treatment sessions. Sudden gains have been shown to predict better long-term improvement in several treatment studies, including cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety disorders, but have not been studied in the treatment of health anxiety or any form of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for severe health anxiety. We examined the occurrence and significance of sudden gains in measures of health anxiety in 81 participants receiving internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. We compared patients with sudden gains, patients without sudden gains, and patients with gradual gains. Thirteen participants (16%) experienced one sudden gain in health anxiety with individual sudden gains distributed across the treatment. As expected, patients with a sudden gain showed larger improvements than patients without a sudden gain at post-treatment (d = 1.04) and at one-year follow-up (d = 0.91) on measures of health anxiety. Consistent with previous studies, sudden gains in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy are associated with significantly larger and stable treatment effects up to one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Adoption of Internet-based Teaching Practices in College Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Michael N.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the Internet-based teaching practices of college-level geography instructors. Relates these practices to their research specialty, place of employment, teaching experiences, and academic rank. Focuses on full-time geography faculty listed in the "1997-98 Association of American Geographers Guide to Programs in the United States and…

  7. Effects of an Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement Program for Smoking Abstinence: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Glenn, Irene M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the feasibility of an Internet-based method to obtain objective evidence of smoking abstinence and to deliver vouchers for evidence of abstinence. Four heavy smokers participated in this 4-week study. Twice daily, participants made video recordings of themselves providing a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample with a Web…

  8. Internet-based information resource and discussion platform on GHG reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-28

    The website (www.ccasia.teri.res.in) provides a consolidated Internet based information source and platform for discussions on climate change issues in Asia. The effort has been successful in reaching the target audience and in stimulating awareness about the crucial debate on GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction strategies in Asia.

  9. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... sampling (taking into account size (by number of communications assistants) and location) of five call... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes in...

  10. Virtualisation of Engineering Discipline Experiments for an Internet-Based Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiwari, Rajiv; Singh, Khilawan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive survey on the Internet based virtualisation of experiments is presented, covering several individual as well as collaborative efforts in various engineering disciplines. From this survey it could be concluded that there is a pressing need to develop full-fledged remote laboratory experiments for integrated directly into engineering…

  11. Internet-Based Sources of Information Which Can Be Used to Study the Internationalization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danford, Gerard L.

    2008-01-01

    This review shows how the Internet can support learning about the process of internationalization. A description of how Internet-based sources of information can be used by students when investigating internationalization has not been made. However, the Internet and its role during a corporation's foreign market expansion has not been investigated…

  12. The Acceptability of an Internet-Based Self-Help Treatment for Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…

  13. Development of an Undergraduate Course--Internet-Based Instrumentation and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Hanqi; Morgera, Salvatore D.

    2007-01-01

    The objective, strategy, and implementation details of a new undergraduate course, Internet-based Instrumentation and Control, are presented. The course has a companion laboratory that is supported by the National Science Foundation and industry. The combination is offered to senior-level undergraduate engineering students interested in sensing,…

  14. Internet Based Learning: An Introduction and Framework for Higher Education and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Deanie, Ed.; Hale, Charles, Ed.; Johnson, Charles, Ed.; Farr, Gerald, Ed.

    This contributed volume is designed for junior college faculty, senior college faculty, and business trainers who wish to integrate new Internet technology for learning. Chapters are as follows: (1) "Preparing for Internet-Based Learning" (Deanie French); (2) "Learning To Learn in a WWW-Based Environment" (Betty Collis and…

  15. From Fulcher to PLEVALEX: Issues in Interface Design, Validity and Reliability in Internet Based Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Interface design and ergonomics, while already studied in much of educational theory, have not until recently been considered in language testing (Fulcher, 2003). In this paper, we revise the design principles of PLEVALEX, a fully operational prototype Internet based language testing platform. Our focus here is to show PLEVALEX's interfaces and…

  16. Development of an Undergraduate Course--Internet-Based Instrumentation and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Hanqi; Morgera, Salvatore D.

    2007-01-01

    The objective, strategy, and implementation details of a new undergraduate course, Internet-based Instrumentation and Control, are presented. The course has a companion laboratory that is supported by the National Science Foundation and industry. The combination is offered to senior-level undergraduate engineering students interested in sensing,…

  17. The Role of Personal Epistemology in the Self-Regulation of Internet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar

    2010-01-01

    The predictability of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs for self-regulated learning within Internet technologies was examined in a sample of 84 physics undergraduates. Dimensions of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs were found to explain unique variance in Internet-based search, help-seeking, and self-regulatory strategies, respectively.…

  18. Intercultural Internet-Based Learning: Know Your Audience and What They Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Joanne P. H.; Tinney, Mari Vawn; Chia, Bing Howe

    2004-01-01

    As the internet-based learning (IBL) market becomes increasingly global, understanding differing educational values and cultural expectations could provide an important competitive edge for providers (universities, publishing houses, and corporate training entities). How each of person determines "good" or "quality" instruction…

  19. An Internet-Based Telerehabilitation System for the Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.; Cahill, Louise M.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Kathy M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an Internet-based telerehabilitation application for the assessment of motor speech disorders in adults with acquired neurological impairment. Method: Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures research design, 2 speech-language pathologists assessed 19 speakers with…

  20. Internet Based Learning: An Introduction and Framework for Higher Education and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Deanie, Ed.; Hale, Charles, Ed.; Johnson, Charles, Ed.; Farr, Gerald, Ed.

    This contributed volume is designed for junior college faculty, senior college faculty, and business trainers who wish to integrate new Internet technology for learning. Chapters are as follows: (1) "Preparing for Internet-Based Learning" (Deanie French); (2) "Learning To Learn in a WWW-Based Environment" (Betty Collis and…

  1. Internet-Based Sources of Information Which Can Be Used to Study the Internationalization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danford, Gerard L.

    2008-01-01

    This review shows how the Internet can support learning about the process of internationalization. A description of how Internet-based sources of information can be used by students when investigating internationalization has not been made. However, the Internet and its role during a corporation's foreign market expansion has not been investigated…

  2. E-Activities: Internet-based Activities To Expand Your History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbauer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Presents three Internet-based activities for teaching elementary students about the Underground Railroad. The activities include creating a freight-train of facts about the Underground Railroad, mapping the routes of the Underground Railroad, and participating in an electronic simulation of life as a fugitive slave. (SM)

  3. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  4. The Role of Personal Epistemology in the Self-Regulation of Internet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar

    2010-01-01

    The predictability of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs for self-regulated learning within Internet technologies was examined in a sample of 84 physics undergraduates. Dimensions of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs were found to explain unique variance in Internet-based search, help-seeking, and self-regulatory strategies, respectively.…

  5. The Acceptability of an Internet-Based Self-Help Treatment for Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…

  6. It's Building, But Is It Designing? Constructing Internet-Based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; Carter, Nicola M.

    At Canada's University of New Brunswick (UNB), adult educators and computer experts jointly identified criteria for designing UNB's new Internet-based distance education delivery system called PSyCo (Presentation System for Courses). The 10 criteria that became the PSyCo blueprint were based on principles from three areas: architecture and design,…

  7. Collaborative Processes in Species Identification Using an Internet-Based Taxonomic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri

    2016-01-01

    Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are…

  8. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  9. Developing and Implementing an Internet-Based Financial System Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Financial System Simulator game, an Internet-based, interactive teaching aid that introduces undergraduate students to the domestic and international consequences of monetary policy. States that student surveys indicate the game keeps learners motivated and interested and helps them understand monetary policy. (JEH)

  10. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...

  11. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...

  12. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...

  13. Natural Disasters Workshop Integrating Hands-On Activities, Internet-Based Data, and GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Melida; Coulter, Bob; Goodwin, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a week-long "Mapping Natural Disasters" workshop offered to K-12 teachers to promote inquiry-based teaching approaches. The workshop modeled the integration of hands-on activities, internet-based data, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) software. (Author/MM)

  14. Early Use of Internet-Based Educational Resources: Effects on Students' Engagement Modes and Flow Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, Leif; Sharafi, Parvaneh

    2004-01-01

    This case study explores how educational training and clinical practice that uses personal computers (PCs) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to access Internet-based medical information, affects the engagement modes of students, flow experience components, and IT-competence. A questionnaire assessing these variables was administered before…

  15. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective.

  16. Clinical characteristics of genital chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Taek; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Kang, Young Mo; Moon, Hye Min; Rhim, Chae Chun

    2017-01-13

    Chlamydia infection in acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is associated with serious complications including ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome and tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). This study compared clinical and laboratory data between PID with and without chlamydia infection. The medical records of 497 women who were admitted with PID between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups (PID with and without chlamydia infection), which were compared in terms of the patients' characteristics, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings, including inflammatory markers. The chlamydia and non-chlamydia groups comprised 175 and 322 women, respectively. The patients in the chlamydia group were younger and had a higher rate of TOA, a longer mean hospital stay, and had undergone more surgeries than the patients in the non- chlamydia group. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and CA-125 level were higher in the chlamydia group than in the non-chlamydia group, but there was no significant difference in the white blood cell count between the two groups. The CA-125 level was the strongest predictor of chlamydia infection, followed by the ESR and CRP level. The area under the receiving operating curve for CA-125, ESR, and CRP was 0.804, 0.755, and 0.663, respectively. Chlamydia infection in acute PID is associated with increased level of inflammatory markers, such as CA-125, ESR and CRP, incidence of TOA, operation risk, and longer hospitalization.

  17. Validity of Internet-based longitudinal study data: the elephant in the virtual room.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Carys A; Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N

    2015-04-16

    Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient data are available. We believe that validation is a

  18. Efficacy of an internet-based intervention for infant and toddler sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Mindell, Jodi A; Du Mond, Courtney E; Sadeh, Avi; Telofski, Lorena S; Kulkarni, Neema; Gunn, Euen

    2011-04-01

    Sleep problems occur in 20% to 30% of young children. Although behaviorally based interventions are highly efficacious, most existing interventions require personal contact with a trained professional, and unfortunately many children remain untreated. However, the use of an internet-based intervention could provide widespread access. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an internet-based intervention for infant and toddler sleep disturbances, as well as to assess any indirect benefits to maternal sleep, mood, and confidence. 264 mothers and their infant or toddler (ages 6-36 months) participated in a 3-week study. Families were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups (algorithmic internet-based intervention alone or in combination with a prescribed bedtime routine) or a control group. After a one-week baseline (usual routine), the intervention groups followed personalized recommendations during weeks 2 and 3. All mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Profile of Mood States weekly. Both internet-based interventions resulted in significant reductions in problematic sleep behaviors. Significant improvements were seen in latency to sleep onset and in number/duration of night wakings, P<0.001. Sleep continuity increased as well as mothers' confidence in managing their child's sleep. Improvements were seen by one week, with additional benefits by week two. Maternal sleep and mood were also significantly improved. This internet-based intervention (with and without routine) is beneficial in improving multiple aspects of infant and toddler sleep, especially wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep continuity, as well as improving maternal sleep and mood.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based treatment program for stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Lindholm, Lars; Samuelsson, Eva

    2015-03-01

    To perform a deterministic cost-utility analysis, from a 1-year societal perspective, of two treatment programs for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post. The treatments were compared with each other and with no treatment. We performed this economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. The study included 250 women aged 18-70, with SUI ≥ 1 time/week, who were randomized to 3 months of pelvic floor muscle training via either an Internet-based program including e-mail support from an urotherapist (n = 124) or a program sent by post (n = 126). Recruitment was web-based, and participants were self-assessed with validated questionnaires and 2-day bladder diaries, supplemented by a telephone interview with a urotherapist. Treatment costs were continuously registered. Data on participants' time for training, incontinence aids, and laundry were collected at baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We also measured quality of life with the condition-specific questionnaire ICIQ-LUTSqol, and calculated the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Baseline data remained unchanged for the no treatment option. Sensitivity analysis was performed. Compared to the postal program, the extra cost per QALY for the Internet-based program ranged from 200€ to 7,253€, indicating greater QALY-gains at similar or slightly higher costs. Compared to no treatment, the extra cost per QALY for the Internet-based program ranged from 10,022€ to 38,921€, indicating greater QALY-gains at higher, but probably acceptable costs. An Internet-based treatment for SUI is a new, cost-effective treatment alternative. © 2013 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Internet-based health education in China: a content analysis of websites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is increasingly being applied in health education worldwide; however there is little knowledge of its use in Chinese higher education institutions. The present study provides the first review and highlights the deficiencies and required future advances in Chinese Internet-based health education. Methods Two authors independently conducted a duplicate Internet search in order to identify information regarding Internet-based health education in China. Results The findings showed that Internet-based education began in China in September 1998. Currently, only 16 of 150 (10.7%) health education institutions in China offer fee-based online undergraduate degree courses, awarding associates and/or bachelors degrees. Fifteen of the 16 institutions were located in the middle or on the eastern coast of China, where were more developed than other regions. Nursing was the most popular discipline in Internet-based health education, while some other disciplines, such as preventive medicine, were only offered at one university. Besides degree education, Chinese institutions also offered non-degree online training and free resources. The content was mainly presented in the form of PowerPoint slides or videos for self-learning. Very little online interactive mentoring was offered with any of the courses. Conclusions There is considerable potential for the further development of Internet-based health education in China. These developments should include a focus on strengthening cooperation among higher education institutions in order to develop balanced online health curricula, and on enhancing distance education in low- and middle-income regions to meet extensive learning demands. PMID:24467710

  1. Internet-based guided self-help for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catrin E; Farewell, Daniel; Groves, Vicky; Kitchiner, Neil J; Roberts, Neil P; Vick, Tracey; Bisson, Jonathan I

    2017-06-01

    There are numerous barriers that limit access to evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Internet-based guided self-help is a treatment option that may help widen access to effective intervention, but the approach has not been sufficiently explored for the treatment of PTSD. Forty two adults with DSM-5 PTSD of mild to moderate severity were randomly allocated to internet-based self-help with up to 3 h of therapist assistance, or to a delayed treatment control group. The internet-based program included eight modules that focused on psychoeducation, grounding, relaxation, behavioural activation, real-life and imaginal exposure, cognitive therapy, and relapse prevention. The primary outcome measure was reduction in clinician-rated traumatic stress symptoms using the clinician administered PTSD scale for DSM-V (CAPS-5). Secondary outcomes were self-reported PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, alcohol use, perceived social support, and functional impairment. Posttreatment, the internet-based guided self-help group had significantly lower clinician assessed PTSD symptoms than the delayed treatment control group (between-group effect size Cohen's d = 1.86). The difference was maintained at 1-month follow-up and dissipated once both groups had received treatment. Similar patterns of difference between the two groups were found for depression, anxiety, and functional impairment. The average contact with treating clinicians was 2½ h. Internet-based trauma-focused guided self-help for PTSD is a promising treatment option that requires far less therapist time than current first line face-to-face psychological therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 31 CFR 560.540 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 560.540 Section 560.540 Money and Finance: Treasury....540 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the....S. persons, wherever located, to persons in Iran of software necessary to enable the...

  3. 31 CFR 538.533 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 538.533 Section 538.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the....S. persons, wherever located, to persons in Sudan of software necessary to enable the...

  4. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  5. 31 CFR 560.540 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 560.540 Section 560.540 Money and Finance: Treasury....540 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the... incident to the exchange of personal communications over the Internet, such as instant messaging, chat...

  6. 31 CFR 538.533 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 538.533 Section 538.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the... incident to the exchange of personal communications over the Internet, such as instant messaging, chat...

  7. Transformation for Adults in an Internet-Based Learning Environment--Is It Necessary to Be Self-Directed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Regina Juchun; Chu, Anita Zichun; Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Chia-chun

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between self-directed learning readiness and transformative learning theory (TLT) reflected by the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). A questionnaire survey about adult learner's perceptions of Internet-based learning was administered to adults enrolled in classes in community…

  8. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  9. 31 CFR 538.533 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 538.533 Section 538.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the... incident to the exchange of personal communications over the Internet, such as instant messaging, chat...

  10. 31 CFR 560.540 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... software incident to Internet-based communications. 560.540 Section 560.540 Money and Finance: Treasury....540 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications. (a) To the... incident to the exchange of personal communications over the Internet, such as instant messaging, chat...

  11. Validation of internet-based self-reported anthropometric, demographic data and participant identity in the Food4Me study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anth...

  12. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  13. Internet-based telehealth system for the treatment of agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Perpiñá, Concepción; Rey, Beatriz; Lozano, José Antonio; Guillén, Verónica; Barrera, Francisco; Gil, José Antonio

    2003-08-01

    In this work that is being validated within the VEPSY project, we present a system that allows the patient to continue a psychological virtual reality treatment from his or her home PC as complementary therapy. In the consulting room, we have been using virtual therapy for panic disorder and agoraphobia treatment to expose the patient to several situations. For the complementary therapy, a structured treatment via the Internet has been prepared, which consists of several parts: an assessment protocol; a structured treatment protocol organized in several blocks (such as psychoeducation and exposure); and an outcome protocol. The same situations as in the consulting room have been selected for the exposure, but each of them has been divided into several virtual environments with specific characteristics that limit its difficulty level. The stimuli that are used at each level are controlled automatically by the system. The information of the patient is stored in a database, which is placed in a remote server using XML format and used to control which stages of the treatment he or she can access. The psychologist can limit the evolution of the patient. The virtual environments are installed in the patient's PC, and they are implemented with a mechanism that ensures that they can only be run when the patient connects to the web. The user should not have any special virtual reality hardware at home, so head rotations have been simulated with the navigation system.

  14. Evaluation of Internet-based oncologic teaching for medical students.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M P; Sinha, P; Kanwar, K; Inman, A; Albanese, M; Fahl, W

    1998-01-01

    Electronic tools with substantial educational applications are now widely available. In a prospective, randomized study, the value of Web-based educational tools for teaching second-year medical students was evaluated. The 35-hour, image-intensive multifaculty neoplasia course was selected for the experiment, with 103 students assigned to the control group (C) and 61 to the experimental group (E). Representative password-controlled multimedia course modules, accessible via the Internet, were developed. The E cohort was exposed to both classroom and Web-aided materials, whereas the C group had access to the Web modules only after the experiment was concluded (but before the final examination). Pre- and post-exposure questionnaires assessed computer knowledge, familiarity with the Internet, availability of computer access, and the value of Web-based education for both cohorts. Additionally, pre-and post-exposure tests were administered to both cohorts based on educational materials presented in the Web modules. The overall participation rate was 64% (E = 69%; C = 60%). The post-test showed no major performance difference between the two groups. The questionnaires revealed that: less than 1% of the students had not accessed the Internet previously; less than 5% had not used the Internet for medical education before; 34% felt that computer resources on campus were inadequate; and over 75% found Web-based education to be an important additional educational resource. The major negative aspect was the slow pace of data transfer for modem-based home access. Only 1% of students felt that Web-based education could completely replace traditional teaching. The potential for incorporating Web-based education in the medical curriculum is considerable.

  15. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  16. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-07-11

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  17. Lipooligosaccharide is required for the generation of infectious elementary bodies in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bidong D.; Cunningham, Doreen; Liang, Xiaofei; Chen, Xin; Toone, Eric J.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Zhou, Pei; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are the main lipid components of bacterial outer membranes and are essential for cell viability in most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show that small molecule inhibitors of LpxC [UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-GlcNAc deacetylase], the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, block the synthesis of LOS in the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. In the absence of LOS, Chlamydia remains viable and establishes a pathogenic vacuole (“inclusion”) that supports robust bacterial replication. However, bacteria grown under these conditions were no longer infectious. In the presence of LpxC inhibitors, replicative reticulate bodies accumulated in enlarged inclusions but failed to express selected late-stage proteins and transition to elementary bodies, a Chlamydia developmental form that is required for invasion of mammalian cells. These findings suggest the presence of an outer membrane quality control system that regulates Chlamydia developmental transition to infectious elementary bodies and highlights the potential application of LpxC inhibitors as unique class of antichlamydial agents. PMID:21628561

  18. A Content Analysis of Health and Safety Communications Among Internet-Based Sex Work Advertisements: Important Information for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background The capacity to advertise via the Internet continues to contribute to the shifting dynamics in adult commercial sex work. eHealth interventions have shown promise to promote Internet-based sex workers’ health and safety internationally, yet minimal attention has been paid in Canada to developing such interventions. Understanding the information communicated in Internet-based sex work advertisements is a critical step in knowledge development to inform such interventions. Objective The purpose of this content analysis was to increase our understanding of the health and safety information within the Internet advertisements among women, men, and transgender sex workers and to describe how this information may be utilized to inform eHealth service development for this population. Methods A total of 75 Internet-based sex worker advertisements (45 women, 24 men, and 6 transgender persons) were purposefully selected from 226 advertisements collected as part of a larger study in Western Canada. Content analysis was employed to guide data extraction about demographic characteristics, sexual services provided, service restrictions, health practices and concerns, safety and security, and business practices. Frequencies for each variable were calculated and further classified by gender. Thematic analysis was then undertaken to situate the communications within the social and commercialized contexts of the sex industry. Results Four communications themes were identified: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) sexual services; (3) health; and (4) safety and security. White was the most common ethnicity (46/75, 61%) of advertisements. It was found that 20-29 years of age accounted for 32 of the 51 advertisements that provided age. Escort, the only legal business title, was the most common role title used (48/75, 64%). In total, 85% (64/75) of advertisements detailed lists of sexual services provided and 41% (31/75) of advertisements noted never offering uncovered

  19. A Content Analysis of Health and Safety Communications Among Internet-Based Sex Work Advertisements: Important Information for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Kille, Julie; Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2017-04-13

    The capacity to advertise via the Internet continues to contribute to the shifting dynamics in adult commercial sex work. eHealth interventions have shown promise to promote Internet-based sex workers' health and safety internationally, yet minimal attention has been paid in Canada to developing such interventions. Understanding the information communicated in Internet-based sex work advertisements is a critical step in knowledge development to inform such interventions. The purpose of this content analysis was to increase our understanding of the health and safety information within the Internet advertisements among women, men, and transgender sex workers and to describe how this information may be utilized to inform eHealth service development for this population. A total of 75 Internet-based sex worker advertisements (45 women, 24 men, and 6 transgender persons) were purposefully selected from 226 advertisements collected as part of a larger study in Western Canada. Content analysis was employed to guide data extraction about demographic characteristics, sexual services provided, service restrictions, health practices and concerns, safety and security, and business practices. Frequencies for each variable were calculated and further classified by gender. Thematic analysis was then undertaken to situate the communications within the social and commercialized contexts of the sex industry. Four communications themes were identified: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) sexual services; (3) health; and (4) safety and security. White was the most common ethnicity (46/75, 61%) of advertisements. It was found that 20-29 years of age accounted for 32 of the 51 advertisements that provided age. Escort, the only legal business title, was the most common role title used (48/75, 64%). In total, 85% (64/75) of advertisements detailed lists of sexual services provided and 41% (31/75) of advertisements noted never offering uncovered services (ie, no condom). Gender and the

  20. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  1. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  2. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  3. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  4. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    PubMed

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  6. Using internet-based approaches to collect qualitative data from vulnerable groups: reflections from the field.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Cook, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Undertaking qualitative research with vulnerable populations is a complex and challenging process for researchers. Traditional and common modes of collecting qualitative data with these groups have been via face-to-face recorded interviews. This article reports on three internet-based data collection methods; email and synchronous online interviews, as well as online qualitative survey. The key characteristics of using email, sychronous online interviews and an online qualitative survey including the strengths and limitations of each are presented. Reflections and insights on the use of these internet-based data collection methods are provided to encourage researchers to embrace technology and move away from using traditional face-to-face interviews when researching with vulnerable populations. Using the internet to collect qualitative data offers additional ways to gather qualitative data over traditional data collection methods. The use of alternative interview methods may encourage participation of vulnerable participants.

  7. Issues in nursing: strategies for an Internet-based, computer-assisted telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Bott, Marjorie J; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2006-08-01

    The study describes the design and implementation of an Internet-based, computed-assisted telephone survey about the care-planning process in 107 long-term care facilities in the Midwest. Two structured telephone surveys were developed to interview the care planning coordinators and their team members. Questionmark Perception Software Version 3 was used to develop the surveys in a wide range of formats. The responses were drawn into a database that was exported to a spreadsheet format and converted to a statistical format by the Information Technology team. Security of the database was protected. Training sessions were provided to project staff. The interviews were tape-recorded for the quality checks. The inter-rater reliabilities were above 95% to 100% agreement. Investigators should consider using Internet-based survey tools, especially for multisite studies that allow access to larger samples at less cost. Exploring multiple software systems for the best fit to the study requirements is essential.

  8. Internet-based asthma education – A novel approach to compliance: A case report

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin

    2006-01-01

    Asthma costs Canadians over $1.2 billion per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent. PMID:16470251

  9. Internet-based asthma education - a novel approach to compliance: a case report.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin

    2006-01-01

    Asthma costs Canadians over 1.2 billion dollars per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent.

  10. Chemical Bum from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    “Natural home remedies” for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar. PMID:26155328

  11. Chemical Burn from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    "Natural home remedies" for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.

  12. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  13. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2011-03-04

    The objective of this systematic review is to update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese people with new or additional studies. A literature search from 2008 to March 2010 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were adults with a body mass index ≤ 25, at least one study arm involved an internet-based intervention and the primary aims were weight loss or maintenance. Eight additional studies over the eighteen included in the previous review met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on sample characteristics, attrition, weight loss, duration of treatment and maintenance of weight loss. Effect sizes (Hedges g) and relative 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all two-way comparisons within each study. No attempt was made to pool the data in a meta-analysis because of the great heterogeneity of designs among studies. An examination of effect sizes show that the higher significant effects pertain studies that found a superiority of behavioral internet-based programs enhanced by features such as tailored feedback on self-monitoring of weight, eating and activity over education only internet-based interventions. However, control groups are very different among studies and this heterogeneity probably accounts for much of the variance in effect sizes. Hence, questions still remain as to the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance. Implications for further research include using a "real" control group in order to make meta-analysis possible and developing multi-factorial design in order to separate components of interventions and identify which of them or patterns of them are keys to success.

  14. Internet-based recruitment to a depression prevention intervention: lessons from the Mood Memos study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-02-12

    Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.

  15. Internet-based dissemination of educational video presentations: a primer in video podcasting.

    PubMed

    Corl, Frank M; Johnson, Pamela T; Rowell, Melissa R; Fishman, Elliot K

    2008-07-01

    Video "podcasting" is an Internet-based publication and syndication technology that is defined as the process of capturing, editing, distributing, and downloading audio, video, and general multimedia productions. The expanded capacity for visual components allows radiologists to view still and animated media. These image-viewing characteristics and the ease of widespread delivery are well suited for radiologic education. This article presents detailed information about how to generate and distribute a video podcast using a Macintosh platform.

  16. Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN

  17. Survey of Quantification and Distance Functions Used for Internet-based Weak-link Sociological Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report on "Survey of Quantification and Distance Functions Used for Internet -based Weak-link Sociological Phenomena...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report on "Survey of Quantification and Distance Functions Used for Internet ...improve the efficiency of the computation in hoping to speed up the search. Due to the explosive increase of the webpages and the Internet surfers

  18. An Internet-based tailored hearing protection intervention for firefighters: development process and users' feedback.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Eakin, Brenda L; Chin, Dal Lae; Feld, Jamie; Vogel, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant occupational injury for firefighters exposed to intermittent noise on the job. It is important to educate firefighters about using hearing protection devices whenever they are exposed to loud noise. Computer technology is a relatively new health education approach and can be useful for tailoring specific aspects of behavioral change training. The purpose of this study is to present the development process of an Internet-based tailored intervention program and to assess its efficacy. The intervention programs were implemented for 372 firefighters (mean age = 44 years, Caucasian = 82%, male = 95%) in three states (California, Illinois, and Indiana). The efficacy was assessed from firefighters' feedback through an Internet-based survey. A multimedia Internet-based training program was developed through (a) determining program content and writing scripts, (b) developing decision-making algorithms for tailoring, (c) graphic design and audio and video productions, (d) creating computer software and a database, and (e) postproduction quality control and pilot testing. Participant feedback regarding the training has been very positive. Participants reported that they liked completing the training via computer (83%) and also that the Internet-based training program was well organized (97%), easy to use (97%), and effective (98%) and held their interest (79%). Almost all (95%) would recommend this Internet training program to other firefighters. Interactive multimedia computer technology using the Internet was a feasible mode of delivery for a hearing protection intervention among firefighters. Participants' favorable feedback strongly supports the continued utilization of this approach for designing and developing interventions to promote healthy behaviors.

  19. Increasing self-regulatory energy using an Internet-based training application delivered by smartphone technology.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Jo; Benford, Steve; Houghton, Robert J; Golembewski, Michael; Golembewksi, Michael; Fischer, Joel E; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-03-01

    Self-control resources can be defined in terms of "energy." Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed "ego depletion" leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or "training" on self-control tasks may improve an individual's capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program.

  20. Issues in the design of Internet-based systems for collecting patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jones, James B; Snyder, Claire F; Wu, Albert W

    2007-10-01

    Although there is a growing interest in using patient-reported outcomes (PRO) to monitor disease progression and/or therapeutic response, to improve care, and to screen for physical or psychosocial problems in routine clinical practice, PRO instruments can be difficult to administer, score, and interpret in this setting. Internet-based approaches to PRO collection may help overcome these obstacles. This paper discusses the rationale for using the Internet for routine PRO collection, summarizes relevant literature and ongoing projects, and raises several key design and development issues that should guide further efforts in this area. A small number of Internet-based PRO collection applications have been or are currently being developed. The major characteristics of several of these projects are reviewed and summarized. Successful Internet-based PRO collection applications must address patient and clinician-specific needs related to workflow and to the way in which results are presented. A growing number of instruments have been adapted for and evaluated in a web-based format. Collecting PROs via the Internet has the potential to overcome many of the challenges associated with efforts to routinely use PROs in the clinical encounter.

  1. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreakie, B. J.; Hychka, K. C.; Belaire, J. A.; Minor, E.; Walker, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago ( n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  2. Internet-based relapse prevention for anorexia nervosa: nine- month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To study the longer term effects of an internet-based CBT intervention for relapse prevention (RP) in anorexia nervosa. Methods 210 women randomized to the RP intervention group (full and partial completers) or the control group were assessed for eating and general psychopathology. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors of favorable course concerning Body Mass Index (BMI). Logistic regression analysis identified predictors of adherence to the RP program. Results Most variables assessed showed more improvement for the RP than for the control group. However, only some scales reached statistical significance (bulimic behavior and menstrual function, assessed by expert interviewers blind to treatment condition). Very good results (BMI) were seen for the subgroup of “full completers” who participated in all nine monthly RP internet-based intervention sessions. “Partial completers” and controls (the latter non-significantly) underwent more weeks of inpatient treatment during the study period than “full completers”, indicating better health and less need for additional treatment among the “full completers”. Main long-term predictors for favorable course were adherence to RP, more spontaneity, and more ineffectiveness. Main predictors of good adherence to RP were remission from lifetime mood and lifetime anxiety disorder, a shorter duration of eating disorder, and additional inpatient treatment during RP. Conclusions Considering the high chronicity of AN, internet-based relapse prevention following intensive treatment appears to be promising. PMID:24999404

  3. Preventing drug abuse among adolescent girls: outcome data from an internet-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Di Noia, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    This study developed and tested an Internet-based gender-specific drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. A sample of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade girls (N = 236) from 42 states and 4 Canadian provinces were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All girls completed an online pretest battery. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with a 12-session, Internet-based gender-specific drug prevention program. Girls in both groups completed the measurement battery at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Analysis of posttest scores revealed no differences between groups for 30-day reports of alcohol, marijuana, poly drug use, or total substance use (alcohol and drugs). At 6-month follow-up, between-group effects were found on measures of 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, poly drug use, and total substance use. Relative to girls in the control group, girls exposed to the Internet-based intervention reported lower rates of use for these substances. Moreover, girls receiving the intervention achieved gains over girls in the control group on normative beliefs and self-efficacy at posttest and 6-month follow-up, respectively.

  4. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, B J; Hychka, K C; Belaire, J A; Minor, E; Walker, H A

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago (n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  5. Legal, ethical, and methodological considerations in the Internet-based study of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine

    2010-01-01

    With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study.

  6. Adoption of an Internet-based patient education programme in psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Anttila, M; Välimäki, M; Koivunen, M; Luukkaala, T; Kaila, M; Pitkänen, A; Kontio, R

    2011-12-01

    Internet-based patient support systems are widely assumed to predict a future trend in patient education. Coherent information is still lacking on how patient education is adopted in psychiatric hospitals and how information technology is used in it. Our aim was to describe nurses' adoption of an Internet-based patient education programme and the variables explaining it. The study was based on Rogers' model of the diffusion of innovation. The Internet-based patient education sessions were carried out by nurses on nine acute psychiatric inpatient wards in two Finnish hospitals. They were evaluated with reports and analysed statistically. Out of 100 nurses, 83 adopted the programme during the study period. The nurses fell into Rogers' groups, late majority (72%), laggards (17%), early majority (7%), early adopters (3%) and innovators (1%). Three groups were formed according to their activity: laggards, late majority, adopters (including early majority, early adopters, innovators). There was a statistical difference between the nurses' programme adoption between the two hospitals (P= 0.045): more laggards (65% vs. 35%) and adopters (73% vs. 27%) in the same hospital. The findings help to provide insight into the contexts and settings when adopting information technology programmes in the area of mental health care.

  7. Increasing Self-Regulatory Energy Using an Internet-Based Training Application Delivered by Smartphone Technology

    PubMed Central

    Benford, Steve; Houghton, Robert J.; Golembewksi, Michael; Fischer, Joel E.; Hagger, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-control resources can be defined in terms of “energy.” Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed “ego depletion” leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or “training” on self-control tasks may improve an individual's capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program. PMID:24015984

  8. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Adolescent Girls: Outcome Data from an Internet-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Di Noia, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and tested an Internet-based gender-specific drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. A sample of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade girls (N = 236) from 42 states and 4 Canadian provinces were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All girls completed an online pretest battery. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with a 12-session, Internet-based gender-specific drug prevention program. Girls in both groups completed the measurement battery at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Analysis of posttest scores revealed no differences between groups for 30-day reports of alcohol, marijuana, poly drug use, or total substance use (alcohol and drugs). At 6-month follow-up, between-group effects were found on measures of 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, poly drug use, and total substance use. Relative to girls in the control group, girls exposed to the Internet-based intervention reported lower rates of use for these substances. Moreover, girls receiving the intervention achieved gains over girls in the control group on normative beliefs and self-efficacy at posttest and 6-month follow-up, respectively. PMID:19728091

  9. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Warmerdam, Lisanne; van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential mediators and the search for subgroups who respond differently to the interventions. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: two treatment conditions and one waiting list control group. The two treatment conditions are Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and Internet-based problem-solving therapy. They consist of 8 and 5 weekly lessons respectively. Both interventions are combined with support by e-mail. Participants in the waiting list control group receive the intervention three months later. The study population consists of adults from the general population. They are recruited through advertisements in local and national newspapers and through banners on the Internet. Subjects with symptoms of depression (≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) are included. Other inclusion criteria are having sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language, access to the Internet and an e-mail address. Primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, quality of life, dysfunctional cognitions, worrying, problem solving skills, mastery, absence at work and use of healthcare. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: dysfunctional cognitions, problem solving skills, worrying, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics and symptom severity. Data are collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 9 months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted on the intention-to-treat sample. Discussion This

  10. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 35/S)cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form.

  11. Can Internet-Based Sexual Health Services Increase Diagnoses of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)? Protocol for a Randomized Evaluation of an Internet-Based STI Testing and Results Service

    PubMed Central

    Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Kenward, Michael G; Syred, Jonathan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Ensuring rapid access to high quality sexual health services is a key public health objective, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Internet-based testing services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are considered to be a promising way to achieve this goal. This study will evaluate a nascent online STI testing and results service in South East London, delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. Objective The aim of this study is to establish whether an online testing and results services can (1) increase diagnoses of STIs and (2) increase uptake of STI testing, when delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. Methods This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. We will recruit 3000 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 16-30 years of age, resident in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark, having at least one sexual partner in the last 12 months, having access to the Internet and willing to take an STI test. People unable to provide informed consent and unable to read and understand English (the websites will be in English) will be excluded. Baseline data will be collected at enrolment. This includes participant contact details, demographic data (date of birth, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation), and sexual health behaviors (last STI test, service used at last STI test and number of sexual partners in the last 12 months). Once enrolled, participants will be randomly allocated either (1) to an online STI testing and results service (Sexual Health 24) offering postal self-administered STI kits for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and HIV; results via text message (short message service, SMS), except positive results for HIV, which will be delivered by phone; and direct referrals to local clinics for treatment or (2) to a conventional sexual health information website with signposting to local clinic-based sexual health services. Participants will be free to

  12. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan; Dhandayudham, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science - Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA.

  13. A usability gap between older adults and younger adults on interface design of an Internet-based telemedicine system.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based telemedicine is becoming an effective tool to deliver home-healthcare services and health information on demand, especially in rural areas, where there is often a large elderly population with greater rates of preventable chronic diseases. However, the designs of current interfaces for these internet-based telemedicine systems do not take elderly user characteristics into consideration. This study conducted usability testing on the interface of an internet-based telemedicine system using two different age groups, young adults and older adults. Differences in overall performance and satisfaction between the two groups were identified. Based on these results, a future direction is suggested for the interfaces of Internet-based telemedicine systems.

  14. Attachment and internalization of a Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strain by McCoy cells: kinetics of infectivity and effect of lectins and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, G; Kihlström, E

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of attachment and ingestion of Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1 by monolayers of McCoy cells were studied by using a method that discriminated between attachment and uptake. When about 1% of the McCoy cells was infected, the proteinase K-resistant chlamydial fraction, regarded as ingested chlamydiae, reached a constant value after about 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Uptake of chlamydiae at 4 degrees C could not be demonstrated. The attached and ingested chlamydial fractions were constant over an eightfold increase in chlamydial inoculum. Chitobiose and chitotriose, the di- and trisaccharides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, reduced the association of C. trachomatis serotype L1 with McCoy cells. Higher concentrations of chitobiose also selectively inhibited ingestion of chlamydiae. A corresponding effect of chitobiose was also observed on the number of chlamydial inclusions. Wheat germ agglutinin, specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, reduced the association of chlamydiae when incubated at 4 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. A small inhibiting effect of concanavalin A on association of chlamydiae, but no effect of the corresponding carbohydrates, indicates a nonspecific effect on chlamydial attachment of this lectin. These results suggest that beta 1 leads to 4-linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are important in the specificity of attachment of C. trachomatis to McCoy cells. PMID:6642670

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis control requires a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brunham, Robert C; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-04-08

    As the most common reported communicable disease in North America and Europe, Chlamydia trachomatis is the focus of concerted public health control efforts based on screening and treatment. Unexpectedly control efforts are accompanied by rising reinfection rates attributed in part to arresting the development of herd immunity. Shortening the duration of infection through the testing and treatment program is the root cause behind the arrested immunity hypothesis and because of this a vaccine will be essential to control efforts. Advances in Chlamydia vaccinomics have revealed the C. trachomatis antigens that can be used to constitute a subunit vaccine and a vaccine solution appears to be scientifically achievable. We propose that an accelerated C. trachomatis vaccine effort requires coordinated partnership among academic, public health and private sector players together with a commitment to C. trachomatis vaccine control as a global public health priority.

  16. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds. PMID:22957128

  17. Activity of synthetic peptides against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Biondi, Roberta; Papa, Valentina; Borel, Nicole; Nepita, Edoardo Vecchio; Magnino, Simone; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Levi, Aurora; Franco, Octavio L

    2017-05-27

    The in vitro activity of six synthetic peptides against 36 strains of Chlamydia from different origins was investigated. Clavanin MO proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion number of all Chlamydia strains from 8 different species tested by ≥50% at 10 µg.ml(-1) . Mastoparan L showed an equal activity against C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. suis and C. muridarum, but did not exert any inhibitory effect against C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. abortus and C. avium even at 80 µg.ml(-1) . These data suggest that clavanin MO could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of chlamydial infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  19. Internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study of major risk factors for stroke in Korea: lessons from the experience.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Moo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Soo Joo; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Jun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Oh, Mi-Sun; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the population-attributable risks (PARs) of 9 major risk factors for stroke in Korea through a case-control study and to test the feasibility and validity of internet-based control recruitment. From April 2008 to September 2009, controls were enrolled via internet after providing consent for participation through a web-based survey. The cases included patients who were admitted to the participating centers due to acute stroke or transient ischemic attack within 7 days of onset during the study period. Each control was age- and sex-matched with 2 cases. Adjusted odd ratios, age-standardized prevalence, and PARs were estimated for the 9 major risk factors using the prevalence of risk factors in the control group and the age and sex characteristics from Korea's national census data. In total, 1041 controls were matched to 2082 stroke cases. Because of a shortage of elderly controls in the internet-based recruitment, 248 controls were recruited off-line. The PARs were 23.44%, 10.95%, 51.32%, and 6.35% for hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and stroke history, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity, coronary heart disease, and a family history of stroke were not associated with stroke. Comparison with education and religion of the control group with that mentioned in the national census data showed a notable difference. The study results imply that internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study requires careful selection of risk factors with high self-awareness and effective strategies to facilitate the recruitment of elderly participants. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Twenty years of Internet-based research at SCiP: A discussion of surviving concepts and new methodologies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2017-02-07

    This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia in Young Adulthood and Association with Life Course Socioeconomic Position: Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Joanna; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona; Heron, Jon; Horner, Paddy; Macleod, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Few estimates are available of chlamydia prevalence in the general population. Existing studies have limited scope to explore potential selection bias or associations with socioeconomic position. Methods We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associations with life-course socioeconomic position in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in England. Chlamydia infection was measured through nucleic acid amplification test of urine specimens. Results 4864 (51%) of those invited attended the clinic (mean age 17.8; SD 0.37 years). (60%) provided a urine specimen. Prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.6) among participants reporting sexual activity. Risk of infection was strongly associated with life course social disadvantage and with recent sexual behaviour. After adjustment for other measures of disadvantage and for sexual behaviour the strongest risk factors for infection were lower maternal educational attainment (OR 9.1 (1.1, 76.7)) and lower participant educational attainment at age 11 (OR 5.0 (1.5, 16.5)). Both clinic attendance and agreement to test were lower amongst the disadvantaged. Adjustment for selective participation based on detailed information on non-participants approximately doubled prevalence estimates. Prevalence was higher in sexually active women (1.4% (0.7 to 2.4) than men (0.5% (0.1 to 1.3)). Conclusions Chlamydia prevalence in this general population sample was low even after adjustment for selective participation in testing. These estimates of prevalence and patterns of association with socioeconomic position may both reflect recent screening efforts. Prevalence was higher amongst the disadvantaged who were also less likely to engage in testing. Our results reveal the importance of monitoring and addressing inequalities in screening programme participation and outcomes. PMID:25153124

  2. Prevalence of chlamydia in young adulthood and association with life course socioeconomic position: birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Joanna; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona; Heron, Jon; Horner, Paddy; Macleod, John

    2014-01-01

    Few estimates are available of chlamydia prevalence in the general population. Existing studies have limited scope to explore potential selection bias or associations with socioeconomic position. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associations with life-course socioeconomic position in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in England. Chlamydia infection was measured through nucleic acid amplification test of urine specimens. 4864 (51%) of those invited attended the clinic (mean age 17.8; SD 0.37 years). (60%) provided a urine specimen. Prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.6) among participants reporting sexual activity. Risk of infection was strongly associated with life course social disadvantage and with recent sexual behaviour. After adjustment for other measures of disadvantage and for sexual behaviour the strongest risk factors for infection were lower maternal educational attainment (OR 9.1 (1.1, 76.7)) and lower participant educational attainment at age 11 (OR 5.0 (1.5, 16.5)). Both clinic attendance and agreement to test were lower amongst the disadvantaged. Adjustment for selective participation based on detailed information on non-participants approximately doubled prevalence estimates. Prevalence was higher in sexually active women (1.4% (0.7 to 2.4) than men (0.5% (0.1 to 1.3)). Chlamydia prevalence in this general population sample was low even after adjustment for selective participation in testing. These estimates of prevalence and patterns of association with socioeconomic position may both reflect recent screening efforts. Prevalence was higher amongst the disadvantaged who were also less likely to engage in testing. Our results reveal the importance of monitoring and addressing inequalities in screening programme participation and outcomes.

  3. In Vitro Activities of BMS-284756 against Chlamydia trachomatis and Recent Clinical Isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Malay, Sheila; Roblin, Patricia M.; Reznik, Tamara; Kutlin, Andrei; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro activities of BMS-284756 (a novel des-fluoroquinolone), levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clarithromycin were tested against 5 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis and 20 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. The MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited and the minimal bactericidal concentration at which 90% of the isolates were killed by BMS-284756 for all isolates of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis was 0.015 μg/ml (range, 0.015 to 0.03 μg/ml). BMS-284756 was the most active quinolone tested. PMID:11796366

  4. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  5. Actin Recruitment to the Chlamydia Inclusion Is Spatiotemporally Regulated by a Mechanism That Requires Host and Bacterial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Elizabeth; Kirker, Kelly; Zuck, Meghan; James, Garth; Hybiske, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to exit host cells at the end of their developmental growth is a critical step for the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. One exit strategy, extrusion, is mediated by host signaling pathways involved with actin polymerization. Here, we show that actin is recruited to the chlamydial inclusion as a late event, occurring after 20 hours post-infection (hpi) and only within a subpopulation of cells. This event increases significantly in prevalence and extent from 20 to 68 hpi, and actin coats strongly correlated with extrusions. In contrast to what has been reported for other intracellular pathogens, actin nucleation on Chlamydia inclusions did not ‘flash’, but rather exhibited moderate depolymerization dynamics. By using small molecule agents to selectively disrupt host signaling pathways involved with actin nucleation, modulate actin polymerization dynamics and also to disable the synthesis and secretion of chlamydial proteins, we further show that host and bacterial proteins are required for actin coat formation. Transient disruption of either host or bacterial signaling pathways resulted in rapid loss of coats in all infected cells and a reduction in extrusion formation. Inhibition of Chlamydia type III secretion also resulted in rapid loss of actin association on inclusions, thus implicating chlamydial effector proteins(s) as being central factors for engaging with host actin nucleating factors, such as formins. In conclusion, our data illuminate the host and bacterial driven process by which a dense actin matrix is dynamically nucleated and maintained on the Chlamydia inclusion. This late stage event is not ubiquitous for all infected cells in a population, and escalates in prevalence and extent throughout the developmental cycle of Chlamydia, culminating with their exit from the host cell by extrusion. The initiation of actin recruitment by Chlamydia appears to be novel, and may serve as an upstream determinant of the extrusion mechanism. PMID

  6. Factors Associated With Intention to Use Internet-Based Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Kerr, Thomas; Taylor, Darlene; Fairley, Christopher K; Lester, Richard; Wong, Tom; Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based testing programs are being increasingly used to reduce testing barriers for individuals at higher risk of infection, yet the population impact and potential for exacerbation of existing health inequities of these programs are not well understood. Objective We used a large online sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada to measure acceptability of Internet-based testing and perceived advantages and disadvantages of this testing approach. Methods We asked participants of the 2011/2012 Sex Now Survey (a serial online survey of gay and bisexual men in Canada) whether they intended to use Internet-based testing and their perceived benefits and disadvantages of use. We examined whether intention to use was associated with explanatory variables spanning (A) sociodemographics, (B) Internet and technology usage, (C) sexually transmitted infections (STI)/ human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk, and (D) health care access and testing, using multivariable logistic regression (variable selection using Bayesian information criterion). Results Overall, intention to use was high (5678/7938, 71.53%) among participants with little variation by participant characteristics. In our final model, we retained the variables related to (B) Internet and technology usage: use of Internet to cruise for sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70), use of Internet to search for sexual health information (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), and mobile phone usage (AOR 1.19, 95% 1.13-1.24). We also retained the variables for (D) health care access and testing: not “out” to primary care provider (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), delayed/avoided testing due to privacy concerns (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.49-2.11), and delayed/avoided testing due to access issues (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.95). Finally, we retained the variable being HIV positive (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.68) or HIV status unknown (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.01), age <30 years (AOR 1.41, 95

  7. Factors associated with intention to use internet-based testing for sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mark; Hottes, Travis Salway; Kerr, Thomas; Taylor, Darlene; Fairley, Christopher K; Lester, Richard; Wong, Tom; Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-11-14

    Internet-based testing programs are being increasingly used to reduce testing barriers for individuals at higher risk of infection, yet the population impact and potential for exacerbation of existing health inequities of these programs are not well understood. We used a large online sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada to measure acceptability of Internet-based testing and perceived advantages and disadvantages of this testing approach. We asked participants of the 2011/2012 Sex Now Survey (a serial online survey of gay and bisexual men in Canada) whether they intended to use Internet-based testing and their perceived benefits and disadvantages of use. We examined whether intention to use was associated with explanatory variables spanning (A) sociodemographics, (B) Internet and technology usage, (C) sexually transmitted infections (STI)/ human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk, and (D) health care access and testing, using multivariable logistic regression (variable selection using Bayesian information criterion). Overall, intention to use was high (5678/7938, 71.53%) among participants with little variation by participant characteristics. In our final model, we retained the variables related to (B) Internet and technology usage: use of Internet to cruise for sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70), use of Internet to search for sexual health information (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.51), and mobile phone usage (AOR 1.19, 95% 1.13-1.24). We also retained the variables for (D) health care access and testing: not "out" to primary care provider (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), delayed/avoided testing due to privacy concerns (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.49-2.11), and delayed/avoided testing due to access issues (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.95). Finally, we retained the variable being HIV positive (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.68) or HIV status unknown (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.01), age <30 years (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.62), and identifying as bisexual

  8. Profile of European adults interested in internet-based personalised nutrition: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Alfredo Martinez, J; Saris, Wim H; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-03-01

    Personalised interventions may have greater potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases and for promoting better health and well-being across the lifespan than the conventional "one size fits all" approach. However, the characteristics of individuals interested in personalised nutrition (PN) are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of European adults interested in taking part in an internet-based PN study. Individuals from seven European countries (UK, Ireland, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Greece and Poland) were invited to participate in the study via the Food4Me website ( http://www.food4me.org ). Two screening questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic, anthropometric and health-related characteristics as well as dietary intakes. A total of 5662 individuals expressed an interest in the study (mean age 40 ± 12.7; range 15-87 years). Of these, 65 % were female and 97 % were Caucasian. Overall, 13 % were smokers and 47 % reported the presence of a clinically diagnosed disease. Furthermore, 47 % were overweight or obese and 35 % were sedentary during leisure time. Assessment of dietary intakes showed that 54 % of individuals reported consuming at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, 46 % consumed more than 3 servings of wholegrains and 37 % limited their salt intake to <5.75 g per day. Our data indicate that individuals volunteering to participate in an internet-based PN study are broadly representative of the European adult population, most of whom had adequate nutrient intakes but could benefit from improved dietary choices and greater physical activity. Future use of internet-based PN approaches is thus relevant to a wide target audience.

  9. Employees' Expectations of Internet-Based, Workplace Interventions Promoting the Mediterranean Diet: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Thanasoulias, Andreas; Pound, Rachael; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    Explore employees' perceptions of ability to follow the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), preferences for setting goals if asked to follow the MedDiet, and expectations of an Internet-based, workplace MedDiet intervention. Seven focus groups to guide intervention development. Four workplaces (business/professional services, government branches) in Southwest England. Employees (n = 29, 51.7% women), ages 24-58 years. Ability to follow the MedDiet; preferences for goal-setting if asked to follow the MedDiet; intervention content. Data were analyzed with the use of thematic analysis. Participants perceived that adhering to some MedDiet recommendations would be challenging and highlighted cost, taste, and cooking skills as adherence barriers. Behavior change preferences included a tailored approach to goal-setting, reviewing goal progress via a website/smartphone app, and receiving expert feedback via an app/website/text/face-to-face session. Desirable features of an Internet-based MedDiet application included recipes, interactivity, nutritional information, shopping tips, cost-saving information, and a companion smartphone app. Engaging in social support was deemed important to facilitate adherence. An Internet-based, workplace MedDiet intervention should address adherence barriers, utilize a tailored approach to setting and reviewing goals, and activate social support to facilitate adherence. These findings provide insights to planning to promote the MedDiet in non-Mediterranean regions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for depression: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Perini, Sarah; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of an Internet-based clinician-assisted computerized cognitive behavioural treatment (CaCCBT) programme for depression. Forty-five individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for depression were randomly assigned to the Sadness programme or to a waitlist control group. In the clinician-assisted Sadness programme, participants complete six online lessons, weekly homework assignments, receive weekly email contact from a clinical psychologist, and contribute to a moderated online discussion forum with other participants. An intention-to-treat model was used for data analyses. A total of 20 (74%) treatment group participants completed all lessons within the 8 week programme, and post-treatment data were collected from 18/27 treatment group and 17/18 waitlist group participants. Treatment group participants reported significantly reduced symptoms of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition and the Patient Health Questionnaire-Nine Item. Treatment group participants each received an average of eight email contacts (111 min of therapist time]. Mean within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) across the two measures of depressive symptoms were 0.98 and 0.75, respectively. Participants found the treatment programme acceptable and satisfactory. These results replicate those from the pilot trial reported by Perini et al. and are consistent with literature indicating that Internet-based programmes for depression and other mental disorders combined with clinical guidance can result in clinically significant improvements. These data provide further support for the development of Internet-based treatment for common mental disorders.

  11. Patient-directed Internet-based Medical Image Exchange: Experience from an Initial Multicenter Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Giampaolo; Patel, Anand S.; Lewis, Sara C.; Shi, Wei; Rasul, Rehana; Torosyan, Mary; Erickson, Bradley J.; Hiremath, Atheeth; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Tellis, Wyatt M.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Mendelson, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Inefficient transfer of personal health records among providers negatively impacts quality of health care and increases cost. This multicenter study evaluates the implementation of the first Internet-based image-sharing system that gives patients ownership and control of their imaging exams, including assessment of patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods Patients receiving any medical imaging exams in four academic centers were eligible to have images uploaded into an online, Internet-based personal health record. Satisfaction surveys were provided during recruitment with questions on ease of use, privacy and security, and timeliness of access to images. Responses were rated on a five-point scale and compared using logistic regression and McNemar's test. Results A total of 2562 patients enrolled from July 2012 to August 2013. The median number of imaging exams uploaded per patient was 5. Most commonly, exams were plain X-rays (34.7%), computed tomography (25.7%), and magnetic resonance imaging (16.1%). Of 502 (19.6%) patient surveys returned, 448 indicated the method of image sharing (Internet, compact discs [CDs], both, other). Nearly all patients (96.5%) responded favorably to having direct access to images, and 78% reported viewing their medical images independently. There was no difference between Internet and CD users in satisfaction with privacy and security and timeliness of access to medical images. A greater percentage of Internet users compared to CD users reported access without difficulty (88.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion A patient-directed, interoperable, Internet-based image-sharing system is feasible and surpasses the use of CDs with respect to accessibility of imaging exams while generating similar satisfaction with respect to privacy. PMID:26625706

  12. Internet-based versus Conventional Referral System for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Roohipour, Ramak; Karkhaneh, Reza; Farahani, Afsar; Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Khodabande, Alireza; Zarei, Mohammad; Taheri, Arash; Fouladi, Marjan Imani; Yaseri, Mehdi; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S

    2016-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of an internet-based versus traditional referral system for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in Iran. Two referral screening systems were compared in this prospective observational study. Group A (internet-based) comprised premature babies who were registered into an online system for screening. Their appointments were scheduled automatically based on standardized criteria. Group B (conventional) comprised premature babies whose referrals were based on oral or written recommendations. Babies were referred based on standard criteria (gestational age, GA, <37 weeks or birth weight < 3000 g). A total of 2115 neonates were screened between October 2011 and October 2012. From these 1896 met the inclusion criteria (group A n = 856, group B n = 1040). Time of first examination for neonates with GA≤27 weeks was 30.07± 2.72 weeks postmenstrual age in group A and 38.52± 7.03 weeks in group B (p = 0.049), and for neonates with GA>27 weeks was 4.86 ±1.77 and 8.16 ±4.93 weeks after birth in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). All registered babies in group A attended their first screening exam. One case (0.1%) of advanced ROP developed in group A (in a patient with poor follow-up compliance), whereas advanced stages of ROP were seen in 26 cases (2.5%) in group B (p < 0.001). An internet-based registration system for ROP screening resulted in fewer cases of delayed first examination and resulted in fewer babies with advanced ROP.

  13. A novel Internet-based blended learning programme providing core competency in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Tsugihashi, Yukio; Kakudate, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Mishina, Hiroki; Fukumori, Norio; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Takegami, Misa; Ohno, Shinya; Wakita, Takafumi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2013-04-01

    We developed a novel Internet-based blended learning programme that allows busy health care professionals to attain core competency in clinical research. This study details the educational strategies and learning outcomes of the programme. This study was conducted at Kyoto University and seven satellite campuses from September 2009 to March 2010. A total of 176 health care professionals who had never attempted to attain core competency in clinical research were enrolled. The participants were supplied with a novel programme comprising the following four strategies: online live lectures at seven satellite campuses, short examinations after each lecture, an Internet-based feedback system and an end-of-course examination. We assessed the proportion of attendance at the lectures as the main outcome. In addition, we evaluated interaction via the feedback system and scores for end-of-course examination. Of the 176 participants, 134 (76%) reported working more than 40 hours per week. The mean proportion of attendance over all 23 lectures was 82%. A total of 156 (89%) participants attended more than 60% of all lectures and were eligible for the end-of-course examination. A total of the participants accessed the feedback system 3564 times and asked 284 questions. No statistically significant differences were noted in the end-of-course scores among medical doctors, pharmacists, registered nurses and other occupations. We developed an Internet-based blended learning programme providing core competency in clinical research. Most busy health care professionals completed the programme successfully. In addition, the participants could attain the core competency effectively, regardless of their occupation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The development of an internet-based knowledge exchange platform for pediatric critical care clinicians worldwide*.

    PubMed

    Wolbrink, Traci A; Kissoon, Niranjan; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Advances in Internet technology now enable unprecedented global collaboration and collective knowledge exchange. Up to this time, there have been limited efforts to use these technologies to actively promote knowledge exchange across the global pediatric critical care community. To develop an open-access, peer-reviewed, not-for-profit Internet-based learning application, OPENPediatrics, a collaborative effort with the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, was designed to promote postgraduate educational knowledge exchange for physicians, nurses, and others caring for critically ill children worldwide. Description of program development. International multicenter tertiary pediatric critical care units across six continents. Multidisciplinary pediatric critical care providers. A software application, providing information on demand, curricular pathways, and videoconferencing, downloaded to a local computer. In 2010, a survey assessing postgraduate educational needs was distributed through World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies to constituent societies. Four hundred and twenty-nine critical care providers from 49 countries responded to the single e-mail survey request. Respondents included 68% physicians and 28% nurses who care for critically ill children. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported accessing the Internet at least weekly to obtain professional educational information. The five highest requests were for educational content on respiratory care [mechanical ventilation] (48% [38%]), sepsis (28%), neurology (25%), cardiology (14%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (10%), and ethics (8%). Based on these findings, and in collaboration with researchers in adult learning and online courseware, an application was developed and is currently being used by 770 registered users in 60 countries. We describe here the development and implementation of an Internet-based application which is among the first

  15. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marinac, Catherine R; Marcus, Bess H; Rosen, Rochelle K; Gans, Kim M

    2015-12-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. A total of 55 women with at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Participants were on average 46.2 (SD = 11.4) years old with a body mass index of 27.3 (SD = 4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both ps < .001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p < .01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p = .05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Successful minority recruitment and adherence in physical activity Internet-based research: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Georita M; Morrow, James R; Vidales, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Researchers studying physical activity often face challenges dealing with recruitment and resources, particularly when conducting longitudinal Internet-based research. Commonly raised methodological problems such as minority recruitment, participant commitment, and participant-staff involvement are addressed through a theoretically driven recruitment and adherence protocol in The Women's Exercise Injuries: Incidence and Risk Factors (WIN) Internet-based study. The objectives of this paper were to review and suggest solutions to problems of: (1) low recruitment of diverse samples, (2) low adherence, and (3) staffing needs. We recruited 1303 community-dwelling women and followed them through a multiple-phase, longitudinal, Internet-based study. Recruitment and adherence data were analyzed through descriptive methods and logistic regressions to examine participant adherence and sociodemographic factors and predictors of who entered the long-term phase of the study. We successfully retained 71.6% of the sample through 4 recruitment phases. Twenty-seven percent of the initially recruited sample was racial/ethnically diverse, 24% began the long-term phase, and 23% completed. Several strategies to enhance participant commitment were successfully used during the practice phase, providing a successful, low staff to participant ratio. Logistic regression indicated being married, being older, and having greater Internet skills were predictive of successfully entering the long-term phase of the study. Recruitment and compliance protocols were successful in meeting overall and racial/ethnic enrollment and recruitment goals. The theoretically based practice phase techniques were successful in re-engaging noncompliant participants. Strategies for minority enrollment and compliance are evaluated.

  17. Patient-directed Internet-based Medical Image Exchange: Experience from an Initial Multicenter Implementation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giampaolo; Patel, Anand S; Lewis, Sara C; Shi, Wei; Rasul, Rehana; Torosyan, Mary; Erickson, Bradley J; Hiremath, Atheeth; Moskowitz, Alan J; Tellis, Wyatt M; Siegel, Eliot L; Arenson, Ronald L; Mendelson, David S

    2016-02-01

    Inefficient transfer of personal health records among providers negatively impacts quality of health care and increases cost. This multicenter study evaluates the implementation of the first Internet-based image-sharing system that gives patients ownership and control of their imaging exams, including assessment of patient satisfaction. Patients receiving any medical imaging exams in four academic centers were eligible to have images uploaded into an online, Internet-based personal health record. Satisfaction surveys were provided during recruitment with questions on ease of use, privacy and security, and timeliness of access to images. Responses were rated on a five-point scale and compared using logistic regression and McNemar's test. A total of 2562 patients enrolled from July 2012 to August 2013. The median number of imaging exams uploaded per patient was 5. Most commonly, exams were plain X-rays (34.7%), computed tomography (25.7%), and magnetic resonance imaging (16.1%). Of 502 (19.6%) patient surveys returned, 448 indicated the method of image sharing (Internet, compact discs [CDs], both, other). Nearly all patients (96.5%) responded favorably to having direct access to images, and 78% reported viewing their medical images independently. There was no difference between Internet and CD users in satisfaction with privacy and security and timeliness of access to medical images. A greater percentage of Internet users compared to CD users reported access without difficulty (88.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.0001). A patient-directed, interoperable, Internet-based image-sharing system is feasible and surpasses the use of CDs with respect to accessibility of imaging exams while generating similar satisfaction with respect to privacy. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with chronic somatic conditions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    van Beugen, Sylvia; Ferwerda, Maaike; Hoeve, Dane; Rovers, Maroeska M; Spillekom-van Koulil, Saskia; van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea Wm

    2014-03-27

    Patients with chronic somatic conditions face unique challenges accessing mental health care outside of their homes due to symptoms and physical limitations. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has shown to be effective for various psychological conditions. The increasing number of recent trials need to be systematically evaluated and quantitatively analyzed to determine whether ICBT is also effective for chronic somatic conditions and to gain insight into the types of problems that could be targeted. Our goal was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of guided ICBT interventions for chronic somatic conditions on general psychological outcomes, disease-related physical outcomes, and disease-related impact on daily life outcomes. The role of treatment length was also examined. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched from inception until February 2012, by combining search terms indicative of effect studies, Internet, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following six criteria: (1) randomized controlled trial, (2) Internet-based interventions, (3) based on cognitive behavioral therapy, (4) therapist-guided, (5) adult (≥18 years old) patients with an existing chronic somatic condition, and (6) published in English. 23 randomized controlled trials of guided ICBT were selected by 2 independent raters after reviewing 4848 abstracts. Demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted. Standardized mean differences were calculated between intervention and control conditions for each outcome and pooled using random effects models when appropriate. Guided ICBT was shown to improve all outcome categories with small effect sizes for generic psychological outcomes (effect size range 0.17-0.21) and occasionally larger effects for disease-specific physical outcomes (effect size range 0.07 to 1.19) and disease-related impact outcomes (effect size range 0.17-1.11). Interventions with a longer treatment

  19. Using of methods of speckle optics for Chlamydia trachomatis typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2017-03-01

    Specific method of transformation of nucleotide of gene into speckle pattern is suggested. Reference speckle pattern of omp1 gene of typical wild strains of Chlamydia trachomatis of genovars D, E, F, G, J and K and Chlamydia psittaci as well is generated. Perspectives of proposed technique in the gene identification and detection of natural genetic mutations as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are demonstrated.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia...

  2. An internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Berger, Thomas; Znoj, Hans Joerg

    2017-01-13

    an internet-based intervention specifically designed for spousal bereavement and its consequences; (2) testing whether this intervention is equally effective for individuals after separation or divorce; and (3) suggesting adaptations to improve the efficacy of the intervention, selective indication and adaptations for different needs. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02900534 . Registered on 1 September 2016.

  3. Can an Internet-based health risk assessment highlight problems of heart disease risk factor awareness? A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Justin B; McNeal, Catherine J; Tsai, Ginger; Rivera, Cathleen M; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-04-18

    comparative population-based CHD risk (ie, no more than 15% risk of CHD for the sample vs up to a 30% chance of CHD for the population). Interventions are needed to improve knowledge of CHD risk factors. Specific interventions should address perceptions of HDL-C and LCL-C. Internet-based health risk assessments such as Heart Aware may contribute to public health surveillance, but they must address selection bias of Internet-based recruitment methods.

  4. Common cold symptoms in children: results of an Internet-based surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Troullos, Emanuel; Baird, Lisa; Jayawardena, Shyamalie

    2014-06-19

    Conducting and analyzing clinical studies of cough and cold medications is challenging due to the rapid onset and short duration of the symptoms. The use of Internet-based surveillance tools is a new approach in clinical studies that is gradually becoming popular and may become a useful method of recruitment. As part of an initiative to assess the safety and efficacy of cough and cold ingredients in children 6-11 years of age, a surveillance program was proposed as a means to identify and recruit pediatric subjects for clinical studies. The objective of the study was to develop an Internet-based surveillance system and to assess the feasibility of using such a system to recruit children for common cold clinical studies, record the natural history of their cold symptoms, and determine the willingness of parents to have their children participate in clinical studies. Healthy potential subjects were recruited via parental contact online. During the 6-week surveillance period, parents completed daily surveys to record details of any cold symptoms in their children. If a child developed a cold, symptoms were followed via survey for 10 days. Additional questions evaluated the willingness of parents to have their children participate in a clinical study shortly after onset of symptoms. The enrollment target of 248 children was reached in approximately 1 week. Children from 4 distinct geographic regions of the United States were recruited. Parents reported cold symptoms in 163 children, and 134 went on to develop colds. The most prevalent symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sneezing. The most severe symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sore/scratchy throat. The severity of most symptoms peaked 1-2 days after onset. Up to 54% of parents expressed willingness to bring a sick child to a clinical center shortly after the onset of symptoms. Parents found the Internet-based surveys easy to complete. Internet-based surveillance and recruitment can be useful

  5. Feasibility and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Mindfulness Training Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. Objective This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant’s experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. Results In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More

  6. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Warmerdam, Lisanne; van Straten, Annemieke; Twisk, Jos; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim

    2008-11-20

    Many depressed people do not receive help for their symptoms, and there are various barriers that impede help-seeking. The Internet may offer interesting alternatives for reaching and helping people with depression. Depression can be treated effectively with Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but a short intervention based on problem solving therapy (PST) could constitute a worthwhile alternative to CBT. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT and Internet-based PST in comparison to a waiting list control group (WL), and we determined the differences between the two treatments. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to compare CBT, PST, and WL. The main inclusion criterion was presence of depressive symptoms (>or= 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale). CBT and PST consisted of eight and five weekly lessons respectively. Participants were supported by email. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and quality of life were completed at pretest and after 5, 8, and 12 weeks. A total of 263 participants were randomized to the three conditions (CBT: n=88; PST: n=88; WL: n=87). Of the 263 participants, 184 (70%) completed questionnaires after 5 weeks, 173 (66%) after 8 weeks, and 151 (57%) after 12 weeks. Between-group effect sizes for depressive symptoms were 0.54 for CBT after 8 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25 - 0.84) and 0.47 for PST after 5 weeks (95% CI: 0.17 - 0.77). These effects were further improved at 12 weeks (CBT: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.41 - 0.98; PST: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.36 - 0.95). For anxiety, effect sizes were also at a medium level. Effect sizes for quality of life were low. The number of participants showing clinically significant change at 12 weeks was significantly higher for CBT (n = 34, 38.6%) and PST (n = 30, 34.1%), compared to WL (n = 0). Both Internet-based treatments are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, although the effect of PST is realized more quickly

  7. [Survey of pain after ambulatory surgery: An internet-based instrument].

    PubMed

    Schwarze, C; Zenz, D; Orlowski, O; Wempe, C; Van Aken, H; Zahn, P; Maier, C; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M

    2016-04-01

    Pain after surgery continues to be undermanaged. Studies and initiatives aiming to improve the management of postoperative pain are growing; however, most studies focus on inpatients and pain on the first day after surgery. The management of postoperative pain after ambulatory surgery and for several days thereafter is not yet a major focus. One reason is the low return rate of the questionnaires in the ambulatory sector. This article reports the development and feasibility of a web-based electronic data collection system to examine pain and pain-related outcome on predefined postoperative days after ambulatory surgery. In this prospective pilot study 127 patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery were asked to participate in a survey to evaluate aspects related to pain after ambulatory surgery. The data survey was divided in (1) a preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative part and (2) a postoperative internet-based electronic questionnaire which was sent via e-mail link to the patient on days 1, 3 and 7 after surgery. A software was developed using a PHP-based platform to send e-mails and retrieve the data after web-based entries via a local browser. Feasibility, internet-based hitches and compliance were assessed by an additional telephone call after day 7. A total of 100 patients (50 female) between 18 and 71 years (mean 39.1 ± 12.7 years) were included in the pilot study. Return rates of the electronic questionnaires were 86% (days 3 and 7) and 91% (day 1 after surgery). All 3 electronic questionnaires were answered by 82% of patients. Aspects influencing the return rate of questionnaires were work status but not age, gender, education level and preoperative pain. Telephone interviews were performed with 81 patients and revealed high operability of the internet-based survey without any major problems. The user-friendly feasibility and operability of this internet-based electronic data survey system explain the high compliance and return rate of

  8. An internet-based software tool for submitting crime information to forensic laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rashpal S.; Govindarajulu, Sriram

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes an internet-based software tool developed for the West Virginia State Police Forensics Laboratory. The software enables law enforcement agents to submit crime information to the Forensic Laboratory via a secure Internet connection. Online electronic forms were created to mirror the existing paper based forms, making the transition easier. The process of submitting case information was standardized and streamlined, there by minimizing information inconsistency. The crime information once gathered is automatically stored in a database, and can be viewed and queried by any authorized law enforcement officers. The software tool will be deployed in all counties of WV.

  9. Perceptions Toward Internet-Based Delivery of Hearing Aids among Older Hearing-Impaired Adults.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Navshika; Searchfield, Grant D

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that hearing aids can improve the social and psychological functioning of older hearing-impaired adults, hearing aid uptake is low. High cost of hearing aids and poor access to audiology services in rural areas are potential barriers to hearing aid acquisition. Methods of hearing aid delivery deviating from the traditional clinician-based model have been available to consumers for many years. One such method is Internet hearing aid sales. However, research exploring Internet-based hearing aid delivery, as a method to improve hearing aid uptake in this population, is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of older hearing aid users (aged ≥65 yr) toward Internet-based hearing aid delivery. A qualitative approach was adopted to investigate older adults' perceptions of buying hearing aids online. The sample consisted of 18 participants aged between 64 and 81 yr. Fourteen men and four women participated in this study. Participants were all experienced hearing aid users. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted. An interview schedule guided the interview. Interviews were recorded with a voice recorder and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of the data was carried out. Seven main themes emerged from the data. A general lack of awareness, but willingness to learn more about Internet hearing aid sales, was found. Two perceived benefits of Internet-based hearing aid delivery were identified: lower cost of hearing aids and greater convenience or physical accessibility. Numerous concerns and limitations were communicated. Concerns regarding the availability of clinical procedures, such as hearing tests, obtaining the correct-sized earmolds, and fine-tuning of hearing aids, were expressed. Participants conveyed distrust in online retailers. However, trust in and a preference for audiologists' expertise, which was not perceived to be available online, was found. Participants further conveyed a preference for face

  10. The UMLS Knowledge Source Server: a versatile Internet-based research tool.

    PubMed

    McCray, A T; Razi, A M; Bangalore, A K; Browne, A C; Stavri, P Z

    1996-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project regularly distributes a set of Knowledge Sources to the research community. In 1995 the UMLS data were made available for the first time through the Internet-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The server can be accessed through three different client interfaces. The World Wide Web interface allows users to browse and explore the data and to see how those data are organized in the UMLS. The command-line interface is best suited for batch processing, and the application programming interface allows developers at remote sites to embed calls in their application programs to the Knowledge Source Server.

  11. Use of a Supplementary Internet Based Education Program Improves Sleep Literacy in College Psychology Students

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Janis L.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. Methods: An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Results: Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p < 0.001). This difference persisted, although at a lower level, at the end of the semester. In addition, 55.9% of the SS group versus 45.1% of the SI group indicated that they made changes in their sleep habits after participation in the extra credit sleep activity (p < 0.01). The most common change was a more consistent wake time. Conclusion: Use of a supplementary internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance

  12. Design and implementation of an internet-based electrical engineering laboratory.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenlei; Shen, Zhangbiao; Zhu, Shanan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes an internet-based electrical engineering laboratory (IEE-Lab) with virtual and physical experiments at Zhejiang University. In order to synthesize the advantages of both experiment styles, the IEE-Lab is come up with Client/Server/Application framework and combines the virtual and physical experiments. The design and workflow of IEE-Lab are introduced. The analog electronic experiment is taken as an example to show Flex plug-in design, data communication based on XML (Extensible Markup Language), experiment simulation modeled by Modelica and control terminals' design.

  13. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... that used in such immunogenicity test but not less than 2.5 ID50 per dose. Inactivated Bacterial...

  14. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness of internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Warmerdam, Lisanne; Smit, Filip; van Straten, Annemieke; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim

    2010-12-19

    The effectiveness of Internet-based treatments for depression has been demonstrated; their cost-effectiveness, however, has been less well researched. Evaluating the relative cost-utility and cost-effectiveness of (1) Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy, (2) Internet-based problem-solving therapy, and (3) a waiting list for adults with depressive symptoms. A total of 263 participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms were randomized to Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (n = 88), Internet-based problem-solving therapy (n = 88), and a waiting list (n = 87). End points were evaluated at the 12-week follow-up. Cost-utility analysis showed that cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy had a 52% and 61% probability respectively of being more acceptable than waiting when the willingness to pay is € 30,000 for one quality-adjusted life-year. When society is prepared to pay € 10,000 for a clinically significant change from depression, the probabilities of cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy being more acceptable than waiting are 91% and 89%, respectively. Comparing both Internet-based treatments showed no clear preference for one or the other of the treatments. Both Internet-based treatments have a high probability of being cost-effective with a modest value placed on clinically significant change in depressive symptoms. ISRCTN16823487; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN16823487 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5u8slzhDE).

  15. Literature Review on Diabetes Internet-based Spanish-Language Information.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith; Tejada, Karen; Acosta-Melo, Mariel

    2017-03-15

    Diabetes is a growing epidemic that is affecting Hispanics in high rates. Although Hispanics use the internet for health-related informational and educational purposes, there is a lack of information available in the Spanish-language. A review was conducted to examine the literature on internet-based, Spanish-language, diabetes focused information. One search was conducted, using three different databases (i.e. CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed). The search used the keywords diabetes, internet, and Spanish, and was based on published articles from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2016. Of the 46 articles reviewed, one was a duplicate, and 41 were eliminated. These findings show a lack of data and research on Spanish-language, internet-based diabetes informational and educational sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to develop and examine Spanish-language diabetes internet sites and the health-related impact they have on Hispanics who prefer Spanish-language sites. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment is effective for panic: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wims, Edward; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; Choi, Isabella

    2010-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of an Internet-based clinician-assisted cognitive behavioural treatment program (the Panic program) for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Fifty-nine individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomly assigned to a treatment group or to a waitlist control group. Treatment group participants completed the Panic program, comprising six on-line lessons, weekly homework assignments, received weekly email contact from a psychiatry registrar, and contributed to a moderated online discussion forum with other participants. An intention-to-treat model was used for data analyses. Twenty-three (79%) of treatment group participants completed all lessons within the 8-week program, and post-treatment data were collected from 22/29 treatment group and 22/25 waitlist group participants. Compared to the control group, treatment group participants reported significantly reduced symptoms of panic as measured by the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, Body Sensation Questionnaire, and Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaires. Significant reductions were also reported on measures of disability and depression. The mean within- and between-group effect size (Cohen's d) on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale was 0.93 and 0.59, respectively, and effects were sustained at 1-month follow-up. Mean therapist time per participant was 75 minutes for the program. These results replicate those from the open trial of the Panic Program indicating the efficacy of the Internet-based clinician-assisted cognitive behavioural treatment program for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

  17. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  18. Predictors of dropout from internet-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Ho, Lai-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Dropout from self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) potentially diminishes therapeutic effect and poses clinical concern. We analyzed the characteristics of subjects who did not complete a 6-week internet-based CBT-I program. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to identify potential variables and cutoff for predicting dropout among 207 participants with self-report insomnia 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months randomly assigned to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (n = 103) and self-help CBT-I (n = 104). Seventy-two participants (34.4%) did not complete all 6 sessions, while 42 of the 72 (56.9%) dropped out prior to the fourth session. Significant predictors of non-completion are total sleep time (TST) ≥ 6.82 h, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score ≥ 9 and Insomnia Severity Index score < 13 at baseline in this ranking order. Only TST ≥ 5.92 h predicts early dropout. Longer TST and less severe insomnia predict dropout in this study of self-help CBT-I, in contrast to shorter TST as a predictor in 2 studies of face-to-face CBT-I, while greater severity of depression predicts dropout in both this study and a study of face-to-face CBT-I. Strategies for minimizing dropout from internet-based CBT-I are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645

  20. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Internet-based interventions for posttraumatic stress: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Annika; Niemeyer, Helen; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and highly distressing affliction, but access to trauma-focused psychotherapy is limited. Internet-based interventions (IBIs) could improve the delivery of and access to specialized mental health care. Currently, no meta-analytical evidence is available on IBIs for PTSD. We conducted a meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled studies, including 21 comparisons, in order to summarize the current state of efficacy for the treatment of PTSD and to identify moderator variables. Studies tested internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and expressive writing (EW) against active or passive comparison conditions, including subclinical and clinical samples. Results show that at post-assessment CBT-IBIs are significantly more efficacious than passive controls, resulting in medium to large effects on the PTSD sum and all sub-symptom scores (0.66

  2. One-year outcome of an interactive internet-based physical activity intervention among university students.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kanzo; Okano, Shinji; Haga, Shinichiro; Seki, Akiho; Suzuki, Hisao; Takahashi, Kayo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether improvement in physical activity of students following a 4-month intervention of a university course was maintained 8 months later. Data on 77 students who responded to our scheduled inquiries completely through 1 year were analyzed. Participants of the intervention group (n=49) using the internet-based physical activity program exhibited significant increases in energy expenditures measured by IPAQ compared with the no-treatment control group (n=28) through 1 year. Participants who did not engage in regular university sports activities (baseline: 450±351kcalday(-1); post: 587±320kcalday(-1); 8-month follow-up: 580±394kcalday(-1)) only exhibited significant increases in energy expenditures compared with those of the control group (baseline: 498±341kcalday(-1); post: 414±242kcalday(-1); 8-month follow-up: 347±275kcalday(-1)). These results suggested that an internet-based interactive intervention could become a helpful tool in promoting and maintaining physical activity in the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder in clinical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    El Alaoui, Samir; Hedman, Erik; Kaldo, Viktor; Hesser, Hugo; Kraepelien, Martin; Andersson, Evelyn; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has received increased attention as an innovative approach to improve access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge of its effectiveness and application in clinical psychiatric care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to determine the significance of patient adherence and the clinic's years of experience in delivering ICBT. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using latent growth curve modeling of patients (N = 654) treated with ICBT at an outpatient psychiatric clinic between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Rated. Significant reductions in symptoms of social anxiety were observed after treatment (effect size d = 0.86, 99% CI [0.74, 0.98]). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up (d = 1.15, 99% CI [0.99, 1.32]). Patient adherence had a positive effect on the rate of improvement. A positive association between the clinic's years of experience with ICBT and treatment outcome was also observed. This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit specialized in Internet-based psychiatric care and may be considered as a treatment alternative for implementation within the mental health care system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Internet based clinical trial protocols -- as applied to a study of warfarin pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Jonatan D; Kublickas, Marius; Westgren, Magnus; Rane, Anders

    2004-11-01

    To describe and evaluate the use of an Internet-based study protocol in a multicentre study of genetic risk factors in anticoagulant treatment. A web-based study protocol, similar to existing anticoagulation medical record systems, was developed for entry of clinical data. It was also supplied with a separate interface for study monitoring. Measures were taken to assure the confidentiality of transferred data. In addition, software modifications were made to enable automated transfer of clinical data from an existing medical record system to the study database. The system has been in use since March 2002, and at present 39 centres have included 909 patients with a dropout rate of 2.8%. The need for education of participating clinicians has been satisfactorily provided for by means of written instructions and telephone support. Our study demonstrates the usability of Internet-based data acquisition techniques in a full-scale multicentre clinical trial. The main advantages of such a protocol are automated data validation and standardization, fast data transfer independent of geographical distance, user feedback, synchronization of protocol updates and automatic data formatting facilitating statistical analyses. Safety and accessibility are possibly cumbersome areas and should be addressed duly.

  5. Herniamed: an internet-based registry for outcome research in hernia surgery.

    PubMed

    Stechemesser, B; Jacob, D A; Schug-Paß, C; Köckerling, F

    2012-06-01

    Despite the high frequency of hernia surgery procedures and continuous improvements, thanks to new hernia meshes and fixation techniques, in Germany, for example, the recurrence rate and rate of chronic inguinal pain after inguinal surgery are more than 10% far too high. Introduction of a hernia register in Denmark led to a significant reduction in the recurrence rate. The aim of a hernia registry as an application-oriented outcome research tool is to monitor and evaluate (concomitant research) how the knowledge gleaned from evidence-based science is implemented in the everyday clinical setting and, ultimately, investigate its effectiveness (outcome research). The new Internet-based English- and German-language registry for the entire spectrum of inpatient and outpatient hernia surgery is designed to improve the quality of patient care and provide valid data on outcome research. Via the Internet, all relevant patient data (comorbidities, previous operations, staging, specific surgical technique, medical devices used, perioperative complications and follow-up data) can be entered into the registry database. The participating hospitals and surgeons can at any time view their own data by means of an evaluation statistics tool. The outcome research project Herniamed focuses on inguinal hernias, umbilical hernias, incisional hernias, epigastric hernias, parastomal hernias and hiatus hernias. The online-based outcome research registry meets the most stringent data protection criteria. With the Internet-based English- and German-language hernia register, a new instrument is now available for outcome research in hernia surgery.

  6. Twelve-Month Outcomes of an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Woolley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Objective Internet-based programs offer potential for practical, cost-effective chronic illness self-management programs. Methods We report 12-month results of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, with and without additional support, compared to enhanced usual care in a 3-arm practical randomized trial. Patients (n= 463) were randomized: 77.3% completed 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were changes in health behaviors of healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes were hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, and psychosocial factors. Results Internet conditions improved health behaviors significantly vs. usual care over the 12-month period (d for effect size = .09 – .16). All conditions improved moderately on biological and psychosocial outcomes. Latinos, lower literacy, and higher cardiovascular disease risk patients improved as much as other participants. Conclusions The Internet intervention meets the reach and feasibility criteria for a potentially broad public health impact. However, 12-month magnitude of effects was small, suggesting that different or more intensive approaches are necessary to support long-term outcomes. Research is needed to understand the linkages between intervention and maintenance processes and downstream outcomes. Practice Implications Automated self-management interventions should be tailored and integrated into primary care; maintenance of patient self-management can be enhanced through links to community resources. PMID:21924576

  7. An Internet-based self-help treatment for fear of public speaking: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, C; Gallego, M J; Garcia-Palacios, A; Guillen, V; Baños, R M; Quero, S; Alcañiz, M

    2010-08-01

    This study offers data about the efficacy of "Talk to Me," an Internet-based telepsychology program for the treatment of fear of public speaking that includes the most active components in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social phobia (exposure and cognitive therapies). One hundred twenty-seven participants with social phobia were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: (a) an Internet-based self-administered program; (b) the same program applied by a therapist; (c) a waiting-list control group. Results showed that both treatment conditions were equally efficacious. In addition, Talk to Me and the same treatment applied by a therapist were more efficacious than the waiting-list condition. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The results from this study support the utility of Internet-delivered CBT programs in order to reach a higher number of people who could benefit from CBT. Internet-delivered CBT programs could also play a valuable role in the dissemination of CBT.

  8. Healthcare and patient costs of a proactive chlamydia screening programme: the Chlamydia Screening Studies project

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Suzanne; Roberts, Tracy; Barton, Pelham; Bryan, Stirling; Macleod, John; McCarthy, Anne; Egger, Matthias; Sanford, Emma; Low, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective Most economic evaluations of chlamydia screening do not include costs incurred by patients. The objective of this study was to estimate both the health service and private costs of patients who participated in proactive chlamydia screening, using mailed home‐collected specimens as part of the Chlamydia Screening Studies project. Methods Data were collected on the administrative costs of the screening study, laboratory time and motion studies and patient‐cost questionnaire surveys were conducted. The cost for each screening invitation and for each accepted offer was estimated. One‐way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore the effects of variations in patient costs and the number of patients accepting the screening offer. Results The time and costs of processing urine specimens and vulvo‐vaginal swabs from women using two nucleic acid amplification tests were similar. The total cost per screening invitation was £20.37 (95% CI £18.94 to 24.83). This included the National Health Service cost per individual screening invitation £13.55 (95% CI £13.15 to 14.33) and average patient costs of £6.82 (95% CI £5.48 to 10.22). Administrative costs accounted for 50% of the overall cost. Conclusions The cost of proactive chlamydia screening is comparable to those of opportunistic screening. Results from this study, which is the first to collect private patient costs associated with a chlamydia screening programme, could be used to inform future policy recommendations and provide unique primary cost data for economic evaluations. PMID:17229792

  9. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P

    2014-04-01

    The Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular bacteria characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. It encompasses the single genus Chlamydia, which involves nine species that affect a wide range of vertebral hosts, causing infections with serious impact on human health (mainly due to Chlamydia trachomatis infections) and on farming and veterinary industries. It is believed that Chlamydiales originated ∼700mya, whereas C. trachomatis likely split from the other Chlamydiaceae during the last 6mya. This corresponds to the emergence of modern human lineages, with the first descriptions of chlamydial infections as ancient as four millennia. Chlamydiaceae have undergone a massive genome reduction, on behalf of the deletional bias "use it or lose it", stabilizing at 1-1.2Mb and keeping a striking genome synteny. Their phylogeny reveals species segregation according to biological properties, with huge differences in terms of host range, tissue tropism, and disease outcomes. Genome differences rely on the occurrence of mutations in the >700 orthologous genes, as well as on events of recombination, gene loss, inversion, and paralogous expansion, affecting both a hypervariable region named the plasticity zone, and genes essentially encoding polymorphic and transmembrane head membrane proteins, type III secretion effectors and some metabolic pathways. Procedures for molecular typing are still not consensual but have allowed the knowledge of molecular epidemiology patterns for some species as well as the identification of outbreaks and emergence of successful clones for C. trachomatis. This manuscript intends to provide a comprehensive review on the evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroepidemiology of chlamydia in Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, K M; Barnes, R C; Oberle, M W; Rosero-Bixby, L; Schachter, J

    1990-01-01

    A population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 Costa Rican women aged 25 to 59 years. Interviews and sera collection were completed between September 1984 and February 1985. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. Women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. Women who reported no prior sexual activity had a seroprevalence rate of 48.6%, compared with a seroprevalence rate of 80.7% among women who reported three or more lifetime sexual partners. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of seropositive women ranged from 34.4 among the women who reported no prior sexual activity to 155.0 among the women with three or more lifetime sexual partners. Sero-positivity was more consistently associated with sexual activity than with age. Women with serological evidence of past Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or syphilis infection were more likely to be seropositive than were women without evidence of exposure to these sexually transmitted diseases, even when controlled for age and the number of lifetime sexual partners. The seropositivity among never sexually active women indicates the probable presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, while the high seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among the sexually active women suggests that sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent a public health problem not previously quantified in Costa Rica. Further seroepidemiological and/or culture studies are warranted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection among men and younger women. PMID:2370061

  11. Effects of Internet-based Instruction on HIV Prevention Knowledge and Practices among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Internet-based instruction on HIV prevention knowledge. The sample consisted of 162 MSM volunteers in Thailand. The research instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, a knowledge test, and an HIV preventive practice questionnaire. The subjects completed these instruments at entry to the study and four months later. After entry to the study the participants were given access to a previously developed Internet-based instruction on HIV risk behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. After having access to the Internet-based instruction, the average score of the HIV prevention knowledge among the samples increased significantly, from 11.17 to 15.09 (maximum score of 20 points). The average score of HIV practicing prevention among the samples increased significantly from 62.94 to 76.51 (maximum score of 99 points). This study demonstrated that Internet-based instruction was effective in improving HIV prevention knowledge and practices among MSM. This suggests that Internet-based instruction could be developed for use in other countries and evaluated in similar fashion. PMID:24645824

  12. The Efficacy of Internet-based Intervention on Quality of Life for Patients with Chronic Post-surgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    LI, Min; ZHANG, Miao; WANG, Heng; PAN, Xuefeng; WU, Wenbin; ZHANG, Qi; LIU, Yun; ZHANG, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present study was to explore the efficacy of internet-based intervention on quality of life of patients with chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 81 patients diagnosed with CPSP after radical resection for lung cancer between January 2013 and July 2014. They were enrolled either as part of the conventional care group which included 40 cases or the internet-based pain intervention group which included 41 cases. The patients in the conventional care group were treated weekly in the outpatient clinic, while patients in internet-based group were treated via smartphone or the internet. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was utilized to assess the quality of life of patients who were suffering from CPSP, 1 month and 3 months after therapy. Results: The patients in the internet-based pain intervention group demonstrated similar health-related qualities of life and overall satisfaction rates compared with the conventional care group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Internet-based pain management is a suitable option to improve the quality of life of patients with CPSP after radical resection for lung cancer. PMID:28053926

  13. A comparative evaluation of the effect of internet-based CME delivery format on satisfaction, knowledge and confidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet-based instruction in continuing medical education (CME) has been associated with favorable outcomes. However, more direct comparative studies of different Internet-based interventions, instructional methods, presentation formats, and approaches to implementation are needed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two Internet-based CME delivery formats and the effect on satisfaction, knowledge and confidence outcomes. Methods Evaluative outcomes of two differing formats of an Internet-based CME course with identical subject matter were compared. A Scheduled Group Learning format involved case-based asynchronous discussions with peers and a facilitator over a scheduled 3-week delivery period. An eCME On Demand format did not include facilitated discussion and was not based on a schedule; participants could start and finish at any time. A retrospective, pre-post evaluation study design comparing identical satisfaction, knowledge and confidence outcome measures was conducted. Results Participants in the Scheduled Group Learning format reported significantly higher mean satisfaction ratings in some areas, performed significantly higher on a post-knowledge assessment and reported significantly higher post-confidence scores than participants in the eCME On Demand format that was not scheduled and did not include facilitated discussion activity. Conclusions The findings support the instructional benefits of a scheduled delivery format and facilitated asynchronous discussion in Internet-based CME. PMID:20113493

  14. Effects of Internet-based instruction on HIV-prevention knowledge and practices among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M

    2014-12-01

    HIV infection is increasing among men who have sex with men. In this study, the effects of Internet-based instruction on HIV-prevention knowledge were evaluated. The sample consisted of 162 men-who-have-sex-with-men volunteers in Thailand. The research instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, a knowledge test, and an HIV preventive practice questionnaire. The participants completed these instruments upon entry to the study and four months later. After entry to the study, the participants were given access to a previously-developed Internet-based instruction on HIV risk behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. After accessing the Internet-based instruction, the average score of HIV-prevention knowledge among the sample increased significantly, from 11.17 to 15.09 (maximum score of 20 points). The average score of practicing HIV prevention among the sample increased significantly, from 62.94 to 76.51 (maximum score of 99 points). This study demonstrated that Internet-based instruction was effective in improving HIV-prevention knowledge and practices among men who have sex with men. This suggests that Internet-based instruction could be developed for use in other countries and evaluated in a similar way.

  15. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M H

    2007-11-01

    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the original research assessing the incidence of PID following C. trachomatis infection. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and selected all available prospective cohort studies. Six studies had original data: the incidence of PID varied from 0% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0-12%) during one year of follow-up of 30 women to 30% (95% CI 12-54%) during 50 days of follow-up of 20 women. Studies that included asymptomatic women in other settings reported a lower incidence than those that evaluated women in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In conclusion, no study was of a size or quality to answer our research question definitively. Investigators and clinicians planning chlamydia-screening programmes need to be cognizant of the inconclusive incidence data.

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  17. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  18. Use of monoclonal antibodies to facilitate identification, cloning, and purification of Chlamydia trachomatis hsp10.

    PubMed Central

    LaVerda, D; Byrne, G I

    1997-01-01

    As a requisite for a physiological and immunological investigation, reagents were developed that facilitated the identification and purification of Chlamydia trachomatis hsp10 (chsp10). Monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize chsp10 were generated with multiple-antigen peptides (MAPs) to promote recognition of Chlamydia-specific epitopes. MAP2, containing amino acids 54 to 69 of the hsp10 sequence, elicited strong antibody responses after immunization of BALB/c mice. Monoclonal antibodies from several cloned hybridomas reacted on immunoblots with an approximately 15-kDa chlamydial protein and recombinant chsp10. Because of its strict specificity for chsp10, monoclonal antibody M1.2 was selected for routine use. M1.2 reacted by immunoblot with the hsp10s of several C. trachomatis strains but not with Chlamydia psittaci hsp10 or Escherichia coli homolog GroES, suggesting that M1.2 recognizes a species-specific epitope. Recombinant chsp10 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with M1.2. For large-scale purification, chsp10 was appended with a C-terminal six-histidine tag for purification by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The hypA gene encoding the chsp10 of C. trachomatis serovar E/Bour was cloned into the pQE-60 vector (QIAGEN, Inc.) following PCR amplification from genomic DNA. E. coli DH5 transformants were screened for chsp10 expression by colony immunoblotting with M1.2, were tested for nickel matrix binding, and were sequenced. The sequence of serovar E/Bour chsp10 was found to be closely homologous to those of hsp10s of other chlamydiae. Purified chsp10 and specific anti-chsp10 monoclonal antibodies will be useful for investigating the biological and immunological roles of hsp10 in chlamydial infections. PMID:9114409

  19. An econometric analysis of screening and treatment of patients with suspected Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Manouche; Craig, Ann-Marie; Malek, Mo

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is probably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the Western industrialised countries with devastating consequences. However, it is an infection that can be so easily treated. There are over 50 million new cases occurring each year. In the United States chlamydia is seen as the most common and costly of the bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD), with approximately 4 million new cases occurring each year at an estimated total cost of $2.4 billion. The characteristic of this infection is its difficulty of detection that promotes its spread and making its prediction rather complex. Chlamydial infections are commonly asymptomatic or cause mild or non-specific symptoms and signs, which are not easily detected. Approximately 70% of women with endocervical infections and up to 50% of men with urethral infections are asymptomatic and thus not likely to seek medical care. Chlamydia has become known as the "silent epidemic". It is the more frequently identifiable single cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), occurring in an estimated 15-40% of women. The primary objective of the study was to identify factors and quantify their contribution to the risk of being infected with Chlamydia and to construct an easy to use friendly method for early detection. The importance of developing some means of early detection is vital and previous studies suggest that selective screening might be one solution. A logit model was fitted to three broad variables: behavioural, patients' characteristics, and signs/symptoms noted by patient. The age of the women, the number of sexual partners over the past year, previous history of sexually transmitted disease, the use of barrier contraception and patients' and their partners' signs and symptoms were found to be among the most important variables. Such a model should allow patients who are in a high-risk category, allowing appropriate treatment.

  20. Rectal chlamydia - should screening be recommended in women?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Nirina; Boman, Jens; Nylander, Elisabet

    2017-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe and has large impacts on patients' physical and emotional health. Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence. In this study, we evaluated rectal Chlamydia trachomatis testing in relation to symptoms and sexual habits in women and men who have sex with men. Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was 9.1% in women and 0.9% in men who have sex with men. None of the patients reported any rectal symptoms; 59.0% of the women with a rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection denied anal intercourse and 18.8% did not have a urogenital infection; 9.4% did neither have a urogenital infection nor reported anal sex. We suggest that rectal sampling should be considered in women visiting sexually transmitted infection clinics regardless of rectal symptoms and irrespective of anal intercourse, since our data suggest that several cases of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis otherwise would be missed, thus enabling further disease transmission.

  1. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  2. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    PubMed Central

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  3. Prevalence of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in women who have sex with women: an internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Renea M; Breyer, Benjamin N; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L; Brown, Jeannete S; Shindel, Alan W

    2014-11-01

    Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0-8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted.

  4. Prevalence of Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women Who Have Sex with Women: An Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Renea M.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L.; Brown, Jeannete S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0–8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted. PMID:25314336

  5. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  6. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbour Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia's ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g. amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodelling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the

  7. Chlamydia screening in young people as an outcome of a HEADSS; Home, Education, Activities, Drug and alcohol use, Sexuality and Suicide youth psychosocial assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Eade, Donna M; Henning, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    To identify the percentage of young people presenting to a primary healthcare service targeting homeless youth, in Melbourne, Australia, who, based on youth-specific Home, Education, Activities, Drug and alcohol use, Sexuality and Suicide (HEADSS) psychosocial assessment tool, were screened for the sexually transmitted infection Chlamydia and tested positive. Homeless young people are at high risk of poor health outcomes including sexual health. Chlamydia prevalence is highest in 16-24 years. Youth psychosocial assessment tools such as the HEADSS can engage young people and provide comprehensive health assessment that identifies health risks. A retrospective audit. One hundred consecutive client files of youth who presented to a primary healthcare service for the first time were selected. Client data were collected at the health services' inner city drop-in clinic and clinical refuge outreach (CRO). HEADSS assessments were made on new presentations to identify those at risk of Chlamydia. These young people were then offered screening for Chlamydia using a first-pass urine sample. One hundred HEADSS assessments were audited, of which 15 were incomplete. Of the 85 completed HEADSS assessments, 43 were tested and 11 had Chlamydia-positive results. Comprehensive youth assessment tools, such as the HEADSS, can provide a valuable resource in identifying sexual health risks such as Chlamydia. In turn, skilled nursing staff can provide opportunistic screening. Early identification and treatment for Chlamydia can reduce the spread and sequela of this highly infectious STI. Youth health nurses can enhance their nursing practice in working with young people at risk of homelessness and improve their health outcomes by employing youth-specific assessments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Performance evaluation of two microbial transport media designed for preservation and transport of Chlamydiae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara L; Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T; Agans, Krystle; Dearen, Karen; Knight, Jennifer; Brasel, Trevor; Karamchi, Mehdi; Sherwood, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The ability of a non-propagating transport device (test device) to maintain the viability of clinically relevant bacteria was compared with a similar commercial device (predicate device) to establish performance equivalence. Test bacteria, namely Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were inoculated into the test [Puritan Medical Products Universal Transport System (UniTranz-RT(TM))] and predicate (BD Universal Viral Transport System) devices, and incubated at 4 °C and room temperature for up to 72 h. Bacterial viability was assessed at selected time points post-incubation using shell vial assays followed by immunofluorescence staining (for Chlamydia) or by standard culture techniques (for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma). Results indicated that the Chlamydia strains were equally stable in both test and predicate devices through 72 h storage, at both test temperatures. Quantifiable levels of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were recovered from the test and predicate devices throughout the storage period. Low-temperature storage improved bacterial viability when compared with room temperature storage. In addition, the predicate device demonstrated slightly improved performance versus the test device in the context of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma following 72 h storage. The overall results of the study confirmed the full performance of UniTranz-RT(TM) as a microbial transport medium and established equal performance with the predicate device.

  9. An internet-based adolescent depression preventive intervention: study protocol for a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Tracy G; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Rothberg, Phyllis; Nidetz, Jennifer; Diehl, Anne; DeFrino, Daniela T; Harris, Mary; Ching, Eumene; Eder, Milton; Canel, Jason; Bell, Carl; Beardslee, William R; Brown, C Hendricks; Griffiths, Kathleen; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2015-05-01

    The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in adolescents and the low rate of successful treatment highlight a pressing need for accessible, affordable adolescent depression prevention programs. The Internet offers opportunities to provide adolescents with high quality, evidence-based programs without burdening or creating new care delivery systems. Internet-based interventions hold promise, but further research is needed to explore the efficacy of these approaches and ways of integrating emerging technologies for behavioral health into the primary care system. We developed a primary care Internet-based depression prevention intervention, Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training (CATCH-IT), to evaluate a self-guided, online approach to depression prevention and are conducting a randomized clinical trial comparing CATCH-IT to a general health education Internet intervention. This article documents the research framework and randomized clinical trial design used to evaluate CATCH-IT for adolescents, in order to inform future work in Internet-based adolescent prevention programs. The rationale for this trial is introduced, the current status of the study is reviewed, and potential implications and future directions are discussed. The current protocol represents the only current, systematic approach to connecting at-risk youth with self-directed depression prevention programs in a medical setting. This trial undertakes the complex public health task of identifying at-risk individuals through mass screening of the general primary care population, rather than solely relying on volunteers recruited over the Internet, and the trial design provides measures of both symptomatic and diagnostic clinical outcomes. At the present time, we have enrolled N = 234 adolescents/expected 400 and N = 186 parents/expected 400 in this trial, from N = 6 major health systems. The protocol described here provides a model

  10. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students.

    PubMed

    Quan, Stuart F; Anderson, Janis L; Hodge, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p < 0.001). This difference persisted, although at a lower level, at the end of the semester. In addition, 55.9% of the SS group versus 45.1% of the SI group indicated that they made changes in their sleep habits after participation in the extra credit sleep activity (p < 0.01). The most common change was a more consistent wake time. Use of a supplementary internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance sleep literacy and change behavior among

  11. Internet-based educational intervention to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-04-18

    Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in Mexico are a public health problem; 33.4 % of adolescent girls and 14.7 % of boys report not having used any protection at their first intercourse. The fertility rate is 77 births/1000 girls aged 15-19 years. The infrequent contact of adolescents with health services and the limited extent of school sex and reproductive health education require the support of innovative strategies. The objective of this paper is to present the design of an internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. A field trial with intervention and comparison group and with ex-ante and ex-post measurements will be conducted in two public secondary schools. Adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age will participate. The intervention will be conducted in one school and the second school will serve as a comparison group where the investigators will observe the usual sex education provided by the school. The intervention will be delivered using an internet web page that includes four educational sessions provided during a 4 week period. Follow-up will last 3 months. Information on the study variables will be obtained through an Internet-based self-applied questionnaire and collected on three occasions: 1) when the adolescents enter the study (baseline), 2) once the intervention is completed (at 1 month) and 3) after 3 months of follow-up (at the fourth month). There will be three outcome variables: 1) knowledge in regard to sexually transmitted infections, 2) attitudes regarding condom use, and 3) self-efficacy toward consistent condom use. The generalized linear model will be used to assess changes in each outcome variable controlling for baseline measures and for study covariates. The design and evaluation of an Internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents is important in order to provide a new, large-scale, easily implemented preventive tool. The

  12. Internet-based modular program BADI for adjustment disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Skruibis, Paulius; Eimontas, Jonas; Dovydaitiene, Migle; Mazulyte, Egle; Zelviene, Paulina; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2016-07-26

    Adjustment disorder is one of the most common mental health diagnoses. Still it receives relatively little attention from researchers trying to establish best interventions to treat it. With high prevalence of stressful life events, which might be leading to adjustment disorder, and limited resources of mental health service providers, online interventions could be a very practical way of helping people who have these disorders or are in the risk to develop them. The proposed study protocol is aimed to describe a randomized controlled trial of an internet-based modular intervention for adjustment disorder as it is defined in a proposal for the ICD-11. This study is a two-armed Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of a web-based intervention BADI (Brief Adjustment Disorder Intervention) for adjustment disorder symptoms. BADI has four modules: Relaxation, Time management, Mindfulness and Strengthening relationships. It is based on stress and coping research and integrates evidence-based treatment approaches such as Cognitive Behavioural therapy (CBT), mindfulness and body-mind practices, as well as exercises for enhancing social support. Primary outcome of the study are symptoms of adjustment disorder and well-being. Engagement into the program and motivation for change is a secondary outcome. All participants after completing the baseline assessment are randomly assigned to one of the two groups: either to the one in which participant will instantly gain access to the BADI intervention or a group in which participants will be given access to the BADI program after waiting one month. Participants of BADI can choose exercises of the program flexibly. There is no particular order in which the exercises should be completed. Study will provide new insights of modular internet-based interventions efficacy for adjustment disorders. The study will also provide information about the role of motivation and expectancies on engagement in modular

  13. A suggestion for future research on interface design of an Internet-based telemedicine system for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chuna, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine has emerged as an effective tool for providing high quality healthcare service and health-related information, especially in rural areas. Rural areas often have a larger elderly population with greater rates of preventable disease. These areas also have fewer medical resources and specialists, and have limited access to health services, all of which can influence overall health. An Internet-based telemedicine system can be one solution to provide the rural elderly with the proper health information when needed. The elderly obviously have limited capabilities compared with younger adults in the use of internet technology. However, the interfaces of the currently existing Internet-based telemedicine systems are not specifically developed for elderly users. This paper suggests future interface design research for an Internet-based telemedicine system specifically for the elderly.

  14. Tracing the primordial Chlamydiae: extinct parasites of plants?

    PubMed

    Subtil, Agathe; Collingro, Astrid; Horn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria found as symbionts and pathogens in a wide range of eukaryotes, including protists, invertebrates, and vertebrates. It was recently proposed that an ancient chlamydial symbiont facilitated the establishment of primary plastids in a tripartite symbiosis with cyanobacteria and early eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the lifestyle and the evolutionary history of extant Chlamydiae. We reconstruct and describe key features of the ancient chlamydial symbiont. We propose that it was already adapted to an intracellular lifestyle before the emergence of Archaeplastida, and that several observations are compatible with an essential contribution of Chlamydiae to the evolution of algae and plants.

  15. Evaluation of the presence and zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia suis in a pig slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Dhondt, Hendrik; Geens, Tom; Braeckman, Lutgart; Morré, Servaas A; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-10-30

    A significant number of studies on pig farms and wild boars worldwide, demonstrate the endemic presence of Chlamydia suis in pigs. However, the zoonotic potential of this pathogen, phylogenetically closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, is still uninvestigated. Therefore, this study aims to examine the zoonotic transmission in a Belgian pig abattoir. Presence of Chlamydia suis in pigs, contact surfaces, air and employees was assessed using a Chlamydia suis specific real-time PCR and culture. Furthermore, Chlamydia suis isolates were tested for the presence of the tet(C) gene. Chlamydia suis bacteria could be demonstrated in samples from pigs, the air and contact surfaces. Moreover, eye swabs of two employees were positive for Chlamydia suis by both PCR and culture. The tet(C) gene was absent in both human Chlamydia suis isolates and no clinical signs were reported. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiological and clinical research to elucidate the significance of human ocular Chlamydia suis infections.

  16. The Acceptability of Internet-Based Treatment and Characteristics of an Adult Sample with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: An Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Bethany M.; Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F.; Spence, Jay; Kemp, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling anxiety disorder, but most individuals delay seeking treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an innovative service delivery method that may help to improve access to care, but the acceptability to consumers of such programs has not yet been established. Methodology People with symptoms of OCD were invited to complete an online survey enquiring about demographic characteristics, symptom severity, and acceptability of Internet-based treatment. Demographic and symptom severity data were compared with people with OCD identified in a national epidemiological survey and with a sample of patients with OCD from a specialist outpatient anxiety clinic. Participants 129 volunteers to an online Internet survey, 135 patients at a specialist anxiety disorders outpatient clinic, and 297 cases identified in a national epidemiological survey. Main Measures Demographic characteristics, and severity of symptoms as measured by the Kessler 10-Item scale, the 12-item World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule - Second Edition and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Self Report Version. Principal Findings The Internet sample was similar demographically but reported more severe symptoms than the comparison groups, although had similar severity of symptoms of OCD compared with other clinical samples reported in the literature. Participants reported Internet-based treatment for OCD would be highly acceptable. Conclusions Internet-based treatment may reduce barriers to accessing treatment to people with OCD. Individuals in this study were similar demographically to other samples and had similar severity of symptoms as those identified in other clinical samples, suggesting that Internet-based treatment using techniques employed in face-to-face treatment may be effective in this group. Internet-based treatments for OCD need to be developed and evaluated. PMID:21673987

  17. Genotyping of Portuguese Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, M J; Gomes, J P; Lefebvre, J F; Eb, F; Orfila, J; Catry, M A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the different Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in Portuguese patients. METHODS: Urogenital isolates (n = 240) derived from attenders of various clinics in the Lisbon area were differentiated into genovars by genotyping with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR amplified omp1 gene. RESULTS: Genotype E was the most common for both men (47.9%) and women (43.8%). Genotypes D and F were the second most prevalent for men (11.3%) and genotype H was the second most prevalent for women (19.5%). Genotypes F, G, D, in women and H, G, I, in men, were found in a lower percentage of cases. Genotypes B, Ba, J, K, L1 and L2 were very rarely detected. CONCLUSIONS: With one exception, the overall distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in our study is similar to what has been observed in other western countries. The only exception is the unusual prevalence of genotype H among women. The clinical manifestations associated with this and other genotypes were similar. PMID:9582485

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis: probable cause of prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska, I; Zdrodowska-Stefanow, B; Badyda, J; Pucilo, K; Trybula, J; Bulhak, V

    1998-06-01

    Seventy-eight men with symptoms of chronic or subacute prostatitis were enrolled. Investigations for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral swabs were carried out. The expressed prostatic secretions were additionally examined for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, other gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, Trichomonas vaginalis, yeast-like fungi and leucocyte count. Furthermore, all patients were evaluated for the presence of serum anti-chlamydial IgG antibodies. Signs of inflammation on the basis of the count of leucocytes per hpf in the prostatic secretions were detected in 42 patients (group I). Prostatodynia was found in the remaining 36 men (group II). In group I, chlamydial antigen was detected in the urethra and expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) in 6 (14.3%) and 9 (21.4%) patients, respectively. No evidence of current chlamydial infection was found in group II. The presence of serum anti-chlamydial IgG antibodies was demonstrated in 13/42 (30.9%) patients with prostatitis and in 3/36 (8.3%) patients with prostatodynia (P < 0.01). The results suggest that chlamydia may be one of the causative agents of chronic prostatitis.

  19. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists.

  20. In Internet-Based Visualization System Study about Breakthrough Applet Security Restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Huang, Yan

    In the process of realization Internet-based visualization system of the protein molecules, system needs to allow users to use the system to observe the molecular structure of the local computer, that is, customers can generate the three-dimensional graphics from PDB file on the client computer. This requires Applet access to local file, related to the Applet security restrictions question. In this paper include two realization methods: 1.Use such as signature tools, key management tools and Policy Editor tools provided by the JDK to digital signature and authentication for Java Applet, breakthrough certain security restrictions in the browser. 2. Through the use of Servlet agent implement indirect access data methods, breakthrough the traditional Java Virtual Machine sandbox model restriction of Applet ability. The two ways can break through the Applet's security restrictions, but each has its own strengths.

  1. BodiMojo: effective Internet-based promotion of positive body image in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P

    2013-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.

  2. Internet-based social networking and its role in the evolution of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Vera, Chido; Herr, Allen; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Ginsburg, Lauren; Siskin, Gary P

    2012-06-01

    The Internet is being seen as a growing resource for health-related information for a large number of patients. It is undeniable that its widespread presence has led to the growth of awareness that chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as an entity that may contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Social networking and file-sharing Web sites have brought patients with MS together from all over the world and have facilitated the distribution of personal experiences and information derived from medical research as it relates to CCSVI. As a result, there has been an accelerated growth in the number of patients seeking treatment for this syndrome in light of the possibility that it may improve their present condition. This article will review this phenomenon, the Internet-based resources available to MS patients seeking information about CCSVI, and the responsibilities of physicians as they participate in these online discussions.

  3. 10 Guiding principles of a comprehensive Internet-based public health preparedness training and education program.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lorraine K; Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2010-01-01

    Distance learning is an effective strategy to address the many barriers to continuing education faced by the public health workforce. With the proliferation of online learning programs focused on public health, there is a need to develop and adopt a common set of principles and practices for distance learning. In this article, we discuss the 10 principles that guide the development, design, and delivery of the various training modules and courses offered by the North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness (NCCPHP). These principles are the result of 10 years of experience in Internet-based public health preparedness educational programming. In this article, we focus on three representative components of NCCPHP's overall training and education program to illustrate how the principles are implemented and help others in the field plan and develop similar programs.

  4. Collaborative processes in species identification using an internet-based taxonomic resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri

    2016-01-01

    Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are conceptualised as 'knowledge-building communities' working in a 'joint problem space' comprising the collective knowledge of the participants interacting with the taxonomic database. Collaborative group work and associated dialogue were recorded with digital video. The recordings were analysed for the categories of dialogue and the categories of knowledge used by the students as they interacted with the taxonomic database and how they drew on their previous experiences of identifying birds. The outcomes are discussed in the context of the interplay of individual and social processes and the interplay between abstraction and lived experience in the joint problem space.

  5. Evaluating Treatment Participation in an Internet-Based Behavioral Intervention for Pediatric Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about how participation in internet-based behavioral interventions influences outcomes in youth with health conditions. This study describes participation in an online behavioral pain management intervention for families of adolescents with chronic pain. Methods 26 adolescent–parent dyads were randomized to the intervention arm of a controlled trial evaluating a cognitive–behavioral pain intervention. Participation was measured by the number of logins, messages, completion of interactive fields, and behavioral assignments. Associations between content of messages from participants and treatment outcomes were evaluated. Results Most participants (92.3%) logged in and completed assignments. Over half of participants initiated messages to the online coach. A greater number of messages sent by adolescents containing rapport or treatment content predicted positive treatment outcomes. Conclusions Most families actively participated in the intervention. Interaction with an online coach may increase the benefit of this Internet behavioral pain management treatment program for adolescents. PMID:22511033

  6. Physicians who use social media and other internet-based communication technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Polonec, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6 months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access the internet to 12.9% writing a blog. The most consistent predictors of use were being male, being younger, and having teaching hospital privileges. Physician specialty, practice setting, years in practice, average number of patients treated per week, and number of physicians in practice were found to be inconsistently associated or unassociated with use of the technologies examined. Demographic characteristics, rather than practice-related characteristics, were more consistent predictors of physician use of seven internet-based communication technologies with varying levels of uptake. PMID:22634078

  7. Internet based gripper teleoperation with random time delay by using haptic feedback and SEMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaonong; Song, Aiguo; Zhang, Huatao; Ji, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Random time delay may cause instability in the internet based teleoperation system. Transparency and intuitiveness are also very important for operator to control the system to accurately perform the desired action, especially for the gripper teleoperation system. This paper presents a new grip force control method of gripper teleoperation system with haptic feedback. The system employs the SEMG signal as the control parameter in order to enhance the intuitive control experience for operator. In order to eliminate the impacts on the system stability caused by random time delay, a non-time based teleoperation method is applied to the control process. Besides, neural network and designed fuzzy logic controller is also utilized to improve this control method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by experiment results.

  8. Googling for a diagnosis--use of Google as a diagnostic aid: internet based study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hangwi; Ng, Jennifer Hwee Kwoon

    2006-12-02

    To determine how often searching with Google (the most popular search engine on the world wide web) leads doctors to the correct diagnosis. Internet based study using Google to search for diagnoses; researchers were blind to the correct diagnoses. One year's (2005) diagnostic cases published in the case records of the New England Journal of Medicine. 26 cases from the New England Journal of Medicine; management cases were excluded. Percentage of correct diagnoses from Google searches (compared with the diagnoses as published in the New England Journal of Medicine). Google searches revealed the correct diagnosis in 15 (58%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 77%) cases. As internet access becomes more readily available in outpatient clinics and hospital wards, the web is rapidly becoming an important clinical tool for doctors. The use of web based searching may help doctors to diagnose difficult cases.

  9. Internet based expert system for the management of gallstones, renal, ureteric and bladder calculi.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, S; Kumaravel, N

    2003-01-01

    An Internet based expert system for the management of gallstones, Renal, Ureteric and bladder calculi based on ultrasound images is presented in this paper. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and Uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, Ureter or in Urinary bladder and also in gall bladder. The expert system is designed to assist the physician to detect, extract, classify and diagnose calculi with greater accuracy. It also helps physicians in the management of calculi based on the etiological analysis of calculi. The Expert system takes an ultrasound image as input along with the symptoms of the patients. The expert system extracts the renal calculi and analyzes it using different image processing techniques to extract the image features like size, location and texture. These image features along with the clinical data of the patient enable the expert system to provide the decisions to decide the future course of treatment with more accuracy.

  10. An internet-based simulation system for training and development of regional-healthcare-centers managers.

    PubMed

    Bregman, David; Korman, Arik; Shetach, Ana; Shalom, Nira

    2009-01-01

    RHCMS (Regional Healthcare Center Management System) is an Internet-based simulation training system for Regional Healthcare-Centers (RHCs) managers. The system is based on an integrative model, designed and developed by an interdisciplinary team of experts, for the purpose of training and developing RHCs' managers. This model involves the study of the following fields: healthcare management, business administration, organizational behavior, health economics, management science, and information technologies. The simulation system enables the operation of a management decision-making game. In the game, teams of trainees, playing management teams of RHCs, within one specific community, compete among themselves. The simulation focuses on managerial performance, based on periodic team-decisions, within the internal and external environmental context. The simulation game has a major potential contribution in enabling management trainees to transfer theoretical knowledge into managerial practical tools, capabilities and skills.

  11. Rationale and Considerations for the Internet-Based Delivery of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Madigan, Ryan J; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla; Idrobo, Fabio; Chase, Rhea M; McNeil, Cheryl B; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2015-08-01

    Given the enormous individual, familial, and societal costs associated with early disruptive behavior disorders, transformative efforts are needed to develop innovative options for overcoming traditional barriers to effective care and for broadening the availability of supported interventions. This paper presents the rationale and key considerations for a promising innovation in the treatment of early-onset disruptive behavior disorders-that is, the development of an Internet-based format for the delivery of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) directly to families in their own homes. Specifically, we consider traditional barriers to effective care, and discuss how technological innovations can overcome problems of treatment availability, accessibility, and acceptability. We then detail our current Internet-delivered PCIT treatment program (I-PCIT), which is currently being evaluated across multiple randomized clinical trials relative to waitlist comparison, and to traditional in-office PCIT. Embedded video clips of children treated with I-PCIT are used to illustrate novel aspects of the treatment.

  12. Effectiveness of internet-based affect induction procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Grenen, Emily G; Taber, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    Procedures used to induce affect in a laboratory are effective and well-validated. Given recent methodological and technological advances in Internet research, it is important to determine whether affect can be effectively induced using Internet methodology. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of prior research that has used Internet-based affect induction procedures, and examined potential moderators of the effectiveness of affect induction procedures. Twenty-six studies were included in final analyses, with 89 independent effect sizes. Affect induction procedures effectively induced general positive affect, general negative affect, fear, disgust, anger, sadness, and guilt, but did not significantly induce happiness. Contamination of other nontarget affect did not appear to be a major concern. Video inductions resulted in greater effect sizes. Overall, results indicate that affect can be effectively induced in Internet studies, suggesting an important venue for the acceleration of affective science. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Adaptive mesh compression and transmission in Internet-based interactive walkthrough virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-07-01

    An Internet-based interactive walkthrough virtual environment is presented in this work to facilitate interactive streaming and browsing of 3D graphic models across the Internet. The models are compressed by the view-dependent progressive mesh compression algorithm to enable the decorrelation of partitions and finer granularity. Following the fundamental framework of mesh representation, an interactive protocol based on the real time streaming protocol (RTSP) is developed to enhance the interaction between the server and the client. Finally, the data of the virtual world is re-organized and transmitted according to the viewer's requests. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the required transmission bandwidth, and provides an acceptable visual quality even at low bit rates.

  14. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Internet-Based, Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Stephen; Hendren, Robert L.; Zandi, Tara; Law, Kiely; Choi, Jae-Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Kalb, Luther; Nestle, Jay; Law, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Preliminary evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We sought to examine the feasibility of a novel, internet-based clinical trial design to evaluate the efficacy of this supplement. Method E-mail invitations were sent to parents of children aged 5-8 enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network. All study procedures, including screening, informed consent, and collection of outcome measures took place over the internet. The primary outcome measures were parent- and teacher-rated changes in hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Results During the 6-week recruitment period, 57 children from 28 states satisfied all eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to 1.3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids or an identical placebo daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments were obtained from all 57 participants and 57 teachers, and the study was completed in 3 months. Children in the omega-3 fatty acid group had a greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.3 points) compared to the placebo group (-2.6 points), but the difference was not statistically significant (1.9 point greater improvement in the omega-3 group, 95% CI -2.2 to 5.2). Side effects were rare and not associated with omega-3 fatty acids. Participant feedback was positive. Conclusion Internet-based randomized controlled trials of therapies in children with ASD are feasible and may lead to marked reductions in the time and cost of completing trials. A larger sample size is required to definitively determine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial registration information—Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity Treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01694667. PMID:24839884

  16. Internet-based Self-Assessment after the Tsunami: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the Tsunami disaster in 2004, an online psychological self-assessment (ONSET) was developed and made available by the University of Zurich in order to provide an online screening instrument for Tsunami victims to test if they were traumatized and in need of mental health care. The objective of the study was to report the lessons learnt that were made using an Internet-based, self-screening instrument after a large-scale disaster and to discuss its outreach and usefulness. Methods Users of the online self-assessment decided after finishing the procedure whether their dataset could be used for quality control and scientific evaluation Their answers were stored anonymously only if they consented (which was the case in 88% of the sample), stratified analyses according to level of exposure were conducted. Results A total of 2,914 adult users gave their consent for analysis of the screenings. Almost three quarter of the sample filled out the ONSET questionnaire within the first four weeks. Forty-one percent of the users reported direct exposure to the Tsunami disaster. Users who were injured by the Tsunami and users who reported dead or injured family members showed the highest degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion ONSET was used by a large number of subjects who thought to be affected by the catastrophe in order to help them decide if they needed to see a mental health professional. Furthermore, men more frequently accessed the instrument than women, indicating that Internet-based testing facilitates reaching out to a different group of people than "ordinary" public mental health strategies. PMID:21214894

  17. Adherence predictors in an Internet-based Intervention program for depression.

    PubMed

    Castro, Adoración; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Peake, Christian; Mayoral, Fermín; Botella, Cristina; García-Campayo, Javier; Baños, Rosa María; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Roca, Miquel; Gili, Margalida

    2017-09-05

    Internet-delivered psychotherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depression. Nevertheless, the study of the adherence in this type of the treatment reported divergent results. The main objective of this study is to analyze predictors of adherence in a primary care Internet-based intervention for depression in Spain. A multi-center, three arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 194 depressive patients, who were allocated in self-guided or supported-guided intervention. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were gathered using a case report form. The Mini international neuropsychiatric interview diagnoses major depression. Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess depression severity. The visual analogic scale assesses the respondent's self-rated health and Short Form Health Survey was used to measure the health-related quality of life. Age results a predictor variable for both intervention groups (with and without therapist support). Perceived health is a negative predictor of adherence for the self-guided intervention when change in depression severity was included in the model. Change in depression severity results a predictor of adherence in the support-guided intervention. Our findings demonstrate that in our sample, there are differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between active and dropout participants and we provide adherence predictors in each intervention condition of this Internet-based program for depression (self-guided and support-guided). It is important to point that further research in this area is essential to improve tailored interventions and to know specific patients groups can benefit from these interventions.

  18. Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Forsell, Erik; Svensson, Andreas; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-08-01

    Procrastination can be a persistent behavior pattern associated with personal distress. However, research investigating different treatment interventions is scarce, and no randomized controlled trial has examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Meanwhile, Internet-based CBT has been found promising for several conditions, but has not yet been used for procrastination. Participants (N = 150) were randomized to guided self-help, unguided self-help, and wait-list control. Outcome measures were administered before and after treatment, or weekly throughout the treatment period. They included the Pure Procrastination Scale, the Irrational Procrastination Scale, the Susceptibility to Temptation Scale, the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-report version, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Quality of Life Inventory. The intention-to-treat principle was used for all statistical analyses. Mixed-effects models revealed moderate between-groups effect sizes comparing guided and unguided self-help with wait-list control; the Pure Procrastination Scale, Cohen's d = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.29, 1.10], and d = 0.50, 95% CI [0.10, 0.90], and the Irrational Procrastination Scale, d = 0.81 95% CI [0.40, 1.22], and d = 0.69 95% CI [0.29, 1.09]. Clinically significant change was achieved among 31.3-40.0% for guided self-help, compared with 24.0-36.0% for unguided self-help. Neither of the treatment conditions was found to be superior on any of the outcome measures, Fs(98, 65.17-72.55) < 1.70, p > .19. Internet-based CBT could be useful for managing self-reported difficulties due to procrastination, both with and without the guidance of a therapist. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Personality Change following Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils; Gustavsson, Petter; Lekander, Mats; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits have traditionally been viewed as stable, but recent studies suggest that they could be affected through psychological treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for severe health anxiety (DSM-IV hypochondriasis) has been shown to be effective in reducing health anxiety, but its effect on measures of personality traits has not been investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ICBT on personality traits in the three broad dimensions - neuroticism, extraversion and aggression. We hypothesized that participants in ICBT would reduce their level of neuroticism compared to controls that did not receive the active treatment. No specific predictions were made regarding extraversion and aggression. Data from a randomized controlled trial were used in which participants were allocated to 12 weeks of ICBT (n = 40) or to a basic attention control condition (n = 41). Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality and the primary outcome of health anxiety was the Health Anxiety Inventory. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time on neuroticism-related scales, indicating larger pre- to post-treatment reductions in the Internet-based CBT group compared to the control condition. Analyses at 6-month follow-up showed that changes were stable. Traits relating to extraversion and aggression were largely unchanged. This study is the first to demonstrate that a brief ICBT intervention for severe health anxiety causes long-term changes in measures of personality traits related to neuroticism. The treatment thus has a broader impact than just reducing health anxiety. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID NCT00828152) PMID:25437150

  20. An internet-based learning portfolio in resident education: the KOALA multicentre programme.

    PubMed

    Fung, M F; Walker, M; Fung, K F; Temple, L; Lajoie, F; Bellemare, G; Bryson, S C

    2000-06-01

    To describe the Computerized Obstetrics and Gynecology Automated Learning Anaalysis (KOALAtrade mark), a multicentre, Internet-based learning portfolio and to determine its effects on residents' perception of their self-directed learning abilities. The KOALA programme allows residents to record their obstetrical, surgical, ultrasound, and ambulatory patient encounters and to document critical incidents of learning or elements of surprise that arose during these encounters. By prompting the student to reflect on these learning experiences, KOALA encourages residents to articulate questions which can be directly pursued through hypertext links to evidence-based literature. Four Canadian residency training programmes participated in the pilot project, from February to May 1997, using a dynamic relational database with a central server. All participants completed the Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale and a learning habits questionnaire. The impact of the KOALA programme on residents' perception of their self-directed learning abilities was measured by comparing KOALA-naive schools (schools 2, 3, and 4) with school 1 (exposed to the KOALA prototype for 1 year). Ordered variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and continuous variables with the Student t test (statistical significance P < 0. 05). During the study period, 7049 patient and 1460 critical incidents of learning were recorded by 41 residents in the four participating universities. Residents at the exposed school (school 1) had a significantly higher perception of their self-directed learning (P < 0.05) and believed their future learning was less likely to be from continuing medical education (P < 0.028), textbooks (P < 0.04), and didactic lectures (P < 0.011) and would be derived from a learning portfolio with online resources. This Internet-based, multi-user, multicentre learning portfolio has a significant effect on residents' perception of their self-directed learning abilities.

  1. Intelligent Internet-based information system optimises diabetes mellitus management in communities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuejuan; Wu, Hao; Cui, Shuqi; Ge, Caiying; Wang, Li; Jia, Hongyan; Liang, Wannian

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an intelligent Internet-based information system upon optimising the management of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2015, a T2DM information system was introduced to optimise the management of T2DM patients for 1 year in Fangzhuang community of Beijing, China. A total of 602 T2DM patients who were registered in the health service centre of Fangzhuang community were enrolled based on an isometric sampling technique. The data from 587 patients were used in the final analysis. The intervention effect was subsequently assessed by statistically comparing multiple parameters, such as the prevalence of glycaemic control, standard health management and annual outpatient consultation visits per person, before and after the implementation of the T2DM information system. In 2015, a total of 1668 T2DM patients were newly registered in Fangzhuang community. The glycaemic control rate was calculated as 37.65% in 2014 and significantly elevated up to 62.35% in 2015 ( p < 0.001). After application of the Internet-based information system, the rate of standard health management was increased from 48.04% to 85.01% ( p < 0.001). Among all registered T2DM patients, the annual outpatient consultation visits per person in Fangzhuang community was 24.88% in 2014, considerably decreased to 22.84% in 2015 ( p < 0.001) and declined from 14.59% to 13.66% in general hospitals ( p < 0.05). Application of the T2DM information system optimised the management of T2DM patients in Fangzhuang community and decreased the outpatient numbers in both community and general hospitals, which played a positive role in assisting T2DM patients and their healthcare providers to better manage this chronic illness.

  2. An Internet-based telerehabilitation system for the assessment of motor speech disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Anne J; Theodoros, Deborah G; Russell, Trevor G; Cahill, Louise M; Ward, Elizabeth C; Clark, Kathy M

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an Internet-based telerehabilitation application for the assessment of motor speech disorders in adults with acquired neurological impairment. Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures research design, 2 speech-language pathologists assessed 19 speakers with dysarthria on a battery of perceptual assessments. The assessments included a 19-item version of the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment (FDA; P. Enderby, 1983), the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (K. M. Yorkston & D. R. Beukelman, 1981), perceptual analysis of a speech sample, and an overall rating of severity of the dysarthria. One assessment was conducted in the traditional face-to-face manner, whereas the other assessment was conducted using an online, custom-built telerehabilitation application. This application enabled real-time videoconferencing at 128 kb/s and the transfer of store-and-forward audio and video data between the speaker and speech-language pathologist sites. The assessment methods were compared using the J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman (1986, 1999) limits-of-agreement method and percentage level of agreement between the 2 methods. Measurements of severity of dysarthria, percentage intelligibility in sentences, and most perceptual ratings made in the telerehabilitation environment were found to fall within the clinically acceptable criteria. However, several ratings on the FDA were not comparable between the environments, and explanations for these results were explored. The online assessment of motor speech disorders using an Internet-based telerehabilitation system is feasible. This study suggests that with additional refinement of the technology and assessment protocols, reliable assessment of motor speech disorders over the Internet is possible. Future research methods are outlined.

  3. Readability evaluation of Internet-based patient education materials related to the anesthesiology field.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Jung, Michael; Mccaffery, Kirsten J; McCarthy, Robert J; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the current investigation was to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology. We hypothesized that the majority of patient education materials would not be written according to current recommended readability grade level. Online patient education materials describing procedures, risks, and management of anesthesia-related topics were identified using the search engine Google (available at www.google.com) using the terms anesthesia, anesthesiology, anesthesia risks, and anesthesia care. Cross-sectional evaluation. None. Assessments of content readability were performed using validated instruments (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formulae, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Fry graph, and the Flesch Reading Ease score). Ninety-six Web sites containing Internet patient education materials (IPEMs) were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) readability grade level for all evaluated IPEMs was 13.5 (12.0-14.6). All the evaluated documents were classified at a greater readability level than the current recommended readability grade, P < .001. Readability grades were not significantly different among different IPEM sources. Assessment by the Flesch Reading Ease test classified all but 4 IPEMs as at least fairly difficult to read. Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology are currently written far above the recommended readability grade level. High complexity of written education materials likely limits access of information to millions of American patients. Redesign of online content of Web sites that provide patient education material regarding anesthesia could be an important step in improving access to information for patients with poor health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Readability assessment of Internet-based patient education materials related to endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Numerous professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals provide Internet-based patient education materials (PEMs) to the general public, but not all of this information is written at a reading level appropriate for the average patient. The National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend that PEMs be written at or below the sixth-grade level. Our purpose was to assess the readability of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)-related PEMs available on the Internet and compare readability levels of PEMs provided by three sources: professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals. A descriptive and correlational design was used for this study. The readability of 31 ESS-related PEMs was assessed with four different readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. The majority of PEMs (96.8%) were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL (P < .001). Only one article (3.2%) had an FKGL at or below the sixth-grade level. The mean readability values were: FRES 47.1 ± 13.4, FKGL 10.7 ± 2.4, SMOG 13.7 ± 1.6, and Gunning FOG 12.4 ± 2.7. Current Internet-based PEMs related to ESS, regardless of source type, were written well above the recommended sixth-grade level. Materials from the hospitals/university-affiliated websites had lower readability scores, but were still above recommended levels. Web-based PEMs pertaining to ESS should be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Internet-based mindfulness treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, Johanna; Aström, Viktor; Påhlsson, Daniel; Schenström, Ola; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2014-03-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between)=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290).

  6. Internet based personalized feedback interventions for gamblers in Singapore: First results.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Yi, Yang; Cheok, Christopher C S

    2016-01-01

    Problem or pathological gambling has been a worldwide concern in the recent years, especially so with the advances in the technology, facilitating easier access to various means of gambling. Along with the advances in web-based and smartphone technologies, these technologies have been recently applied as adjunctive clinical tools to help gamblers. Taking into careful consideration the existing evidence base for Internet based interventions for pathological gambling, it seemed that the current published literature has demonstrated largely the efficacy of a personalized feedback intervention for pathological gambling; and further studies are still under-going to try and demonstrate the clinical feasibility of online web-based cognitive behavioral interventions for pathological gamblers. Given this, the aims of the current study are to (a) replicate an online personalized feedback intervention and determine its receptiveness in an Asian cohort of gamblers; and (b) to identify the demographics and characteristics of Asian gamblers who would utilize an online intervention. The workgroup at the National Addiction Management Service, Singapore conceptualized the online personalized feedback intervention for gamblers. The English version was launched on the 31st of March 2014 and the Chinese version was launched on the 30th of September 2014. A cumulative total of 708 participants took part with rhe mean age of the participants being 32.70 (SD = 11.638), with 89.1% males and 10.9% females. The mean problem gambling severity score (PGSI) was 10.80 (SD = 8.13), with the vast majority participating in Casino gambling on board a cruise (36.0%). Of significance, approximately 59.2% of the participants who sought help with our online e-intervention did have a diagnosis of problem gambling. This is one of the first few studies to demonstrate and replicate the potential use of an Internet based intervention for non-problem and problem gamblers. The current study has demonstrated

  7. Simulating stream flow over data sparse areas - an application of internet based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, M. T.; Raghavan, S. V.; Liong, S. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Many hydrological modeling studies suffer from lack of robust station observed data, mainly rainfall and discharge. Where such a dearth of data exists, detailed modeling studies in estimating and assessing change in water resources become difficult when models cannot be compared against recorded observations. In addition, some river basins exist along trans-boundaries of two or more countries that problems in data sharing among them add to the difficulties in such modeling studies. Nevertheless, with the advancement in the global internet resources, access to such data has become easy. Whether such internet based data are good substitutes for station data can be ascertained only after performing some modeling research. To this end, this paper describes a hydrological modeling study that simulates the river flow of the Da River across the trans-boundary regions of China and Vietnam over a 11 yr period from 1971 to 1982. Globally available observation data used in this study include topography (from SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), land use (from GLCC - Global Land Cover Characterization), soil (from FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization), precipitation (from APHRODITE - Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation) and temperature (from GHCN2 - modified of Global Historical Climatology Network version 2). The study employs a hydrological model to recreate the natural flow without dam(s) built across the main river channel. The results of the study are promising and provide a wide scope to utilize internet based data for further research. This also has implications in the context of climate change applications.

  8. Comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer information by older adults.

    PubMed

    Donelle, Lorie; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Gatobu, Sospeter; Arocha, Jose F

    2009-12-01

    Competency in health numeracy is essential in understanding risk about disease susceptibility and the consequences of disease treatment. Both health literacy and skill in using the Internet to obtain health information are lower among older compared with younger adults. Presentation format of health information has been shown to influence comprehension. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of information formatting (text and graphic) on older adults' comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer risk information. This cross-sectional study involved a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds. Cancer risk information, obtained from a Canadian Cancer Society web page, was presented as text, graphics or as a combination of text and graphics formats. Comprehension of the information was assessed by six questions focused on basic numeracy skill and ability to perform simple calculations and operations. A three-item general context numeracy and an eight-item health context numeracy instrument were used to describe health numeracy skills of participants. The six-item Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test was used to assess prose and numeric health literacy. There was no statistically significant effect of presentation format on participants' comprehension of the cancer information. Participants' comprehension of basic health numeracy information was positively correlated with education (p < or = 0.05) and income (p < or = 0.01) whereas comprehension of information that assessed calculation and operations numeracy skill was positively correlated only with income (p < or = 0.05). Health literacy skill and income explained a significant proportion of the variance in overall comprehension of Internet-based cancer risk information (R(2) = 0.414, p < or = 0.01) in this sample of older adults. Format of numeric risk information was not a significant factor in the comprehension of cancer risk information in

  9. An internet-based abstinence reinforcement smoking cessation intervention in rural smokers.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Dallery, Jesse; Fields, Nell M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Martin, Catherine A; Casey, Baretta; Wong, Conrad J

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of cigarette smoking abstinence reinforcement programs may be hindered by the time intensive burden placed on patients and treatment providers. The use of remote monitoring and reinforcement of smoking abstinence may enhance the accessibility and acceptability of this intervention, particularly in rural areas where transportation can be unreliable and treatment providers distant. This study determined the effectiveness of an Internet-based abstinence reinforcement intervention in initiating and maintaining smoking abstinence in rural smokers. Sixty-eight smokers were enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based smoking cessation program. During the 6-week intervention period, all participants were asked to record 2 videos of breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples daily. Participants also typed the value of their CO readings into web-based software that provided feedback and reinforcement based on their smoking status. Participants (n=35) in the Abstinence Contingent (AC) group received monetary incentives contingent on recent smoking abstinence (i.e., CO of 4 parts per million or below). Participants (n=33) in the Yoked Control (YC) group received monetary incentives independent of smoking status. Participants in the AC group were significantly more likely than the YC group to post negative CO samples on the study website (OR=4.56; 95% CI=2.18-9.52). Participants assigned to AC were also significantly more likely to achieve some level of continuous abstinence over the 6-week intervention compared to those assigned to YC. These results demonstrate the feasibility and short-term efficacy of delivering reinforcement for smoking abstinence over the Internet to rural populations.

  10. Chlamydia-secreted protease CPAF degrades host antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Chen, Jianlin; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yu, Ping; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the lower genital tract, if untreated, can ascend to the upper genital tract, potentially leading to complications such as tubal factor infertility. The ascension involves cell-to-cell spreading, which may require C. trachomatis organisms to overcome mucosal extracellular effectors such as antimicrobial peptides. We found that among the 8 antimicrobial peptides tested, the cathelicidin LL-37 that is produced by both urogenital epithelial cells and the recruited neutrophils possessed a most potent antichlamydial activity. Interestingly, this antichlamydial activity was completely inhibited by CPAF, a C. trachomatis-secreted serine protease. The inhibition was dependent on CPAF's proteolytic activity. CPAF selectively degraded LL-37 and other antimicrobial peptides with an antichlamydial activity. CPAF is known to secrete into and accumulate in the infected host cell cytoplasm at the late stage of chlamydial intracellular growth and may be released to confront the extracellular antimicrobial peptides before the intra-inclusion organisms are exposed to extracellular environments during host cell lysis and chlamydial spreading. Thus, the finding that CPAF selectively targets host antimicrobial peptides that possess antichlamydial activities for proteolysis suggests that CPAF may contribute to C. trachomatis pathogenicity by aiding in ascending infection.

  11. The Easiest Children to Reach Are Most Likely to Be Infected with Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Trachoma Endemic Areas of Niger

    PubMed Central

    Amza, Abdou; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; Yu, Sun N.; Stoller, Nicole E.; Bhosai, Satasuk J.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; McCulloch, Charles E.; West, Sheila K.; Bailey, Robin L.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Control programs for trachoma use mass antibiotic distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in an effort to eliminate this disease worldwide. To determine whether children infected with ocular Chlamydia are more likely to present later for examination than those who are uninfected, we compare the order of presentation for examination of children 0–5 years, and the presence of ocular Chlamydia by PCR in 4 villages in Niger where trachoma is endemic. Methods We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial where 48 randomly selected villages in Niger are divided into 4 study arms of different mass treatment strategies. In a substudy of the main trial, we randomly selected 1 village from each of the 4 study arms (4 total villages) and we evaluated the odds of ocular Chlamydia versus the rank order of presentation for examination and laboratory assessment before treatment was offered. Findings We found the odds of harboring ocular Chlamydia dropped by more than 70% from the first child examined to the last child examined (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13–0.59, P = 0.001) in the 4 randomly selected villages. We found the odds of active trachoma dropped by 80% from the first child examined to the last child examined (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.10–0.4, P<0.0001) in the 48 villages in the main trial. Interpretation This study demonstrates that even if the WHO recommended 80% treatment coverage is not reached in certain settings, children 0–5 years with the greatest probability of ocular Chlamydia have higher odds of receiving attention because they are the first to present. These results suggest there may be diminishing returns when using scarce resources to track down the last few children in a mass treatment program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792922 PMID:23326612

  12. Internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i): a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Ni-ka; Chen, Jia; Liu, Juan; Lin, Ling; Liu, Ya-zhen; Lang, Ying; Li, Xun-jun; Yang, Xin-ju; Jiang, Xiao-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) in adults. Design A meta-analysis of ICBT-i. Data sources Systematic searches of randomised controlled trials of ICBT-i were performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases up to 19 June 2016. Review method 2 reviewers independently performed study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. Outcomes of interest included sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of nocturnal awakenings (NWAK), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). RevMan 5.2 and Stata 13.0 meta-analysis software were used to perform statistical analysis. Results 14 records for 15 studies (1013 experimental group participants, 591 waiting list group participants) were included. The meta-analysis indicated that, at the post-test time point, SOL decreased by 18.41 min (95% CI 13.60 to 23.21), TST increased by 22.30 min (95% CI 16.38 to 28.23), SE increased by 9.58% (95% CI 7.30% to 11.85%), WASO decreased by 22.31 min (95% CI 13.50 to 31.11), NWAK decreased by 0.52 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.76), and ISI decreased by 5.88 points (95% CI 4.29 to 7.46). Additionally SOL, TST, SE, and WASO exhibited statistically significant improvements at follow-up versus before treatment. Conclusions ICBT-i is an effective treatment for adults with insomnia. This conclusion should be verified in further studies. PMID:27903557

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    PubMed Central

    Sixt, Barbara S.; Valdivia, Raphael H.; Kroemer, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB), invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB), which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival) that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen. PMID:28357396

  14. Ivermectin Inhibits Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  15. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-09-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection.

  16. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-01-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection. PMID:1774342

  17. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  18. Characterization and intracellular localization of putative Chlamydia pneumoniae effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nicole; Sattelmacher, Florian; Lugert, Raimond

    2008-01-01

    We here describe four proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, which might play a role in host-pathogen interaction. The hypothetical bacterial proteins CPn0708 and CPn0712 were detected in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected host cells by indirect immunofluorescence tests with polyclonal antisera raised against the respective proteins. While CPn0708 was localized within the inclusion body, CPn0712 was identified in the inclusion membrane and in the surrounding host cell cytosol. CPn0712 colocalizes with actin, indicating its possible interaction with components of the cytoskeleton. Investigations on CPn0809 and CPn1020, two Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins previously described to be secreted into the host cell cytosol, revealed colocalization with calnexin, a marker for the ER. Neither CPn0712, CPn0809 nor CPn1020 were able to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Furthermore, transient expression of CPn0712, CPn0809 and CPn1020 by the host cell itself had no effect on subsequent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. However, microarray analysis of CPn0712-expressing host cells revealed six host cell genes which were regulated as in host cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae, indicating the principal usefulness of heterologous expression to study the effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins on host cell modulation. PMID:18449565

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in African American women who exclusively have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Kapil, Richa; Austin, Erika L; Brown, LaDraka; Hook, Edward W; Geisler, William M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about whether Chlamydia trachomatis can be sexually transmitted between women or how often it occurs in women who have sex with women (WSW). We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and serum Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses among African American WSW who reported a lifetime history of sex only with women (exclusive WSW) (n = 21) vs. an age-matched group of women reporting sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42). Participants completed a survey, underwent a pelvic examination in which a cervical swab was collected for Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), and had serum tested for anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body-based ELISA. No exclusive WSW had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT vs. 5 (11.9%) WSWM having a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT (p = 0.16). Compared with WSWM, WSW were significantly less likely to be Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive (7 [33.3%] vs. 29 [69%], p = 0.007). Among Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women, all were seropositive by IgG1, and the magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgG1 responses did not differ in Chlamydia trachomatis-seropositive WSW vs. WSWM. In conclusion, Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity was relatively common in exclusive African American WSW, though significantly less common than in African American WSWM.

  20. My Student Body: Effects of an Internet-Based Prevention Program to Decrease Obesity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…

  1. My Student Body: Effects of an Internet-Based Prevention Program to Decrease Obesity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…

  2. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  3. Perspectives and Practices of Elementary Teachers Using an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool: The Case of "Assessing Mathematics Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…

  4. 31 CFR 560.540 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exportation of web-hosting services that are for purposes other than personal communications (e.g., web... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exportation of certain services and... Licensing Policy § 560.540 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based...

  5. 31 CFR 560.540 - Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exportation of web-hosting services that are for purposes other than personal communications (e.g., web... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exportation of certain services and... Licensing Policy § 560.540 Exportation of certain services and software incident to Internet-based...

  6. How Students Choose a College: Understanding the Role of Internet Based Resources in the College Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Kimberli R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how current internet-based resources are affecting the college choice process. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and the study involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase to explain the quantitative data in greater depth. An additional study was…

  7. Teaching Word Stress to Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Learners through Internet-Based Video Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit problem causing word stress patterns for Turkish EFL (English as a foreign language) learners and investigate whether Internet-based pronunciation lesson is superior to traditional pronunciation lesson in terms of enhancing Turkish EFL learners' accurate production of stressed syllables in English words. A…

  8. An Analysis of Copyright-Related Legal Cases and Decisions: Implications to Designing Internet-Based Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, Dave; Lan, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    To provide information about potential legal problems that might arise from using and distributing instructional materials and designing activities for Internet-based instruction, this article analyzes court cases and decisions relating to course packets; illustrations and figures; learning activities; video, sound and graphic images; and…

  9. NutrientNet: An Internet-Based Approach to Teaching Market-Based Policy for Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, To N.; Woodward, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    NutrientNet is an Internet-based environment in which a class can simulate a market-based approach for improving water quality. In NutrientNet, each student receives a role as either a point source or a nonpoint source polluter, and then the participants are allowed to trade water quality credits to cost-effectively reduce pollution in a…

  10. An Open Study of Internet-Based Bibliotherapy with Minimal Therapist Contact via Email for Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlbring, Per; Furmark, Tomas; Steczko, Johan; Ekselius, Lisa; Andersson, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a 9-week Internet-based self-help program for people suffering from social phobia. After confirming the diagnosis with a structured clinical interview for the "DSM-IV" (SCID) by telephone, 26 participants were treated with a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavioural therapy plus weekly therapist…

  11. A randomized controlled trial on the role of support in Internet-based problem solving therapy for depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kleiboer, Annet; Donker, Tara; Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-09-01

    Internet-based interventions can be effective treatments for anxiety and depression. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that they should be delivered with human support to reach optimal effects. These findings have not consistently been replicated in direct comparisons of supported and unsupported interventions, however. This study examined the role of support in Internet-based problem solving treatment (PST) for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. Adults with mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to: (1) PST without support (n = 107), (2) PST with support on request (n = 108), (3) PST with weekly support (n = 106), (4) no Internet-based intervention but non-specific chat or email (n = 110), or (5) waitlist control (WLC; n = 106). Primary outcomes were symptoms of anxiety (HADS) and depression (CES-D) measured at baseline and 6 weeks later. Analyses were first based on the intention-to-treat principle (ITT) and repeated with intervention completers. Only participants who received PST with weekly support improved significantly more than WLC for depressive symptoms. Results for anxiety were less robust but in favor of the weekly support condition. The results underscore the importance of structural support in Internet-based interventions for depression and anxiety.

  12. A Comparison of Internet-Based Learning and Traditional Classroom Lecture to Learn CPR for Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…

  13. Internet-based remote health self-checker symptom data as an adjuvant to a national syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; Kara, E O; Loveridge, P; Bawa, Z; Morbey, R A; Moth, M; Large, S; Smith, G E

    2015-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is an innovative surveillance tool used to support national surveillance programmes. Recent advances in the use of internet-based health data have demonstrated the potential usefulness of these health data; however, there have been limited studies comparing these innovative health data to existing established syndromic surveillance systems. We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the usefulness of a national internet-based 'symptom checker' service for use as a syndromic surveillance system. NHS Direct online data were extracted for 1 August 2012 to 1 July 2013; a time-series analysis on the symptom categories self-reported by online users was undertaken and compared to existing telehealth syndromic data. There were 3·37 million online users of the internet-based self-checker compared to 1·43 million callers to the telephone triage health service. There was a good correlation between the online and telephone triage data for a number of syndromic indicators including cold/flu, difficulty breathing and eye problems; however, online data appeared to provide additional early warning over telephone triage health data. This assessment has illustrated some potential benefit of using internet-based symptom-checker data and provides the basis for further investigating how these data can be incorporated into national syndromic surveillance programmes.

  14. How Students Choose a College: Understanding the Role of Internet Based Resources in the College Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Kimberli R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how current internet-based resources are affecting the college choice process. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and the study involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase to explain the quantitative data in greater depth. An additional study was…

  15. NutrientNet: An Internet-Based Approach to Teaching Market-Based Policy for Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, To N.; Woodward, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    NutrientNet is an Internet-based environment in which a class can simulate a market-based approach for improving water quality. In NutrientNet, each student receives a role as either a point source or a nonpoint source polluter, and then the participants are allowed to trade water quality credits to cost-effectively reduce pollution in a…

  16. Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Program to Improve the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…

  17. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  18. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  19. An Empirical Study on Washback Effects of the Internet-Based College English Test Band 4 in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Yan, Jiaolan; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bailey's washback model, in respect of participants, process and products, the present empirical study was conducted to find the actual washback effects of the internet-based College English Test Band 4 (IB CET-4). The methods adopted are questionnaires, class observation, interview and the analysis of both the CET-4 teaching and testing…

  20. The Effect of Recommendation Systems on Internet-Based Learning for Different Learners: A Data Mining Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chang, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Jui-Min

    2013-01-01

    A general challenge facing Internet-based learners is how to identify information objects which are helpful in expanding their understanding of important information in a domain. Recommendation systems may assist learners in identifying potentially helpful information objects. However, the recent literature mainly focuses on the technical…

  1. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Program to Improve the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…

  3. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Internet-Based Distance Learning through the VClass e-Education Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkaew, Chadchadaporn

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of internet-based distance learning (IBDL) through the VClass live e-education platform. The research examines (1) the effectiveness of IBDL for regular and distance students and (2) the distance students' experience of VClass in the IBDL course entitled Computer Programming 1. The study employed the common…

  4. The Effect of Recommendation Systems on Internet-Based Learning for Different Learners: A Data Mining Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chang, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Jui-Min

    2013-01-01

    A general challenge facing Internet-based learners is how to identify information objects which are helpful in expanding their understanding of important information in a domain. Recommendation systems may assist learners in identifying potentially helpful information objects. However, the recent literature mainly focuses on the technical…

  5. An Open Study of Internet-Based Bibliotherapy with Minimal Therapist Contact via Email for Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlbring, Per; Furmark, Tomas; Steczko, Johan; Ekselius, Lisa; Andersson, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a 9-week Internet-based self-help program for people suffering from social phobia. After confirming the diagnosis with a structured clinical interview for the "DSM-IV" (SCID) by telephone, 26 participants were treated with a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavioural therapy plus weekly therapist…

  6. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  7. Perspectives and Practices of Elementary Teachers Using an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool: The Case of "Assessing Mathematics Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…

  8. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  9. Erythromycin and lymecycline treatment in chlamydia-positive and Chlamydia-negative non-gonococcal urethritis--a partner-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lassus, A; Paavonen, J; Kousa, M; Saikku, P

    1979-01-01

    A group of 213 men with non-gonococcal urethritis and their sexual partners were treated either with erythromycin stearate 500 mgx2 for 15 days or with lymecycline 300 mgx2 for 10 or 20 days. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 40% of the men, from 26% of their female partners and from 56% of the partners of men with chlamydia-positive urethritis. One hundred and eighty-one men were available for evaluation of therapy. There were no significant differences between the treatment schedules. The cure rate was 86-90% in men with chlamydia-positive and 89-100% in men with chlamydia-negative urethritis. Four of the 17 chlamydia-positive females treated with erythromycin and 2 of the 20 chlamydia-positive females treated with lymecycline for 10 days still had chlamydia at re-examination.

  10. [Differences in access to Internet and Internet-based information seeking according to the type of psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Brunault, P; Bray, A; Rerolle, C; Cognet, S; Gaillard, P; El-Hage, W

    2017-04-01

    Internet has become a major tool for patients to search for health-related information and to communicate on health. We currently lack data on how patients with psychiatric disorders access and use Internet to search for information on their mental health. This study aimed to assess, in patients followed for a psychiatric disorder (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, mood and anxiety disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders and eating disorders), prevalence of Internet access and use, and patient expectations and needs regarding the use of Internet to search for mental-health information depending on the psychiatric disorder. We conducted this cross-sectional study between May 2013 and July 2013 in 648 patients receiving psychiatric care in 8 hospitals from the Region Centre, France. We used multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, socio-educational level and professional status to compare use, expectations and needs regarding Internet-based information about the patient's psychiatric disorder (65-items self-administered questionnaires) as a function of the psychiatric disorders. We identified patients clusters with multiple correspondence analysis and ascending hierarchical classification. Although 65.6% of our population accessed Internet at home, prevalence for Internet access varied depending on the type of psychiatric disorder and was much more related to limited access to a computer and low income than to a lack of interest in the Internet. Most of the patients who used Internet were interested in having access to reliable Internet-based information on their health (76.8%), and most used Internet to search for Internet based health-information about their psychiatric disorder (58.8%). We found important differences in terms of expectations and needs depending on the patient's psychiatric disorder (e.g., higher interest in Internet-based information among patients with bipolar disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders

  11. Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumonia in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher T

    2002-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are common respiratory pathogens in children 5 years of age and older. Although distinctly different in structure, these organisms share similar epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in human infection and disease. Pneumonia caused by these organisms usually occurs after infection of the upper respiratory tract, but may occur in the absence of antecedent upper respiratory infection. Diagnosis of infection with C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae is most often based on clinical findings alone, though definitive diagnosis of infection with either organism may be confirmed through serologic methods, culture, and nucleic acid-detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction. Macrolide antibiotics are highly effective in the treatment of infected children, leading to rapid clinical resolution and excellent long-term out-come in the majority of patients.

  12. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  13. Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Hervé C; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Wildt, Kristin S; Deka, Srilekha; Oszust, Cynthia; Balin, Brian J; Frey, William H; Bordayo, Elizabeth Z; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-12-01

    We assessed the presence and characteristics of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in brain-tissue samples from 25 patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 27 non-AD control individuals. 20/27 AD patients, but only 3/27 controls, were PCR-positive in multiple assays targetting the Cpn1046 and Cpn0695 genes. Culture of the organism from brain-tissue homogenate from one AD patient, and assessment of various chlamydial transcripts in RNA preparations from several patients, demonstrated that the organisms were viable and metabolically active in those samples. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that astrocytes, microglia, and neurons all served as host cells for C. pneumoniae in the AD brain, and that infected cells were found in close proximity to both neuritic senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the AD brain. These observations confirm and significantly extend our earlier study suggesting that this unusual pathogen may play a role in the neuropathogenesis characteristic of AD.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed. PMID:22514397

  15. Nurse-Moderated Internet-Based Support for New Mothers: Non-Inferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Christy E; Bowering, Kerrie; Jeffs, Debra; Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Mittinty, Murthy; Lynch, John W

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions moderated by community nurses have the potential to improve support offered to new mothers, many of whom now make extensive use of the Internet to obtain information about infant care. However, evidence from population-based randomized controlled trials is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to test the non-inferiority of outcomes for mothers and infants who received a clinic-based postnatal health check plus nurse-moderated, Internet-based group support when infants were aged 1-7 months as compared with outcomes for those who received standard care consisting of postnatal home-based support provided by a community nurse. Methods The design of the study was a pragmatic, preference, non-inferiority randomized control trial. Participants were recruited from mothers contacted for their postnatal health check, which is offered to all mothers in South Australia. Mothers were assigned either (1) on the basis of their preference to clinic+Internet or home-based support groups (n=328), or (2) randomly assigned to clinic+Internet or home-based groups if they declared no strong preference (n=491). The overall response rate was 44.8% (819/1827). The primary outcome was parenting self-competence, as measured by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Competence subscale, and the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale scores. Secondary outcome measures included PSI Isolation, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List–Short Form, Maternal Support Scale, Ages and Stages Questionnaire–Social-Emotional and MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) scores. Assessments were completed offline via self-assessment questionnaires at enrolment (mean child age=4.1 weeks, SD 1.3) and again when infants were aged 9, 15, and 21 months. Results Generalized estimating equations adjusting for post-randomization baseline imbalances showed that differences in outcomes between mothers in the clinic+Internet and home-based support groups did not

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Internet-Based Monitoring Tool for Neonatal Post-Discharge Home Care

    PubMed Central

    Isetta, Valentina; Lopez-Agustina, Carme; Lopez-Bernal, Esther; Amat, Maribel; Vila, Montserrat; Valls, Carme; Navajas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background The application of information and communication technologies in nursing care is becoming more widespread, but few applications have been reported in neonatal care. A close monitoring of newborns within the first weeks of life is crucial to evaluating correct feeding, growth, and health status. Conventional hospital-based postdischarge monitoring could be improved in terms of costs and clinical effectiveness by using a telemedicine approach. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a new Internet-based system for monitoring low-risk newborns after discharge compared to the standard hospital-based follow-up, with specific attention to prevention of emergency department (ED) visits in the first month of life. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of two low-risk newborn patient groups. One group, born between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2011, received the standard hospital-based follow-up visit within 48 hours after discharge. After implementing an Internet-based monitoring system, another group, born between July 19, 2011, and January 19, 2012, received their follow-up with this system. Results A total of 18 (15.8%) out of 114 newborns who received the standard hospital-based follow-up had an ED visit in the first month of life compared with 5 (5.6%; P=.026) out of 90 infants who were monitored by the Internet-based system. The cost of the hospital-based follow-up was 182.1€ per patient, compared with 86.1€ for the Internet-based follow-up. Conclusion Our Internet-based monitoring approach proved to be both more effective and less costly than the conventional hospital-based follow-up, particularly through reducing subsequent ED visits. PMID:23419609

  17. 47 CFR 52.34 - Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...

  18. 47 CFR 52.34 - Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...

  19. 47 CFR 52.34 - Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...

  20. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…

  1. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…

  2. Efficacy of Using Internet-Based Interventions for Physical Activity Promotion in a Hong Kong Secondary School: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Raymond Kim Wai; Leung, Elean Fung Lin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an Internet-based behavioral intervention for physical activity (PA) promotion among secondary school students. It was hypothesized that the Internet-based PA promotion program could increase the PA levels of secondary school students. The action research approach together with…

  3. 47 CFR 52.34 - Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...

  4. 47 CFR 52.34 - Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...

  5. Using Internet-Based Robotic Telescopes to Engage Non-Science Majors in Astronomical Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach

  6. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Health Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Thiart, Hanne; Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Nobis, Stephanie; Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Lost productivity caused by insomnia is a common and costly problem for employers. Although evidence for the efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (iCBT-I) already exists, little is known about its economic effects. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of providing iCBT-I to symptomatic employees from the employer's perspective. Methods: School teachers (N = 128) with clinically significant insomnia symptoms and work-related rumination were randomized to guided iCBT-I or a waitlist-control-group, both with access to treatment as usual. Economic data were collected at baseline and 6-mo follow-up. We conducted (1) a cost-effectiveness analysis with treatment response (Reliable Change [decline of 5.01 points] and Insomnia Severity Index < 8 at 6-month follow-up) as the outcome and (2) a cost-benefit analysis. Because both analyses were performed from the employer's perspective, we focused specifically on absenteeism and presenteeism costs. Statistical uncertainty was estimated using bootstrapping. Results: Assuming intervention costs of €200 ($245), cost-effectiveness analyses showed that at a willingness-to-pay of €0 for each positive treatment response, there is an 87% probability that the intervention is more cost effective than treatment as usual alone. Cost-benefit analyses led to a net benefit of €418 (95% confidence interval: −593.03 to 1,488.70) ($512) per participant and a return on investment of 208% (95% confidence interval: −296.52 to 744.35). The reduction in costs was mainly driven by the effects of the intervention on presenteeism and to a lesser degree by reduced absenteeism. Conclusions: Focusing on sleep improvement using iCBT-I may be a cost-effective strategy in occupational health care. Clinical Trials Registration: Title: Online Recovery Training for Better Sleep in Teachers with High Psychological Strain. German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS), URL: https

  7. An Internet-based education program improves breastfeeding knowledge of maternal-child healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary E; Brown, Emil W; Lewin, Linda Orkin

    2011-12-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the United States remain below the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 goals. Encouragement of breastfeeding and education by maternal-child healthcare (MCH) providers (physicians, residents, and midlevel providers) improves breastfeeding initiation and duration. Surveys of MCH providers show lack of knowledge about breastfeeding. This study evaluated the effect of usage of "BreastfeedingBasics," a free Internet-based educational course, on the knowledge of MCH providers and evaluation of the baseline knowledge of course users. A before and after intervention study was done of MCH providers using the "BreastfeedingBasics" website between 1999 and 2008. Baseline knowledge and change in knowledge were assessed by computer-scored pretests and posttests. Of 3,456 MCH providers enrolled, 2,237 (65%) completed one or more pretest. Total mean pretest/posttest scores were as follows: midlevel providers, 81%/89%; residents, 84%/93%; and physicians, 85%/92% (p < 0.001 among groups and between pretests and posttests). Mean pretest/posttest scores of the modules were as follows: Anatomy/Physiology, 79%/93%; Growth/Development, 72%/91%; Mother-Infant Couple (normal newborn), 82%/92%; and Breastfed Infant with Problems, 77%/91% (p < 0.001 for all). Specific topics with the lowest pretest scores and subsequent posttest scores were as follows (pretest/posttest): supplementation with vitamin D, 61%/93%; breastfeeding physiology, 38%/65%; growth of breastfed infants at 10 days, 80%/95%, 14 days, 72%/91%, and 3-4 months, 39%/84%; and stopping breastfeeding for maternal problems when not indicated, 69%/93% (p < 0.001 for all). Use of an Internet-based educational program improved knowledge of MCH providers as measured by pretest and posttest scores. Knowledge of the growth of breastfed infants is particularly poor. Increasing knowledge is the first step in improving clinical practice that is necessary for increasing breastfeeding rates and duration.

  8. Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use - A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Christopher; Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen's d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption

  9. [Both patients and physicians benefit from internet-based communication (APIKAP study)].

    PubMed

    Gersch, Christian; Ebel, Martin

    2014-07-24

    Internet-based applications are becoming more common in our modern world. While electronic health records (EHR) are available for patients and health care providers outside of Germany, most of the available data on EHR address only monetary advantages.This study explores whether or not internet-based communication between family physicians (FP) and patients is as safe as traditional oral communication and if it may lead to further benefits. 500 patients from 14 family doctors' offices were included in this 6 months RCT. Both groups were treated in the same manner by their respective physicians, but members of the study group (SG) were able to access an individual developed web-based software where they could view their diagnosis and medication, and send an electronic message to their doctors who would respond. Their satisfication with the FP, certain health data and the FP's workload were recorded. a) Patients' satisfaction: When e.g. asked about the organization of the family practice or trust in the doctor, there were no significant differences between the control (CG) and the SG (p = 0.07; p = 0.53). However, patients of the SG felt better informed (p = 0.01), and generally more satisfied with their FP (p = 0.04). b) FP workload: Members of the CG had 8.44 contacts with their doctors during the study, while the SG only had 7.96 recorded contacts (including web-based contacts, p = 0.32). It took physicians 3:52 minutes less to read and respond to an electronic message than to see a patient during the consultation hours. c) Changes in patients' health: During the study the blood pressure (BP) in the CG rose 4.44/2.80 mmHg, while it dropped 3.13/4.36 mmHg in the SG (p = 0.19/0.01).The HbA(1C) dropped in both groups (p = 0.91). One week after the first visit to the family doctor, patients of the SG rated their pain 0.28 points lower on a VAS than the CG (p = 0.75). 91% from the CG and 96% from the SG requested the re-prescription of long-term medication on time (p

  10. Full genome sequences of all nine Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains.

    PubMed

    Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy; Pannekoek, Yvonne

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains.

  11. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  12. Deriving and validating a risk estimation tool for screening asymptomatic chlamydia and gonorrhea.

    PubMed

    Falasinnu, Titilola; Gilbert, Mark; Gustafson, Paul; Shoveller, Jean

    2014-12-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of innovative service delivery modules for prioritizing resources in sexual health delivery in response to dwindling fiscal resources and rising infection rates. This study aims to derive and validate a risk scoring algorithm to accurately identify asymptomatic patients at increased risk for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection. We examined the electronic records of patient visits at sexual health clinics in Vancouver, Canada. We derived risk scores from regression coefficients of multivariable logistic regression model using visits between 2000 and 2006. We evaluated the model's discrimination, calibration, and screening performance. Temporal validation was assessed in visits from 2007 to 2012. The prevalence of infection was 1.8% (n = 10,437) and 2.1% (n = 14,956) in the derivation and validation data sets, respectively. The final model included younger age, nonwhite ethnicity, multiple sexual partners, and previous infection and showed reasonable performance in the derivation (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.74; Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.91) and validation (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.64; Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.36) data sets. A risk score cutoff point of at least 6 detected 91% and 83% of cases by screening 68% and 68% of the derivation and validation populations, respectively. These findings support the use of the algorithm for individualized risk assessment and have important implications for reducing unnecessary screening and saving costs. Specifically, we anticipate that the algorithm has potential uses in alternative settings such as Internet-based testing contexts by facilitating personalized test recommendations, stimulating health care-seeking behavior, and aiding risk communication by increasing sexually transmitted infection risk perception through the creation of tailored risk messages to different groups.

  13. [Predisposition of citizens to use Internet-based channels to communicate with doctors in Spain].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Reyes-Alcázar, Víctor; Valverde, José A

    2014-01-01

    Analyze factors affecting the predisposition of Spanish citizens to use Internet-based communication channels (E-mail, blogs, social networks, and online recommendations). Secondary data were analyzed by applying a boosted regression tree (BRT) to the results obtained from the survey "Use and Applications of Information and Communications Technology in Health," administered to a representative sample of the Spanish population between 16 and 85 years of age who use the Internet. Model forecasts achieved different degrees of precision for each of the communication channels: for E-mail, AUC (area under the curve) = 0.79; for the physician's blog or personal website, AUC = 0.736; for social networks, AUC = 0.73; for recommendations of websites related to health problems, AUC = 0.768. Being young was the most important parameter in citizen predisposition to communicate through social networks (relative influence; RI = 21.05%), while population density was the most important parameter in likelihood that the physician would have a blog or personal health-related website (RI = 19.48%). Having a positive perception of the technology when facilitating health-related transactions was the most important characteristic in wanting to receive recommendations on health-related Internet resources (RI = 18.66%), while having a higher level of education was the best predictor of wanting to establish E-mail communication (RI = 18.98%). Many of Spanish people are open to using physician-patient interaction channels on the Internet.

  14. Internet-Based Approaches to Collaborative Therapeutic Assessment: New Opportunities for Professional Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ronald E.; Fagan, Corey; Wilson, Nicole L.; Chen, Jessica; Corona, Marissa; Nguyen, Hong; Racz, Sarah; Shoda, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative (or therapeutic) assessment is an empirically supported procedure that involves the client as an active participant in the assessment process. Clients discuss data they provide with the assessor in a collaborative manner designed to provide insights and assist in setting mutually agreeable treatment goals. Internet-based procedures allow for ongoing (including daily) tracking of psychological variables and provision of immediate graphic feedback to therapists, clients, and clinical supervisors. As an example, we describe one such system: Evidence-Based Assessment System for Clinicians (EAS-C) that contains more than 30 brief and empirically validated assessment instruments that can be completed via the internet or smartphone. We also provide examples from a stress management intervention demonstrating how single-client data from a web-based daily stress and coping diary tied to the EAS-C were utilized to provide clients with individualized feedback, assess progress, identify idiographic patterns of cognitions, affect, and coping strategies, and test clinical hypotheses. Internet- and computer-based technological advances can improve service delivery and help bridge the gap that currently exists between science and practice. PMID:23894220

  15. Internet-based search of randomised trials relevant to mental health originating in the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    Takriti, Yahya; El-Sayeh, Hany G; Adams, Clive E

    2005-01-01

    Background The internet is becoming a widely used source of accessing medical research through various on-line databases. This instant access to information is of benefit to busy clinicians and service users around the world. The population of the Arab World is comparable to that of the United States, yet it is widely believed to have a greatly contrasting output of randomised controlled trials related to mental health. This study was designed to investigate the existence of such research in the Arab World and also to investigate the availability of this research on-line. Methods Survey of findings from three internet-based potential sources of randomised trials originating from the Arab world and relevant to mental health care. Results A manual search of an Arabic online current contents service identified 3 studies, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO searches identified only 1 study, and a manual search of a specifically indexed, study-based mental health database, PsiTri, revealed 27 trials. Conclusion There genuinely seem to be few trials from the Arab world and accessing these on-line was problematic. Replication of some studies that guide psychiatric/psychological practice in the Arab world would seem prudent. PMID:16045805

  16. A Novel Internet Based Geriatric Education Program for Emergency Medical Services Providers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish N.; Swanson, Peter A.; Nobay, Flavia; Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis

    2012-01-01

    Despite caring for large numbers of older adults, prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers receive minimal geriatrics-specific training while obtaining their certification. Studies have shown that they desire further training to improve their comfort level and knowledge in caring for older adults. However, continuing education programs to address these needs must account for each EMS provider's specific needs, consider each provider's learning styles, and provide an engaging, interactive experience. We developed and implemented a novel, internet-based, video podcast-based geriatric continuing education program for EMS providers and evaluated their perceived value of the program. They found this resource to be highly valuable and were strongly supportive of both the modality and the specific training provided. Technical challenges were reported by some as a barrier, as well as the inability to engage in a discussion to clarify topics. Both were felt to be addressable through programmatic and technological revisions. This study demonstrates the proof of concept of video podcast training to address deficiencies in EMS education regarding the care for older patients. However, further work is needed to demonstrate the educational impact of video podcasts on the knowledge and skills of trainees. PMID:22906239

  17. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Yang Yeol; Kim, Sung Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is regarded as one of the most effective intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, many patients remain untreated or inadequately treated due to time or geographical constraints. The purpose of this study was to develop an internet-based CBT (ICBT) for OCD, and to examine its efficacy in the Korean clinical setting. The ICBT program ('COT') was developed from the same OCD manual in the standard CBT intervention. Twenty-seven participants of the total 42 patients completed all training sessions of the ICBT and the remainder (n=15) were classified as non-completers. Self-report measures of OCD, depression, anxiety, and work/social functioning, in addition to a neurocognitive test battery, were administered by face-to-face before and after treatment. The participants showed significant improvements in OCD and depressive symptoms, and in work/social functioning after ICBT completion. The presence of combined medication had no significant impact on treatment effect. The non-completers displayed more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, and ICBT responders were younger and performed better in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. ICBT was found to be as effective for patients with moderate OC symptoms and little treatment experience. Considering the high accessibility and convenience of ICBT, it could be a helpful first treatment step for OCD patients when face-to-face treatment is unavailable. In the future a randomized controlled study will be necessary for verification and generalization of these results.

  18. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Kaldo, Viktor; Paxling, Björn; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian

    2011-08-03

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. An open trial where patients (N = 23) received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56). At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format.

  19. Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: experiences from the field.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Sari; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tamminen, Manu; Lipsanen, Jari; Ladouceur, Robert; Lahti, Tuuli

    2013-06-01

    From September 2007 to May 2011 a total of 471 participants (325 males and 146 females) signed up for an 8-week Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy offered for gamblers in Finland. Sixty-four percent of the participants were pathological gamblers (PGs) (NODS 5> points), 14% were problem gamblers (NODS 3-4 points) and 10% were at risk of gambling problems (NODS 1-2 points). Two hundred and twenty four participants completed the treatment and after the treatment period significant changes were found in the following variables: gambling related problems (NODS), gambling urge, impaired control of gambling, alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), social consequences, gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts and depression (MARD-S). In this sample co-morbid alcohol consumption was stronger among males. The main finding of this study was that the onset age of gambling was associated with a greater amount of gambling-related cognitive erroneous thoughts. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. Development of StopAdvisor: A theory-based interactive internet-based smoking cessation intervention.

    PubMed

    Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Geraghty, Adam W A; Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; McEwen, Andy; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Reviews of internet-based behaviour-change interventions have shown that they can be effective but there is considerable heterogeneity and effect sizes are generally small. In order to advance science and technology in this area, it is essential to be able to build on principles and evidence of behaviour change in an incremental manner. We report the development of an interactive smoking cessation website, StopAdvisor, designed to be attractive and effective across the social spectrum. It was informed by a broad motivational theory (PRIME), empirical evidence, web-design expertise, and user-testing. The intervention was developed using an open-source web-development platform, 'LifeGuide', designed to facilitate optimisation and collaboration. We identified 19 theoretical propositions, 33 evidence- or theory-based behaviour change techniques, 26 web-design principles and nine principles from user-testing. These were synthesised to create the website, 'StopAdvisor' (see http://www.lifeguideonline.org/player/play/stopadvisordemonstration). The systematic and transparent application of theory, evidence, web-design expertise and user-testing within an open-source development platform can provide a basis for multi-phase optimisation contributing to an 'incremental technology' of behaviour change.