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Sample records for selective optical films

  1. Highly selective optical fluoride ion sensor with submicromolar detection limit based on aluminum(III) octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2005-04-20

    A highly selective, sensitive, and reversible fluoride optical sensing film based on aluminum(III)octaethylporphyrin as a fluoride ionophore and a lipophilic pH indicator as the optical transducer is described. The fluoride optical sensing films exhibit a submicromolar detection limit and high discrimination for fluoride over several lipophilic anions such as nitrate, perchlorate, and thiocyanate. PMID:15826159

  2. Cadmium stannate selective optical films for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haacke, G.

    1975-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on reducing the electrical sheet resistance of sputtered cadmium stannate films, installing and testing equipment for spray coating experiments, and sputter deposition of thin cadmium sulfide layers onto cadmium stannate electrodes. In addition, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with cadmium stannate. Work also continued on the development of the backwall CdS solar cell.

  3. Methanol selective fibre-optic gas sensor with a nanoporous thin film of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Okuda, H.; Lee, S.-W.

    2015-07-01

    The development of an evanescent wave optical fibre (EWOF) sensor modified with an organic-inorganic hybrid nanoporous thin film for alcohol vapor detection was demonstrated. The optical fibre with a core diameter of 200 μm was bent into U-shape probe optic fibre to enhance the penetation depth of light transferred into the evanescent filed. The bended region of the fibre was modified with a multilayered thin film of poly(allyamine hydrochloride) and silica nanoparticels, (PAH/SiO2)n, by a layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition technique, followed by infusion of tetrakis(4- sulfophenyl)porphine, TPPS. The mesoporous film structure showed high sensitivity and selectivity to methanol by the aid of the TPPS infused inside the film. The optical sensor response was reversible and reproducible over many times of exposures to analytes, which was caused by the change in refractive index (RI) of the film.

  4. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  5. Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2005-10-15

    More detailed analytical studies of a new fluoride-selective optical sensor based on the use of aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin and a lipophilic pH indicator (4',5'-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester; ETH-7075) within a thin plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) film are reported. The sensor exhibits extraordinary optical selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of other anions, including anions with far more positive free energies of hydration (e.g., perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, etc.). UV-visible spectrophotometric studies of the sensing films indicate that fluoride interacts with the Al(III) center of the porphyrin structure, yielding both a change in the Soret band lambda(max) of the porphyrin and a change in the protonation state of the pH indicator within the film. The same change in spectral properties of the metalloporphyrin occurs in the absence of added pH indicator or with added tetraphenylborate derivative anionic sites, but optical responses to fluoride in these cases are shown to be irreversible. The presence of the pH indicator and the simultaneous fluoride/proton coextraction equilibrium chemistry is shown to greatly enhance the reversibility of fluoride binding to the Al(III) porphyrin. Optical response toward fluoride can be observed in the range of 0.1 microM-1.6 mM. Optical selectivity coefficients of <10(-6) for common anions (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, etc.) and <10(-4) for perchlorate and thiocyanate are obtained. Measurements of fluoride in drinking water via the new optical sensor are shown to correlate well with values obtained for the same samples using a classical LaF3-based fluoride ion-selective electrode method. PMID:16223262

  6. Optical properties of copper oxide thin films as selective sensing principle for hydrogen sulfide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneer, Janosch; Boxberg, Manuel; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    Semiconducting cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric oxide (CuO) have been subject to intense research efforts, mainly because of the materials' potential for photovoltaic applications and as doping material. In this work, the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure on thin film samples of CuO and Cu2O has been investigated, focusing on alterations in the optical properties. The materials composition was verified using Raman spectroscopy. The samples were exposed to well-defined dosages of H2S and the transmission and reflection characteristics in the expanded UV/Vis regime (350-1100 nm) were recorded. Cu2O films showed an explicit increase in transmissivity for the wavelength region l = 550-900 nm, besides a general decrease in reflectivity of all samples within the considered spectral range. Optical band gaps were determined using Tauc's plotting, revealing a shift in the slope of a2 of CuO after gas exposure. The observed effects can be exploited as sensing effect, which was examined in a thin film total-internal-reflection (TIR) set-up to transiently monitor surface-gas interactions, yielding reproducible changes in response to 20 min exposure to5 ppm H2S.

  7. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  8. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Rajesh, Desapogu; Sunandana, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  9. Selective detection of gas-phase TNT by integrated optical waveguide spectrometry using molecularly imprinted sol-gel sensing films.

    PubMed

    Walker, Natalie R; Linman, Matthew J; Timmers, Margaret M; Dean, Stacey L; Burkett, Colleen M; Lloyd, Julie A; Keelor, Joel D; Baughman, Brandi M; Edmiston, Paul L

    2007-06-12

    A chemical sensor was developed to detect the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) utilizing planar integrated optical waveguide (IOW) attenuated total reflection spectrometry. Submicron thick films of organically modified sol-gel polymers were deposited on the waveguide surface as the sensing layer. Sol-gels were molecularly imprinted for TNT using covalently bound template molecules linked to the matrix through 1 or 2 carbamate linkages. Upon chemical cleavage of the template and displacement of the TNT-like pendant groups from the matrix, shape-selective binding sites were created that possess a primary amine group. The amine was used to deprotonate bound TNT yielding an anionic form that absorbs visible light. Binding of TNT and subsequent conversion to the anion results in the attenuation of light propagating through the waveguide, thus creating a spectrophotometric device. Sensitivity can be achieved by taking advantage of the substantial pathlength provided by the use of single mode IOWs. The limit-of-detection to gas-phase TNT was found to be five parts-per-billion (ppbV) in ambient air at a flow rate of 40 mL min(-1) given a 60 s sampling time. The sensor is highly selective for TNT due to the selectivity of binding site recognition of TNT and the subsequent generation of the TNT anion. Response to TNT is not reversible which results in an integrating sensor device which, in theory, can improve the ability to detect small amounts of the explosive if the exposure time is sufficient in length.

  10. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  11. Thin-Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

  12. Optically-selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    will discuss the selection and properties of optically-selected AGN as contrasted with other multi-wavelength investigations. While optical surveys are able to identify *more* AGNs than other wavelengths, this size comes with a bias towards brighter, unobscured sources. Although optical surveys are not ideal for probing obscured AGNs, I will discuss how they can guide our search for them. The bias towards unobscured sources in the optical is partially mitigated, however, by an increase in information content for the sources that *are* identified---in the form of physics probed by the combination of optical continuum, absorption, and emission. An example is the ability to estimate the mass of AGNs based on the optical/UV emission lines. I will discuss the range of mass (and accretion rate) probed by the optical in addition to serious biases in the black hole mass scaling relations that corrupt these estimates at high redshift.

  13. The effects of annealing process influence on optical properties and the molecular orientation of selected organometallic compounds thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka, A.; Płóciennik, P.; Czarnecka, I.; Sztupecka, J.; Łukasiak, Z.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents the optical properties of four metallophtalocyanines (MPcs, M = Cu, Co, Mg and Zn) and two metallophtalocyanine chlorides (MClPcs, M = Al, Ga) thin films. Investigated films were fabricated by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) in high vacuum onto quartz substrates. After fabrication both MPcs and MClPcs thin films were undergone an annealing process in ambient atmosphere for 12 h at temperature equal 150 °C or 250 °C. The absorbance spectra were measured in range 190-1100 nm to investigate the optical and structural properties. Theoretical model of physical dimer was used to explain experimental results. The position and shape of the main absorbance peak (Q-band) in these materials are compared and discussed, taking into consideration the molecular arrangement and the longitudinal contribution which depends on the transition moment orientation. It was found that annealing process changing both optical and structural properties of MPcs and MClPcs comparing to samples without applying the process.

  14. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  15. Optical Characterization of Molecular Contaminant Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.

    2007-01-01

    A semi-empirical method of optical characterization of thin contaminant films on surfaces of optical components has been conceived. The method was originally intended for application to films that become photochemically deposited on such optical components as science windows, lenses, prisms, thinfilm radiators, and glass solar-cell covers aboard spacecraft and satellites in orbit. The method should also be applicable, with suitable modifications, to thin optical films (whether deposited deliberately or formed as contaminants) on optical components used on Earth in the computer microchip laser communications and thin-film industries. The method is expected to satisfy the need for a means of understanding and predicting the reductions in spectral transmittance caused by contaminant films and the consequent deterioration of performances of sensitive optical systems. After further development, this method could become part of the basis of a method of designing optical systems to minimize or compensate for the deleterious effects of contaminant films. In the original outer-space application, these deleterious effects are especially pronounced because after photochemical deposition, the films become darkened by further exposure to solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. In this method, thin contaminant films are theoretically modeled as thin optical films, characterized by known or assumed values of thickness, index of refraction, and absorption coefficient, that form on the outer surfaces of the original antireflection coating on affected optical components. The assumed values are adjusted as needed to make actual spectral transmittance values approximate observed ones as closely as possible and to correlate these values with amounts of VUV radiation to which the optical components have been exposed. In an initial study, the method was applied in correlating measured changes in transmittance of high-purity fused silica photochemically coated with silicone films of

  16. Disposable nitrate-selective optical sensor based on fluorescent dye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, disposable thin-film optical nitrate sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by applying a nitrate-selective polymer membrane on the surface of a thin polyester film. The membrane was composed of polyvinylchloride (PVC), plasticizer, fluorescent dye, and nitrate-selective ionophore...

  17. Determination of glucose using a coupled-enzymatic reaction with new fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film coated in microtiter plate wells.

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2007-05-15

    The determination of glucose in beverages is demonstrated using newly developed fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film that contains aluminum (III) octaethylporphyrin (Al[OEP]) ionophore and the chromoionophore ETH7075 cast at the bottom of wells of a 96-well polypropylene microtiter plate. The method uses a dual enzymatic reaction involving glucose oxidase enzyme (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), along with an organofluoro-substrate (4-fluorophenol) as the source of fluoride ions. The concentration of fluoride ions after enzymatic reaction is directly proportional to the glucose level in the sample. The method has a detection limit of 0.8 mmol L(-1), a linear range of 0.9- 40 mmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 0.125 absorbance unit/decade of glucose concentration. Glucose levels in several beverage samples determined using the proposed method correlate well with a reference spectrophotometric enzyme method based on detection of hydrogen peroxide using bromopyrogallol red dye (BPR). The new method can also be used to determine H(2)O(2) concentrations in the 0.1 - 50 mmol L(-1) range using a single enzymatic reaction involving H(2)O(2) oxidation of 4-fluorophenol catalyzed by HRP. The methodology could potentially be used to detect a wide range of substrates for which selective oxidase enzymes exist (to generate H(2)O(2)), with the high throughput of simple microtiter plate detection scheme.

  18. Determination of glucose using a coupled-enzymatic reaction with new fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film coated in microtiter plate wells

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S. M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of glucose in beverages is demonstrated using newly developed fluoride selective optical sensing polymeric film that contains aluminum (III) octaethylporphyrin (Al[OEP]) ionophore and the chromoionophore ETH7075 cast at the bottom of wells of a 96-well polypropylene microtiter plate. The method uses a dual enzymatic reaction involving glucose oxidase enzyme (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), along with an organofluoro-substrate (4-fluorophenol) as the source of fluoride ions. The concentration of fluoride ions after enzymatic reaction is directly proportional to the glucose level in the sample. The method has a detection limit of 0.8 mmol L−1, a linear range of 0.9– 40 mmol L−1 and a sensitivity of 0.125 absorbance unit/decade of glucose concentration. Glucose levels in several beverage samples determined using the proposed method correlate well with a reference spectrophotometric enzyme method based on detection of hydrogen peroxide using bromopyrogallol red dye (BPR). The new method can also be used to determine H2O2 concentrations in the 0.1 - 50 mmol L−1 range using a single enzymatic reaction involving H2O2 oxidation of 4-fluorophenol catalyzed by HRP. The methodology could potentially be used to detect a wide range of substrates for which selective oxidase enzymes exist (to generate H2O2), with the high throughput of simple microtiter plate detection scheme. PMID:18480896

  19. Specific optical rotation indicatrices of chitosan films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Darya A.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2016-04-01

    The optical activity of chitosan films in the forms of polysalt (chitosan acetate) and polybase was studied. The specific optical rotation [α] of all our films was negative. The absolute values of [α] of polybasic chitosan films was by an order of magnitude higher than that for polysalt films. A dependence of [α] on the orientation angle of the sample relative to the direction of the polarization vector of the incident light beam in the plane perpendicular to this beam was established. Specific optical rotation indicatrices of the chitosan films of both chemical forms were plotted.

  20. Transparency Film for Demonstration of Biaxial Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Explains why transparency film demonstrates biaxial optical properties. Provides detailed descriptions of the procedure and equipment needed for large-scale optics demonstrations of the polarization interference pattern produced by biaxial crystals. (DDR)

  1. Polarization selecting Optical Element using a Porro Prism Incorporating a thin film Polarizer in a single element

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, James lee

    2000-01-28

    A Porro prism and a light polarizer are combined in a single optical element termed a Hendrix Prism. The design provides retro-reflection of incoming light of a predetermined polarization in a direction anti-parallel to the direction of light incidence, while reflecting undesired light, i.e., that having a polarization orthogonal to the predetermined polarization, from the surface of the light polarizer. The undesired light is reflected in a direction that does not interfere with the intended operation of the device in which the Hendrix Prism is installed yet provides feedback to the system in which it is used.

  2. Polarization selecting optical element using a porro prism incorporating a thin film polarizer in a single element

    DOEpatents

    Hendrix, James Lee

    2001-05-08

    A Porro prism and a light polarizer are combined in a single optical element termed a Hendrix Prism. The design provides retro-reflection of incoming light of a predetermined polarization in a direction anti-parallel to the direction of light incidence, while reflecting undesired light, i.e., that having a polarization orthogonal to the predetermined polarization, from the surface of the light polarizer. The undesired light is reflected in a direction that does not interfere with the intended operation of the device in which the Hendrix Prism is installed yet provides feedback to the system in which it is used.

  3. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, I.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to provide better results than using Micke-Mayer perturbation models. Among the models being compared, the triple-channel model with Truncated Normal perturbations, net optical density as the response and subject to the application of lateral corrections was found to be the most accurate model. The scope of this study was circumscribed by the limits under which the models were tested. In this study, the films were irradiated with megavoltage radiotherapy beams, with doses from about 20-600 cGy, entire (8 inch  × 10 inch) films were scanned, the functional form of the sensitometric curves was a polynomial and the different lots were calibrated using the plane-based method.

  4. All optical switching in henna thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, Fryad Z.; Jasim, Khalil E.

    2013-08-01

    The optical nonlinearity in henna (Lawson (2- hydroxyl-1,4 naphthoquinone) film was utilized to demonstrate all optical switching. The nonlinear absorption of the henna film was calculated by measuring the transmission of the laser beam ( λ = 488 nm) as a function of incident light intensities. The observed nonlinear absorption is attributed to a two-photon absorption process. The pump and probe technique was used to demonstrate all optical switching. The switching characteristics can be utilized to generate all-optical logic gates such as simple inverter switches (NOT) NOR, AND NAND logic functions.

  5. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle.

  6. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  7. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  8. Microstructure Related Properties of Optical Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, John James, Jr.

    Both the optical and physical properties of thin film optical interference coatings depend upon the microstructure of the deposited films. This microstructure is strongly columnar with voids between the columns. Computer simulations of the film growth process indicate that the two most important factors responsible for this columnar growth are a limited mobility of the condensing molecules and self-shadowing by molecules already deposited. During the vacuum deposition of thin films, the microstructure can be influenced by many parameters, such as substrate temperature and vacuum pressure. By controlling these parameters and introducing additional ones, thin film coatings can be improved. In this research, ultraviolet irradiation and ion bombardment were examined as additional parameters. Past studies have shown that post-deposition ultraviolet irradiation can be used to relieve stress and reduce absorption in the far ultraviolet of silicon dioxide films. Ion bombardment has been used to reduce stress, improve packing density, and increase resistance to moisture penetration. Three refractory oxide materials commonly used in thin film coatings were studied; they are silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zirconium dioxide. Both single-layer films and narrowband filters made of these materials were examined. A 1000-watt mercury-xenon lamp was used to provide ultraviolet irradiation. An inverted magnetron ion source was used to produce argon and oxygen ions. Ultraviolet irradiation was found to reduce the absorption and slightly increase the index of refraction in zirconium oxide films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that ultraviolet irradiation caused titanium oxide films to become more amorphous; their absorption in the ultraviolet was slightly reduced. No changes were noted in film durability. Ion bombardment enhanced the tetragonal (lll) peak of zirconium oxide but increased the absorption of both zirconium oxide and titanium oxide films. The titanium oxide

  9. Optical Properties of Thin Film Molecular Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Shumway, Dean A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling the degree of molecular mixing, the solar selective coatings can be tailored to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance, alpha, and low infrared emittance, epsilon. On orbit, these combined properties would simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. Mini-satellites equipped with solar collectors coated with these cermet coatings may utilize the captured heat energy to power a heat engine to generate electricity, or to power a thermal bus that directs heat to remote regions of the spacecraft. Early work in this area identified the theoretical boundary conditions needed to operate a Carnot cycle in space, including the need for a solar concentrator, a solar selective coating at the heat inlet of the engine, and a radiator. A solar concentrator that can concentrate sunlight by a factor of 100 is ideal. At lower values, the temperature of the solar absorbing surface becomes too low for efficient heat engine operation, and at higher values, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. In designing the solar selective coating, the wavelength region yielding high solar absorptance must be separated from the wavelength region yielding low infrared emittance by establishing a sharp transition in optical properties. In particular, a sharp transition in reflectance is desired in the infrared to achieve the desired optical performance. For a heat engine operating at 450C, a sharp transition at 1.8 micrometers is desired. The radiator completes the heat flow through the Carnot cycle. Additional work has been done supporting the use of molecular mixtures for terrestrial applications. Sputter deposition provides a means to apply coatings to the tubes that carry a working fluid at the focus of trough

  10. Optical Properties of Thin Film Molecular Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Shumway, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling the degree of molecular mixing, the solar selective coatings can be tailored to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance, , and low infrared emittance, . On orbit, these combined properties would simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. Mini-satellites equipped with solar collectors coated with these cermet coatings may utilize the captured heat energy to power a heat engine to generate electricity, or to power a thermal bus that directs heat to remote regions of the spacecraft. Early work in this area identified the theoretical boundary conditions needed to operate a Carnot cycle in space, including the need for a solar concentrator, a solar selective coating at the heat inlet of the engine, and a radiator.1 A solar concentrator that can concentrate sunlight by a factor of 100 is ideal. At lower values, the temperature of the solar absorbing surface becomes too low for efficient heat engine operation, and at higher values, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. In designing the solar selective coating, the wavelength region yielding high solar absorptance must be separated from the wavelength region yielding low infrared emittance by establishing a sharp transition in optical properties. In particular, a sharp transition in reflectance is desired in the infrared to achieve the desired optical performance. For a heat engine operating at 450 C, a sharp transition at 1.8 micrometers is desired.2 The radiator completes the heat flow through the Carnot cycle.

  11. Anisotropic optical film embedded with cellulose nanowhisker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dah Hee; Song, Young Seok

    2015-10-01

    We investigated anisotropic optical behaviors of composite films embedded with CNWs. To control the orientation of CNWs, elongation was applied to the composite film. Morphological and mechanical analyses of the specimens were carried out to examine the influence of the applied extension. The CNWs were found to be aligned in the elongated direction, yielding remarkable anisotropic microstructure and optical properties. As the applied elongation and CNW loading increased, the resulting degree of polarization and birefringence increased due to increased interactions between the embedded particles. This study suggests a way to prepare an anisotropic optical component with nanoparticles of which the microstructures, such as orientation and filler content, can be controlled. PMID:26076646

  12. A Directory of Selective Corrections Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, George A.

    This directory of selective film titles has been prepared to serve as a ready index to many of the films of potential value for the enrichment of a corrections curriculum. Recognizing that the list is not complete, the directory has been assembled in a manner which allows for adding titles by alphabetic sequence on the blank sides of the pages.…

  13. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  14. Direct-patterned optical waveguides on amorphous silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Steve; Bond, Tiziana C.; Bond, Steven W.; Pocha, Michael D.; Hau-Riege, Stefan

    2005-08-02

    An optical waveguide structure is formed by embedding a core material within a medium of lower refractive index, i.e. the cladding. The optical index of refraction of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (p-Si), in the wavelength range between about 1.2 and about 1.6 micrometers, differ by up to about 20%, with the amorphous phase having the larger index. Spatially selective laser crystallization of amorphous silicon provides a mechanism for controlling the spatial variation of the refractive index and for surrounding the amorphous regions with crystalline material. In cases where an amorphous silicon film is interposed between layers of low refractive index, for example, a structure comprised of a SiO.sub.2 substrate, a Si film and an SiO.sub.2 film, the formation of guided wave structures is particularly simple.

  15. Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2005-09-01

    Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.

  16. Semileaky thin-film optical isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, S.T.; Biolsi, W.A.; Blank, S.L.; Tien, P.K.; Martin, R.J.; Bridenbaugh, P.M.; Grabbe, P.

    1981-05-01

    Two interesting effects have been experimentally demonstrated for the first time: (1) simultaneous reciprocal and nonreciprocal mode conversion to achieve an isolation effect and (2) magneto-optic switching between guided and radiation modes. These effects were observed in connection with the construction of a previously proposed thin-film optical isolator. The isolator consists of a piece of LiNbO/sub 3/ placed on top of a thin film of yttrium ion garnet (YIG) with a selenium layer to avoid optical contact problems. The isolator, which is 1 cm long, exhibited 10 dB of isolation at lambda = 1.15 ..mu..m. The observed isolation was better than theoretical predictions and a mysterious isolation direction dependence on mode order was observed. Although the device had 10 dB of insertion loss and required a magnetic field of 40 Oe, with a slight change in wavelength and film composition, it should be possible to reduce the insertion loss and field required to under 1 dB and 0.1 Oe, respectively. These characteristics combined with broad tolerances on film thickness and the length of the isolation region, broadband operation (from lambda = 1.1 to 4.5 ..mu..m), and easy construction and adjustment make the isolator very attractive for use in integrated optics.

  17. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  18. Nonlinear Optical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude transmission feature of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. The bacteriorhodopsin film displays the logarithmic amplitude response for write beam intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2.0 orders of magnitude. We present experimental results demonstrating the principle and capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. Using the bacteriorhodopsin film, we successfully filter out image noise from the transformed image that cannot be removed from the original image.

  19. Thin Hydrogel Films for Optical Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Anca; Wang, Yi; Dostalek, Jakub; Jonas, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogel materials consisting of water-swollen polymer networks exhibit a large number of specific properties highly attractive for a variety of optical biosensor applications. This properties profile embraces the aqueous swelling medium as the basis of biocompatibility, non-fouling behavior, and being not cell toxic, while providing high optical quality and transparency. The present review focuses on some of the most interesting aspects of surface-attached hydrogel films as active binding matrices in optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy. In particular, the chemical nature, specific properties, and applications of such hydrogel surface architectures for highly sensitive affinity biosensors based on evanescent wave optics are discussed. The specific class of responsive hydrogel systems, which can change their physical state in response to externally applied stimuli, have found large interest as sophisticated materials that provide a complex behavior to hydrogel-based sensing devices. PMID:24957962

  20. Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.

  1. Flexible parylene-film optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagiwa, S.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of neuronal activities by light [e.g., laser or light-emitting diode] using optogenetics is a powerful tool for studies on neuronal functions in a brain. Herein, flexible thin-film optical waveguide arrays based on a highly biocompatible material of parylene are reported. Parylene-C and -N thin layers with the different refractive indices form the clad and the core of the waveguide, respectively, and neural recording microelectrodes are integrated to record optical stimuli and electrical recordings simultaneously using the same alignment. Both theoretical and experimental investigations confirm that light intensities of more than 90% can propagate in a bent waveguide with a curvature radius of >5 mm. The proposed flexible thin-film waveguide arrays with microelectrodes can be used for numerous spherical bio-tissues, including brain and spinal cord samples.

  2. Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-10-16

    Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

  3. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  4. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}){sup n} and Al(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AIN){sup n}. Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented.

  5. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  6. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  7. Optical bistability with film-coupled metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiqin; Baron, Alexandre; Larouche, Stéphane; Argyropoulos, Christos; Smith, David R

    2015-12-01

    Metasurfaces comprising arrays of film-coupled, nanopatch antennas are a promising platform for low-energy, all-optical switches. The large field enhancements that can be achieved in the dielectric spacer region between the nanopatch and the metallic substrate can substantially enhance optical nonlinear processes. Here we consider a dielectric material that exhibits an optical Kerr effect as the spacer layer and numerically calculate the optical bistability of a metasurface using the finite element method (FEM). We expect the proposed method to be highly accurate compared with other numerical approaches, such as those based on graphical post-processing techniques, because it self-consistently solves for both the spatial field distribution and the intensity-dependent refractive index distribution of the spacer layer. This method offers an alternative approach to finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. We use this numerical tool to design a metasurface optical switch and our optimized design exhibits exceptionally low switching intensity of 33  kW/cm2, corresponding to switching energy on the order of tens of attojoules per resonator, a value much smaller than those found for most devices reported in the literature. We propose our method as a tool for designing all-optical switches and modulators.

  8. Biotin selective polymer nano-films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interaction between biotin and avidin is utilized in a wide range of assay and diagnostic systems. A robust material capable of binding biotin should offer scope in the development of reusable assay materials and biosensor recognition elements. Results Biotin-selective thin (3–5 nm) films have been fabricated on hexadecanethiol self assembled monolayer (SAM) coated Au/quartz resonators. The films were prepared based upon a molecular imprinting strategy where N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid were copolymerized and grafted to the SAM-coated surface in the presence of biotin methyl ester using photoinitiation with physisorbed benzophenone. The biotinyl moiety selectivity of the resonators efficiently differentiated biotinylated peptidic or carbohydrate structures from their native counterparts. Conclusions Molecularly imprinted ultra thin films can be used for the selective recognition of biotinylated structures in a quartz crystal microbalance sensing platform. These films are stable for periods of at least a month. This strategy should prove of interest for use in other sensing and assay systems. PMID:24655809

  9. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  10. Optical activity of chitosan films with induced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegel, Natalia O.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2016-04-01

    The optical anisotropy and optical activity of salt and basic chitosan films, both initial and modified in formic acid vapor were studied. The modification of such films was found to be accompanied by induced time-stable optical anisotropy, by varying the values of specific optical rotation [α] and an inversion of the sign of [α]. The angular dependences (indicatrices) of the specific optical rotation of films on the orientation angle of the sample relative to the direction of the polarization vector of the incident light beam in a plane perpendicular to the beam were obtained. The indicatrices of the initial chitosan films have an almost symmetrical character while those of the films modified in formic acid vapor are irregular. It is concluded of the formation of a vitrified cholesteric mesophase in the chitosan films with induced optical anisotropy.

  11. Optical thin film metrology for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The manufacturing of optoelectronic thin films is of key importance, because it underpins a significant number of industries. The aim of the European joint research project for optoelectronic thin film characterization (IND07) in the European Metrology Research Programme of EURAMET is to develop optical and X-ray metrologies for the assessment of quality as well as key parameters of relevant materials and layer systems. This work is intended to be a step towards the establishment of validated reference metrologies for the reliable characterization, and the development of calibrated reference samples with well-defined and controlled parameters. In a recent comprehensive study (including XPS, AES, GD-OES, GD-MS, SNMS, SIMS, Raman, SE, RBS, ERDA, GIXRD), Abou-Ras et al. (Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 [2011] 728) demonstrated that most characterization techniques have limitations and bottle-necks, and the agreement of the measurement results in terms of accurate, absolute values is not as perfect as one would expect. This paper focuses on optical characterization techniques, laying emphasis on hardware and model development, which determine the kind and number of parameters that can be measured, as well as their accuracy. Some examples will be discussed including optical techniques and materials for photovoltaics, biosensors and waveguides.

  12. Optical conductivity of topological insulator thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-05-07

    We present a detailed theoretical study on the optoelectronic properties of topological insulator thin film (TITFs). The k·p approach is employed to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions for both the bulk and surface states in the TITF. With these obtained results, the optical conductivities induced by different electronic transitions among the bulk and surface states are evaluated using the energy-balance equation derived from the Boltzmann equation. We find that for Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-based TITFs, three characteristic regimes for the optical absorption can be observed. (i) In the low radiation frequency regime (photon energy ℏω<200 meV), the free-carrier absorption takes place due to intraband electronic transitions. An optical absorption window can be observed. (ii) In the intermediate radiation frequency regime (200<ℏω<300 meV), the optical absorption is induced mainly by interband electronic transitions from surface states in the valance band to surface states in the conduction band and an universal value σ{sub 0}=e{sup 2}/(8ℏ) for the optical conductivity can be obtained. (iii) In the high radiation frequency regime (ℏω>300 meV), the optical absorption can be achieved via interband electronic transitions from bulk and surface states in the valance band to bulk and surface states in the conduction band. A strong absorption peak can be observed. These interesting findings indicate that optical measurements can be applied to identify the energy regimes of bulk and surface states in the TITF.

  13. Robust, Thin Optical Films for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be extremely sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, extreme temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.

  14. Preparation of polymeric diacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Mcmanus, Samuel P. (Inventor); Paley, Mark S. (Inventor); Donovan, David N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing polymeric diacetylene thin films having desirable nonlinear optical characteristics has been achieved by producing amorphous diacetylene polymeric films by simultaneous polymerization of diacetylene monomers in solution and deposition of polymerized diacetylenes on to the surface of a transparent substrate through which ultraviolet light has been transmitted. These amorphous polydiacetylene films produced by photo-deposition from solution possess very high optical quality and exhibit large third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, such properties being suitable for nonlinear optical devices such as waveguides and integrated optics.

  15. 36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in...

  16. 36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in...

  17. 36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in...

  18. 36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in...

  19. 36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in...

  20. Selected papers on schlieren optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Arendt, Jurgen R.

    The present survey of the historical development of schlieren methods begins with Hooke's (1665) 'Of a new property in the air', and Toeper's (1864) 'Observations by a new optical method'; it then proceeds to cover a schlieren system for flow studies in round glass pipes, a sharp-focusing schlieren system, and direct photography of ultracentrifuge sedimentation curves. Also discussed are a high resolution/high sensitivity color schlieren method, microscopy via novel color schlieren technique, color-coding schlieren techniques for the optical study of heat and fluid flow, a noncoherent method for mapping phase objects, and the interference phenomenon in the schlieren system. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  1. Optical method for the determination of stress in thin films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.

    1999-01-26

    A method and optical system is disclosed for measuring an amount of stress in a film layer disposed over a substrate. The method includes steps of: (A) applying a sequence of optical pump pulses to the film layer, individual ones of said optical pump pulses inducing a propagating strain pulse in the film layer, and for each of the optical pump pulses, applying at least one optical probe pulse, the optical probe pulses being applied with different time delays after the application of the corresponding optical probe pulses; (B) detecting variations in an intensity of a reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, the variations being due at least in part to the propagation of the strain pulse in the film layer; (C) determining, from the detected intensity variations, a sound velocity in the film layer; and (D) calculating, using the determined sound velocity, the amount of stress in the film layer. In one embodiment of this invention the step of detecting measures a period of an oscillation in the intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, while in another embodiment the step of detecting measures a change in intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses and determines a time at which the propagating strain pulse reflects from a boundary of the film layer. 16 figs.

  2. Optical method for the determination of stress in thin films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    1999-01-01

    A method and optical system is disclosed for measuring an amount of stress in a film layer disposed over a substrate. The method includes steps of: (A) applying a sequence of optical pump pulses to the film layer, individual ones of said optical pump pulses inducing a propagating strain pulse in the film layer, and for each of the optical pump pulses, applying at least one optical probe pulse, the optical probe pulses being applied with different time delays after the application of the corresponding optical probe pulses; (B) detecting variations in an intensity of a reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, the variations being due at least in part to the propagation of the strain pulse in the film layer; (C) determining, from the detected intensity variations, a sound velocity in the film layer; and (D) calculating, using the determined sound velocity, the amount of stress in the film layer. In one embodiment of this invention the step of detecting measures a period of an oscillation in the intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, while in another embodiment the step of detecting measures a change in intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses and determines a time at which the propagating strain pulse reflects from a boundary of the film layer.

  3. Nonlinear optical microscopy for imaging thin films and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, L.B.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. We have demonstrated the use of several nonlinear optical responses for imaging thin films. The second harmonic response of a thin film of C{sub 60} has been used to image patterned films. Two photon absorption light induced fluorescence has been used to image patterned thin films of Rhodamine 6G. Applications of nonlinear optical microscopy include the imaging of charge injection and photoinduced charge transfer between layers in semiconductor heterojunction devices as well as across membranes in biological systems.

  4. Optical Films Deposited By A Reactive Ion Plating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulker, H. K.; BUhler, M.; Hora, R.

    1986-12-01

    Oxide films on glass substrates, both single and multilayers, were produced by a special reactive ion plating process in the new automatic plating system BALZERS BAP 800. Structure, optical and mechanical film properties have been examined as a function of the deposition parameters. Multilayer systems consisting of TiO2 and Si02 films were deposited, and tests were made concerning optical characteristics, reproducibility and stability. Because of the unique characteristics of the films ion plating promises to become the new technology for the production of optical coatings.

  5. Anomalous magneto-optical response of black phosphorus thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Lou, Wen-Kai; Zhai, Feng; Chang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the Landau levels (LLs) and magneto-optical conductivity (MOC) of black phosphorus thin films under a perpendicular magnetic field based on an effective k .p Hamiltonian and linear-response theory. We obtain the analytical expression for LLs, which agrees well with the numerical calculations, and find that the LLs sublinearly depend on the magnetic field and LL index. By using the Kubo formula, we evaluate the longitudinal and Hall optical conductivities as functions of the photon energy and the magnetic field. The analytical optical transition matrix elements reveal unusual selection rules for the interband (intraband) optical transitions between the LLs Δ n =0 ,±2 (±1 ,±3 ). The MOC shows strongly anisotropic behaviors of the band structure. For the interband transition, the MOC for linearly polarized light along the armchair direction is three orders of magnitude larger than that along the zigzag direction. Interestingly, we find a beating pattern in the interband MOC due to the interference among the three kinds of optical transitions. For the intraband transition, the MOC can be used to determine the band parameters such as the effective masses and the interband coupling at zero magnetic field. Our results about the MOC can also be applied to the monolayer black phosphorus.

  6. Optical characterization of copper indium gallium diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Damon

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and its alloys are the leading choice for thin film photovoltaic absorber layers due to their high performance in devices, low degradation, high optical absorption coefficient and high tolerance to off-stoichiometry and intrinsic defects. Film conductivity and recombination losses are controlled by intrinsic point defect concentrations, especially in the near-surface space-charge region of the heterojunction. Despite the amount of research already performed on CIGS alloys, their optoelectronic properties, defect chemistry and recombination mechanisms are still poorly understood. The focus of this dissertation is to optically characterize a selection of CIGS absorber layers fabricated by various techniques in order to better understand the radiative emission and defect physics. This work aims to identify the defects responsible for recombination and their relation to grain boundaries and band edge fluctuations, which limit device performance. This study used photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence (CL) to study radiative emissions from a variety of Cu-poor CIGS thin films. Three general types of CIGS films were analyzed. Polycrystalline layers deposited on Mo-coated soda lime glass, polycrystalline layers deposited on metal foil, and epitaxial films grown on (100) and (111) GaAs were analyzed in this work. This work concludes that the donor-acceptor pair recombination model used in most interpretations of CIGS emission should be replaced with a model that accounts for high compensation and band edge fluctuations, which is shown to be undoubtedly the case in Cu-poor CIGS. Within this model, the most commonly observed emissions were explained as free-to-bound types, specifically iii band-to-impurity (BI) and tail-to-impurity (TI) types. Band tail width was measured by PLE. A correlation was established between band tail width and device efficiency. CIGS absorber layers that

  7. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  8. The Effect of Radiation on Selected Photographic Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Richard; Kinard, John; Firsov, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    We conducted this film test to evaluate several manufacturers' photographic films for their ability to acquire imagery on the International Space Station. We selected 25 motion picture, photographic slide, and negative films from three different film manufacturers. We based this selection on the fact that their films ranked highest in other similar film tests, and on their general acceptance by the international community. This test differed from previous tests because the entire evaluation process leading up to the final selection was based on information derived after the original flight film was scanned to a digital file. Previously conducted tests were evaluated entirely based on 8 x 10s that were produced from the film either directly or through the internegative process. This new evaluation procedure provided accurate quantitative data on granularity and contrast from the digital data. This test did not try to define which film was best visually. This is too often based on personal preference. However, the test results did group the films by good, marginal, and unacceptable. We developed, and included in this report, a template containing quantitative, graphical, and visual information for each film. These templates should be sufficient for comparing the different films tested and subsequently selecting a film or films to be used for experiments and general documentation on the International Space Station.

  9. Novel optical sensing film based on a functional nonwoven nanofibre mat for an easy, fast and highly selective and sensitive detection of tryptamine in beer.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the combination of Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) and nanotechnology has led to a new approach in the detection of biogenic amines in complex matrices. This novel approach allows, for the first time, the direct determination of the concentration of tryptamine in beers. The novelty of the proposed optical sensor resides in its simplicity, rapidity, absence of complex chromatographic separation, sample clean-up, preconcentration, and derivatization protocols. Therefore, this novel methodology simplifies and reduces considerably the time and cost of the analysis, resolving the two major problems of the determination of tryptamine in beer up to now: low sensitivity and matrix effects. The proposed sensor is based on a novel white, uncharged, and non-luminescent functional nonwoven nanofibre mat (Tiss®-Link) formed by hydrophilic nanofibres of 300 nm of diameter functionalized with a high concentration of active vinyl groups (330 µmol g(-1)). It is used to carry out a kinetically controlled covalent immobilisation of tryptamine via Michael type-reaction. The transduction of the sensor is phosphorescence; the covalently immobilized tryptamine is quantified by SS-RTP, obtaining a detection limit of 6 ng mL(-1) with short response times (15 min). The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analysing tryptamine in 10 different varieties of beers, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%.

  10. Novel optical sensing film based on a functional nonwoven nanofibre mat for an easy, fast and highly selective and sensitive detection of tryptamine in beer.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the combination of Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) and nanotechnology has led to a new approach in the detection of biogenic amines in complex matrices. This novel approach allows, for the first time, the direct determination of the concentration of tryptamine in beers. The novelty of the proposed optical sensor resides in its simplicity, rapidity, absence of complex chromatographic separation, sample clean-up, preconcentration, and derivatization protocols. Therefore, this novel methodology simplifies and reduces considerably the time and cost of the analysis, resolving the two major problems of the determination of tryptamine in beer up to now: low sensitivity and matrix effects. The proposed sensor is based on a novel white, uncharged, and non-luminescent functional nonwoven nanofibre mat (Tiss®-Link) formed by hydrophilic nanofibres of 300 nm of diameter functionalized with a high concentration of active vinyl groups (330 µmol g(-1)). It is used to carry out a kinetically controlled covalent immobilisation of tryptamine via Michael type-reaction. The transduction of the sensor is phosphorescence; the covalently immobilized tryptamine is quantified by SS-RTP, obtaining a detection limit of 6 ng mL(-1) with short response times (15 min). The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analysing tryptamine in 10 different varieties of beers, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%. PMID:26761616

  11. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  12. Structural and optical properties of molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Shally; Khanna, Atul

    2015-06-24

    Thermal evaporation technique was used to prepare thin films of MoO{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction measurements found that as-deposited films of MoO{sub 3} were amorphous which crystallized to orthorhombic phase on annealing at 623K for 1h in air. The optical band gap of the films decreases from 3.1eV to 1.7eV upon crystallization. Short range structure of the as deposited films and annealed films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and it consisted of MoO{sub 6} units.

  13. Thin Films of Quasicrystals: Optical, Electronic, and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symko, Orest G.

    1998-03-01

    In order to extend some of the unusual properties of quasicrystals toward practical applications and to study fundamental aspects of these properties, we have developed a technology for the deposition of high quality thin films of quasicrystals on a variety of substrates. Mechanical support for the thin films is provided by the substrate as bulk quasicrystals are brittle. We have applied the thin films to studies of their optical, electrical, and mechanical properties as well as to coatings of biomedical devices. An important characteristic of a quasicrystal is its pseudogap in the electronic density of states; it is determined directly from optical transmission measurements. Optical and mechanical characteristics of the thin films provide strong support for the cluster nature of quasicrystals and emphasize their importance for coatings. When used in biomedical devices, thin film quasicrystalline coatings show remarkable strength, low friction, and non-stick behavior. This work was in collaboration with W. Park, E. Abdel-Rahman, and T. Klein.

  14. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  15. Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Klenk, R.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch; Topič, M.; Krč, J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmonic scattering from metal nanostructures presents a promising concept for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The determination of optimal nanostructures and their position within the solar cell is crucial to boost the efficiency. Therefore we established a one-dimensional optical model combining plasmonic scattering and thin-film optics to simulate optical properties of thin-film solar cells including metal nanoparticles. Scattering models based on dipole oscillations and Mie theory are presented and their integration in thin-film semi-coherent optical descriptions is explained. A plasmonic layer is introduced in the thin-film structure to simulate scattering properties as well as parasitic absorption in the metal nanoparticles. A proof of modeling concept is given for the case of metal-island grown silver nanoparticles on glass and ZnO:Al/glass substrates. Using simulations a promising application of the nanoparticle integration is shown for the case of CuGaSe2 solar cells.

  16. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-14

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature T{sub g}, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above T{sub g} would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  17. Light waves in thin films and integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Tien, P K

    1971-11-01

    Integrated optics is a far-reaching attempt to apply thin-film technology to optical circuits and devices, and, by using methods of integrated circuitry, to achieve a better and more economical optical system. The specific topics discussed here are physics of light waves in thin films, materials and losses involved, methods of couplings light beam into and out of a thin film, and nonlinear interactions in waveguide structures. The purpose of this paper is to review in some detail the important development of this new and fascinating field, and to caution the reader that the technology involved is difficult because of the smallness and perfection demanded by thin-film optical devices.

  18. Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments

    DOEpatents

    Roslaniec, Mary C.; Martin, John C.; Jett, James H.; Cram, L. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

  19. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller thanmore » the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing.« less

  20. Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2014-10-01

    Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

  1. An optical filter with angular selectivity of the light transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirullin, Rustam S.

    2015-09-01

    Features of the application of a novel optical filter with angular selectivity of the light transmission to architectural glazing are considered. The filter consists of a sheet transparent substrate with thin-film grating layers on both surfaces. The gratings formed by directionally transmissive strips, alternating with absorptive, reflective, or scattering strips. Their relative position on the input and output surfaces provides angular selectivity of the directional light transmission - as the incidence angle changes, the proportion of radiation that passes through both gratings of the filter also changes. Chromogenic materials currently used in the laminated smart windows, providing control over the intensity and spectrum of the transmitted solar radiation, cannot achieve the selective regulation on the ranges of incidence angles. Such a regulation requires the use of additional daylight-redirecting devices, especially blinds, to dynamically adapt to the position of the sun. The grating optical filter provides angular selectivity of the light transmission of a window without such devices. The features of using this filter in the single and double glazed windows are described. A graphic analytical calculation method is proposed for estimating the effect of geometrical and optical parameters of the filter on the angular characteristics of the light transmission. An algorithm to optimize filtering solar radiation taking into account the geographical coordinates of terrain, time of day and year and the orientation of the window to the cardinal is set. An algorithm to calculating geometrical parameters of the filter with pre-specified characteristics of the light transmission is obtained.

  2. Optical properties of oxygenated CdTe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Navarro, A.; Peña-Chapa, J. L.; Villagrán De León, J. C.

    1996-07-01

    Cadmium telluride oxide films (CdTe-O) were grown by a radio frequency sputtering technique on glass slide substrates using a controlled plasma (Ar-N2O). The films were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and optical transmission. We demonstrate that the oxidation process enhances the transmittance of the films into the visible part of the spectrum depending on the oxygen concentration.

  3. Thick optical films for the conduction of optical and infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the characteristics of thick optical films, which can be used to direct and conduct optical and IR radiation, for the case of light concentration onto solar cells. Incident light is trapped within a thin, flat sheet of transparent material by a diffuse selective surface on the back of the transparent layer, and so directed that total internal reflection occurs, with some of the captured light finding its way back to the photovoltaic cells attached to the back of the layer. A Monte Carlo computer model is used to analyze this system, whose achievable gain depends on layer thickness, trapping material refraction index, and solar cell shape and size. Results indicate that gains of a factor of two in power output are obtainable for the case of sparsely-packed solar cell arrays and lower factors for more densely-packed arrays.

  4. Optically Transparent Ferromagnetic Nanogranular Films with Tunable Transmittance

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Developing optically transparent magnets at room temperature is an important challenge. They would bring many innovations to various industries, not only for electronic and magnetic devices but also for optical applications. Here we introduce FeCo-(Al-fluoride) nanogranular films exhibiting ferromagnetic properties with high optical transparency in the visible light region. These films have a nanocomposite structure, in which nanometer-sized FeCo ferromagnetic granules are dispersed in an Al-fluoride crystallized matrix. The optical transmittance of these films is controlled by changing the magnetization. This is a new type of magneto-optical effect and is explained by spin-dependent charge oscillation between ferromagnetic granules due to quantum-mechanical tunneling. PMID:27677710

  5. Optically Transparent Ferromagnetic Nanogranular Films with Tunable Transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-09-01

    Developing optically transparent magnets at room temperature is an important challenge. They would bring many innovations to various industries, not only for electronic and magnetic devices but also for optical applications. Here we introduce FeCo-(Al-fluoride) nanogranular films exhibiting ferromagnetic properties with high optical transparency in the visible light region. These films have a nanocomposite structure, in which nanometer-sized FeCo ferromagnetic granules are dispersed in an Al-fluoride crystallized matrix. The optical transmittance of these films is controlled by changing the magnetization. This is a new type of magneto-optical effect and is explained by spin-dependent charge oscillation between ferromagnetic granules due to quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  6. Optical characterization of sputtered carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, J.W. III.

    1992-05-01

    Spattered carbon films are widely used as protective overcoats for thin film disk media. Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and relatively rapid and is well suited for the characterization of carbon films. Specific features in the Raman spectra are empirically correlated with the rates of specific types of mechanical wear for both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated films. This observation is interpreted in terms of a random covalent network, in which the mechanical performance of the film is determined by the nature of the bonding that links sp{sup 2}-bonded domains.

  7. Integrated optical components in thin films of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Teague, Zedric

    1995-01-01

    The results will be reported on the study of integrated optical components based on nonlinear optical polymeric films. Polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyimide (PI) doped with organic laser dyes 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p dimethylaminostyryl-4H pyran (DCM) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 - pentamethyl-2,6 -diethyl-pyrromethene -BF2-complex (Pyrommethene 567, PM-567) were selected as materials for light guiding films. Additionally, UV polymerized polydiacetylene (PDA) on glass substrate was used as a waveguide material. Optical waveguides were fabricated using spin coating of preoxidized silicon wafers (1.5 micrometer silicon oxide layer) with organic dye/polymer solution followed by soft baking. the modes in slab waveguides were studied using prism coupling techniques. Measured values of mode coupling angles in multimode waveguides were used to calculate film thickness and refractive index for different polarizations. Refractive index anisotropy was found in PDA waveguide. The optimal conditions of spin coating for single mode waveguide fabrication were estimated. Propagation losses were measured by collecting the light scattered from the trace of a propagating mode either by scanning photo detector or by CCD camera. Different types of light coupling techniques were used including end-dire coupling, prism and grating coupling. Mechanical printing technique was developed for coupling grating fabrication resulting in gratings with 4% diffraction efficiency. The gratings demonstrated good stability with diffraction efficiency relaxation rate 2.4 dB/hour at a temperature approximately 15-20 C below glass transition point. Dye doped waveguides were transversally pumped with frequency doubled Nd:YAG Q-switched laser producing intensive light emission with apparent 6 kW/sq cm pump threshold and spectrum narrowing near 617 nm peak in the case of DCM doped waveguide. PM-567 doped waveguide pumped with CW Ar(+) laser (514 nm wavelength) far below threshold (0.1 W

  8. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, B.W.; Nystrom, M.J.

    1998-05-19

    Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface are disclosed. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components. 8 figs.

  9. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  10. A selective optical sensor based on [9]mercuracarborand-3, a new type of ionophore with a chloride complexing cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badr, I. H.; Johnson, R. D.; Diaz, M.; Hawthorne, M. F.; Bachas, L. G.; Daunert, S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for chloride, based on the multidentate Lewis acid ionophore [9]mercuracarborand-3, is described herein. This sensor is constructed by embedding the mercuracarborand ionophore, a suitable pH-sensitive lipophilic dye, and lipophilic cationic sites in a plasticized polymeric membrane. The multiple complementary interactions offered by the preorganized complexing cavity of [9]mercuracarborand-3 is shown to control the anion selectivity pattern of the optical film. The film exhibits a significantly enhanced selectivity for chloride over a variety of lipophilic anions such as perchlorate, nitrate, salicylate, and thiocyanate. Furthermore, the optical selectivity coefficients obtained for chloride over other biologically relevant anions are shown to meet the selectivity requirements for the determination of chloride in physiological fluids, unlike previously reported chloride optical sensors. In addition, the optical film responds to chloride reversibly over a wide dynamic range (16 microM-136 mM) with fast response and recovery times.

  11. All-optical control of ferromagnetic thin films and nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C-H; Mangin, S; Varaprasad, B S D Ch S; Takahashi, Y K; Hehn, M; Cinchetti, M; Malinowski, G; Hono, K; Fainman, Y; Aeschlimann, M; Fullerton, E E

    2014-09-12

    The interplay of light and magnetism allowed light to be used as a probe of magnetic materials. Now the focus has shifted to use polarized light to alter or manipulate magnetism. Here, we demonstrate optical control of ferromagnetic materials ranging from magnetic thin films to multilayers and even granular films being explored for ultra-high-density magnetic recording. Our finding shows that optical control of magnetic materials is a much more general phenomenon than previously assumed and may have a major impact on data memory and storage industries through the integration of optical control of ferromagnetic bits.

  12. Optical coherence tomography as film thickness measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manallah, Aissa; Bouafia, Mohamed; Meguellati, Said

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful optical method, noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method. Although it is usually used for medical examinations, particularly in ocular exploration; it can also be used in optical metrology as measure technique. In this work, we use OCT to measure thicknesses of films. In OCT, depth profiles are constructed by measuring the time delay of back reflected light by interferometry measurements. Frequency in k-space is proportional to optical path difference. Then the reflectivity profile is obtained by a Fourier transformation, and the difference between two successive peaks of the resulting spectrum gives the film thickness. Several films, food-type, of different thicknesses were investigated and the results were very accurate.

  13. Sensitometric responses of selected medical radiographic films.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J M; Gray, J E

    1991-12-01

    Radiographic films produce different densities and contrast when processor changes occur, and the magnitude and rate of change vary with film type. The ability to detect and interpret the clinical importance of film density changes may depend on the method of sensitometry used. The characteristics of several medical radiographic films and various sensitometers were examined under three sensitometric variations and five processing variations. Of all variations used, only exposure with a single-versus a double-sided sensitometer caused a film type to have a marked different response. The results indicate that mismatching the sensitometer spectral output with the spectral sensitivity of the film in most cases does not affect the density changes of the film. The fact that a few films may be sensitive to differences in spectral content of the exposing light and dual- versus single-sided exposure and that only a limited number of film types were tested, however, leads to the prudent conclusion that the exposure conditions for quality control purposes should match clinical exposure conditions as closely as possible. PMID:1947114

  14. Guide to Selected Student Film Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Steven D.

    Students who are beginning to use film as a medium of expression are sometimes more highly motivated to achieve excellence if they know channels through which they can seek acclaim for their films. Listed here are three highly accessible competitive events through which acclaim may be sought. Each event is described briefly, offering information…

  15. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  16. Simple method of fabricating copper oxide selective absorber films for photothermal conversion of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, H.D.; Viswanathan, R.; Rao, D.R.; Acharya, H.N.

    1988-11-01

    Highly stable selective absorptive coatings of copper oxides were deposited on commercially available galvanized iron substrates by a dip-and-dry technique. The optothermal, structural, and optical properties of these films were investigated. The deposition parameters for an optimum selective absorptive film were determined. A typical such coating gave solar absorptance (AM1) of 0.91 and thermal emittance (100/sup 0/C) of 0.17. Up to 300/sup 0/C, the film was adherent and stable, having a top layer of CuO and an under layer of Cu/sub x/O of varying composition (x=1 to 2). However, increasing the temperature beyond 400/sup 0/C converted the film to CuO only.

  17. Optical characterization of SiO2 thin films using universal dispersion model over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Giglia, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Vacuum evaporated SiO2 thin films are very important in a design and manufacturing of optical devices produced in optics industry. In this contribution a reliable and precise optical characterization of such SiO2 thin films is performed using the combined method of spectrophotometry at normal incidence and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry applied over spectral range from far IR to extreme UV (0.01-45 eV). This method uses the Universal Dispersion Model based on parametrization of the joint density of states and structural model comprising film defects such as nanometric boundary roughness, inhomogeneity and area non-uniformity. The optical characterization over the wide spectral range provides not only the spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the films within the wide range but, more significantly, it enables their correct and precise determination within the spectral range of interest, i.e. the range of their transparency. Furthermore, measurements in the ranges of film absorption, i. e. phonon excitations in IR and electron excitations in UV, reveal information about the material structure. The results of the optical characterization of the SiO2 thin films prepared on silicon single crystal substrates under various technological conditions are presented in detail for two selected samples. Beside film thicknesses and values of dispersion parameters and spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the SiO2 films, the characterization also enables quantification of film defects and their parameters are presented as well. The results concerning the optical constants of SiO2 films are compared with silica optical constants determined in our earlier studies.

  18. Quasar Selection in the Optical + MIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Peters, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    We identify 885,503 type 1 quasar candidates to i<22 using the combination of optical and mid-IR photometry. Optical photometry is taken from SDSS-III, while mid-IR photometry comes from a combination of data from ALLWISE and several large-area Spitzer-IRAC fields. Selection was based on a training sample of 157,701 spectroscopically-confirmed type 1 quasars with both optical and mid-IR data. Of these candidates, 306,686 lack spectroscopic confirmation, including 8665 quasar candidates with 3.53.5 than the traditional mid-IR selection ``wedges'' and to 2.2

  19. A Selection of Films for Family Planning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This catalog gives an annotated listing of selected films available for use in family planning programs. Films are listed alphabetically, geographically by particular country, and by subject. In most cases information is given concerning length, producer, distributor, cost, and rental conditions from the International Planned Parenthood…

  20. Magneto-optic constants of hcp and fcc Co films

    SciTech Connect

    Osgood, R.M. III,; Riggs, K.T.; Johnson, A.E.; Mattson, J.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-08-01

    We tabulate the wavelength dependence of the complex magneto-optic constants for epitaxial fcc (001) and hcp (1{bar 1}00) Co films with the magnetization along two different in-plane crystallographic directions. The magneto-optic constants of epitaxial hcp Co films are strongly dependent on crystallographic direction for the same sample, while those of epitaxial fcc Co films are not, as anticipated from the trends in the magnetic anisotropy due to the spin-orbit interaction. Our results for (i) the anisotropic magneto-optic constants, (ii) the magnetic anisotropy, and (iii) the indices of refraction, are compared to other studies of Co. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  2. Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Monitor Growth of Polymer Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamesderfer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic sensor system would measure the increase in thickness of a film of parylene (a thermoplastic polymer made from para-xylene) during growth of the film in a vapor deposition process. By enabling real-time monitoring of film thickness, the system would make it possible to identify process conditions favorable for growth and to tailor the final thickness of the film with greater precision than is now possible. The heart of the sensor would be a pair of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometers, depicted schematically in the figure. (In principle, a single such interferometer would suffice. The proposal calls for the use of two interferometers for protective redundancy and increased accuracy.) Each interferometer would include a light source, a fiber-optic coupler, and photodetectors in a control box outside the deposition chamber. A single-mode optical fiber for each interferometer would run from inside the control box to a fused-silica faceplate in a sensor head. The sensory tips of the optical fibers would be polished flush with the free surface of the faceplate. In preparation for use, the sensor head would be mounted with a hermetic seal in a feed-through port in the deposition chamber, such that free face of the faceplate and the sensory tips of the optical fibers would be exposed to the deposition environment. During operation, light would travel along each optical fiber from the control box to the sensor head. A small portion of the light would be reflected toward the control box from the end face of each fiber. Once growth of the parylene film started, a small portion of the light would also be reflected toward the control box from the outer surface of the film. In the control box, the two reflected portions of the light beam would interfere in one of the photodetectors. The difference between the phases of the interfering reflected portions of the light beam would vary in proportion to the increasing thickness of the film and the known

  3. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Spiller, Eberhard A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude; Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Stress compensating systems that reduces/compensates stress in a multilayer without loss in reflectivity, while reducing total film thickness compared to the earlier buffer-layer approach. The stress free multilayer systems contain multilayer systems with two different material combinations of opposite stress, where both systems give good reflectivity at the design wavelengths. The main advantage of the multilayer system design is that stress reduction does not require the deposition of any additional layers, as in the buffer layer approach. If the optical performance of the two systems at the design wavelength differ, the system with the poorer performance is deposited first, and then the system with better performance last, thus forming the top of the multilayer system. The components for the stress reducing layer are chosen among materials that have opposite stress to that of the preferred multilayer reflecting stack and simultaneously have optical constants that allow one to get good reflectivity at the design wavelength. For a wavelength of 13.4 nm, the wavelength presently used for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, Si and Be have practically the same optical constants, but the Mo/Si multilayer has opposite stress than the Mo/Be multilayer. Multilayer systems of these materials have practically identical reflectivity curves. For example, stress free multilayers can be formed on a substrate using Mo/Be multilayers in the bottom of the stack and Mo/Si multilayers at the top of the stack, with the switch-over point selected to obtain zero stress. In this multilayer system, the switch-over point is at about the half point of the total thickness of the stack, and for the Mo/Be--Mo/Si system, there may be 25 deposition periods Mo/Be to 20 deposition periods Mo/Si.

  4. Diamond/AlN Thin Films for Optical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knoebber, F.; Bludau, O.; Williams, O. A.; Sah, R. E.; Kirste, L.; Baeumler, M.; Nebel, C. E.; Ambacher, O.; Cimalla, V.; Lebedev, V.; Leopold, S.; Paetz, D.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we report on membranes made of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN for the use in tunable micro-optics. For the growth of the AlN and NCD thin films, magnetron sputtering and chemical vapor deposition techniques have been used, respectively. A chemical-mechanical polishing process of NCD layers has been introduced, which is crucial for the growth of c-oriented, fiber textured AlN films. AlN layers deposited on as grown and polished nanocrystalline diamond along with free standing membranes have been compared by studying microstructure, surface morphology, piezoelectrical response as well as optical properties.

  5. Structural and optical characterization of the propolis films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapak, S. I.; Bakhtinov, A. P.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Drapak, I. T.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2006-10-01

    We have performed structural and optical characterizations of the propolis (an organic entity of biological nature) films grown on various non-organic substrates. The films were grown from a propolis melt or a propolis alcohol solution. The crystal structure has been observed in the films precipitated from the solution onto substrates such as an amorphous glass and sapphire or semiconductor indium monoselenide. For any growth method, the propolis film is a semiconductor with the bandgap of 3.07 eV at 300 K that is confirmed by a maximum in photoluminescence spectra at 2.86 eV. We argue that propolis films might be used in various optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Optical properties of porous chalcogenide films for sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalova, A.; Todorov, R.

    2012-12-01

    The object of the present work is investigation of the optical properties of obliquely deposited thin films from As - S - Ge system. Aiming to obtain high porous coatings the deposition rate was varied in the range of 0.05-10 nm/s. The conditions for deposition of thin As - S - Ge films with columnar structure and high porosity were established. The role of the actual deposition conditions on the optical properties is examined. The optical constants (refractive index, n and absorption coefficient, α) and thickness, d as well as the optical band gap, Eg, and slope parameter B in dependence of the deposition angle and rate are determined from specrophotometric measurements in the spectral range 400-2000 nm applying the Swanepoel's envelope method and Tauc's procedure. Increasing of the value of n from 2.40 to 1.83 for thin film with composition As10Ge30S60 with increasing deposition angle from 0° to 75° is observed. The possibility of using the thin films for optical sensing of SO2 and H2S was examined. Reversible changes of the refractive index, Δn = 0.015 were observed as a consequence of treatment virgin - exposure to H2SO4 vapors- annealing at 120 °C.

  7. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2003-05-13

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  8. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  9. Durability Evaluation of Selected Solid Lubricating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the coefficients of friction, wear rates, and durability of bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), magnetron-sputtered MoS2, ion-plated silver, ion-plated lead, magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited DLC (PACVD DLC) films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7 x 10(exp -7) Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx. 20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less than 1 percent). The main criteria for judging the performance of the solid lubricating films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 10(exp -6) cu mm/N.m or less, respectively. The bonded MoS2 and magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films met the criteria in all three environments. The ion-plated lead and silver films met the criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum but failed in humid air and in dry nitrogen. The MS DLC and PACVD DLC films met the requirements in humid air and dry nitrogen but failed in ultrahigh vacuum.

  10. Evaluation of Selected Solid Lubricating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear properties of bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), magnetron-sputtered MoS2, ion-plated silver, ion-plated lead, magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited DLC (PACVD DLC) films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7 x 10(exp -7) Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx. 20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less than 1 percent). The main criteria for judging the performance of the solid lubricating films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N(dot)m or less, respectively. The bonded MoS2 and magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films met the criteria in all three environments. The ion-plated lead and silver films met the criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum but failed in humid air and in dry nitrogen. The MS DLC and PACVD DLC films met the requirements in humid air and dry nitrogen but failed in ultrahigh vacuum.

  11. Optical dispersion relations for diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Shoemaker, Neil S.; Pouch, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements on plasma deposited diamondlike amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were taken in the visible, (E=1.75 to 3.5 eV). The films were deposited on Si and their properties were varied using high temperature (up to 750 C) anneals. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index of refraction N were obtained simultaneously. Following the theory of Forouhi and Bloomer, a least squares fit was used to find the dispersion relations n(E) and k(E). Reasonably good fits were obtained, showing that the theory can be used for a-C:H films. Moreover, the value of the energy gap (Eg) obtained in this way was compared to the Eg value using conventional Tauc plots and reasonably good agreement was obtained.

  12. Optical dispersion relations for diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Shoemaker, Neil S.; Pouch, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements on plasma deposited diamondlike amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were taken in the visible, (E = 1.75 to 3.5 eV). The films were deposited on Si and their properties were varied using high temperature (up to 750 C) anneals. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index of refraction, N, were obtained simultaneously. Following the theory of Forouhi and Bloomer, a least squares fit was used to find the dispersion relations n(E) and k(E). Reasonably good fits were obtained, showing that the theory can be used for a-C:H films. Moreover, the value of the energy gap, Eg, obtained in this way was compared the the Eg value using conventional Tauc plots and reasonably good agreement was obtained.

  13. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. Optical nonlinearity and structural dynamics of VO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.; Fernandez, F.; Liu, H.

    2009-02-01

    The degenerate-four-wave-mixing, ultrafast optical pump-probe reflection, and scattering techniques were applied to study the nonlinear optical properties of VO2 in insulating and metallic phases. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility was measured for thin films at different excitation regimes. The VO2 recovery dynamics after light-induced phase transition (PT) shows strong sensitivity to optical pump energy and could be governed by pure electronic relaxation excluding thermal contribution at sufficiently low excitation. Increased light scattering during thermally and light-induced PT demonstrates significant VO2 heterogeneity which appears as a coexistence of insulating and metallic phases accompanied by fluctuations of dielectric constants. Different desorption activity was monitored for insulating and metallic VO2 thin solid films under femtosecond optical excitation.

  15. Study on the effect of process conditions on the thermo-optic coefficient of amorphous silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Haihua; Zhong, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    A thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) test platform based on FILMeasure-20 was designed and the thermal coefficient of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films material at 1330 nm was tested. a-Si:H were deposited on the quartz glass using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) was used to characterize the infrared spectral feature of films. The hydrogen content of films was influenced by different radio frequency (RF) power and deposition pressure conditions according to the FTIR spectra and theoretical analysis, and the thermo-optic effect of a-Si:H varied with temperature characteristics. Experimental results indicated that selecting the appropriate process conditions to prepare a-Si:H films can effectively increase or avoid the impact of thermo-optical effect on the optical devices.

  16. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  17. Optical and morphological properties of sol gel derived titanium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. B.; Sharma, S. K.; M, Vishwas; Rao, K. Narasimha

    2015-08-01

    Titanium oxide (Titania) thin films were synthesized on different substrates via the sol-gel dip-coating method using alkoxide solution. Some selected samples were also prepared with different percentage of Lead (Pb). The influence of Pb addition in precursor sol on the optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films was studied. The optical transmittance in the visible region has increased with increase in weight percentage of lead. The refractive index was slightly decreased with Pb addition. Crystallization of these coatings was achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Increase in average grain size from 250 nm to 350 nm with increase in Pb concentration is observed. Films were appeared to more coarse with increase in Pb addition. An increase in Pb addition resulted increase in average roughness from 12 nm to 25 nm.

  18. Optical and morphological properties of sol gel derived titanium dioxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A. B.; Sharma, S. K.; M, Vishwas; Rao, K. Narasimha

    2015-08-28

    Titanium oxide (Titania) thin films were synthesized on different substrates via the sol-gel dip-coating method using alkoxide solution. Some selected samples were also prepared with different percentage of Lead (Pb). The influence of Pb addition in precursor sol on the optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films was studied. The optical transmittance in the visible region has increased with increase in weight percentage of lead. The refractive index was slightly decreased with Pb addition. Crystallization of these coatings was achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Increase in average grain size from 250 nm to 350 nm with increase in Pb concentration is observed. Films were appeared to more coarse with increase in Pb addition. An increase in Pb addition resulted increase in average roughness from 12 nm to 25 nm.

  19. Films on the Future: A Selective Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Marie

    This annotated list of films focuses on fourteen subject areas: 1) Atomic Energy/Fuel/Power; 2) Automation/Computer/Data Processing; 3) Biochemical Research/Behavioral Sciences; 4) Communications/Transportation; 5) Concepts; 6) Ecology/Pollution/Weather Modification; 7) Education; 8) Food/Population Control; 9) Ocean/Ocean Sciences; 10)…

  20. Selected Instrumentation Films, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Raymond L., Ed.

    This list of currently available films and filmstrips pertinent to instrumentation has been compiled from information solicited from many government and private sources. The 1969 compilation has been organized into the following eight categories: (1) principles of measurement and basic measurements; (2) analysis instrumentation; (3) automation and…

  1. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  2. Selectiveness of laser processing due to energy coupling localization: case of thin film solar cell scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Račiukaitis, G.; Grubinskas, S.; Gečys, P.; Gedvilas, M.

    2013-07-01

    Selectiveness of the laser processing is the top-most important for applications of the processing technology in thin-film electronics, including photovoltaics. Coupling of laser energy in multilayered thin-film structures, depending on photo-physical properties of the layers and laser wavelength was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Energy coupling within thin films highly depends on the film structure. The finite element and two-temperature models were applied to simulate the energy and temperature distributions inside the stack of different layers of a thin-film solar cell during a picosecond laser irradiation. Reaction of the films to the laser irradiation was conditioned by optical properties of the layers at the wavelength of laser radiation. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental data achieved in laser scribing of copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on a flexible polymer substrate using picosecond-pulsed lasers. Selection of the right laser wavelength (1064 nm or 1572 nm) enabled keeping the energy coupling in a well-defined volume at the interlayer interface. High absorption at inner interface of the layers triggered localized temperature increase. Transient stress caused by the rapid temperature rise facilitating peeling of the films rather than evaporation. Ultra-short pulses ensured high energy input rate into absorbing material permitting peeling of the layers with no influence on the remaining material.

  3. Optical Characterization of Titanium-Vanadium Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Jin, Ping; Okada, Masahisa; Tazawa, Masato

    2007-02-01

    Composite thin films of titanium and vanadium oxides (TVO) with various compositions were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. The TVO films, of which their crystalline structure, composition, and film morphology were characterized, were examined to determine the optical constants and thermochromic performance as a function of the compositional ratio. The optical constants were determined by ellipsometric analysis using a consistent model of the film structure, and it was found that optical constants at visible and near-infrared wavelengths monotonically decrease from the values of VO2 towards those of TiO2 with an increase in Ti content in the TVO. The gradual depression of thermochromic performance with an increase in Ti content was measured. The change in X-ray diffraction pattern with the compositional ratio suggests that VO2 and TiO2 in the TVO film form a solid solution, or in other words the TVO can be expressed by TixV1-xO2.

  4. Optical Thin Film Modeling: Using FTG's FilmStar Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freese, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Every material has basic optical properties that define its interaction with light: The index of refraction (n) and extinction coefficient (k) vary for the material as a function of the wavelength of the incident light. Also significant are the phase velocity and polarization of the incident light These inherent properties allow for the accurate modeling of light s behavior upon contact with a surface: Reflectance, Transmittance, Absorptance.

  5. Optical design of a color film recorder with PLZT modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John F.

    1990-08-01

    A continuous tone colour film recorder was constructed that exposes 8 x 10 inch ISO 100 daylight-balanced sheet film in ten minutes at a resolution of 1000 pixels/inch. A rotating drum is used for line scan and a leadscrew driven by a stepper motor for page scan. Film loading and unloading is automatic. Light from a stationary xenon arc lamp is split into red green and blue channel components and conducted to a translating optical system by multimode optical fiber cables. Each colour component is then modulated by a small-area PLZT light valve. An annular portion of the modulated light beam is reflected to a photodetector whose signal is used for closed-loop modulator control. The central transmitted portion of the modulated beam is combined with the other colour components into a single beam. This beam illuminates an aperture that is imaged onto the film. An overview of the mechanical electrical and optical concepts will be presented with emphasis on the optical design. 1.

  6. Optical Characterization Of Chemically Deposited Nanostructured CdS Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Y. C.; Kansal, Archana

    2009-06-01

    Newly modified hot chemical deposition method was used to grow Cadmium sulfide films. Substrates were kept at relatively higher temperature than the bath using local heating. The bath was consisting of aqueous solutions of Cadmium chloride, Thiourea and complexed by TEA. The Ph of the bath was maintained around 8-10 by adding ammonia solution. The soda lime glass slides were used as substrates. Good thick films were obtained few minutes. Air annealing was used to study the effect of heat treatment on quality of the films. All films were analyzed using optical spectrophotometer. The step like nature in transmission spectra and band gap curves could be due to discrete energy levels, which exist in nanomaterials. Blue shift is observed in samples. Band gap shift from higher value to lower value suggest that films are either of thickness of few nanometer range and/or grain size is of the nanometer range. This paper includes details about new modified dipping technique and optical, structural studies of these films.

  7. Optical Properties of Pyrolytic Carbon Films Versus Graphite and Graphene.

    PubMed

    Dovbeshko, Galyna I; Romanyuk, Volodymyr R; Pidgirnyi, Denys V; Cherepanov, Vsevolod V; Andreev, Eugene O; Levin, Vadim M; Kuzhir, Polina P; Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri P

    2015-12-01

    We report a comparative study of optical properties of 5-20 nm thick pyrolytic carbon (PyC) films, graphite, and graphene. The complex dielectric permittivity of PyC is obtained by measuring polarization-sensitive reflectance and transmittance spectra of the PyC films deposited on silica substrate. The Lorentz-Drude model describes well the general features of the optical properties of PyC from 360 to 1100 nm. By comparing the obtained results with literature data for graphene and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, we found that in the visible spectral range, the effective dielectric permittivity of the ultrathin PyC films are comparable with those of graphite and graphene.

  8. Optical and electrical transport properties of semicontinuous metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Katyayani

    Semicontinuous metallic films posses unique optical and electrical transport properties. The strong localization and large enhancement of electric fields demonstrated by these films make them interesting in terms of a fundamental understanding of these phenomena as well as potentially useful in a large variety of applications. The field distributions and electrical transport properties of these films depend on the structural geometry and morphology of the samples and therefore also on the metal concentration, with distinctive properties near the percolation threshold where an insulator-to-metal transition occurs. This dissertation focuses on an experimental investigation of the optical, electrical transport and structural properties of semicontinuous silver-glass composites near the percolation threshold. Particular emphasis is placed on the optical enhancement observed in these films in terms of their near-field optical intensity distribution. The samples were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation and the percolation threshold was identified in terms of structural properties using transmission electron microscopy as well as electrical resistivity and optical transmission through in-situ measurements during sample synthesis. The optical intensity distributions were measured using near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) and found to depend strongly on metal concentration and wavelength. The degree of localization was found to increase as metal concentrations was varied above and below the percolation threshold and also found to increase with increase in wavelength. Comparisons of the experimental results with theoretical calculations of the local field distributions obtained using the block elimination method showed good agreement. In addition, composite systems involving the coupling of enhancement from semicontinuous films with two other resonance phenomena are also studied viz. semicontinuous films (1) with random subwavelength apertures and (2) deposited on

  9. Optical Logarithmic Transformation of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The application of logarithmic transformations to speckle images is sometimes desirable in converting the speckle noise distribution into an additive, constant-variance noise distribution. The optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films are well suited to implement such a transformation optically in a parallel fashion. I present experimental results of the optical conversion of a speckle image into a transformed image with signal-independent noise statistics, using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. The original and transformed noise statistics are confirmed by histogram analysis.

  10. Theoretical and experimental optical studies of cholesteric liquid crystal films with thermally induced pitch gradients.

    PubMed

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Kriezis, Emmanouil E; Mitov, Michel; Binet, Corinne

    2006-06-01

    The reflection properties of cholesteric films with thermally induced pitch gradients are theoretically and experimentally studied. It is shown that the optical behavior of such films corresponds to the averaged contribution of a number of stochastic pitch variation profiles, due to the transversal and longitudinal nonuniformities that develop in the helical structure of such samples. Depending on the annealing time, both narrow-band and broadband behavior can be selectively achieved. The influence of the pitch profile gradient on the broadband reflection performance of cholesteric samples is theoretically analyzed, and a multi-slab structure for achieving optimum efficiency is proposed.

  11. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out. PMID:26979724

  12. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out.

  13. Simultaneous Chemical and Optical Patterning of Polyacrylonitrile Film by Vapor-Based Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Won; Lee, Choonghyeon; Cha, Sang-Ho; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2015-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film is treated with ethyleneamines (EDA) in a simple chemical vapor phase reaction. Successful introduction of amine functional groups on the cyano group of PAN backbone is verified by FT-IR and NMR measurements. Further UV-vis and photoluminescence analyses show a red shift of the emission peak after repeated EDA treatment, which might be attributed to the formation of imine conjugation from newly formed carbon-nitrogen bonds on the PAN backbone. Further confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that selective patterning of EDA on PAN films is possible via local polydimethylsiloxane masking. The results indicate that both chemical and optical patterning on PAN film can be realized via a single reaction and show the potential of this novel methodology in selective patterning.

  14. Simultaneous Chemical and Optical Patterning of Polyacrylonitrile Film by Vapor-Based Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Won; Lee, Choonghyeon; Cha, Sang-Ho; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2015-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film is treated with ethyleneamines (EDA) in a simple chemical vapor phase reaction. Successful introduction of amine functional groups on the cyano group of PAN backbone is verified by FT-IR and NMR measurements. Further UV-vis and photoluminescence analyses show a red shift of the emission peak after repeated EDA treatment, which might be attributed to the formation of imine conjugation from newly formed carbon-nitrogen bonds on the PAN backbone. Further confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that selective patterning of EDA on PAN films is possible via local polydimethylsiloxane masking. The results indicate that both chemical and optical patterning on PAN film can be realized via a single reaction and show the potential of this novel methodology in selective patterning. PMID:25855336

  15. A film pressure sensor based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Deng, Gang; Dai, Yongbo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-03-01

    The measurement of pressure is essential for the design and flying controlling of aircraft. In order to measure the surface pressures of the aircraft, the common pressure tube method and Pressure sensitive paint measurement method have their own disadvantages, and are not applicable to all aircraft structures and real time pressure monitoring. In this paper, a novel thin film pressure sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) is proposed, using FBG measuring the tangential strain of the disk sensing film. Theoretical circle strain of the disk sensing film of the pressure sensor under pressure and temperature variation are analyzed, and the linear relationship between FBG center wavelength shift and pressure, temperature variation is gotten. The pressure and temperature calibration experiments prove the theoretical analysis. But the calibration sensing parameters are small than the calculating ones, which is caused by the constraint of optical fibre to the thin sensing film.

  16. Optical and electrical characterization of plasma polymerized pyrrole films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Sakthi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nishiyama, Satoko; Ishii, Shigeru; Noguchi, Hiromichi; Kashiwagi, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2003-03-01

    Plasma polymerization of pyrrole was carried out in the presence and absence of iodine, and the resulting films were characterized by optical and electrical means. Their infrared spectra were very similar to each other, suggesting that iodine was neither bonded in any manner to, nor strongly interacting with, the pyrrole polymer chains. Based on their infrared spectra, a chemical structure was proposed for the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPPy) film. An analysis of the electronic spectra gave band gap energies of 1.3 and 0.8 eV for the undoped and doped PPPy films, respectively. In line with this result, the current-voltage characteristics of the two types of polymer films revealed that the conductivity of the doped PPPy film was approximately two times greater than that of the undoped one. An investigation of the scanning electron micrographs led us to conclude that iodine had changed the surface morphology of the PPPy film, resulting in the small increase in conductivity. A detailed analysis of the conduction mechanism disclosed that the conduction mechanism in the undoped PPPy film is a Schottky-type mechanism.

  17. Optical properties of thin films and the Berreman effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbecke, B.; Heinz, B.; Grosse, P.

    1985-12-01

    The measurement of reflection and transmission of normally incident light to obtain the optical constants of a material is a usual tool in solid-state spectroscopy. If the material under investigation is a thin film, the interaction of the electromagnetic field with the sample can be enhanced by oblique incidence. If the light is p-polarized, structures in the reflection and transmission spectra are observed at the frequencies of transverse (TO) and longitudinal (LO) resonances. The LO structure — called the Berreman effect — is generated by the surface charges due to the normal component of the electric field. We discuss this effect for three cases: a free film, a film with a metallic back and a substrate with thin films on both sides. The dependence of the effect on the energy-loss function Im {-1/ɛ} and on the film thickness is discussed. For idealized systems simple formulae are derived and a characteristic parameter, called the Berreman thickness, is obtained. Films of this thickness show a maximum effect. Intuitive arguments are given to explain the effect. Examples for the application of the Berreman effect to characterize very thin films are discussed.

  18. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  19. Film Selection in a Cinematherapy Intervention with Preadolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsick, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Film selection and children's reactions to films are discussed in this article based on a qualitative multiple-case study with three preadolescent-aged children experiencing parental divorce. Six films were selected based on recommended films in cinematherapy. Although many films have been recommended for cinematherapy, multiple participants'…

  20. Metal nanoparticles enhanced optical absorption in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wanlu; Liu, Fang; Qu, Di; Xu, Qi; Huang, Yidong

    2011-12-01

    The plasmonic enhanced absorption for thin film solar cells with silver nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on top of the amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H) solar cells and embedded inside the active layer of organic solar cells (OSCs) has been simulated and analyzed. Obvious optical absorption enhancement is obtained not only at vertical incidence but also at oblique incidence. By properly adjusting the period and size of NPs, an increased absorption enhancement of about 120% and 140% is obtained for a-Si:H solar cells and OSCs, respectively.

  1. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Frederick S.; Pan, Alexey V.; Wilson, Stephen; Golovchanskiy, Igor A.; Fedoseev, Sergey A.; Rozenfeld, Anatoly

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel method for analysis of superconducting thin films using dynamic magneto-optical imaging, revealing hallmarks of flux penetration with temporal resolution around 1 ms (in the present work) or better. This method involves investigation of transient field and dynamic current distributions, which are calculated by an inversion procedure on the Biot-Savart Law, which we show to be valid under dynamic conditions. We compare and discuss the flux front penetration speed and evolution of current distribution in high quality YBa2Cu3O{}7-δ thin films with that of samples deliberately damaged in such a way as to reduce critical current density without causing macroscopic damage.

  2. Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Herzig, H.; Osantowski, J. F.; Toft, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of samples of optical thin film materials were flown on Shuttle flight STS-8 as part of an experiment to evaluate their interaction with residual atomic oxygen in low earth orbit. Osmium was selected because of its usefulness as a reflective optical coating for far-UV instruments and for confirmation of results from previous Shuttle flights in which such coatings disappeared. Reflectance data and photographic evidence are presented to support the hypothesis that the osmium disappearance is due to reaction with oxygen to form a volatile oxide. Platinum and iridium, which were included for comparison, fared much better.

  3. Optical constants and nonlinear calculations of fluorescein/FTO thin film optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, H. Y.; Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The organic thin films of fluorescein dye were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by using low-cost spin coating technique. The surface of the deposited film was characterized by using AFM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which shows that the film is uniform and amorphous. The spectrophotometric study was carried out at the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm. The spectral dependences of the linear refractive index and absorption index were found to decrease as the wavelength was increased. Tauc's plot study revealed that the film shows the direct transition and energy band gap values were found 1.75 eV and 3.55 eV for the thin film and the substrate, respectively. Optical constants were found nearly the same in the higher energy domain (1.0-4.5 eV). Spectroscopic method was employed to study the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3). The deposited thin film is a promising optical system for new generation of optoelectronics.

  4. Optically transparent carbon nanotube film electrode for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Daoli; Alvarez, Noe; Shanov, Vesselin N; Heineman, William R

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) film was evaluated as an optically transparent electrode (OTE) for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry. Chemically inert CNT arrays were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using thin films of Fe and Co as catalysts. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were drawn onto a quartz slide to form CNT films that constituted the OTE. Adequate conductivity and transparency make this material a good OTE for spectroelectrochemistry. These properties could be varied by the number of layers of CNTs used to form the OTE. Detection in the UV/near UV region down to 200 nm can be achieved using these transparent CNT films on quartz. The OTE was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and thin layer spectroelectrochemistry. Ferricyanide, tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) chloride, and cytochrome c were used as representative redox probes for thin layer spectroelectrochemistry using the CNT film OTE, and the results correlated well with their known properties. Direct electron transfer of cytochrome c was achieved on the CNT film electrode. PMID:26291731

  5. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at λ = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at λ = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  6. Optical system to extract reflection coefficients and optical admittances of a thin film stack and its application in coating monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Kai; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    An optical system to extract the reflection coefficient and optical admittance of film stack is presented. Both reflection phase and reflection magnitude intensity from the tested film stack were measured under normal incidence of the light. Two dimensional refractive index and thickness distribution of each layer in multilayer thin films can be obtained by the analysis of the reflection coefficients or optical admittance of multi-wavelengths. A novel monitoring method for the thin film deposition using the reflection coefficient and optical admittance loci as the thickness grows is also proposed to achieve better performance in this article.

  7. A polydopamine-modified optical fiber SPR biosensor using electroless-plated gold films for immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Shi, Se; Wang, Libing; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-12-15

    A sensitive and stable electroless-plated gold film for the preparation of an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is presented in this work, together with a facile antibody immobilization method. Gold nanoparticles were uniformly adsorbed onto the surface of an optical fiber forming a film with a thickness of approximately 56.3 nm. The sensor had a high sensitivity with 2054 nm/RIU and 3980 nm/RIU in the refractive index ranges of 1.333-1.359 and 1.359-1.386, respectively. An SPR biosensor was developed based on polydopamine-modified gold film (PDA-Au), which was fabricated by a simple and quick spontaneous polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the gold film. When goat anti-human IgG antibodies were immobilized, the PDA-Au surface had a larger resonant wavelength shift of 66.21 nm compared with the traditional 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-modified gold film (MUA-Au) surface. In addition, the PDA-Au surface enabled the sensitive and selective determination of human IgG down to a concentration of 2 μg mL(-1) with a high sensitivity of 0.41 nm per μg mL(-1). The PDA-Au surface exhibited an approximately four fold higher sensitivity and an about seven fold lower LOD than the MUA-Au surface to human IgG.

  8. Optical and mechanical properties of thermally evaporated fluoride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, K.; Fahey, R.; Jasinski, D.; Scarpino, C.; Dziendziel, R.; Burger, S.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-08

    As a result of health and safety issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials on coated optical components, there has been renewed interest in coating materials whose optical and mechanical properties approach those offered by their radioactive counterparts. Due to the radioactive nature of ThF{sub 4} and its widespread use in optical coatings, the coating industry is examining other low index and non-radioactive fluorides as possible alternatives. In this paper, the authors present the results of an experimental study on the optical and mechanical properties of thermally evaporated ThF{sub 4}, DyF{sub 3}, CeF{sub 3}, LiF, HfF{sub 4}, IRX, and IRB thin films, where the materials were deposited at different substrate temperatures. The objective is to examine this series of fluorides under comparable deposition conditions and with respect to such material properties as: n and k, film stress, and environmental stability. The optical constants of these fluorides were evaluated over the wavelength region from 1.0 {micro}m to 12.5 {micro}m.

  9. Optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin film in nanoparticle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Baoying; Li, Yi; Tong, Guoxiang; Wang, Xiaohua; Yan, Meng; Liang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuan; Ding, Jie; Chen, Shaojuan; Chen, Jiankun; Zheng, Hongzhu; Yuan, Wenrui

    2015-09-01

    The thermo-optic effect and infrared optical properties of VO2 nanoparticles were studied to obtain an optical material with special property that can be used in smart windows. The reflectance and transmittance spectra of the VO2 nanoparticles with different duty cycles at different temperatures were simulated with a specific dispersion relation. Vanadium metal nanoparticles were deposited on glass substrate by magnetic reactive sputtering with porous alumina template (AAO) mask, and the VO2 nanoparticles were prepared by thermal oxidation. The nanostructure and optical properties of the VO2 nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectrophotometry. The method of preparation of the sample is economical and the phase transition temperature is observed to drop to 43 °C. The transmission at 1700 nm exhibits a variation of 29% between the metallic and semiconducting states. The VO2 nanoparticles exhibit a significant thermochromic property. The transmittance of the VO2 nanoparticles is improved compared with the VO2 film. The decrease in phase transition temperature and the enhancement of optical properties demonstrate that VO2 film in nanoparticle structure is a viable candidate material for smart windows.

  10. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    PubMed

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules leading to a perturbing influence of the asymmetric chiral environment. PMID:23932406

  11. Optical-induced absorption tunability of Barium Strontium Titanate film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunya; Ji, Jie; Yue, Jin; Rao, Yunkun; Yao, Gang; Li, Dan; Zeng, Ying; Li, Renkui; Xiao, Longsheng; Liu, Xinxing; Yao, Jianquan; Ling, Furi

    2016-10-01

    The absorption tunability of 100 nm thickness of ferroelectric Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) thin films with different densities of pumped optical field is measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz at 19 °C. Experimental results show that the absorption coefficient of BST film is approximately at 5000 cm-1-20000 cm-1 in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz and the absorption coefficient reached up to 16% when we applied the optical field up to 600 mW. The theoretical calculations reveal that increasing photoexcitation fluences is responsible for the increasing of transmission change in the conduction current density cause the absorption coefficient varied.

  12. Ray optics behavior of flux avalanche propagation in superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, P.; Johansen, T. H.; Chaudhuri, S.; Maasilta, I. J.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental evidence of wave properties of dendritic flux avalanches in superconducting films is reported. Using magneto-optical imaging the propagation of dendrites across boundaries between a bare NbN film and areas coated by a Cu layer was visualized, and it was found that the propagation is refracted in full quantitative agreement with Snell's law. For the studied film of 170 nm thickness and a 0.9 μ m thick metal layer, the refractive index was close to n =1.4 . The origin of the refraction is believed to be caused by the dendrites propagating as an electromagnetic shock wave, similar to damped modes considered previously for normal metals. The analogy is justified by the large dissipation during the avalanches raising the local temperature significantly. Additional time-resolved measurements of voltage pulses generated by segments of the dendrites traversing an electrode confirm the consistency of the adopted physical picture.

  13. Nonlinear optical properties of calcium barium niobate epitaxial thin films.

    PubMed

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Vigne, Sébastien; Hossain, Nadir; Chaker, Mohammed; Légaré, François

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the potential of epitaxial calcium barium niobate (CBN) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical frequency conversion. Using second harmonic generation (SHG), we analyze the polarization response of the generated signal to determine the ratios d15 / d32 and d33 / d32 of the three independent components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in CBN thin film. In addition, a detailed comparison to the signal intensity obtained in a y-cut quartz allows us to measure the absolute value of these components in CBN thin film: d15 = 5 ± 2 pm / V, d32 = 3.1 ± 0.6 pm / V and d33 = 9 ± 2 pm / V.

  14. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of iodine doped LDPE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelatha, K.; Predeep, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to dope Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) with iodine and to study the effect of iodine doping on the optical band gap of LDPE films. The DC conductivity measurements and UV/Vis spectral studies are employed to characterize the samples. Iodine treatment induces colour change in the polymer film which supports the interaction between iodine molecules and polyethylene chains. I2 molecule links the polymer chains electronically and provides conducting path ways by forming DA complexes. The absorption band of complex films has extended to the visible and near infrared region of the spectrum. Further there are discernible shifts found in the energy gap and band edge towards lower energies on doping with iodine. This is essentially due to the formation of strong DA complexes upon iodine doping which improves the conducting behaviour.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of calcium barium niobate epitaxial thin films.

    PubMed

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Vigne, Sébastien; Hossain, Nadir; Chaker, Mohammed; Légaré, François

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the potential of epitaxial calcium barium niobate (CBN) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for optical frequency conversion. Using second harmonic generation (SHG), we analyze the polarization response of the generated signal to determine the ratios d15 / d32 and d33 / d32 of the three independent components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in CBN thin film. In addition, a detailed comparison to the signal intensity obtained in a y-cut quartz allows us to measure the absolute value of these components in CBN thin film: d15 = 5 ± 2 pm / V, d32 = 3.1 ± 0.6 pm / V and d33 = 9 ± 2 pm / V. PMID:27464195

  16. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  17. Systems Issues Pertaining to Holographic Optical Data Storage in Thick Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Gary, Charles K.; Oezcan, Meric; Smithey, Daniel T.; Crew, Marshall; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The optical data storage capacity and raw bit-error-rate achievable with thick photochromic bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are investigated for sequential recording and read- out of angularly- and shift-multiplexed digital holograms inside a thick blue-membrane D85N BR film. We address the determination of an exposure schedule that produces equal diffraction efficiencies among each of the multiplexed holograms. This exposure schedule is determined by numerical simulations of the holographic recording process within the BR material, and maximizes the total grating strength. We also experimentally measure the shift selectivity and compare the results to theoretical predictions. Finally, we evaluate the bit-error-rate of a single hologram, and of multiple holograms stored within the film.

  18. Investigation of local and nonlocal nonlinear optical refraction effect in IZO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Htwe, Zin Maung; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Hui; Yuan, Ping

    2016-10-01

    We report the local and nonlocal nonlinear optical refraction properties of indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films using closed aperture Z-scan technique. The Z-scan results show the films have positive nonlinear optical refraction properties. The nonlocal parameter m of samples is increased with indium. In both of local and nonlocal studies, the nonlinear optical refractions of thin films were increased with In contents and laser energy. This relation reveals the role of In composition in IZO affects on the nonlinear optical responses of the films. These results make the IZO thin films as the promising application in optoelectronics devices.

  19. Synthesis, growth kinetics and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eva May

    2000-10-01

    Colloidal chemistry techniques were used to synthesize ZnO particles in the nanometer size regime. The particle aging kinetics were determined by monitoring the optical band edge absorption and using the effective mass model to approximate the particle size as a function of time. The growth kinetics of the ZnO particles were found to follow the Lifshitz, Slyozov, Wagner theory for Ostwald ripening. In this model, the higher curvature and hence chemical potential of smaller particles provides a driving force for dissolution. The larger particles continue to grow by diffusion limited transport of species dissolved in solution. Thin films of ZnO quantum particles were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition from suspensions prepared via a colloidal chemistry synthesis route. Films were prepared at constant current thus eliminating the limited deposition rate associated with constant voltage deposition. The kinetics for the deposition of thin films were determined using optical absorbance techniques in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrometry. The particle velocity during deposition and the charge on the particles were determined from the deposition kinetics. The thin films prepared by electrophoretic deposition exhibited optical properties characteristic of the quantum size particles. The average particle size, and hence the optical properties, were tailored by controlling the aging time and temperature of the suspensions. Both the band-to-band and visible photoluminescence were progressively blue shifted, relative to the bulk value, with decreasing particle size in the film. A linear dependence was found between the band-to-band and visible emission. Finally, particle growth was manipulated by the specific adsorption of a series of capping ligands at the particle surface. The adsorption of the capping ligands was found to produce a diffusion barrier such that particle growth was stunted following incorporation with the extent of this effect being dependent

  20. Electrical and optical properties of organic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    This research examines the applicability of organic thin films as electric insulators in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices and an anti-reflective (A-R) coatings for solar cells. Films of anthracene, stearic acid, and diacetylene alcohol were examined for their electrical and optical properties. Two techniques were used to deposit the films for these studies. Thermal evaporation in vacuum was used to deposit aluminum as electrodes and contacts in MIS and MIM devices. The organic films were deposited by either thermal evaporation or the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) dipping technique. Several vacuum systems and an L-B trough were fabricated for these studies and their design and construction are outlined. Several types of measurements were used to examined the properties of the organic films. For each type of measurement made on the devices, theories are outlined to analyze the data obtained. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the applicable of these types of organic materials as insulators and coatings for semiconductor devices.

  1. Optical properties of rubrene thin film prepared by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Deng, Jin-Xiang; Kong, Le; Cui, Min; Chen, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Zi-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Rubrene thin films are deposited on quartz substrates and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) films by the thermal evaporation technique. The optical properties of rubrene thin film are investigated in a spectral range of 190 nm-1600 nm. The analysis of the absorption coefficient (α) reveals direct allowed transition with a corresponding energy of 2.24 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the rubrene thin film is observed to be at 563 nm (2.21 eV). With the use of Ag NPs which are fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on the quartz, the PL intensity is 8.5 times that of as-deposited rubrene thin film. It is attributed to the fact that the surface plasmon enhances the photoluminescence. Project supported by the Funding for the Development Project of Beijing Municipal Education Commission of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. KZ201410005008), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing City, China (Grant No. 4102014), and the Graduate Science Fund of the Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. ykj-2013-9835).

  2. Vitrified chiral-nematic liquid crystalline films for selective reflection and circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Katsis, D.; Chen, P.H.M.; Mastrangelo, J.C.; Chen, S.H.; Blanton, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    Nematic and left-handed chiral-nematic liquid crystals comprising methoxybiphenylbenzoate and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine pendants to a cyclohexane core were synthesized and characterized. Although pristine samples were found to be polycrystalline, thermal quenching following heating to and annealing at elevated temperatures permitted the molecular orders characteristic of liquid crystalline mesomorphism to be frozen in the glassy state. Left at room temperature for 6 months, the vitrified liquid crystalline films showed no evidence of recrystallization. An orientational order parameter of 0.65 was determined with linear dichroism of a vitrified nematic film doped with Exalite 428 at a mole fraction of 0.0025. Birefringence dispersion of a blank vitrified nematic film was determined using a phase-difference method complemented by Abbe refractometry. A series of vitrified chiral-nematic films were prepared to demonstrate selective reflection and circular polarization with a spectral region tunable from blue to the infrared region by varying the chemical composition. The experimentally measured circular polarization spectra were found to agree with the Good-Karali theory in which all four system parameters were determined a priori: optical birefringence, average refractive index, selective reflection wavelength, and film thickness.

  3. Automatic determination of the optical constants of inhomogeneous thin films.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, J P; Lazarides, B; Pelletier, E

    1982-11-15

    The refractive index of a layer is a sensitive function of the preparation conditions. Normal incidence measurement of the optical properties can reveal possible inhomogeneity of index. We propose a method of automatic determination of the complex refractive index and thickness of a layer which includes systematic measurement of the degree of inhomogeneity which is represented by a simple model. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated by examples that form part of an experimental study of a number of useful optical materials including Y(2)O(3), TiO(2), MgF(2), HfO(2), and SiO(2). The dispersions of the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, and of the inhomogeneity are represented by Cauchy formulas with accurately determined coefficients. The results can therefore be readily used in computing the optical properties of thin-film multilayers.

  4. Characterization of selected LDEF-exposed polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Gautreaux, Carol R.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of selected experimental and commercially available thin polymeric films which received 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. The visual appearance of most specimens changed due to exposure. However, except for a silicon-containing copolymer film, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and X-ray photoelectron analyses showed that the molecular structure of the surviving material had not changed significantly in response to exposure. Surface texturing due to atomic oxygen erosion was documented using various microscopic analyses. The possibility of continued post-exposure degradation of some polymeric materials is proposed.

  5. Microstructural and Optical Characterization of Potassium Niobate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Alice Foo Bing

    1995-01-01

    High quality epitaxial orthorhombic potassium niobate rm (KNbO_3) thin films have been grown by a computer-controlled, rotating multi -target ion-beam sputter deposition technique. Processing parameters, such as deposition temperature, beam voltage, ion source, target dwell times, pre-deposition substrate annealing, curing, and cleaning, and choice of substrate and substrate supplier are all critical conditions that have been either optimized or chosen favorably to produce dense films with a high degree of epitaxy and a smooth surface and interface. rm KNbO_3 thin films have been deposited on magnesium oxide, MgO (001), magnesium aluminate spinel, rm MgAl_2O_4 (001), and potassium tantalate, rm KTaO_3 (001) substrates. These substrates were chosen to provide a range of microstructures, lattice mismatches, and refractive index mismatches. The rm KNbO_3 films were microstructurally characterized by x-ray diffraction and rocking curves, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion-channeling, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The degree of epitaxy is affected by the substrate and can be correlated with the lattice mismatch. Optical properties such as refractive index and optical scattering losses were analyzed by prism-coupling and an optical fiber loss method, respectively. Results show that the rm KNbO_3 films are dense and the optical losses seem to be dominated by bulk scattering originating from twin domains, grain boundaries or grain size, with partial contributions from surface/interface scattering. Potassium tantalum niobium oxide rm (K(Ta,Nb)O_3), KTaO_3, and amorphous tantalum oxide rm (Ta_2O _5) thin films were also grown and characterized to determine the specific roles of surface/interface scattering, twin domains, and oxygen vacancies. MgO buffer layers were also deposited on silicon, Si (001), gallium arsenide, GaAs (001), and various orientations of sapphire rm (Al_2O_3

  6. Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Phillip; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Reported herein is the design, characterization, and demonstration of a laser interrogation and response optical discrimination system based on large-area corner-cube retroreflective films. The switchable retroreflective films use light-scattering liquid crystal to modulate retroreflected intensity. The system can operate with multiple wavelengths (visible to infrared) and includes variable divergence optics for irradiance adjustments and ease of system alignment. The electronic receiver and switchable retroreflector offer low-power operation (<4 mW standby) on coin cell batteries with rapid interrogation to retroreflected signal reception response times (<15 ms). The entire switchable retroreflector film is <1 mm thick and is flexible for optimal placement and increased angular response. The system was demonstrated in high ambient lighting conditions (daylight, 18k lux) with a visible 10-mW output 635-nm source out to a distance of 400 m (naked eye detection). Nighttime demonstrations were performed using a 1.5-mW, 850-nm infrared laser diode out to a distance of 400 m using a night vision camera. This system could have tagging and conspicuity applications in commercial or military settings.

  7. Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Phillip; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Reported herein is the design, characterization, and demonstration of a laser interrogation and response optical discrimination system based on large-area corner-cube retroreflective films. The switchable retroreflective films use light-scattering liquid crystal to modulate retroreflected intensity. The system can operate with multiple wavelengths (visible to infrared) and includes variable divergence optics for irradiance adjustments and ease of system alignment. The electronic receiver and switchable retroreflector offer low-power operation (<4 mW standby) on coin cell batteries with rapid interrogation to retroreflected signal reception response times (<15 ms). The entire switchable retroreflector film is <1 mm thick and is flexible for optimal placement and increased angular response. The system was demonstrated in high ambient lighting conditions (daylight, 18k lux) with a visible 10-mW output 635-nm source out to a distance of 400 m (naked eye detection). Nighttime demonstrations were performed using a 1.5-mW, 850-nm infrared laser diode out to a distance of 400 m using a night vision camera. This system could have tagging and conspicuity applications in commercial or military settings.

  8. Optical characterization of contaminant film. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian K.; Yaung, James Y.; Kosic, Tom; Bowen, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The so called 'nicotine stain' documented at many locations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is still unexplained as to the exact origin and mechanism of deposition, although enough is known to have some understanding of the conditions coincident for the formation of the deposits. Direct and scattered atomic oxygen flux, and solar ultraviolet radiation interacting with materials outgassing products have all been implicated in the formation of the dark brown contamination deposits. The nicotine stain represents a potential of performance degradation for spacecraft designed for long term operation in low Earth orbit and therefore, a need exists to characterize this form of spacecraft self contamination and quantify the impact on thermal/optical systems. Optical property measurements in the spectral range of 2 to 10 microns were performed on specimens of the contaminated film. Reflectance measurements of the contaminant film as deposited on the surface and as free standing films are presented along with transmission spectra for the bulk material. Thickness measurements along with micrographic examination of the cross section of the deposit reveal the layered structure of the deposit which further implicates solar illumination as a factor in the deposition mechanism.

  9. The Optical Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furton, D. G.; Witt, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    We present the initial results of a laboratory study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) thin films. We produce a quantitative summary of the optical and physical properties of a consistent set of HAC films processed in various ways and use these results to gain insight into the formation and evolution of dust grains in the interstellar medium. HAC thin films were deposited on NaCl coated substrates in a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) chamber, removed from the substrates, and characterized and processed in a variety of ways. Raman, photoluminescence (PL), transmission, and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize these films in the visible. Infrared absorption and PL spectroscopy were used to analyze these films in the 1-20 micron region. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to calculate the index of refraction in the UV and the sp(2}/sp({3)) bonding ratio, and combustion analysis was used to determine the C/H ratio. Each member of a set of identically grown films was characterized as described above, processed to various extents, then characterized again. Some of the films were thermally annealed in vacuum over a range of temperatures and durations, while others were exposed to intense UV radiation. Our initial results are summarized as follows: The H-concentration, PL efficiency, band-gap, and transmission in the visible decrease with the extent of thermal or UV annealing. Thermally induced changes occur rapidly and long-term annealing at lower temperatures does not produce the same effects as higher temperature annealing. The films are essentially graphitized when annealed at temperatures higher than about 400(deg) C and they are completely obliterated when exposed to very intense UV radiation. We have also developed a thermal effusion oven to test to what extent HAC films can be ``rehydrogenated'' by exposure to neutral atomic hydrogen. These experiments are nearly complete and the results will be included if possible

  10. Inhomogeneity in films: limitation of the accuracy of optical monitoring of thin films.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, J P; Bousquet, P; Flory, F; Lazarides, B; Pelletier, E; Roche, P

    1981-01-01

    With present-day refinements, thin film multilayers can be designed theoretically to meet virtually any reasonable filtering requirements. Often, when the optical properties are specified over very wide spectral regions the thicknesses of the various layers are not related in any simple way. The manufacture of such multilayers presents many difficulties. The tolerances on layer thickness and refractive indices in some designs are often very narrow. We have developed an optical method for the accurate control of layer thickness that involves the measurement of transmittance over a wide spectral region (400-1000 mm). This measurement is performed continuously during deposition by a rapid scanning monochromator. The accuracy of such a system depends on a precise knowledge of the indices of refraction that are produced during the multilayer deposition. In addition the structure of many optical thin films used for hard coatings departs considerably from the simple method that is traditionally used in optical coating designs. In the method we have developed to compensate for such discrepancies, optical inhomogeneity is included by assuming a linear refractive-index profile, determined by analyzing experimental results. These results are in agreement with other studies of structure.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of single crystals and nanoscale films of pentacene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui

    Growing interest in organic molecular semiconductors is stimulated by their promising applications in flexible devices. Transistors based on pentacene have reached device mobilities comparable to amorphous Si. This creates incentives for fundamental studies of organic molecular crystals and nanoscale structures. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrates optical spectroscopy venues for studies of organic molecular semiconductors. Pentacene single crystals and nanoscale films, reaching sub-monolayer thickness, are probed by photoluminescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The studies of single crystals reveal new physics linked to intrinsic and extrinsic excitations and provide benchmarks for evaluating the results in nanoscale films. By studying single crystals with different degrees of purities, I identified extrinsic luminescence bands in high quality crystals. Large resonance enhancements of Raman intensities occur when photon energies overlap intrinsic luminescence bands of free and self-trapped excitons. A four-step Raman scattering mechanism is proposed to describe the resonance processes with the self-trapped state. Photoluminescence spectra of discontinuous clusters and ultra-thin films with few monolayers in thickness reveal two fundamental excitations that are assigned to Davydov doublets of the lowest singlet exciton. The observations suggest that pentacene nanoscale films develop a structure with two molecules per unit cell. Pentacene monolayers deposited on substrates functionalized with the polymer of poly alpha-methylstyrene exhibit great lateral uniformity. These monolayers display sharp and intense free exciton luminescence bands which offer giant resonance enhancements of Raman scattering intensities. The enhancements enable the first observations of low-lying lattice modes from pentacene monolayers. The lattice modes show characteristic changes when the number of layers is increased. The low-lying lattice modes reveal inter

  12. Organic crystalline films for optical applications and related methods of fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyderman, Alexander (Inventor); Cui, Yunlong (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides organic single crystal films of less than 20 .mu.m, and devices and methods of making such films. The crystal films are useful in electro-optical applications and can be provided as part of an electro-optical device which provides strength, durability, and relative ease of manipulation of the mono-crystalline films during and after crystal growth.

  13. Rewritable Optical Storage with a Spiropyran Doped Liquid Crystal Polymer Film.

    PubMed

    Petriashvili, Gia; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Gary, Ramla; Barberi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Rewritable optical storage has been obtained in a spiropyran doped liquid crystal polymer films. Pictures can be recorded on films upon irradiation with UV light passing through a grayscale mask and they can be rapidly erased using visible light. Films present improved photosensitivity and optical contrast, good resistance to photofatigue, and high spatial resolution. These photochromic films work as a multifunctional, dynamic photosensitive material with a real-time image recording feature. PMID:26864876

  14. Optical reflectance in free-standing smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwa, Izabela

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out a numerical study of the structural, thermodynamic and optical properties of the partially fluorinated 5-n-alkyl-2-(4-n-(perfluoroalkyl-metheleneoxy)phenyl) free-standing smectic film in air under the action of the external electric field E. Calculations, based upon the extended McMillan‧s mean-field theory with anisotropic forces, show a stepwise reduction of the value of the Helmholtz free energy and the reflectivity of the partially fluorinated smectic film in air, as the temperature is raised above the bulk smectic-A-isotropic transition value. It has been shown, by solving the self-consistent nonlinear equations for the orientational and translational order parameters, that the electric field E may not only affect the layer-thinning transition sequences, but also change the first multilayer jump in the film thickness, whereas practically does not affect the reflectivity of the partially fluorinated smectic film in air. The partially fluorinated LC compounds reveal a compression of a smectic layer spacing during the layer-thinning transitions which is supported by the negative values of the thermal expansion coefficient.

  15. Temperature dependent optical properties of pentacene films on zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Helzel, J.; Jankowski, S.; El Helou, M.; Witte, G.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2011-11-21

    The optical transitions of pentacene films deposited on ZnO have been studied by absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature in the range of room temperature down to 10 K. The pentacene films were prepared with thicknesses of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 100 nm on the ZnO-O(000-1) surface by molecular beam deposition. A unique temperature dependence has been observed for the two Davydov components of the excitons for different film thicknesses. At room temperature, the energetic positions of the respective absorption bands are the same for all films, whereas the positions differ more than 20 meV at 10 K caused by the very different expansion coefficients of pentacene and ZnO. Although the pentacene is just bonded via van der Waals interaction to the ZnO substrate, the very first pentacene monolayer (adlayer) is forced to keep the initial position on the ZnO surface and suffering, therefore, a substantial tensile strain. For all the subsequent pentacene monolayers, the strain is reduced step by step resulting electronically in a strong potential gradient at the interface.

  16. Optical study of thin-film photovoltaic cells with apparent optical path length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Changsoon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Extending the insufficient optical path length (OPL) in thin-film photovoltaic cells (PVs) is the key to achieving a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in devices. Here, we introduce the apparent OPL (AOPL) as a figure of merit for light absorbing capability in thin-film PVs. The optical characteristics such as the structural effects and angular responses in thin-film PVs were analyzed in terms of the AOPL. Although the Lambertian scattering surface yields a broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film PVs, the enhancement is not as effective as in thick-film PVs. On the other hand, nanophotonic schemes are introduced as an approach to increasing the single-pass AOPL by inducing surface plasmon resonance. The scheme using periodic metal gratings is proved to increase the AOPL in a narrow wavelength range and specific polarization, overcoming the Yablonovitch limit. The AOPL calculation can be also adopted in the experimental analysis and a maximum AOPL of 4.15d (where d is the active layer thickness) is exhibited in the absorption band edge region of PTB7:PC70BM-based polymer PVs.

  17. Ultrathin and Nanostructured Au Films with Gradient of Effective Thickness. Optical and Plasmonic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilin, S. V.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Milyukova, E. T.; Karavaynikov, A. V.; Tomilina, O. A.

    2016-08-01

    In present work the results of investigation of optical (transmission spectra) and plasmonic (surface plasmon-polariton resonance) properties of ultrathin and nanostructured Au films are presents. Methods and techniques for the syntheses of samples of ultrathin and nanostructured metallic films, and for the experimental studies of optical and plasmonic properties are representative. Au films on SiO2 (optic glass) substrates were investigated.

  18. Hybrid enabled thin film metrology using XPS and optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, Alok; Iddawela, Givantha; Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Lenahan, Michael; Hossain, Mainul; Timoney, Padraig; Bello, Abner F.; Bozdog, Cornel; Pois, Heath; Lee, Wei Ti; Klare, Mark; Kwan, Michael; Kang, Byung Cheol; Isbester, Paul; Sendelbach, Matthew; Yellai, Naren; Dasari, Prasad; Larson, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Complexity of process steps integration and material systems for next-generation technology nodes is reaching unprecedented levels, the appetite for higher sampling rates is on the rise, while the process window continues to shrink. Current thickness metrology specifications reach as low as 0.1A for total error budget - breathing new life into an old paradigm with lower visibility for past few metrology nodes: accuracy. Furthermore, for advance nodes there is growing demand to measure film thickness and composition on devices/product instead of surrogate planar simpler pads. Here we extend our earlier work in Hybrid Metrology to the combination of X-Ray based reference technologies (high performance) with optical high volume manufacturing (HVM) workhorse metrology (high throughput). Our stated goal is: put more "eyes" on the wafer (higher sampling) and enable move to films on pattern structure (control what matters). Examples of 1X front-end applications are used to setup and validate the benefits.

  19. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  20. Chemical and optical properties of thermally evaporated manganese oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

    2006-09-15

    Manganese oxide thin films were deposited using thermal evaporation from a tungsten boat. Films were deposited under an oxygen atmosphere, and the effects of thickness, substrate temperature, and deposition rate on their properties were investigated. The chemical properties of the films were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence. The optical properties were determined from normal-incidence transmittance and reflectance. Based on the chemical and optical characterizations, the optimum conditions for the deposition of the films were investigated. Subsequently, the optical properties (refractive index, extinction coefficient, and band gap) of these films were determined.

  1. Temperature dependence of the optical properties of ion-beam sputtered ZrN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, M. M.; Kiani, M.; Jafari-Khamse, E.; Fathollahi, V.

    2014-05-01

    The reflectivity of sputtered Zirconium nitride films on glass substrate has been investigated in the spectral energy range of 0.8-6.1 eV as a function of deposition temperature varying between 373 and 723 K. Optical constants of the prepared films have been determined using the Drude analysis. Experimental results showed strong dependency of optical properties of the films, such as optical resistivity on the substrate temperature. The temperature increase of the substrate has shown an increase in both the plasmon frequency and electron scattering time. The electrical behavior of the films showed a good agreement between their optical and electrical resistivity.

  2. Radiative Performance of Rare Earth Garnet Thin Film Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present the first emitter efficiency results for the thin film 40 percent Er-1.5 percent Ho YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Y3Al5O12) and 25 percent Ho YAG selective emitter at 1500 K with a platinum substrate. Spectral emittance and emissive power measurements were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.2 microns). Emitter efficiency and power density are significantly improved with the addition of multiple rare earth dopants. Predicted efficiency results are presented for an optimized (equal power density in the Er, (4)I(sub 15/2)-(4)I(sub 13/2) at 1.5 microns, and Ho, (5)I(sub 7)-(5)I(sub 8) at 2.0 micron emission bands) Er-Ho YAG thin film selective emitter.

  3. X ray, extreme and far ultraviolet optical thin films for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    Far and extreme ultraviolet optical thin film filters find many uses in space astronomy, space astrophysics, and space aeronomy. Spacebased spectrographs are used for studying emission and absorption features of the earth, planets, sun, stars, and the interstellar medium. Most of these spectrographs use transmission or reflection filters. This requirement has prompted a search for selective filtering coatings with high throughput in the FUV and EUV spectral region. Important progress toward the development of thin film filters with improved efficiency and stability has been made in recent years. The goal for this field is the minimization of absorption to get high throughput and enhancement of wavelength selection. The Optical Aeronomy Laboratory (OAL) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has recently developed the technology to determine optical constants of bulk and film materials for wavelengths extending from x-rays (0.1 nm) to the FUV (200 nm), and several materials have been identified that were used for designs of various optical devices which previously have been restricted to space application in the visible and near infrared. A new design concept called the Pi-multilayer was introduced and applied to the design of optical coatings for wavelengths extending from x-rays to the FUV. Section 3 of this report explains the Pi-multilayer approach and demonstrates its application for the design and fabrication of the FUV coatings. Two layer Pi-stacks have been utilized for the design of reflection filters in the EUV wavelength range from 70 - 100 nm. In order to eliminate losses due to the low reflection of the imaging optics and increase throughput and out-of-band rejection of the EUV instrumentation we introduced a self-filtering camera concept. In the FUV region, MgF2 and LiF crystals are known to be birefringent. Transmission polarizers and quarterwave retarders made of MgF2 or LiF crystals are commercially available but the performances are poor. New

  4. Selective permeation of hydrogen gas using cellulose nanofibril film.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Hayaka; Fujisawa, Shuji; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-05-13

    Biobased membranes that can selectively permeate hydrogen gas have been developed from aqueous dispersions of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCN) prepared from wood cellulose: TOCN-coated plastic films and self-standing TOCN films. Compared with TOCNs with sodium, lithium, potassium, and cesium carboxylate groups, TOCN with free carboxyl groups (TOCN-COOH) had much high and selective H2 gas permeation performance. Because permeabilities of H2, N2, O2, and CO2 gases through the membranes primarily depended on their kinetic diameters, the gas permeation behavior of the various TOCNs can be explained in terms of a diffusion mechanism. Thus, the selective H2 gas permeability for TOCN-COOH was probably due to a larger average size in free volume holes present between nanofibrils in the layer and film than those of other TOCNs with metal carboxylate groups. The obtained results indicate that TOCN-COOH membranes are applicable as biobased H2 gas separation membranes in fuel cell electric power generation systems.

  5. Controlling the optical properties of sputtered-deposited LixV2O5 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Castro, M.; Berkemeier, F.; Schmitz, G.; Buchheit, A.; Wiemhöfer, H.-D.

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the influence of lithium intercalation on the optical properties of vanadium pentoxide films. The films with a thickness between 400 and 1000 nm were prepared by DC magnetron sputter deposition. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to set a well defined lithiation state of the LixV2O5 films between x = 0 and x = 1. The optical properties of these films were measured by optical reflectometry in the wavelength range between 500 and 1700 nm. From the reflectance data, the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of the films were finally calculated as a function of the wavelength using Cauchy's dispersion model. The results confirm that the optical behavior of LixV2O5 films varies significantly upon lithium insertion. It is demonstrated that the changes produced in the optical properties are completely reversible within the limits of permanent structure changes.

  6. Optical modeling of black chrome solar-selective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Pettit, R.B.

    1982-07-01

    Various investigations of coating microstructure are reviewed and the results of these studies are used to develop a picture of the microstructure of black chrome films plated from the Harshaw Chromonyx bath. In this model, the black chrome film is composed of roughly spherical particles which may tend to cluster together. These particles in turn are composed of small crystallites of metallic chrome and various oxides of chrome. The film void volume fraction appears to be greater than or equal to 0.6. The microstructural picture has been idealized to facilitate calculations of the spectral reflectance for films deposited onto nickel substrates and for freestanding or stripped films. In the idealized model, the metallic chromium is assumed to be in the form of spherical crystallites with concentric shells of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the crystallite volume fraction is assumed to increase with depth into the film. Various experimental data are utilized to define film thickness, average volume fraction of Cr + Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and volume ratio of Cr to Cr + Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Both the Maxwell-Garnett (MG) and the Bruggeman effective medium theories for the dielectric constant of a composite media are reviewed. The extension of the MG theory to high inclusion volume fractions is discussed. Various forms of the MG theory and the Bruggeman theory are then utilized in reflectance calculations for both regular and stripped films.The results indicate that the MG formalism provides the best overall description of the optical response of black chrome films. Both model and experiment show that the solar absorptance initially decreases slowly as the amount of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ increases; however a rapid decrease occurs when the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content passes 70 vol %.

  7. High-Resolution CRT Optical Film Recorder Incorporating an Optical Feedback Exposure Control.

    PubMed

    Nix, L A; Ley, G S

    1972-05-01

    A high-resolution CRT optical film recorder incorporating an optical exposure control system is described. The recorder incorporates provisions for a highly nonlinear writing rate of up to 7 to 1 that make it uniquely suited for such applications as side-look radar or sonar. Provisions are made for spot shaping permitting line fill-in between scan lines spaced up to ten spot sizes apart. The recorder achieves a linear gray scale having sixteen equal density steps for a wide range of sweep times by means of a brightness feedback loop that automatically corrects for such problems as phosphor saturation, phosphor noise, nonlinear CRT grid transfer characteristics, variation in cathode emission, and tube aging in conjunction with film gamma correction circuitry.

  8. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  9. Optical pulse synthesis using brillouin selective sideband amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for producing optical pulses based on Brillouin selective sideband amplification by using a common modulation control signal to modulate both a signal beam to produce multiple sideband signals and a single pump beam to produce multiple pump beams.

  10. Optical control of multi-stage thin film solar cell production

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Levi, Dean H.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Scharf, John

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments include methods of depositing and controlling the deposition of a film in multiple stages. The disclosed deposition and deposition control methods include the optical monitoring of a deposition matrix to determine a time when at least one transition point occurs. In certain embodiments, the transition point or transition points are a stoichiometry point. Methods may also include controlling the length of time in which material is deposited during a deposition stage or controlling the amount of the first, second or subsequent materials deposited during any deposition stage in response to a determination of the time when a selected transition point occurs.

  11. Optical variability of X-ray-selected QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Andrew J.; Webb, James R.; Smith, Alex G.; Leacock, Robert J.; Bitran, Mauricio

    1987-08-01

    Photometric data for ten X-ray-selected quasistellar objects have been obtained from archival records of the Rosemary Hill Observatory. Reliable magnitudes were obtained for seven of the ten sources and six displayed optical variations significant at the 95 percent confidence level or greater. One source appeared to exhibit optically violent behavior. Light curves and photographic magnitudes are presented and discussed.

  12. Optical variability of X-ray-selected QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, A.J.; Webb, J.R.; Smith, A.G.; Leacock, R.J.; Bitran, M.

    1987-08-01

    Photometric data for ten X-ray-selected quasistellar objects have been obtained from archival records of the Rosemary Hill Observatory. Reliable magnitudes were obtained for seven of the ten sources and six displayed optical variations significant at the 95 percent confidence level or greater. One source appeared to exhibit optically violent behavior. Light curves and photographic magnitudes are presented and discussed. 22 references.

  13. Optical frequency tripling with improved suppression and sideband selection.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Manoj P; Medeiros, Maria C R; Laurêncio, Paula; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A novel optical dispersion tolerant millimetre-wave radio-over-fibre system using optical frequency tripling technique with enhanced and selectable sideband suppression is demonstrated. The implementation utilises cascaded optical modulators to achieve either an optical single sideband (OSSB) or double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) signal with high sideband suppression. Our analysis and simulation results indicate that the achievable suppression ratio of this configuration is only limited by other system factors such as optical noise and drifting of the operational conditions. The OSSB transmission system performance is assessed experimentally by the transport of 4 WiMax channels modulating a 10 GHz optical upconverted RF carrier as well as for optical frequency doubling and tripling. The 10 GHz and tripled carrier at 30 GHz are dispersion tolerant resulting both in an average relative constellation error (RCE) of -28.7 dB after 40 km of fibre. PMID:22274056

  14. Optical frequency tripling with improved suppression and sideband selection.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Manoj P; Medeiros, Maria C R; Laurêncio, Paula; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A novel optical dispersion tolerant millimetre-wave radio-over-fibre system using optical frequency tripling technique with enhanced and selectable sideband suppression is demonstrated. The implementation utilises cascaded optical modulators to achieve either an optical single sideband (OSSB) or double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) signal with high sideband suppression. Our analysis and simulation results indicate that the achievable suppression ratio of this configuration is only limited by other system factors such as optical noise and drifting of the operational conditions. The OSSB transmission system performance is assessed experimentally by the transport of 4 WiMax channels modulating a 10 GHz optical upconverted RF carrier as well as for optical frequency doubling and tripling. The 10 GHz and tripled carrier at 30 GHz are dispersion tolerant resulting both in an average relative constellation error (RCE) of -28.7 dB after 40 km of fibre.

  15. Optical studies on electron beam evaporated lithium triborate films.

    PubMed

    Mohandoss, R; Dhanuskodi, S; Sanjeeviraja, C

    2012-10-01

    Lithium triborate (LB3) has numerous applications in scintillator for neutron detection, laser weapon and communication. LB3 films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique under a pressure of 1×10(-5) mbar on glass substrate at 323 K for 4 min. The crystallographic orientations and the lattice parameters (a=8.55 (2); b=5.09 (2); c=7.39 (2)Å) were determined by powder XRD indicating the (111) preferential orientation of the film. The lower cut off wavelength at 325 nm with 75% transparency was measured from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants extinction coefficient (K), reflectance (R), the linear refractive index (1.34) and the optical energy band gap (~4.0 eV) were estimated. The photoluminescence spectrum shows the emission peak in the visible region with low concentration of oxygen defects. LB3 is found to be second harmonic generation (SHG) active using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 9 ns, 10 Hz). The nonlinear refractive index (n(2)~10(-16) cm(2)/W) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β~10(-2) cm/W) reveal (Z-scan technique) that the material has negative nonlinearity and self-focusing nature. PMID:22925906

  16. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Che, Hui; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Michelle; Yeh, Wei Jiang; Tarun, M. C.; McCluskey, M. D.; Bergman, Leah

    2012-01-01

    ZnO is emore » merging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on M g x Z n 1 − x O and Z n S 1 − x O x nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg 0 .3 Zn 0 .7 O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS 0 .76 O 0 .24 and ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS 0 .16 O 0 .84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.« less

  17. Nanocomposite thin films exhibiting high mechanical and optical flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffel, Thad; Buazza, Omar; Lattis, Matt; Farmer, Scott

    2008-08-01

    Nanocomposites are created by doping host polymers with nanoparticles that typically have higher or lower refractive indices. The ability to tailor the mechanical and optical performance of these composites has led to their increased use in transparent materials. Nanocomposites maintain the elastic properties of the binding polymers and exhibit infinite refractive index tunability between the limits of the system. These unique properties provide distinct benefits for multilayer, thin-film optical filters. Because the nanoparticles are dispersed in a fluid or bound in a polymer matrix in use, toxicity risks that may be associated with raw particles are reduced. Using a stable dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and a UV curable monomer, we were able to design and produce several quarter-wave filters that demonstrate control of the height and width of the passband through adjustment of the organic/inorganic ratio and layer count. The volume loading of the metal oxides can be adjusted from zero to near the theoretical packing density of spheres, allowing refractive index to be controlled over a large range. Because metal oxide particles exhibit high UV absorption, these additives provide UV protection to the host polymer and the filter's substrate. Additionally, significant improvements in abrasion resistance are often observed in films loaded with nanoparticles at the concentrations of interest.

  18. Optical studies on electron beam evaporated Lithium Triborate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2012-10-01

    Lithium triborate (LB3) has numerous applications in scintillator for neutron detection, laser weapon and communication. LB3 films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique under a pressure of 1 × 10-5 mbar on glass substrate at 323 K for 4 min. The crystallographic orientations and the lattice parameters (a = 8.55 (2); b = 5.09 (2); c = 7.39 (2) Å) were determined by powder XRD indicating the (1 1 1) preferential orientation of the film. The lower cut off wavelength at 325 nm with 75% transparency was measured from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants extinction coefficient (K), reflectance (R), the linear refractive index (1.34) and the optical energy band gap (˜4.0 eV) were estimated. The photoluminescence spectrum shows the emission peak in the visible region with low concentration of oxygen defects. LB3 is found to be second harmonic generation (SHG) active using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 9 ns, 10 Hz). The nonlinear refractive index (n2 ˜ 10-16 cm2/W) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β ˜ 10-2 cm/W) reveal (Z-scan technique) that the material has negative nonlinearity and self-focusing nature.

  19. Optical detector prepared by high-Tc superconducting thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingjie; Zhou, Fang Q.; Zhao, Xing R.; Sun, Han D.; Yi, Xin J.

    1991-12-01

    An optical detector prepared by high T(subscript c) superconducting thin film has been discussed. The device has been made from YBaCuO superconducting thin film with zero resistance at more than 80 K on a ZrO(subscript 2) substrate. A pattern of the device with the dimension of the microbridge is formed through photolithographic process. Electrical contacts are made by evaporating gold or silver with thickness of 0.5 - 1 micrometers . The sample is then placed in a dewar with an infrared window and is cooled by liquid nitrogen. A blackbody source at 800 K is used to measure the responsivity of the detector, and the infrared radiation is chopped at frequencies between 6.3 and 2000 Hz. The detector output with the detectivity larger than 10(superscript 9) cmHz(superscript 1/2)/w and a typical responsivity value as large as 10(superscript 3) V/w is observed on both lock-in amplifier and root-mean-square voltmeter. In addition, the mechanism of optical detection and the methods to improve the sensitivity have been described.

  20. Optically Thin Metallic Films for High-Radiative-Efficiency Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-07-01

    Plasmonics enables deep-subwavelength concentration of light and has become important for fundamental studies as well as real-life applications. Two major existing platforms of plasmonics are metallic nanoparticles and metallic films. Metallic nanoparticles allow efficient coupling to far field radiation, yet their synthesis typically leads to poor material quality. Metallic films offer substantially higher quality materials, but their coupling to radiation is typically jeopardized due to the large momentum mismatch with free space. Here, we propose and theoretically investigate optically thin metallic films as an ideal platform for high-radiative-efficiency plasmonics. For far-field scattering, adding a thin high-quality metallic substrate enables a higher quality factor while maintaining the localization and tunability that the nanoparticle provides. For near-field spontaneous emission, a thin metallic substrate, of high quality or not, greatly improves the field overlap between the emitter environment and propagating surface plasmons, enabling high-Purcell (total enhancement > $10^4$), high-quantum-yield (> 50 %) spontaneous emission, even as the gap size vanishes (3$\\sim$5 nm). The enhancement has almost spatially independent efficiency and does not suffer from quenching effects that commonly exist in previous structures.

  1. Optically Thin Metallic Films for High-Radiative-Efficiency Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-07-13

    Plasmonics enables deep-subwavelength concentration of light and has become important for fundamental studies as well as real-life applications. Two major existing platforms of plasmonics are metallic nanoparticles and metallic films. Metallic nanoparticles allow efficient coupling to far field radiation, yet their synthesis typically leads to poor material quality. Metallic films offer substantially higher quality materials, but their coupling to radiation is typically jeopardized due to the large momentum mismatch with free space. Here, we propose and theoretically investigate optically thin metallic films as an ideal platform for high-radiative-efficiency plasmonics. For far-field scattering, adding a thin high-quality metallic substrate enables a higher quality factor while maintaining the localization and tunability that the nanoparticle provides. For near-field spontaneous emission, a thin metallic substrate, of high quality or not, greatly improves the field overlap between the emitter environment and propagating surface plasmons, enabling high-Purcell (total enhancement >10(4)), high-quantum-yield (>50%) spontaneous emission, even as the gap size vanishes (3-5 nm). The enhancement has almost spatially independent efficiency and does not suffer from quenching effects that commonly exist in previous structures.

  2. RESEARCH ON THE ELECTRONIC AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER AND OTHER ORGANIC MOLECULAR THIN FILMS

    SciTech Connect

    ALEXEI G. VITUKHNOVSKY; IGOR I. SOBELMAN - RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    1995-09-06

    Optical properties of highly ordered films of poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) on different substrates, thin films of mixtures of conjugated polymers, of fullerene and its composition with polymers, molecular J-aggregates of cyanine dyes in frozen matrices have been studied within the framework of the Agreement. Procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum deposited PPP films on different substrates (ITO, Si, GaAs and etc.) were developed. Using time-correlated single photon counting technique and fluorescence spectroscopy the high quality of PPP films has been confirmed. Dependence of structure and optical properties on the conditions of preparation were investigated. The fluorescence lifetime and spectra of highly oriented vacuum deposited PPP films were studied as a function of the degree of polymerization. It was shown for the first time that the maximum fluorescence quantum yield is achieved for the chain length approximately equal to 35 monomer units. The selective excitation of luminescence of thin films of PPP was performed in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. The total intensity of luminescence monotonically decreases with decreasing temperature. Conditions of preparation of highly cristallyne fullerene C{sub 60} films by the method of vacuum deposition were found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers PPV and polyacetylene (PA) were prepared. The results on fluorescence quenching, IR and resonant Raman spectroscopy are consistent with earlier reported ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from PPV to C{sub 60} and show that the electron transfer is absent in the case of the PA-C{sub 60} composition. Strong quenching of PPV fluorescence was observed in the PPV-PA blends. The electron transfer from PPV to PA can be considered as one of the possible mechanisms of this quenching. The dynamics of photoexcitations in different types of J-aggregates of the carbocyanine dye was studied at different temperatures in frozen matrices. The optical

  3. High resolution selective multilayer laser processing by nanosecond laser ablation of metal nanoparticle films

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Seung H.; Pan Heng; Hwang, David J.; Chung, Jaewon; Ryu, Sangil; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-11-01

    Ablation of gold nanoparticle films on polymer was explored using a nanosecond pulsed laser, with the goal to achieve feature size reduction and functionality not amenable with inkjet printing. The ablation threshold fluence for the unsintered nanoparticle deposit was at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the bulk film. This could be explained by the combined effects of melting temperature depression, lower conductive heat transfer loss, strong absorption of the incident laser beam, and the relatively weak bonding between nanoparticles. The ablation physics were verified by the nanoparticle sintering characterization, ablation threshold measurement, time resolved ablation plume shadowgraphs, analysis of ablation ejecta, and the measurement and calculation of optical properties. High resolution and clean feature fabrication with small energy and selective multilayer processing are demonstrated.

  4. Polarization-selective optical transmission through a plasmonic metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Pelzman, Charles; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2015-06-22

    We present the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a nanoslit-based metasurface that offers polarization-selective optical transmission for advanced imaging applications. The metasurface consists of an array of meta-atoms, constructed with two orthogonally coupled subwavelength apertures. Highly enhanced optical transmission was achieved by selective excitation of surface plasmon waves on the metasurface. By rotating the orientation of the linearly polarized incident beam, switching of enhanced optical transmission bands through the metasurface was experimentally demonstrated. This demonstration is a significant step towards developing advanced multispectral imaging devices.

  5. Estimation of thermal conductivity of amorphous silicon thin films from the optical reflectivity measurement.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seung-Jae; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2013-09-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film material is widely used in liquid crystal display and solar cell applications. Knowledge of its properties is important in enhancing device performance. The properties of a-Si thin film have not been well understood due to the lack of periodicity of the structure. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of a-Si thin film is a key parameter to understand the complex phase transformation mechanism from a-Si thin film to polysilicon thin film by analyzing the transient temperature during the laser recrystallization process. In this work, thermal conductivity of a-Si thin film was determined by measuring optical reflectivity. A-Si thin film was irradiated with a KrF excimer laser beam to raise its temperature. The raised film temperature affects temperature-dependent optical properties such as refractive indices and extinction coefficients. The temperature-dependent optical properties of refractive indices and extinction coefficients of a-Si thin film were measured by ellipsometry. In-situ transient reflectivity at the wavelength of 633 nm was obtained during the excimer laser irradiation. The numerical simulation of one-dimensional conduction equation was solved so that transient reflectivities were calculated with temperature-dependent optical properties combined with thin film optics. Therefore, a well-fitted thermal conductivity was determined by comparing the numerically obtained transient reflectivity with the experimentally measured reflectivity data. The determined thermal conductivity of a-Si thin films was 1.5 W/mK.

  6. Estimation of thermal conductivity of amorphous silicon thin films from the optical reflectivity measurement.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seung-Jae; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2013-09-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film material is widely used in liquid crystal display and solar cell applications. Knowledge of its properties is important in enhancing device performance. The properties of a-Si thin film have not been well understood due to the lack of periodicity of the structure. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of a-Si thin film is a key parameter to understand the complex phase transformation mechanism from a-Si thin film to polysilicon thin film by analyzing the transient temperature during the laser recrystallization process. In this work, thermal conductivity of a-Si thin film was determined by measuring optical reflectivity. A-Si thin film was irradiated with a KrF excimer laser beam to raise its temperature. The raised film temperature affects temperature-dependent optical properties such as refractive indices and extinction coefficients. The temperature-dependent optical properties of refractive indices and extinction coefficients of a-Si thin film were measured by ellipsometry. In-situ transient reflectivity at the wavelength of 633 nm was obtained during the excimer laser irradiation. The numerical simulation of one-dimensional conduction equation was solved so that transient reflectivities were calculated with temperature-dependent optical properties combined with thin film optics. Therefore, a well-fitted thermal conductivity was determined by comparing the numerically obtained transient reflectivity with the experimentally measured reflectivity data. The determined thermal conductivity of a-Si thin films was 1.5 W/mK. PMID:24205662

  7. Influence of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by close-spaced vacuum sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, M. M.; Buryk, I. P.; Latyshev, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. O.; Levchenko, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bi2O3 thin films were deposited on ultrasonically-cleaned glass and mica substrates by close-spaced vacuum sublimation technique. Films surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural study based on the transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis has been shown that deposited films were polycrystalline with face-centered cubic structure. Optical study was carried out by spectral photometry analysis in the wavelengths range λ = 320-900 nm using the optical transmittance and absorbance measurements. For determination optical band gap Eg the Tauc plot was used and the band gap energy Eg is determined in the range of 3.50-3.62 eV, respectively. Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis shown that obtained films are well-crystalline and have a good optical quality.

  8. Microstructural effect on optical properties of Au:SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite waveguide films

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Soonil; Lee, Taek Sung; Cheong, Byung-ki; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2007-12-15

    Polarization-dependent optical properties of slab waveguide films, which are composed of Au nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO{sub 2} matrix, were investigated using a prism coupler. The optical spectra and the mode profiles of the nanocomposite films prepared by alternating sputtering were compared with those of cosputtered films, and the optical anisotropy of the films were modeled and analyzed on the basis of an effective medium theory with Maxwell-Garnett geometry and a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap structures.

  9. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak T, Manju; Kumar, Vineetha V.

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  10. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Aijo John; Kumar, Vineetha V.; M, Deepak; T, Manju

    2014-10-01

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  11. Reactive low-voltage ion plating of hard silicon nitride optical thin films and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramm, Juergen; Hora, Ralf; Bovard, Bertrand G.

    1990-08-01

    Silicon nitride films were synthesized in a Balzers BAP 800 coating plant by an plasma enhanced evaporation process. Transparent, stoichiometric films free of hydrogen, oxygen, argon, and heavy metals were obtained. The optical properties, the chemical composition, the microhardness, the structure, and the morphology of the films were investigated.

  12. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  13. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  14. Effect of Annealing on the Optical Properties of Transition Metal Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jijoy P.; Varghese, George; Mathew, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    A group of transition metal (Co,Cu,Ni) doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a low cost dip coating method. To study the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of the grown films each film is subjected to three different annealing temperatures. From the calculation of structural parameters from the XRD spectrum, it was found that each film possesses a tensile strain and this tensile strain increases as the annealing temperature increases. This dominant behavior of tensile strain affects the optical properties of the grown film in a greater extent.

  15. Optical studies of (AsSe)100- x Sb x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, T.; Ilcheva, V.; Petkov, E.; Petkov, P.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Ristoscu, C.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Popov, C.; Reithmaier, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    Thin arsenic-selenium-antimony films (AsSe)100- x Sb x ( x=0,5,10,15 mol.%) have been deposited on glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques from the corresponding bulk glassy materials. The refractive index and the film thickness have been determined from the optical transmission spectra by modified Swanepoel method. The optical band gap calculated using the Tauc's approximation showed a narrowing as a function of the increased Sb content from 1.74 eV to 1.53 eV in the VTE films and from 1.64 eV to 1.42 eV in the PLD films. The refractive index of the Sb-doped films strongly increased with the Sb content and reached the largest value for the PLD films. The results verify that both techniques are suitable for deposition of thin glassy films with high optical quality.

  16. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  17. In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Aranha Dos Santos, Valentin; Schmetterer, Leopold; Gröschl, Martin; Garhofer, Gerhard; Schmidl, Doreen; Kucera, Martin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermand, Jean-Pierre; Werkmeister, René M

    2015-08-10

    Dry eye syndrome is a highly prevalent disease of the ocular surface characterized by an instability of the tear film. Traditional methods used for the evaluation of tear film stability are invasive or show limited repeatability. Here we propose a new non-invasive fully automated approach to measure tear film thickness based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and on an efficient delay estimator. Silicon wafer phantom were used to validate the thickness measurement. The technique was applied in vivo in healthy subjects. Series of tear film thickness maps were generated, allowing for the visualization of tear film dynamics. Our results show that the in vivo central tear film thickness measurements are precise and repeatable with a coefficient of variation of about 0.65% and that repeatable tear film dynamics can be observed. The presented approach could be used in clinical setting to study patients with dry eye disease and monitor their treatments.

  18. Evaluation of space environmental effects on metals and optical thin films on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Metals and optical thin films exposed to the space environment on the Third Flight of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials (EOIM-3) payload, onboard Space Shuttle mission STS-46 were evaluated. The materials effects described in this paper include the effects of space exposure on various pure metals, optical thin films, and optical thin film metals. The changes induced by exposure to the space environment in the material properties were evaluated using bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), specular reflectance (250 nm to 2500 nm), ESCA, VUV reflectance (120 nm to 200 nm), ellipsometry, FTIR and optical properties. Using these analysis techniques gold optically thin film metal mirrors with nickel undercoats were observed to darken due to nickel diffusion through the gold to the surface. Also, thin film nickel mirrors formed nickel oxide due to exposure to both the atmosphere and space.

  19. Engineering of the band gap and optical properties of thin films of yttrium hydride

    SciTech Connect

    You, Chang Chuan; Mongstad, Trygve; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Karazhanov, Smagul

    2014-07-21

    Thin films of oxygen-containing yttrium hydride show photochromic effect at room temperature. In this work, we have studied structural and optical properties of the films deposited at different deposition pressures, discovering the possibility of engineering the optical band gap by variation of the oxygen content. In sum, the transparency of the films and the wavelength range of photons triggering the photochromic effect can be controlled by variation of the deposition pressure.

  20. Measurements of the optical properties of thin films of silver and silver oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.; Brown, Yolanda; Gregory, John C.; Nag, Pallob K.; Christl, Ligia

    1995-01-01

    The optical properties of silver films and their oxides are measured to better characterize such films for use as sensors for atomic oxygen. Good agreement between properties of measured pure silver films and reported optical constants is observed. Similar comparisons for silver oxide have not been possible because of a lack of reported constants, but self-consistencies and discrepancies in our measured results are described.

  1. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Masina, B. N. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Lafane, S. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Wu, L.; Akande, A. A.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2015-10-28

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ∼43 °C, without any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.

  2. Optically selective, acoustically resonant gas detecting transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which responds to the resonant absorption or emission spectrum of a specific gas by producing an acoustic resonance in a chamber containing a sample of that gas, and which measures the amount of that emission or absorption by measuring the strength of that acoustic resonance, e.g., the maximum periodic pressure, velocity or density achieved. In the preferred embodiment, a light beam is modulated periodically at the acoustical resonance frequency of a closed chamber which contains an optically dense sample of the gas of interest. Periodic heating of the absorbing gas by the light beam causes a cyclic expansion, movement, and pressure within the gas. An amplitude is reached where the increased losses were the cyclic radiation energy received. A transducing system is inclined for converting the pressure variations of the resonant gas into electronic readout signals.

  3. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ < 800 nm, whereas the normal dispersion was found at wavelength λ > 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  4. Mid-infrared resonant ablation for selective patterning of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naithani, Sanjeev; Duterte, Charles; Levichkova, Marieta; Grisard, Arnaud; Schaubroeck, David; Lallier, Eric; Hernandez, Yves; Walzer, Karsten; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2014-05-01

    The fast growing market of organic electronics, including organic photovoltaics (OPV), stimulates the development of versatile technologies for structuring thin-film materials. Ultraviolet lasers have proven their full potential for patterning single organic layers, but in a multilayer organic device the obtained layer selectivity is limited as all organic layers show high UV absorption. In this paper, we introduce mid-infrared (IR) resonant ablation as an alternative approach, in which a short pulse mid-infrared laser can be wavelength tuned to one of the molecular vibrational transitions of the organic material to be ablated. As a result, the technique is selective in respect of processing a diversity of organics, which usually have different infrared absorption bands. Mid-IR resonant ablation is demonstrated for a variety of organic thin films, employing both nanosecond (15 ns) and picosecond (250 ps) laser pulses tunable between 3 and 4 microns. The nanosecond experimental set-up is based on a commercial laser at 1064 nm pumping a singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) built around a Periodically-Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal with several Quasi-Phase Matching (QPM) periods, delivering more than 0.3 W of mid-IR power, corresponding to 15 μJ pulses. The picosecond laser set-up is based on Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) in a similar crystal, allowing for a comparison between both pulse length regimes. The wavelength of the mid-infrared laser can be tuned to one of the molecular vibrational transitions of the organic material to be ablated. For that reason, the IR absorption spectra of the organic materials used in a typical OPV device were characterized in the wavelength region that can be reached by the laser setups. Focus was on OPV substrate materials, transparent conductive materials, hole transport materials, and absorber materials. The process has been successfully demonstrated for selective thin film patterning, and the

  5. Chemically modified graphene films for high-performance optical NO2 sensors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fei; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yong; Jiang, Wenshuai; Liu, Zhibo; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-08-01

    Various graphene-based gas sensors that operate based on the electrical properties of graphene have been developed for accurate detection of gas components. However, electronic graphene-based gas sensors are unsafe under explosive atmospheres and sensitive to electromagnetic interference. Here, a novel optical graphene-based gas sensor for NO2 detection is established based on surface chemical modification of high-temperature-reduced graphene oxide (h-rGO) films with sulfo groups. Sulfo group-modified h-rGO (S-h-rGO) films with a thickness of several nanometers exhibit excellent performance in NO2 detection at room temperature and atmospheric pressure based on the polarization absorption effect of graphene. Initial slope analysis of the S-h-rGO sensor indicates that it has a limit of detection of 0.28 ppm and a response time of 300 s for NO2 gas sensing. Furthermore, the S-h-rGO sensor also possesses the advantages of good linearity, reversibility, selectivity, non-contact operation, low cost and safety. This novel optical gas sensor has the potential to serve as a general platform for the selective detection of a variety of gases with high performance. PMID:27265308

  6. Nanoscopic interchain aggregate domain formation in conjugated polymer films studied by third harmonic generation near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Richard D.; Snee, Preston T.; Johnson, Justin C.; Lee, Lynn F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Haber, Louis H.; Saykally, Richard J.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2002-10-01

    The electronic structure of conjugated polymer films is of current interest due to the wide range of potential applications for such materials in optoelectronic devices. A central outstanding issue is the significance of interchain electronic species in films of these materials. In this paper, we investigate the nature of interchain species in films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) both before and after thermal annealing. Our investigation employs a combination of third harmonic generation (THG) and near-field scanning optical microscopy to measure the wavelength and spatial dependence of the THG efficiency. These chemically selective imaging measurements reveal new, low-energy absorption features in nanometer-scale spatially distinct regions of annealed films that are only infrequently observed prior to annealing. This suggests that the polymer strands in annealed MEH-PPV films pack together closely enough that significant ground-state wave function overlap can occur: thermal annealing creates nanoscopic aggregation domains. THG polarization studies indicate that polymer chain segments in these domains have a preferred orientational alignment. The spatial correlation of these aligned nanoscopic regions within the annealed films suggests that they form via a nucleation and growth type mechanism. In combination with previous work, these data support the idea that the nature and spatial distribution of interchain interactions in conjugated polymer films are complex; conjugated polymer films likely contain an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of both ground- and excited-state interchain species.

  7. Measurement of optical anisotropy in ultrathin films using surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanarayanan, V. P.; Manjuladevi, V.; Poonia, Monika; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    The optical phenomenon, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is employed for the measurement of optical anisotropy in the ultrathin films fabricated through Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques onto 50 nm gold film supported on BK7 glass substrates. The resonance angle (RA) is measured using a home built setup in Kretschmann configuration. The LB films and SAM can provide a single layer of highly ordered and organized molecules on the two dimensional surface. If the film forming molecules are anisotropic, their organization in the LB films and SAM can yield an anisotropic film due to tilt of the molecules with respect to the surface normal. The SPR spectra are recorded for the two orthogonal directions of the film with respect to the plane of incidence. The spectra are simulated by modeling the Fresnel's reflection from 4-layers viz., prism, gold, ultrathin films and air; and the real and imaginary parts of refractive index are estimated. Our study shows the metallic and dielectric nature of the LB films of bundles of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) when the long axis of SWCNTs are aligned parallel and perpendicular to plane of incidence, respectively. The optical anisotropy was estimated from the change in real part of refractive index (Δnr) of the ultrathin films measured in the orthogonal directions. In addition, we have also studied such optical anisotropy in the LB film of cadmium-stearate and self-assembled monolayer of octadecanethiol.

  8. Influences of film thickness on the structural, electrical and optical properties of CuAlO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guobo; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Mei; Li, Yingzi; Gao, Fangyuan; Yan, Hui; Diao, Xungang

    2014-07-01

    CuAlO2 films with different thickness were prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of CuAlO2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis double-beam spectrophotometer and Hall measurements. The results indicate that the single phase hexagonal CuAlO2 is formed and the average grain size of CuAlO2 films increases with increasing film thickness. The results also exhibit that the lowering of bandgap and the increase of electrical conductivity of CuAlO2 films with the increase of their thickness, which are attributed to the improvement of the grain size and the anisotropic electrical property. According to the electrical and optical properties, the biggest figure of merit is achieved for the CuAlO2 film with the appropriate thickness of 165 nm.

  9. Optical and electrical properties of thin superconducting films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covington, Billy C.; Jing, Feng Chen

    1990-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques can provide a vital probe of the superconducting energy gap which is one of the most fundamental physical properties of superconductors. Currently, the central questions regarding the optical properties of superconductors are how the energy gap can be measured by infrared techniques and at which frequency the gap exists. An effective infrared spectroscopic method to investigate the superconducting energy gap, Eg, was developed by using the Bomem DA 3.01 Fourier Transformation Spectrophotometer. The reflectivity of a superconducting thin film of YBaCuO deposited on SrTiO3 was measured. A shoulder was observed in the superconducting state reflectance R(sub S) at 480/cm. This gives a value of Eg/kT(sub c) = 7.83, where k is the Boltzmann constant and T(sub c) is the superconducting transition temperature, from which, it is suggested that YBaCuO is a very strong coupling superconductor.

  10. Model of a thin film optical fiber fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of core-light injection from sources in the cladding of an optical fiber is modeled analytically by means of the exact field solution of a step-profile fiber. The analysis is based on the techniques by Marcuse (1988) in which the sources are treated as infinitesimal electric currents with random phase and orientation that excite radiation fields and bound modes. Expressions are developed based on an infinite cladding approximation which yield the power efficiency for a fiber coated with fluorescent sources in the core/cladding interface. Marcuse's results are confirmed for the case of a weakly guiding cylindrical fiber with fluorescent sources uniformly distributed in the cladding, and the power efficiency is shown to be practically constant for variable wavelengths and core radii. The most efficient fibers have the thin film located at the core/cladding boundary, and fibers with larger differences in the indices of refraction are shown to be the most efficient.

  11. Model of a thin film optical fiber fluorosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-03-01

    The efficiency of core-light injection from sources in the cladding of an optical fiber is modeled analytically by means of the exact field solution of a step-profile fiber. The analysis is based on the techniques by Marcuse (1988) in which the sources are treated as infinitesimal electric currents with random phase and orientation that excite radiation fields and bound modes. Expressions are developed based on an infinite cladding approximation which yield the power efficiency for a fiber coated with fluorescent sources in the core/cladding interface. Marcuse's results are confirmed for the case of a weakly guiding cylindrical fiber with fluorescent sources uniformly distributed in the cladding, and the power efficiency is shown to be practically constant for variable wavelengths and core radii. The most efficient fibers have the thin film located at the core/cladding boundary, and fibers with larger differences in the indices of refraction are shown to be the most efficient.

  12. Continuously Controlled Optical Band Gap in Oxide Semiconductor Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-03-01

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. Charge density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques. PMID:26836282

  13. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, chargemore » density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.« less

  14. Simplified analytic formula for magneto-optical Kerr effects in ultrathin magnetic films.

    SciTech Connect

    You, C.-Y.

    1998-06-10

    Expressions are presented for various magneto-optical Kerr effects in the ultrathin film limit with arbitrary magnetization direction by considering the multiple reflections within an optically thin film. The Kerr effect of p- and s-polarization consists of products of two factors: the prefactor, dependent only on the optical parameters of the system, and the main factor of the polar Kerr effect for normal incidence in the ultrathin limit.

  15. Roughness, optical, and wetting properties of nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Sven; Coriand, Luisa; Duparré, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Roughness structures are essential for a variety of functional surfaces, for example surfaces with extreme wetting behavior like superhydrophobicity or superhydrophilicity. On the other hand, roughness also gives rise to light scattering, and thus limits the usability of such surfaces for optical applications. Our approach is based on using small-scale intrinsic roughness components of thin film coatings to achieve the desired functional properties while keeping the light scattering at acceptable levels. A comprehensive measurement and analysis methodology for effectively predicting, defining and controlling the structural and wetting properties of stochastically rough superhydrophobic surfaces is presented. Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions determined from atomic force microscopy data are used for thorough roughness analysis as well as to predict the wetting and light scattering properties. Dynamic contact angle analysis is performed by measuring advancing, receding, roll-off, and bounce-off angles. Examples of natural and technical superhydrophobic surfaces like the Lotus leaf and thin film coatings with stochastic nanoroughness are given. These surfaces reveal high advancing contact angles, low contact angle hysteresis, low roll-off angles, and, consequently, the effect of self-cleaning.

  16. Multilayer magnetism: A study of selected thin film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaz, Manuel A.

    The magnetic and structural properties of selected thin film multilayers systems have been investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr effect magnetometry, and x-ray diffraction. Experimental evidence of induced moments in the spacer material layers as well as any variation in the ferromagnetic layer is given. Evidence for the stabilization of non-equilibrium structural phases in these films is also presented. The Fe/3d systems showed moments on the spacer materials which were aligned antiferromagnetically at the interface. The Fe/4d systems exhibited more variety, with Ru, Rh and Pd showing moments aligned to Fe while Mo was aligned antiferromagnetically and any Nb moment was indeterminable. Rhodium exhibited the largest induced moment which was at least 1 μB as measured in Fe/Rh multilayer films. The presence of a moment is linked to the proximity of a ferromagnetic layer while the magnitude is related to the magnitude of the FM moment. The crystalline environment is shown to play a key role in the moments away from the interface. In the bcc phase Rh retains its moment while in the fcc phase the moment is damped at the interior of the layer, thus essentially confined to the interfacial region. The Fe moments in the films studied also exhibited a variation which was correlated to the spacer elements position in the periodic table. Those elements to the left of Fe showed antiferromagnetically aligned moments, and little or no Fe moment enhancement while those to the right (or below) showed ferromagnetic alignment and enhanced Fe moments.

  17. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic

  18. Optical and Scratch Resistant Properties of Diamondlike Carbon Films Deposited with Single and Dual Ion Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussmaul, Michael T.; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources. Continuous DLC films up to 3000 A thick were deposited on fused quartz plates. Ion beam process parameters were varied in an effort to create hard, clear films. Total DLC film absorption over visible wavelengths was obtained using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. An ellipsometer, with an Ar-He laser (wavelength 6328 A) was used to determine index of refraction for the DLC films. Scratch resistance, frictional, and adherence properties were determined for select films. Applications for these films range from military to the ophthalmic industries.

  19. Optical and scratch resistant properties of diamondlike carbon films deposited with single and dual ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussmaul, Michael T.; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources. Continuous DLC films up to 3000 A thick were deposited on fused quartz plates. Ion beam process parameters were varied in an effort to create hard, clear films. Total DLC film absorption over visible wavelengths was obtained using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. An ellipsometer, with an Ar-He laser (wavelength 6328 A) was used to determine index of refraction for the DLC films. Scratch resistance and frictional and adherence properties were determined for select films. Applications for these films range from military to the ophthalmic industries.

  20. Thermal annealing induced structural and optical properties of Se72Te25In3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, H. P.; Shukla, Nitesh; Kumar, Vipin; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of a- Se72Te25In3 were prepared by vacuum evaporation technique in a base pressure of 10-6 Torr on to well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se72Te25In3 thin films were annealed at different temperatures below their crystallization temperatures for 2h. The structural analysis of the films has been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The optical absorption spectra of these films were measured in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm in order to derive the absorption coefficient of these films. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy has been studied. It has been found that the optical band gap decreases with increasing annealing temperatures in the present system.

  1. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  2. Optical properties change in Te diffused As50Se50 chalcogenide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ramakanta; Behera, M.; Panda, R.; Mishra, N. C.

    2016-05-01

    In the present report, we present the effect of Te diffusion into As50Se50 thin film which changes the optical properties. The Te/As50Se50 film was irradiated by a laser beam of 532 nm to study the diffusion mechanism due to photo induced effect. The As50Se50, Te/As50Se50 films show a completely amorphous nature from X-ray diffraction study. A non direct transition was found for these films on the basis of optical transmission data carried out by Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy. The optical bandgap is found to be decreased with Te deposition and photo darkening phenomena is observed for the diffused film. The change in the optical constants are well supported by the corresponding change in different types of bonds which are being studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Microstructural parameters and optical constants of CdS thin films synthesized with various bath temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, J. Joseph; Dhanasekaran, V.; Lee, Chang Woo; Peter, A. John

    2011-02-01

    Optical constants of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films for different bath temperature were determined in the spectral range, 400 to 1200 nm from the optical absorption and transmittance measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), techniques was used to determine the crystallite structure and morphology of the films. EDX images showed that a sample with 70 °C bath temperature had a stoichiometric composition. The crystallite size and microstrain were calculated using Williamson-Hall method. Optical study is performed to calculate the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), optical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (real and imaginary), and optical band gap using transmission spectra.

  4. Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies.

    PubMed

    Ibn-Elhaj, M; Schadt, M

    2001-04-12

    Light reflection from computer monitors, car dashboards and any other optical surface can impair the legibility of displays, degrade transmission of optical components and in some cases may even pose safety hazards. Antireflective coatings are therefore widely used, but existing antireflection technologies often perform sub-optimally or are expensive to implement. Here we present an alternative approach to antireflection coatings, based on an extension of our photo-aligning and photo-patterning technology for liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and liquid-crystal polymer films with smooth surfaces to optical polymer films with controlled surface topologies. Nano- and micro-corrugated topologies are shown to result from optically induced monomer phase-separation on the polymer surfaces. The properties of the resulting films make them suitable high-performance and low-cost antireflection coatings for optical components of virtually any size, shape and material. Moreover, the approach can be used to form a wide range of other functional polymer thin films with isotropic as well as anisotropic topologies. For example, films can be produced whose optical birefringence exceeds that of the birefringence of the polymer material itself. These new films can also be used as diffractive thin films, diffusers, and directional reflectors which preserve light polarization, or as substrates for aligning liquid crystals to produce bright, low-power-consumption LCDs with integrated optical functions and memory.

  5. Changes of the optical characteristics of radiochromic films in the transition from EBT3 to EBT-XD films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Wieker, Soeren; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Bjoern

    2016-07-01

    A new type of radiochromic film, the EBT-XD film, has been introduced with the aim to reduce the orientation effect and the lateral response artifact occurring in the use of radiochromic films together with flatbed scanners. The task of the present study is to quantify the changes of optical characteristics involved with the transition from the well-known EBT3 films to the new EBT-XD films, using the optical bench arrangement already applied by Schoenfeld et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 3575-97). Largely reduced polarization effects and the almost complete loss of the anisotropy of the scattered light produced in a radiation-exposed film have been observed. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory is used to understand these optical changes as arising from the reduced length-to-width ratio of the LiPCDA polymer crystals in the active layer of the EBT-XD film. The effect of these changes on the flatbed scanning artifacts will be shortly addressed, but treated in more detail in a further paper.

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of nanometer-size silver composite azobenzene containing polydiacetylene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Tao, Jun; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Wang, Pei

    2010-07-01

    Diacetylene monomer containing p-nitrophenyl azobenzene moiety (NADA) was synthesized. Silver nanoparticles with different concentrations were adulterated in the above polymerized NADA (PNADA) films and the third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the formation of PNADA/Ag nanocomposite films. The silver nanoparticles (average size of 10 nm) were well dispersed in the polymer films. The value of the nonlinear refractive index n 2 for PNADA films (8.48×10-15 cm2/W) was much higher than that of pure polydiacetylene films. Further, the introduction of silver nanoparticles into the PNADA polymer films led to the further enhancement of nonlinear optical properties. The maximum value of n 2 for PNADA/Ag nanocomposite films could be 11.6×10-15 cm2/W. This enhancement should be ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles.

  7. Size-effects on the optical properties of zirconium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, C. V.; Vemuri, R. S.; Fernandez, I.; Campbell, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin films with an average crystallite-size (L) ranging from 5 to 25 nm were grown by sputter deposition onto optical grade quartz substrates. The optical properties of grown ZrO2 films were evaluated using optical transmission and reflectance spectroscopic measurements. The size-effects were significant on the optical characteristics of ZrO2 films. The bandgap energy (Eg) was found to increase from 5.78 to 6.07 eV with decreasing L values from 20 to 7 nm. A direct, linear inverse L-Eg relationship found for ZrO2 films suggest that tuning optical properties for desired applications can be achieved by controlling the size.

  8. Optical properties of γ-irradiated Bombyx mori silk fibroin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S.; Lakshmeesha Rao, B.; Sarojini, B. K.; Byrappa, K.; Wang, Youjiang; Sangappa, Y.

    2015-11-01

    In the present work the Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) films were prepared by the solution casting method and effects of γ-irradiation on the optical properties and optical constants of the films have been studied by using Ultra Violet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The recorded UV-Vis absorption and transmission spectra have been used to determine the optical band gap (Eg), refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), optical conductivity (σopt) and dielectric constants (ε*) of virgin and γ-irradiated films. Reduction in optical band gap and increase in refractive index with increasing radiation dosage were observed. It is also found that there is an increase in dielectric constants with increasing photon energy. The obtained results reveal that the refractive index of the SF films may be efficiently changed by γ-irradiation.

  9. Selected area chemical vapor deposition of thin films for conductometric microelectronic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majoo, Sanjeev

    Recent advances in microelectronics and silicon processing have been exploited to fabricate miniaturized chemical sensors. Although the capability of chemical sensing technology has grown steadily, it has been outpaced by the increasing demands for more reliable, inexpensive, and selective sensors. The diversity of applications requires the deployment of different sensing materials that have rich interfacial chemistry. However, several promising sensor materials are often incompatible with silicon micromachining and their deposition requires complicated masking steps. The new approach described here is to first micromachine a generic, instrumented, conductometric, microelectronic sensor platform that is fully functional except for the front-end sensing element. This generic platform contains a thin dielectric membrane, an integrated boron-doped silicon heater, and conductance electrodes. The membrane has low thermal mass and excellent thermal isolation. A proprietary selected-area chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) process in a cold-wall reactor at low pressures was then used to achieve maskless, self-lithographic deposition of thin films. The temperature-programmable integrated microheater initiates localized thermal decomposition/reaction of suitable CVD precursors confined to a small heated area (500 mum in diameter), and this creates the active sensing element. Platinum and titania (TiOsb2) films were deposited from pyrolysis of organometallic precursors, tetrakistrifluorophosphine platinum Pt(PFsb3)sb4 and titanium tetraisopropoxide Ti(OCH(CHsb3)sb2rbrack sb4, respectively. Deposition of gold metal films from chlorotriethylphosphine gold (Csb2Hsb5)sb3PAuCl precursor was also attempted but without success. The conductance electrodes permit in situ monitoring of film growth. The as-deposited films were characterized in situ by conductance measurements and optical microscopy and ex situ by electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods. Devices equipped with

  10. Selective Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films on SAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, Mark M., III; Walsh, Kevin M.; Cohn, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    A dry plasma process has been demonstrated to be useful for the selective modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates. These SAMs are used, during the fabrication of semiconductor electronic devices, as etch masks on gold layers that are destined to be patterned and incorporated into the devices. The selective modification involves the formation of fluorocarbon films that render the SAMs more effective in protecting the masked areas of the gold against etching by a potassium iodide (KI) solution. This modification can be utilized, not only in the fabrication of single electronic devices but also in the fabrication of integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, and circuit boards. In the steps that precede the dry plasma process, a silicon mold in the desired pattern is fabricated by standard photolithographic techniques. A stamp is then made by casting polydimethylsiloxane (commonly known as silicone rubber) in the mold. The stamp is coated with an alkanethiol solution, then the stamp is pressed on the gold layer of a device to be fabricated in order to deposit the alkanethiol to form an alkanethiolate SAM in the desired pattern (see figure). Next, the workpiece is exposed to a radio-frequency plasma generated from a mixture of CF4 and H2 gases. After this plasma treatment, the SAM is found to be modified, while the exposed areas of gold remain unchanged. This dry plasma process offers the potential for forming masks superior to those formed in a prior wet etching process. Among the advantages over the wet etching process are greater selectivity, fewer pin holes in the masks, and less nonuniformity of the masks. The fluorocarbon films formed in this way may also be useful as intermediate layers for subsequent fabrication steps and as dielectric layers to be incorporated into finished products.

  11. Design and fabrication of double-sided optical film for OLED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Pan, C. T.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, Z. H.; Wu, C. J.

    2013-03-01

    Design and fabrication of optical films to increase visual brightness of OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) lighting units are presented in this paper. This study explores a new fabrication process combining precision machining, photolithography, and micro forming techniques to make a double-sided optical film. One side of the optical film is made of micro triangular-pyramidal array (MTPA), and the other side is micro gapless hexagonal microlens array (GHMA). First, Taguchi Method is applied to determine the optimal microstructure configuration by the assistance of the commercial optical software, FRED. Second, tungsten (W) mold of MTPA as the first mold is manufactured by precision machining including optical projection grinding, lapping, and polishing processes. Nickel-cobalt (NiCo) mold of GHMA as the first mold of the other side is fabricated by using LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung)-like process. To obtain inverse molds, poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used to replicate W and Ni-Co molds, which are served as the secondary molds for two sides, respectively. With these molds, UV (ultraviolet) curable resin was used to make double-sided optical film. Then the optical film was packaged on OLED unit to measure its optical properties by PR 650 equipment. The result shows that both brightness and uniformity can be improved by using this film.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on low density polyethylene (LDPE) films: optical, dielectric and FTIR studies.

    PubMed

    Moez, A Abdel; Aly, S S; Elshaer, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were irradiated with gamma radiation in the dose range varied from 20 to 400 kGy. The induced changes in the chemical structure and dielectric properties for the irradiated films were investigated. The structure modifications: crystallinity as well as possible molecular changes of the polymer were recognized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical results were determined from transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for these films. The dielectric properties of these films were calculated using optical methods. Result indicates small variation in crystallinity which could be increased or decreased depending on the relative importance of the structural and chemical changes.

  13. Optical properties of thin gold films applied to Schottky barrier solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    YEH Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Schottky barrier solar cell is considered a possible candidate for converting solar to electrical energy both for space and terrestrial applications. Knowledge of the optical constants of the ultrathin metal film used in the cell is essential for analyzing and designing higher efficiency Schottky barrier cells. The optical constants of 7.5 -nm (75-A) gold films on gallium arsenide have been obtained. In addition, the absolute collection efficiency of Schottky barrier solar cells has been determined from measured spectral response and optical constants of the gold film.

  14. Preparation of silica thin films by novel wet process and study of their optical properties.

    PubMed

    Im, Sang-Hyeok; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Cha-Won; Yoon, Duck-Ki; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films have gained considerable attention because of their various industrial applications. For example, SiO2 thin films are used in superhydrophilic self-cleaning surface glass, UV protection films, anti-reflection coatings, and insulating materials. Recently, many processes such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and spin coating have been widely applied to prepare thin films of functionally graded materials. However, these processes suffer from several engineering problems. For example, a special apparatus is required for the deposition of films, and conventional wet processes are not suitable for coating the surfaces of substrates with a large surface area and complex morphology. In this study, we investigated the film morphology and optical properties of SiO2 films prepared by a novel technique, namely, liquid phase deposition (LPD). Images of the SiO2 films were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to study the surface morphology of these films: these images indicate that films deposited with different reaction times were uniform and dense and were composed of pure silica. Optical properties such as refractive index and transmittance were estimated by UV-vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. SiO2 films with porous structures at the nanometer scale (100-250 nm) were successfully produced by LPD. The deposited film had excellent transmittance in the visible wavelength region.

  15. Selectively Patterning Polymer Opal Films via Microimprint Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tao; Zhao, Qibin; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale structural color flexible coatings have been hard to create, and patterning color on them is key to many applications, including large-area strain sensors, wall-size displays, security devices, and smart fabrics. To achieve controlled tuning, a micro-imprinting technique is applied here to pattern both the surface morphology and the structural color of the polymer opal films (POFs). These POFs are made of 3D ordered arrays of hard spherical particles embedded inside soft shells. The soft outer shells cause the POFs to deform upon imprinting with a pre-patterned stamp, driving a flow of the soft polymer and a rearrangement of the hard spheres within the films. As a result, a patterned surface morphology is generated within the POFs and the structural colors are selectively modified within different regions. These changes are dependent on the pressure, temperature, and duration of imprinting, as well as the feature sizes in the stamps. Moreover, the pattern geometry and structural colors can then be further tuned by stretching. Micropattern color generation upon imprinting depends on control of colloidal transport in a polymer matrix under shear flow and brings many potential properties including stretchability and tunability, as well as being of fundamental interest. PMID:26167447

  16. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, Agostino

    1998-02-01

    will grow at an annual average rate of 22 percent from 1.3 million fiber-km in 1995 to 3.5 million fiber-km in 2000. The worldwide components market-cable, transceivers and connectors - 6.1 billion in 1994, is forecasted to grow and show a 19 percent combined annual growth rate through the year 2000 when is predicted to reach 17.38 billion. Fiber-in-the-loop and widespread use of switched digital services will dominate this scenario being the fiber the best medium for transmitting multimedia services. As long as communication will partially replace transportation, multimedia services will push forward technology for systems and related components not only for higher performances but for lower cost too in order to get the consumers wanting to buy the new services. In the long distance transmission area (trunk network) higher integration of electronic and optoelectronic functions are required for transmitter and receiver in order to allow for higher system speed, moving from 2.5 Gb/s to 5, 10, 40 Gb/s; narrow band wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters are required for higher transmission capacity through multiwavelength technique and for optical amplifier. In the access area (distribution network) passive components as splitters, couplers, filters are needed together with optical amplifiers and transceivers for point-to-multipoint optical signal distribution: main issue in this area is the total cost to be paid by the customer for basic and new services. Multimedia services evolution, through fiber to the home and to the desktop approach, will be mainly affected by the availability of technologies suitable for component consistent integration, high yield manufacturing processes and final low cost. In this paper some of the optoelectronic components and related thin film technologies expected to mainly affect the fiber optic transmission evolution, either for long distance telecommunication systems or for subscriber network, are presented.

  17. A Study of Optical Parameters of Tin Sulphide Thin Films Using the Swanepoel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragina, A. J.; Murali, K. V.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical parameters of thin films is important for optics and optoelectronics. In the present work, tin sulphide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method. The as grown films were brown in color and highly adherent to the substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometric measurements. XRD patterns showed that the films developed were orthorhombic structure. SEM images of tin sulphide thin films confirmed the formation of nanowires. Absorption spectra revealed medium absorption in the visible region and a gradual decrease with higher wavelength. The transmittance of the as-synthesized films is about 50% in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm. The methodological framework of the Swanepoel's method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical parameters of tin sulphide thin films using transmittance data was discussed. The Swanepoel's method is found to be applicable for thin films when measured transmittance spectra have at least one minimum and one maximum. By analyzing the transmission curve, the refractive index and the thickness of the film were evaluated. The energy band gaps are also reported. The optical band gap is direct with a value of 1.79 eV. The values of the optical band gap energy and thickness of the film calculated by Swanepoel's method were compared with that obtained from absorption spectra and cross sectional SEM photographs respectively. These properties demonstrated that tin sulphide thin films could be used as an absorber layer in the fabrication of heterojunction solar cells.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of ferric doped PVA-PVP-PPy composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Ranganath, M. R.; Lobo, Blaise

    2013-02-01

    The analysis of experimental optical spectra & electrical properties of PVA-PVP-PPy composite films is discussed in this paper. The optical parameters like activation energy of optical transitions and the optical band gap for direct and indirect allowed transitions were determined for PVA-PVP-PPy composite films doped with different concentrations of ferric chloride. The optical band gap showed best fit for indirect allowed transitions, and there is a decrease in the optical band gap with increase in concentration of ferric chloride. The DC electrical properties of these films indicated agreement with Mott's Variable Range Hopping Model in three dimensions. The width of the forbidden band gap was determined from the Arrhenius relation after experimentally studying in-situ, the variation of DC electrical conductivity with temperature.

  19. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Gallium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarani, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2011-07-15

    High quality gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) films are prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties was studied in detail. The prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The resistivity of the film decreases and the optical transparency increases as the substrate temperature increases from room temperature to 150 deg. C. The film produce the optical band gap of 3.47 eV.

  20. Structural, optical and electronic structure studies of Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Vanita; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, D. K.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Kumar, Ravindra; Joshi, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Structural, optical and electronic structure of Al doped ZnO thin films grown using pulsed laser deposition on glass substrate are investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that all the films are textured along the c-axis and have wurtzite structure. Al doping in ZnO films leads to increase in grain size due to relaxation in compressive stress. Enhancement in band gap of ZnO films with the Al doping is also noticed which can be ascribed to the Brustein-Moss shift. The changes in the electronic structure caused by Al in the doped thin film samples are understood through X-ray absorption measurements.

  1. Structural and optical properties of Sn1-xMnxO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Akhilesh; Mishra, Sheo K.; Shukla, R. K.

    2015-06-01

    Sn1-xMnxO2 thin films are deposited by spray pyrolysis method. XRD of all the thin films show the amorphous nature. Synthesis of SnO2 is also confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Undoped SnO2 thin film is 60-70 % transparent in visible and near IR region and it increases up to 80-90% for 20 at. % Mn doped SnO2 thin film. The optical band gap is tunable linearly between 3.34 to 3.96 eV for 0≤x≤0.20 for Sn1-xMnxO2 amorphous thin films.

  2. (abstract) Optical Scattering and Surface Microroughness of Ion Beam Deposited Au and Pt Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Jumaily, Ghanim A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.; Edlou, Samad M.; Simons, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of gold and platinum have been deposited onto superpolished fused silica substrates using thermal evaporation, ion assisted deposition (IAD), and ion assisted sputtering. The influence of ion beam flux, thin film material, and deposition rate on the films microroughness have been investigated. Short range surface microroughness of the films has been examined using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Long range surface microroughness has been characterized using an angle resolved optical scatterometer. Results indicate that ion beam deposited coatings have improved microstructure over thermally evaporated films.

  3. Selective and reversible ammonia gas detection with nanoporous film functionalized silicon photonic micro-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Yebo, Nebiyu A; Sree, Sreeprasanth Pulinthanathu; Levrau, Elisabeth; Detavernier, Christophe; Hens, Zeger; Martens, Johan A; Baets, Roel

    2012-05-21

    Portable, low cost and real-time gas sensors have a considerable potential in various biomedical and industrial applications. For such applications, nano-photonic gas sensors based on standard silicon fabrication technology offer attractive opportunities. Deposition of high surface area nano-porous coatings on silicon photonic sensors is a means to achieve selective, highly sensitive and multiplexed gas detection on an optical chip. Here we demonstrate selective and reversible ammonia gas detection with functionalized silicon-on-insulator optical micro-ring resonators. The micro-ring resonators are coated with acidic nano-porous aluminosilicate films for specific ammonia sensing, which results in a reversible response to NH(3)with selectivity relative to CO(2). The ammonia detection limit is estimated at about 5 ppm. The detectors reach a steady response to NH(3) within 30 and return to their base level within 60 to 90 seconds. The work opens perspectives on development of nano-photonic sensors for real-time, non-invasive, low cost and light weight biomedical and industrial sensing applications.

  4. Optical anisotropy of uniaxially drawn and silver-dispersed polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Takashi; Ando, Shinji; Sasaki, Shigekuni

    1999-02-01

    Distinct anisotropy in optical transmittance in the visible and near-infrared region for uniaxially drawn and silver-dispersed polyimide films was observed. The films were prepared in a one-step operation that involves thermal curing and simultaneous uniaxial drawing of poly(amic acid) (PAA) films, which were made by dissolving silver nitrate in the PAA solution at a 1:4 mol ratio. The polyimide molecular chains with a rod-like structure were oriented along the drawing direction during curing, and this orientation accompanied the generation of silver nanoparticles with elongated shapes. An anisotropy in the optical transmittance of 5:1 was obtained for a 22-μm-thick film at 850 nm with transmittance of 68% perpendicular to the drawing direction. The optical and mechanical properties of this film were retained after annealing at 300 °C for 1 h.

  5. AFM investigation and optical band gap study of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mansoor, M.; Abubakar; Asim, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The interest into deposition of nanocrystalline PbS thin films, the potential of designing and tailoring both the topographical features and the band gap energy (Eg) by controlling growth parameters, has significant technological importance. Nanocrystalline thin films of lead sulfide were grown onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experiments were carried out by varying deposition temperature. We report on the modification of structural and optical properties as a function of deposition temperature. The morphological changes of the films were analyzed by using SEM and AFM. AFM was also used to calculate average roughness of the films. XRD spectra indicated preferred growth of cubic phase of PbS films in (200) direction with increasing deposition time. Optical properties have been studied by UV-Spectrophotometer. From the diffused reflectance spectra we have calculated the optical Eg shift from 0.649-0.636 eV with increasing deposition time.

  6. Optical and morphological characteristics of organic thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhiyou; Sun, Fenglou

    2007-12-01

    Organic semiconductor thin films of tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq), 9,10-di-(2-naphthyl)-anthracene (ADN), and N,N'bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) for optoelectronic devices were deposited onto glass substrates by vacuum sublimation technique. The surface morphology and roughness of the thin film were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental results indicate that all thin films present similar granular topography but different surface roughness. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra of thin films were measured by a double beam spectrophotometer and their corresponding optical properties were investigated. The complex refractive index and the optical band gap of thin films were obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, the dispersion behavior of the refractive index was studied in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, and the oscillator parameters were achieved.

  7. Effects of Langmuir-Blodgett-film gas sensors with integrated optical interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushen, Chen; Yunqi, Liu; Yu, Xu; Qu, Liang

    1996-10-01

    Novel Langmuir-Blodgett-film toxic-gas sensors that have a Ti:LiNbO 3 integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure are experimentally investigated. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors are obtained for NO 2, Cl2, NH3, and H2S by means of the detection of optical output changes. All the optical connections are made with optical fiber pigtails.

  8. Structural and optical properties of Tin sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Akkari, A.; Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.

    2007-09-19

    Tin sulphide SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). By investigating the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) concentration on the properties of deposited films, we obtained the optimum deposition parameter. These films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the orthorhombic structure and the direct band gap energy is found to be about 1.65 eV, for films prepared at TEA concentration films equal to 13.5 M.

  9. UV optical properties of thin film oxide layers deposited by different processes.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, Samuel F; Martinez, Carol L

    2011-10-01

    UV optical properties of thin film layers of compound and mixed oxide materials deposited by different processes are presented. Japan Electron Optics Laboratory plasma ion assisted deposition (JEOL PIAD), electron beam with and without IAD, and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering were used. Comparisons are made with published deposition process data. Refractive indices and absorption values to as short as 145 nm were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Electronic interband defect states are detected that are deposition-process dependent. SE might be effective in identifying UV optical film quality, especially in defining processes and material composition beneficial for high-energy excimer laser applications and environments requiring stable optical properties.

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide doped bismuth thin films using Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, S.; Bouchouit, K.; Aida, M. S.; Taboukhat, S.; Sofiani, Z.; Kulyk, B.; Figa, V.

    2016-06-01

    ZnO doped Bi thin films were grown on glass substrates by spray ultrasonic technique. This paper presents the effect of Bi doping concentration on structural and nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide thin films. These thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer technique. XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO:Bi thin films indicated good preferential orientation along c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (Imχ(3)) are investigated. The calculations have been performed with a Z scan technique using Nd:YAG laser emitting 532 nm. The reverse saturable absorption (RSA) mechanism was responsible for the optical limiting effect. The results suggest that this material considered as a promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  11. The optical dielectric model of Cu2O thin film and its verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Guo-Zhong; Liang, Xiong; Lv, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The transmittance and reflectance of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin film deposited on quartz substrate were measured by a spectrophotometer. Use the optical dielectric model combining the Forouhi-Bloomer model with modified Drude model (FBM+MDM), the optical constants, as well as the thickness of Cu2O film were attained from its measured transmittance data. Moreover, by means of the TFCalc software, the reflectance and transmittance were calculated conversely from the optical constants (n, k) and the thickness of the Cu2O film. It was found that the calculated reflectance and transmittance were in good agreement with the measured ones. So the optical dielectric model, namely FBM+MDM, is suitable for Cu2O thin film.

  12. Structural and optical investigation of Te-based chalcogenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rita Sharma, Shaveta; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.; Chander, Ravi; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-05-15

    We report the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InBiTe{sub 3} films by using X-ray diffraction, optical and Raman Spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared thin films were found to be Semi-crystalline by X-ray diffraction. Particle Size and Strain has been calculated from XRD data. The optical constants, film thickness, refractive index and optical band gap (E{sub g}) has been reported for In{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, InBiTe{sub 3} films. Raman Spectroscopy was performed to investigate the effect of Bi, In, on lattice vibration and chemical bonding in Te based chalcogenide glassy alloys.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of in and Al doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2013-07-01

    In this study, to improve the electrical and optical properties of aluminium (Al) doped zinc oxide thin films, we have added small amounts of indium (In) to Al doped ZnO thin films. We will present the results of In and Al doped ZnO thin film on glass substrates prepared by the sol-gel processing method. A rapid thermal annealing process was applied to cure the thin film properties. Different amounts of In were used to dope the AZO thin films to find the optimum process condition. The effects of crystallinity were analyzed by an x-ray diffraction method. In addition, the optical transmittance and electrical proprties of In doped AZO thin films were investigated.

  14. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (Eg) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn3O4 phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  15. Nonlinear optical studies of monomolecular films under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Q.; Xiao, X.; Charych, D.; Wolf, F.; Frantz, P.; Shen, Y.R.; Salmeron, M. )

    1995-03-15

    Nonlinear optical techniques (second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation) have been used to study the structure of organic molecules that are confined and compressed between a lens and a flat surface. The molecules studied include self-assembled monolayers of [ital n]-octadecyltriethoxysilane and Langmuir-Blodgett films of stearic acid, octadecylalcohol, octadecylamine, and a liquid-crystal molecule 4[prime]-[ital n]-octyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (8CB). The contact area created by elastic deformation of the flat surface and lens under pressure was large enough to contain the entire laser beam ([gt]100 [mu]m radius at [approx]10 MPa for [ital R]=15 cm). Under these conditions, the sum-frequency generation (from CH[sub 3] and OH stretch modes) and second-harmonic generation (8CB) signals were found to decrease by a factor between 100 and 1000 times the original signal. This indicates vanishing of the second-order monolayer susceptibility due to disorder of the head groups and/or flattening of the molecular axis so that they lie parallel to the surface. The phenomenon was reversible and the nonlinear signals recovered completely upon removal of the pressure.

  16. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude

    2000-01-01

    A buffer-layer located between a substrate and a multilayer for counteracting stress in the multilayer. Depositing a buffer-layer having a stress of sufficient magnitude and opposite in sign reduces or cancels out deformation in the substrate due to the stress in the multilayer. By providing a buffer-layer between the substrate and the multilayer, a tunable, near-zero net stress results, and hence results in little or no deformation of the substrate, such as an optic for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography tool. Buffer-layers have been deposited, for example, between Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films and their associated substrate reducing significantly the stress, wherein the magnitude of the stress is less than 100 MPa and respectively near-normal incidence (5.degree.) reflectance of over 60% is obtained at 13.4 nm and 11.4 nm. The present invention is applicable to crystalline and non-crystalline materials, and can be used at ambient temperatures.

  17. Investigation of the evaporation process conditions on the optical constants of zirconia films.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J A; Grant, P D; Simpson, R; Waldorf, A J

    1989-09-15

    Deposition parameters required for producing zirconia films for use in optical multilayer systems by electronbeam gun evaporation of zirconia and zirconium starting materials were investigated. The optical constants were determined as a function of distance, partial pressure of oxygen, and angle of incidence. The direct and reactive evaporation processes yielded ZrO(2) films with refractive indices of 2.08 and 2.14, respectively, for vapor incident on the substrate at normal incidence.

  18. Investigation of the evaporation process conditions on the optical constants of zirconia films

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Grant, P.D.; Simpson, R.; Waldorf, A. )

    1989-09-15

    Deposition parameters required for producing zirconia films for use in optical multilayer systems by electron-beam gun evaporation of zirconia and zirconium starting materials were investigated. The optical constants were determined as a function of distance, partial pressure of oxygen, and angle of incidence. The direct and reactive evaporation processes yielded ZrO{sub 2} films with refractive indices of 2.08 and 2.14, respectively, for vapor incident on the substrate at normal incidence.

  19. The gamma irradiation effects on structural and optical properties of silk fibroin/HPMC blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Asha, S.; Byrappa, K.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the structural, chemical and optical properties of gamma irradiated silk fibroin/Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that the gamma radiation did not affect significantly the primary structure of polypeptide arrangement in the blend films. But the optical properties of the blends changed with gamma irradiation dosage.

  20. Ultraviolet response of film candidates for the solar optical telescope photometric filtergraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of UV response between 2000 and 3000 A of Kodak films 2415, Aerocon II 3412, and SO-415 are reported. The short wavelength cutoff of the response of all films studied lies near 2100 A, occurring as a gentle falloff starting near 2500 A. The sensitivity of the films appears to remain roughly constant from 2500 to 3000 A. Estimates of UV Gamma for 2415 and the effect of hard UV on the optics in the experiment are also discussed.

  1. Electrical and optical properties of molybdenum doped zinc oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R. Subba; Sreedhar, A.; Uthanna, S.

    2015-08-28

    Molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) films were deposited on to glass substrates held at temperatures in the range from 303 to 673 K by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method. The chemical composition, crystallographic structure and surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of the films were determined. The films contained the molybdenum of 2.7 at. % in ZnO. The films deposited at 303 K were of X-ray amorphous. The films formed at 473 K were of nanocrystalline in nature with wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the films was increased with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance of the films was in the visible range was 80–85%. The molybdenum (2.7 at %) doped zinc oxide films deposited at substrate temperature of 573 K were of nanocrystalline with electrical resistivity of 7.2×10{sup −3} Ωcm, optical transmittance of 85 %, optical band gap of 3.35 eV and figure of merit 30.6 Ω{sup −1}cm{sup −1}.

  2. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using a Thin-Film Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor was developed that is rugged, compact, stable, and can be inexpensively fabricated. This thin-film interferometric temperature sensor was shown to be capable of providing a +/- 2 C accuracy over the range of -55 to 275 C, throughout a 5000 hr operating life. A temperature-sensitive thin-film Fabry-Perot interferometer can be deposited directly onto the end of a multimode optical fiber. This batch-fabricatable sensor can be manufactured at a much lower cost than can a presently available sensor, which requires the mechanical attachment of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to a fiber. The principal disadvantage of the thin-film sensor is its inherent instability, due to the low processing temperatures that must be used to prevent degradation of the optical fiber's buffer coating. The design of the stable thin-film temperature sensor considered the potential sources of both short and long term drifts. The temperature- sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was a silicon film with a thickness of approx. 2 microns. A laser-annealing process was developed which crystallized the silicon film without damaging the optical fiber. The silicon film was encapsulated with a thin layer of Si3N4 over coated with aluminum. Crystallization of the silicon and its encapsulation with a highly stable, impermeable thin-film structure were essential steps in producing a sensor with the required long-term stability.

  3. Conformal self-assembled thin films for optical pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topasna, Daniela M.; Topasna, Gregory A.; Liu, Minghanbo; Tseng, Ching-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Simple, reliable, lightweight, and inexpensive thin films based sensors are still in intense development and high demand in many applications such as biomedical, industrial, environmental, military, and consumer products. One important class of sensors is the optical pH sensor. In addition, conformal thin film based sensors extend the range of application for pH optical sensors. We present the results on the fabrication and characterization of optical pH sensing coatings made through ionic self-assembled technique. These thin films are based on the combination of a polyelectrolyte and water-soluble organic dye molecule Direct Yellow 4. A series of films was fabricated and characterized in order to determine the optimized parameters of the polymer and of the organic dye solutions. The optical pH responses of these films were also studied. The transparent films were immersed in solutions at various temperature and pH values. The films are stable when immersed in solutions with pH below 9.0 and temperatures below 90 °C and they maintain their performance after longer immersion times. We also demonstrate the functionality of these coatings as conformal films.

  4. Optical properties of porous-silicon-based structures with modified nanodiamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzova, V. A.; Korets, A. Ya.; Merkushev, F. F.; Semenova, O. V.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon-based sandwich structures with diamond-like films deposited by electrophoresis from aqueous suspensions of modified detonation nanodiamonds. It is shown that these films can be used as antireflection and protective coatings for silicon-based solar cells.

  5. X-ray to infrared continua of optically selected quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    1986-01-01

    X-ray-to-IR continuum data for nine optically selected (PG) quasars show a form which can be simply described in terms of two components - a power law of slope about 1 joining smoothly the 1-10-micron IR with the 0.1-10-keV X-ray points and (superimposed on this) a 'big bump' of optical-UV emission. The 'big bump' can be interpreted as thermal emission from an accretion disk. In a unique case where this 'big bump' extends to soft X-rays, the accretion disk parameters can be constrained interestingly.

  6. Optical and Thermo-optical Properties of Polyimide-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films: Experimental Results and Empirical Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Connell, John W.; Watson, Kent A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the bulk of space environmentally durable polymers at loading levels greater than or equal to 0.05 wt % has afforded thin films with surface and volume resistivities sufficient for electrostatic charge mitigation. However, the optical transparency at 500 nm decreased and the thermo-optical properties (solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity) increased with increaed SWNT loading. These properties were also dependent on film thickness. The absorbance characteristics of the films as a function of SWNT loading and film thickness were measured and determined to follow the classical Beer-Lambert law. Based on these results, an empirical relationship was derived and molar absorptivities determined for both the SWNTs and polymer matrix to provide a predictive approximation of these properties. The molar absorptivity determined for SWNTs dispersed in the polymer was comparable to reported solution determined values for HiPco SWNTs.

  7. Highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector based on p-NiO/n-IGZO thin film heterojunction structure.

    PubMed

    Li, H K; Chen, T P; Hu, S G; Li, X D; Liu, Y; Lee, P S; Wang, X P; Li, H Y; Lo, G Q

    2015-10-19

    Ultraviolet photodetector with p-n heterojunction is fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of n-type indium gallium zinc oxide (n-IGZO) and p-type nickel oxide (p-NiO) thin films on ITO glass. The performance of the photodetector is largely affected by the conductivity of the p-NiO thin film, which can be controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition of the p-NiO thin film. A highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector has been achieved with the p-NiO layer with a high conductivity. The results can be explained in terms of the "optically-filtering" function of the NiO layer. PMID:26480430

  8. Highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector based on p-NiO/n-IGZO thin film heterojunction structure.

    PubMed

    Li, H K; Chen, T P; Hu, S G; Li, X D; Liu, Y; Lee, P S; Wang, X P; Li, H Y; Lo, G Q

    2015-10-19

    Ultraviolet photodetector with p-n heterojunction is fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of n-type indium gallium zinc oxide (n-IGZO) and p-type nickel oxide (p-NiO) thin films on ITO glass. The performance of the photodetector is largely affected by the conductivity of the p-NiO thin film, which can be controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition of the p-NiO thin film. A highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector has been achieved with the p-NiO layer with a high conductivity. The results can be explained in terms of the "optically-filtering" function of the NiO layer.

  9. Optical band gap tuning of Sb-Se thin films for xerographic based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Palwinder; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Thakur, Anup

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper we have studied the effect of Sb addition on the optical band gap tuning of thermally evaporated SbxSe100-x (x = 0, 5, 20, 50 and 60) thin films. The structural investigations revealed that all thin films were amorphous in nature. Transmission spectrum was taken in the range 400-2500 nm shows that all films are highly transparent in the near infrared region. The fundamental absorption edge shifts towards longer wavelength with Sb incorporation. The optical band gap decreases with addition of antimony in a-Se thin films. A good correlation has been drawn between experimentally estimated and theoretically calculated optical band gap. The decrease in optical band gap of thin films has been explained using chemical bond approach and density of states model. Decrease in optical band gap with Sb addition increases the concentration of electron deep traps which increases the X-ray sensitivity of Sb-Se thin films. Thus by tuning the optical band gap of Sb-Se alloy, it could be utilized for xerographic based applications.

  10. Effect of Ni substitution on the optical properties of BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Govind N.; Dutta, Shankar; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Chatterjee, Ratnamala

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports about single phase Ni-substituted (0–20 at%) BiFeO3(BFO) thin films for future optoelectronic device applications. The effect of Ni substitution on the microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties of spin-coated BFO thin films were investigated. The x-ray diffractionpeaks corresponding to the (012) and (110) planes were found to be gradually shifted towards the lower diffraction angle side with the increasing Ni substitution in BFO films. The strain values in the corresponding planes were found to be increasing sharply upto the 10 at%. The Ni substituted BFO films were found to have larger grain sizes compared to that of the pristine BFO film. The remnant polarization enhanced with the Ni substitutions and the 20 at% Ni substituted BFO films showed a 3.5 times higher remnant polarization than the pristine BFO films. The optical band gaps were found to be increasing from 2.85 to 3.18 eV with the increase in Ni substitution upto 5 at%. Raman and infra-red absorption data confirmed that the Ni substitution at Fe sites induces structural distortion at both Fe sites and Bi sites in BFO films. Due to the structural distortion, ferroelectric and optical properties of BFO films were significantly modified.

  11. Synthesis, structure, and optical characteristics of barium-strontium niobate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmachev, G. N.; Kovtun, A. P.; Zakharchenko, I. N.; Aliev, I. M.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Reznichenko, L. A.; Verbenko, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Films of the Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 (BSN) solid solution on the MgO(001) substrate were fabricated by high-frequency RF sputtering in oxygen. Optical spectra of discharge glow when sputtering the BSN ceramic target and the structure and optical characteristics of BSN/MgO(001) films at room temperature were investigated. It was shown that the BSN films grow from a dispersed phase in the discharge gap, while their growth rate with the used deposition mode at the initial stage is 8-9 nm/min. It was established that the grown films are single-crystal, contain twins, and film surfaces are parallel to the crystallographic planes (001). The angle, at which the reflection intensity is independent of the film thickness, was found in the family of specular reflection curves of H-polarized radiation with wavelengths of 500-800 nm from the films under study at room temperature. The tangent of this angle is equal to the refractive index of the film material, while its presence indicates the identity of optical characteristics of the film material of different thicknesses and low roughness of their surfaces.

  12. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XI: Selective materials, concentrators and reflectors, transparent insulation and superwindows; Proceedings of the Meeting, Toulouse, France, May 18, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot-Le Goff, Anne; Granqvist, Claes-Goran; Lampert, Carl M.

    1992-11-01

    The present conference discusses selective solar absorbers (SAs), selectively transmitting materials, solar concentrators and reflectors, and transparent insulators and superwindows. Attention is given to SAs produced through substituted magnetite-based coatings, the properties of spectrally selective Nb films, a Co-Cd solar-selective black coating, regular and random surface microstructures as antireflection coatings for solar absorbers, and the optical and electrical properties of doped RF-sputtered SnO(x) films. Also treated are the role of suspected films in insulated glass units, the optical properties of angle-dependent light-control film, LED nonimaging optics, combined optics for light concentration and trapping in photovoltaics, bulk and surface light-scattering from transparent silica aerogel, evacuated glazing, and a phase-diffractive coating for daylight control. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  13. A highly K(+)-selective phenylaza-[18]crown-6-lariat-ether-based fluoroionophore and its application in the sensing of K+ ions with an optical sensor film and in cells.

    PubMed

    Ast, Sandra; Schwarze, Thomas; Müller, Holger; Sukhanov, Aleksey; Michaelis, Stefanie; Wegener, Joachim; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Dürkop, Axel; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-10-25

    Herein, we report the synthesis of two phenylaza-[18]crown-6 lariat ethers with a coumarin fluorophore (1 and 2) and we reveal that compound 1 is an excellent probe for K(+) ions under simulated physiological conditions. The presence of a 2-methoxyethoxy lariat group at the ortho position of the anilino moiety is crucial to the substantially increased stability of compounds 1 and 2 over their lariat-free phenylaza-[18]crown-6 ether analogues. Probe 1 shows a high K(+)/Na(+) selectivity and a 2.5-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in the presence of 100 mM K(+) ions. A fluorescent membrane sensor, which was prepared by incorporating probe 1 into a hydrogel, showed a fully reversible response, a response time of 150 s, and a signal change of 7.8% per 1 mM K(+) within the range 1-10 mM K(+). The membrane was easily fabricated (only a single sensing layer on a solid polyester support), yet no leaching was observed. Moreover, compound 1 rapidly permeated into cells, was cytocompatible, and was suitable for the fluorescent imaging of K(+) ions on both the extracellular and intracellular levels.

  14. A highly K(+)-selective phenylaza-[18]crown-6-lariat-ether-based fluoroionophore and its application in the sensing of K+ ions with an optical sensor film and in cells.

    PubMed

    Ast, Sandra; Schwarze, Thomas; Müller, Holger; Sukhanov, Aleksey; Michaelis, Stefanie; Wegener, Joachim; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Dürkop, Axel; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-10-25

    Herein, we report the synthesis of two phenylaza-[18]crown-6 lariat ethers with a coumarin fluorophore (1 and 2) and we reveal that compound 1 is an excellent probe for K(+) ions under simulated physiological conditions. The presence of a 2-methoxyethoxy lariat group at the ortho position of the anilino moiety is crucial to the substantially increased stability of compounds 1 and 2 over their lariat-free phenylaza-[18]crown-6 ether analogues. Probe 1 shows a high K(+)/Na(+) selectivity and a 2.5-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in the presence of 100 mM K(+) ions. A fluorescent membrane sensor, which was prepared by incorporating probe 1 into a hydrogel, showed a fully reversible response, a response time of 150 s, and a signal change of 7.8% per 1 mM K(+) within the range 1-10 mM K(+). The membrane was easily fabricated (only a single sensing layer on a solid polyester support), yet no leaching was observed. Moreover, compound 1 rapidly permeated into cells, was cytocompatible, and was suitable for the fluorescent imaging of K(+) ions on both the extracellular and intracellular levels. PMID:24105686

  15. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited undermore » higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.« less

  16. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Mn doped benzimidazole thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Prabhakaran, S. P.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, the Mn doped benzimidazole (BMZ) thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The material was directly deposited as thin film on glass substrates and the metal concentration in the solution was varied in weight percentage in order to investigate the dopant effect on the properties of thin films. Similarly, the Mn doped BMZ films were deposited in different solution temperature to study the effect of deposition temperature on the properties of thin films. The PXRD and FT-IR spectroscopy are used to study the structural and the presence of functional groups in the BMZ medium. Depending upon the solution temperature, thickness of the films varying from 0.6 to 1.2 μm and the optical transparency of the samples increases with the increasing temperature up to 50 °C. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency of the films is measured for all the films. Third order nonlinear optical properties of the films were analyzed using Z-scan technique. The experimental results show that Mn doped BMZ films exhibits saturation absorption and negative nonlinearity.

  18. Optical Thin Films Prepared by Ion-Assisted and Ultrasound-Assisted Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    Optical, electrical, and microstructural effects of Ar ion bombardment and Ar incorporation on thermally evaporated Ag and Al thin films were investigated. The results show that as the momentum supplied to the growing films by the bombarding Ar ions per arriving metal atom increases, refractive index at 632.8 nm increases and extinction coefficient decreases, lattice spacing expands, grain size decreases, electrical resistivity increases, and trapped Ar increases slightly. The reversal of stress from tensile to compressive in Ag films requires a threshold level of momentum. The increase in electrical resistivity is related to the increase in the void fraction, decrease in the grain size, and increase in trapped Ar in both types of films. Many of these properties correlate well with the momentum transferred, suggesting that the momentum is an important physical parameter in describing the influence of ion beams on growing thin films and determining the characteristics of thin metal films prepared by ion-assisted deposition (IAD). With a low energy ion beam, the Ar concentration in IAD Ag films was negligible. When the bombarded film thickness was less than 5 nm, the electrical resistivity of IAD Ag films tended to decrease slightly from that of the non-IAD film. Using the Bruggeman effective medium theory, a formula for the void fraction at any given wavelength was derived. We investigated optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and structure of aluminum oxynitride thin films prepared by reactive ion-assisted deposition. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states are related to the stoichiometry. We found that our amorphous aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and nitride but a compound. A rugate filter using a step -index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfilled oxygen pressure as the sole variable. The effects of

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of ZnO/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Jeeju, P. P.; Jayalekshmi, S.; Chandrasekharan, K.

    2014-01-28

    Extensive studies have already been reported on the optical characteristics of ZnO/polymer nanocomposite films, using a variety of polymers including transparent polymers such as polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate etc and many interesting results have been established regarding the non linear optical characteristics of these systems. Poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) is a water soluble polymer. Though the structural and optical studies of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films have already been investigated, there are no detailed reports on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films, irrespective of the fact that these nanocomposite films can be synthesized using quite easy and cost effective methods. The present work is an attempt to study in detail the nonlinear optical behaviour of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films using Z-scan technique. Highly transparent ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were prepared from the ZnO incorporated PVA solution in water using spin coating technique. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the simple chemical route at room temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, from which the presence of both PVA and ZnO in the nanocomposite was established. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption in ZnO with efficiency more than 50%. These films also show a self defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The present studies indicate that, highly transparent and homogeneous films of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite can be obtained on glass substrates using simple methods, in a highly cost effective way, since PVA is water soluble. These nanocomposite films offer

  20. Nanoresonator Enabled Ultrafast All-optical Terahertz Switching Based on Vanadium Dioxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyoung, J. S.; Choi, S. B.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, B. J.; Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate nanoresonator enabled ultrafast all-optical switching of terahertz transmission based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film. Nanoresonators, nm-width slot antenna patterns on the gold layer, are fabricated on the VO2 films. Without nanoresonators, THz wave shows negligible change through bare VO2 film even though optical pumping exists, while about 20 percents switching ratio is clearly seen with nanoresonator patterns on the VO2. The switching time is in a few hundreds femtosecond time scales.

  1. Structural and optical properties of electron beam evaporated yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kirubaharan, A. Kamalan; Kuppusami, P. Dharini, T.; Ramachandran, D.; Singh, Akash; Mohandas, E.

    2015-06-24

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (10 mole % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using electron beam physical vapor deposition at the substrate temperatures in the range 300 – 973 K. XRD analysis showed cubic crystalline phase of YSZ films with preferred orientation along (111). The surface roughness was found to increase with the increase of deposition temperatures. The optical band gap of ∼5.7 eV was calculated from transmittance curves. The variation in the optical properties is correlated with the changes in the microstructural features of the films prepared as a function of substrate temperature.

  2. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO₃ thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Malin B; Baldissera, Gustavo; Valyukh, Iryna; Persson, Clas; Arwin, Hans; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Osterlund, Lars

    2013-05-22

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (Ptot) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low Ptot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies Eg ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing Ptot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO3, and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that Eg in ε-WO3 is higher than in the δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases, which provides an explanation for the Ptot dependence of the optical data. PMID:23614973

  3. Optical Properties of Selective Emitter Materials for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of new "selective emitter" materials for possible use in high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic power systems. These are systems which directly convert heat to radiation at a wavelength closely matched to the bandgap energy of the solar cell. Candidate materials which have strong absorption lines fairly close to the bandgap of good solar-cell materials were chosen for study. Their emittance was measured as a function of wavelength to evaluate their promise as selective TPV emitters. Useful and informative results were obtained. Some of these results were presented at a January 1996 solar energy conference of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

  4. Optically Modulated Fluorophores for Selective Fluorescence Signal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Chris I.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Senapati, Dulal; Patel, Sandeep; Yu, Junhua; Vosch, Tom; Dickson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in biological sciences is hindered by significant depth-dependent signal attenuation and high fluorescent backgrounds. We have developed optically modulated near-IR-emitting few-atom Ag nanodots that are selectively and dynamically photobrightened upon simultaneous excitation with a secondary laser enabling high sensitivity image extraction to reveal only the demodulated fluorophores. Image demodulation is demonstrated in high background environments to extract weak signals from completely obscuring background emission. PMID:19284790

  5. Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices.

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique C; Stacey, Jacqueline A; Pearson, Thomas W J; Taylor, Gavin J; Moore, Richard J D; Srinivasan, Mandyam V; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects.

  6. Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Pearson, Thomas W. J.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Moore, Richard J. D.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490

  7. Optical and structural properties of PbI2 thin film produced via chemical dipping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. A.

    2016-06-01

    PbI2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates via chemical bath deposition. The characteristics of PbI2 thin films were examined through their structural and optical properties. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the presence of rhombohedral structure and atom planes were subject to change with the pH of the bath. Scanning electron microscope indicated uniform distribution of grains. Optical properties were examined via UV-VIS; optical spectrum of the thin films was measured at the range of 200-1100 nm wavelength. Optimum pH levels for producing thin films were found to be pH 4-5. It has been observed that transmission and optical band gap ( E g) increased with the pH of the bath, which varied between 66-95 and 2.24-2.50 %, respectively; on the other hand film thickness of PbI2 thin films was decreased with the pH of the bath. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were in accordance with theoretical value of PbI2 at pH = 4 and 5. Refractive index was negatively correlated with pH of the chemical bath; it has been calculated as 1.97, 1.40, 1.29 and 1.24 for the films produced at pH 2, 3, 4 and 5. The results of the study were compared with similar studies in the literature.

  8. Changes in chemical and optical properties of thin film metal mirrors on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Zwiener, James M.; Gregory, John C.; Raikar, Ganesh N.; Christl, Ligia C.; Wilkes, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of the metals Cu, Ni, Pt, Au, Sn, Mo, and W deposited on fused silica flats were exposed at ambient temperature on the leading and trailing faces of the LDEF. Reflectances of these films were measured from 250 to 2500 nm and compared with controls. The exposed films were subjected to the LDEF external environment including atomic oxygen, molecular contamination, and solar ultraviolet. Major changes in optical and infrared reflectance were seen for Cu, Mo, Ni, and W films on the leading face of LDEF and are attributed to partial conversion of metal to metal oxide. Smaller changes in optical properties are seen on all films and are probably caused by thin contaminant films deposited on top of the metal. The optical measurements are correlated with film thickness measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical calculations, and, in the case of Cu, with x-ray diffraction measurements. In a few cases, comparisons with results from a similar UAH experiment on STS-8 have been drawn.

  9. Multifunctional organic thin films and their electronic/optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yan

    The concept of multifunctional organic thin films and their electronic/optical properties has been applied to organic functional device design, fabrication, and characterization. The organic devices involve organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) in this dissertation. In the research of graded junction structure of OLEDs, two kinds of naturally-formed graded junction (NFGJ) structures, sharp and shallow graded junctions, can be formed using single thermal evaporation boat loaded with uniformly mixed charge transport and light-emitting materials. OLEDs with NFGJ have been demonstrated in Chapter 3; the performance is comparable to the heterojunction OLEDs, but with better device lifetime. A novel method to prepare highly uniform mixed organic solid solutions through a high temperature and high-pressure fusion process has been demonstrated in Chapter 4. A series of fused organic solid solution (FOSS) compounds with NPD doped with different organic emitting dopants were prepared and DSC technique was utilized to determine the thermal characteristics. For the first time, the schematic phase diagram for this binary system has been obtained. High performance OLEDs of single color and white emission were fabricated and the device properties were characterized. In Chapter 5, an efficient photovoltaic heterojunction of tetracene and fullerene has been investigated and high performance organic solar cells have been demonstrated by thermal deposition and successive heat treatment. The preliminary conclusion for this enhancement is discussed and supported by atomic force microscopy images, absorption spectra and x-ray diffraction analysis. Additionally, an effective organic photovoltaic heterojunction based on the typical triplet material PtOEP was demonstrated. It is believed that introducing appropriate organic materials with long exciton lifetime is a very promising way to improve photovoltaic performance.

  10. A simple growth method for Nb2O5 films and their optical properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dash, J. K.; Chen, L.; Topka, Michael R.; Dinolfo, Peter H.; Zhang, L. H.; Kisslinger, K.; Lu, T. -M.; Wang, G. -C.

    2015-04-13

    A simple method for the synthesis of Nb₂O₅ films of thicknesses ranging from tens to several hundreds of nanometers on amorphous silicon dioxide or quartz substrates is presented. Nb₂O₅ films were formed by annealing the sputter deposited Nb films under an Ar flow and without oxygen plasma in a quartz tube within a furnace at 850 °C. The structural, compositional, optical, and vibrational properties were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. Each of the Nb₂O₅ films is polycrystalline with an orthorhombic crystal structure. We observed vibrational modes includingmore » longitudinal optical, transverse optical, and triply degenerate modes, and measured the indirect optical band gap to be ~3.65 eV. The transmittance spectrum of the ~20 nm thick Nb₂O₅ film shows over 90% transmittance below the band gap energy in the visible wavelength range and decreases to less than 20% in the ultraviolet regime. As a result, the optical properties of the films in the UV-vis range show potential applications as UV detectors.« less

  11. Thickness and microstructure effects in the optical and electrical properties of silver thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Guowen Clavero, César; Schweigert, Daniel; Le, Minh

    2015-11-15

    The optical and electrical response of metal thin films approaching thicknesses in the range of the electron mean free path is highly affected by electronic scattering with the interfaces and defects. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental study on how thickness and microstructure affect the properties of Ag thin films. We are able to successfully model the electrical resistivity and IR optical response using a thickness dependent electronic scattering time. Remarkably, the product of electronic scattering time and resistivity remains constant regardless of the thickness (τx ρ = C), with a value of 59 ± 2 μΩ cm ⋅ fs for Ag films in the investigated range from 3 to 74 nm. Our findings enable us to develop a theoretically framework that allows calculating the optical response of metal thin films in the IR by using their measured thickness and resistivity. An excellent agreement is found between experimental measurements and predicted values. This study also shows the theoretical lower limit for emissivity in Ag thin films according to their microstructure and thickness. Application of the model presented here will allow rapid characterization of the IR optical response of metal thin films, with important application in a broad spectrum of fundamental and industrial applications, including optical coatings, low-emissivity windows and semiconductor industry.

  12. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A A

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ∼1 cm(2) elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective. PMID:27131681

  13. Effect of Se addition on optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, A. S.; Akl, Alaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Compositional dependence of optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSxSe1-x (0.4 ≥ x ≥ 0.0 at. %) thin films was studied. Cadmium sulphoselenide films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique at vacuum (8.2 × 10-4 Pa) onto preheated glass substrates (523 K). The evaporation rate and film thickness were kept constant at 2.50 nm/s and 375 ± 5 nm, respectively. X-ray diffractograms showed that, the deposited films have the low crystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) was used to check the compositional elements of deposited films. The absorption coefficient was determined from transmission and reflection measurements at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm. Optical density, skin depth, optical energy gap and Urbach's parameters of CdSSe thin films have also been estimated. The direct optical energy gap decreased from 2.248 eV to 1.749 eV when the ratio of Se-content was increased from 0.60 to 1.00 . Conduction band and valance band positions were evaluated. The temperature dependence of dc-electrical resistivity in the temperature range (293-450 K) has been reported. Three conduction regions due to different conduction mechanisms were detected. Electrical sheet resistance, activation energy and pre-exponential parameters were discussed. The estimated values of optical and electrical parameters were strongly dependent upon the Se-content in CdSSe matrix.

  14. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ˜1 cm2 elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective.

  15. Optical function evolution of ion-assisted ZrN films deposited by sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerini, D.; Signore, M. A.; Rizzo, A.; Tapfer, L.

    2010-10-01

    The optical functions (complex dielectric function, complex index of refraction, and complex conductivity) of sputtered zirconium nitride films are derived starting from optical reflectance measurements. Their evolution with the different bias voltages applied during the films growth is used to deduce information about the variations in the electronic structure influenced by a different oxygen and nitrogen content in the films. Improvement in the electrical conductivity is observed at increasing bias voltage due to a reduction in both oxygen contamination and nitrogen content. The separation of the different contributions (free conduction electrons and different electronic transitions) in the optical functions is achieved through the Drude-Lorentz model, allowing the detection of an unusual low-energy electronic transition in films grown at low bias voltages. Through considerations about the electronic structure and about the results coming from other characterization techniques, this transition can be ascribed to the presence of defects/impurities, nitrogen superstoichiometry, or oxygen contamination.

  16. Optical constants of amorphous, transparent titanium-doped tungsten oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramana, C V; Baghmar, Gaurav; Rubio, Ernesto J; Hernandez, Manuel J

    2013-06-12

    We report on the optical constants and their dispersion profiles determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analysis of the 20%-titanium (Ti) doped of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films grown by sputter-deposition. The Ti-doped WO3 films grown in a wide range of temperatures (25-500 °C) are amorphous and optically transparent. SE data indicates that there is no significant interdiffusion at the film-substrate interface for a W-Ti oxide film growth of ~90 nm. The index refraction (n) at λ = 550 nm vary in the range of 2.17-2.31 with a gradual increase in growth temperature. A correlation between the growth conditions and optical constants is discussed. PMID:23682744

  17. Optical properties of protocrystalline silicon/amorphous SiC multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangsheng; Ma, Luo; Lu, Wanbing; Zhang, Zicai; Yu, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Protocrystalline silicon/amorphous SiC multilayer films were fabricated by helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (HW-PECVD). Atom force microscopy, Raman scattering and optical absorption measurements were used to analyze the microstructure and optical properties of the multilayer films. Experiment analyses reveal that through inserting transient a-SiC layer into film depositing process, well-controlled pc-Si:H films have been obtained in the growth condition of the μc-Si:H. The optical gap is observed being tuned from 2.15 to 2.43 eV by varying single pc-Si:H layer thickness. Such multilayer structure should have potential application in constructing high efficiency and stable Si-based solar cells.

  18. Optical, dielectric and morphological studies of sol-gel derived nanocrystalline TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Narasimha Rao, K; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2009-10-15

    Nanocrystalline TiO(2) films have been synthesized on glass and silicon substrates by sol-gel technique. The films have been characterized with optical reflectance/transmittance in the wavelength range 300-1000 nm and the optical constants (n, k) were estimated by using envelope technique as well as spectroscopic ellipsometry. Morphological studies have been carried out using atomic force microscope (AFM). Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) capacitor was fabricated using conducting coating on TiO(2) film deposited on silicon. The C-V measurements show that the film annealed at 300 degrees C has a dielectric constant of 19.80. The high percentage of transmittance, low surface roughness and high dielectric constant suggests that it can be used as an efficient anti-reflection coating on silicon and other optical coating applications and also as a MOS capacitor.

  19. Structural and optical characterization of WO{sub 3} thin films for gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gyoergy, E.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Ducu, C.; Ciuca, S.

    2005-05-01

    The structure, chemical composition, and optical properties of tungsten trioxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition were investigated. An ultraviolet KrF{sup *} excimer laser ({lambda}=248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} congruent with 20 ns, {nu}=2 Hz) was used for irradiation of tungsten trioxide targets in oxygen atmosphere. Our research focused on the effect of the ambient gas pressure and substrate temperature on the chemical composition, crystalline status, and optical properties of the obtained thin films. To this end, the films were studied by x-ray diffractometry Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Optical transmittance measurements were performed with a double beam spectrometer within the 400-1200 nm range. The films deposited at oxygen pressure values higher than 10 Pa and substrate temperatures above 300 deg. C consist of crystalline tungsten trioxide. Their average transmittance in the visible-infrared spectral region reaches about 85% appropriate for the envisaged applications.

  20. PHYSICAL BASIS OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Symmetry breaking in optical dynamics of two bistable thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushkin, I. V.; Logvin, Yu A.; Loiko, N. A.

    1998-02-01

    A theoretical investigation is reported of the interaction of light with a system of two films which contain two-level centres and whose thickness is less than the incident radiation wavelength. It is shown that when light of the same intensity is incident from both sides of the films, symmetry-breaking bifurcation is possible, i.e. the transmitted fields are different for the opposite directions. The relationship between symmetry-breaking bifurcation and optical bistability is determined. If the distance between the films represents an odd number of the optical half-wavelengths symmetry breaking occurs at a lower value of the parameter representing the interaction nonlinearity than that corresponding to the onset of bistability. The opposite is true when an even number of half-wavelengths can be fitted between the films. The supression of symmetry-breaking bifurcation is illustrated for various intensities of the incident optical field.

  1. Morphological and optical investigation of Sol-Gel ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Petrova, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents morphological and optical studies of the properties of spin-coated ZnO films depending on the annealing temperatures. The films microstructure was explored using a scanning nano-hardness measuring device of the NanoScan family, based on the principles of atomic force microscopy, in a constant frequency mode. The surface study revealed that the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of 985.64×985.64 nm ZnO films becomes greater with the increase of the annealing temperature, but the film surface remains uniform and smooth. The results were confirmed by XRD analysis, which demonstrated that the crystallite size grew from 25 to 36 nm with the thermal treatments. The ZnO films possessed high transmittance in the visible spectral range and the optical band gaps in ZnO films varied from 3.25 eV to 3.52 eV. The optical and morphological properties of the ZnO films formed on Si and quartz substrates are very good. The sol-gel approach proposed for deposition of nanostructured ZnO films is promising for applications in optoelectronic devices or solar cells.

  2. Polyelectrolyte-linked film assemblies of nanoparticles and nanoshells: growth, stability, and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Galyean, Anne A; Day, Robert W; Malinowski, Justin; Kittredge, Kevin W; Leopold, Michael C

    2009-03-15

    Multi-layer films of nanoparticles and nanoshells featuring various polymeric linkage molecules have been assembled and their optical properties characterized. The growth dynamics, including molecular weight effects, and stability of the various nanoparticle film constructions, using both single polymer as well as combinations of alternating charge polyelectrolytes as linking mechanisms, are presented. The polymeric linkers studied include poly-L-lysine, poly-L-arginine, poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and polyamidoamine dendrimers. Significantly air stable films were achieved with the use of multi-layered polymeric bridges between the nanoparticles and nanoshells. Optical sensitivity normally observed with these nanomaterials in solution was observed for their corresponding film geometries, with the nanoshell films exhibiting a markedly higher ability to report their local dielectric environment. PMID:19108848

  3. Electro-Optical Switching of Gradient 2D-PDLC Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.

    2010-01-21

    A tunable electro-optical switching is reported for single-layered polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films, controlled by the film thickness. Thin planar film of two-dimensional layer of thickness continuously varying from a few micrometers to several tens of micrometers is examined. The wedge-confined PDLC single layer contains E7 liquid-crystal microdroplets dispersed in a transparent polymer matrix of NOA65. The diameters of the droplets with a linear-gradient size distribution along the wedge slope reach several tens of micrometers, defined by the wedge geometry of the film. The electro-optical switching of the single-layered PDLC film is linked to its microstructure and droplet organization.

  4. Optical properties and bandgap evolution of ALD HfSiOx films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Fronk, Michael; Geng, Yang; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Gordan, Ovidiu D; Zhou, Peng; Zahn, Dietrich Rt; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hafnium silicate films with pure HfO2 and SiO2 samples as references were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in this work. The optical properties of the films as a function of the film composition were measured by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ellipsometer in the energy range of 0.6 to 8.5 eV, and they were investigated systematically based on the Gaussian dispersion model. Experimental results show that optical constants and bandgap of the hafnium silicate films can be tuned by the film composition, and a nonlinear change behavior of bandgap with SiO2 fraction was observed. This phenomenon mainly originates from the intermixture of d-state electrons in HfO2 and Si-O antibonding states in SiO2.

  5. Optical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by plasma immersion ion processing

    SciTech Connect

    He, X-M.; Walter, K.C.; Bardeau, J-F.; Nastasi, M.; Lee, S-T.; Sun, X.S.

    1999-04-12

    Hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been prepared on PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate), glass, and Si(100) substrates using C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-Ar plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). The composition, structure, and properties of the films were investigated with regard to variation of the deposition parameters. It was found that the modulation of reactive gas composition during PIIP could enhance the formation of DLC films with an increased sp{sup 3} bonding structure, improved surface smoothness, high density and high hardness. An optimal combination of good optical properties and high hardness was highly dependent on the control of hydrogen content in the DLC films. Tribological tests showed that DLC-coated glass and PMMA samples exhibited a reduced friction coefficient and enhanced wear resistance relative to uncoated glass and PMMA materials. The effects of ion energy and gas composition during PIIP deposition on the formation of optically transparent and wear resistant DLC films are discussed.

  6. Structural and optical characterization of thermally evaporated bismuth and antimony films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimathy, N.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this present study, the thin film of bismuth and antimony is coated by thermal evaporation system equipped with the inbuilt ultra high vacuum system. XRD analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of Bismuth and Antimony on the prepared film. The surface roughness and physical appearance is analyzed by Atomic force microscopy. The results of Raman Spectroscopy show the wave functions and the spectrum of electrons. The preparation technique and conditions strongly influence the crystalline structure and the phase composition of bismuth and antimony thin films. The electrical and optical properties for the prepared film are analyzed. The results show a great interest and promising applications in Photovoltaic devices.

  7. Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohar, G. M.; Shinde, S. K.; Fulari, V. J.

    2014-11-01

    ZnSe thin films are successfully deposited by spray pyrolysis deposition technique. Deposited thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction study, and it reveals that spray-deposited ZnSe thin films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. Surface morphology is carried out by scanning electron microscopy. It shows cotton-like morphology, and optical properties, such as absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient are studied. Photoluminescence shows strong emission at 497 nm. Also, spray-deposited ZnSe thin films are hydrophilic in nature, which is shown by contact angle meter.

  8. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I. R, Reshmi John, Manu Punnan; V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  9. Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film using RF-sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, A. J.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ghazai, Alaa J.

    2012-11-27

    This paper reports the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) film using RF-sputtering technique. Determination of the structural properties using High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) confirmed that ZnO film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate has a high quality. This result is in line with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) which were used to image the morphology of the film, in which a rough surface was demonstrated. Photoluminescence (PL) emission is included to study the optical properties of ZnO film that shows two PL peak in the UV region at 371 nm and in visible region at 530 nm respectively.

  10. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Hariharan, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  11. Optical properties of integrated multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allibe, J.; Bougot-Robin, K.; Jacquet, E.; Infante, I. C.; Fusil, S.; Carrétéro, C.; Reverchon, J.-L.; Marcilhac, B.; Creté, D.; Mage, J.-C.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.

    2010-05-01

    BiFeO3 is the prototypical multiferroic and one of the few with both (anti)ferroic ordering temperatures above 300 K. While its magnetic and ferroelectric properties and their coupling have been investigated intensely, offering opportunities in spintronics, little is known concerning its optical properties and their coupling to the ferroic orders. For applications in the microwave range, we report on the integration of BiFeO3 onto low permittivity substrates. Such integrated films show good ferroelectric and optical properties consistent with those of films grown on SrTiO3 substrates. Prospects for the use of BiFeO3 in optical applications are discussed.

  12. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Band GAP and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited ZnSe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezema, F. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.

    2006-05-01

    Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films were deposited on glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method at room temperature from aqueous solutions of zinc sulphate and sodium selenosulfate in which sodium hydroxide was employed as complexing agents. The `as-deposited' ZnSe thin films are red in color and annealed in oven at 473 K for 1 hour and on a hot plate in open air at 333 K for 5 minutes, affecting the morphological and optical properties. Optical properties such as absorption coefficient a and extinction coefficient k, were determined using the absorbance and transmission measurement from Unico UV-2102 PC spectrophotometer, at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. The films have transmittance in VIS-NIR regions that range between 26 and 87%. From absorbance and transmittance spectra, the band gap energy determined ranged between 1.60 eV and 1.75 for the `as deposited' samples, and the annealed samples exhibited a band gap shift of 0.15 eV. The high transmittance of the films together with its large band gap made them good materials for selective coatings for solar cells.

  13. Magnetic, Magneto-Optic and Structural Studies of Platinum-Manganese Antimonide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaran-Kakhki, Ebrahim

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Media for current high density magneto-optic storage systems have certain basic requirements such as perpendicular (to the surface) anisotropy, suitable magnetization, coercivity, domain and grain sizes and high optical Kerr and Faraday rotations. At present no known material combines all these properties to the optimum. However, ferromagnetic compounds with the Heusler Cl_{rm b} structure, which are members of a class of materials known as "half metallic" materials exhibit high magneto -optic properties. The present work is an investigation of PtMnSb sputtered thin films as possible media for high density magneto-optic memory systems. It is divided into three main sections. The first section is concerned with the crystal structure and magnetic properties of these films. Compositions and structure of the films have been determined by Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy. The magnetic properties have been measured with a sensitive vibrating sample magnetometer. The amorphous assputtered films become ferromagnetic when annealed in vacuum. Crystal and magnetic ordering commences at a temperature of about 160^circC and is completed at temperatures between 400-500 ^circC. The annealed films become significantly more transparent with an in-plane easy axis of magnetization. The optimum saturation magnetization is about 570 kA/m which is close to the magnetization of the bulk PtMnSb alloy. Coercivity for these films is in the range 12-15 KA/m. The second section is concerned with the magneto -optical properties of these thin films. The magneto-optic Kerr and Faraday effects were measured with a magneto-optic hysteresis loop plotter. Optical rotations of 1.35 ^circ and 8 times 10^5^circ/cm have been measured in reflection and transmission respectively. The highest magnetization and optical rotations are for the composition Pt_{31}Mn _{38}Sb_{31

  14. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of undoped polyaniline solutions and films probed at 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, Glauco S.; Bezerra, Arandi G.; Rakov, Nikifor; de Araujo, Cid B.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Azevedo, Walter M.

    2001-08-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline (PANI) solutions and films were investigated at 532 nm by use of Z-scan, power limiting, and optical Kerr gate techniques. The polymers studied were the undoped partially oxidized (emeraldine base) and fully reduced (leucoemeraldine base) forms of PANI. Our results demonstrate that the leucoemeraldine base is more suitable for use in devices such as all-optical switches and optical power limiters operating at 532 nm. The worse performance of the emeraldine base is due to the presence of defects inside the bandgap of the polymer. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  15. Tailoring the optical bandgap and magnetization of cobalt ferrite thin films through controlled zinc doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepanshu; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-08-01

    In this report, the tuning of the optical bandgap and saturation magnetization of cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films through low doping of zinc (Zn) has been demonstrated. The Zn doped CFO thin films with doping concentrations (0 to 10%) have been synthesized by ultrasonic assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The optical bandgap varies from 1.48 to 1.88 eV and saturation magnetization varies from 142 to 221 emu/cc with the increase in the doping concentration and this change in the optical and magnetic properties is attributed to the change in the relative population of the Co2+ at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Raman study confirms the decrease in the population of Co2+ at tetrahedral sites with controlled Zn doping in CFO thin films. A quantitative analysis has been presented to explain the observed variation in the optical bandgap and saturation magnetization.

  16. Optical properties of organic thin films of 4-tricyanovinyl-{N}, {N}-diethylaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Abd-El-Rahman, K. F.; Darwish, A. A. A.

    2009-11-01

    Optical properties of 4-tricyanovinyl-N, N-diethylaniline thin films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurement of transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200-2500 nm. The optical constants (refractive index, n, and absorption index, k) were calculated using a computer program based on Murmann's exact equations. The calculated optical constants are independent of the film thickness and their values are decreased by annealing temperature. The optical dispersion parameters have been analysed by single oscillator model. The type of transition in as-deposited films is indirect allowed with a value of energy gap equals to 1.45 eV, which increased to 1.51 eV upon annealing. in here

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, A.; Reddy, E. Sivanagi; Hamad, Syed; Raju, K. C. James; Rao, S. Venugopal

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline SrBi4Ti4O15 thin films with good morphology and layered perovskite structure were fabricated on fused silica substrates using r f magnetron sputtering system at various oxygen mixing percentages (25 and 50). The crystallite sizes of the particles are in 17-28 nm range. The Nonlinear optical properties were investigated by using Z-scan method at a wavelength of 800 nm with 2 ps duration pulses. The films exhibit the fast and giant optical nonlinearities having the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) with magnitude of 10-8-10-9 cm/W and the nonlinear refraction coefficient of ˜10-12 cm2/W. These results indicate SrBi4Ti4O15 thin films are promising candidates for applications in nonlinear optical and optical signal processing devices.

  18. Tuning the Optical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Films by Nanoscale Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Silverman, Gary; Korotkov, Roman; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2012-07-03

    Introducing mesoscale pores into spincoated titanium dioxide films, prepared by spincoating different sol-gel precursor solutions on silicon substrates and subsequent annealing at 350 C, 400 C or 450 C, respectively, affects several optical properties of the material. The change in refractive index observed for different mesoporous anatase films directly correlates with changes in pore size, but is also in a more complex manner influenced by the film thickness and the density of pores within the films. Additionally, the band gap of the films is blueshifted by the stress the introduction of pores exerts on the inorganic matrix. The differently sized pores were templated by Pluronic{reg_sign} block copolymers in the solgel solutions and tuned by employing different annealing temperatures for the film preparation. This study focused on elucidating the effect different templating materials (F127 and P123) have on the pore size of the final mesoporous titania film, and on understanding the relation of varying polymer concentration (taking P123 as an example) in the sol-gel solution to the pore concentration and size in the resultant titania film. Titania thin film samples or corresponding titanium dioxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, ellipsometery, UV/Vis spectrometry and other techniques to understand the interplay between mesoporosity and optical properties.

  19. Design, optical and antimicrobial properties of extremely thin alumina films colored with silver nanospecies.

    PubMed

    Jagminas, A; Žalnėravičius, R; Rėza, A; Paškevičius, A; Selskienė, A

    2015-03-14

    In this study, conditions for the fabrication of extremely thin and flexible anodic films decorated with silver nanowire arrays by alternating current treatments for the finishing of high purity and commercial aluminium foils were developed. For characterization of these porous films with a thickness of ≤1.0 μm and encased silver species, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wavelength range of 200-1700 nm was also used to determine the influence of the deposited Ag content and the film thickness on the optical constants (n, k) of the fabricated alumina films. It is shown that due to surprisingly low k values of nano-Ag-in-alumina films in the visible and near IR regions these films could be applied as transparent films with an extremely low refractive index. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the obtained films was assessed for the as-deposited and fully-encapsulated silver nanowire arrays against several widespread fungi and bacteria. The results obtained from in vitro tests indicated that the as-formed Ag-in-alumina films containing ≥19 μg cm(-2) of silver possessed antimicrobial properties and could be promising as foodstuff packaging materials. PMID:25652013

  20. Comparative studies of laser-induced damage of several single-layer optical films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, X. T.; Chen, X. Q.; Zheng, W. G.; Jiang, X. D.; Yuan, X. D.; Li, X. P.; Xiang, X.

    2008-06-01

    Single-layer optical films, ZrO2, SiO2 and HfO2, were deposited on K9 glass substrates by ion beam sputtering deposit technique in order to study laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and damage mechanism. Impurities and defects will result in strong weak absorption coefficient and photothermal signal. Further LIDT is inverse proportional to the absorption coefficient of the films. AFM images of as-deposited films showed a similar roughness of 2-4 nm. Among the films, ZrO2 film has a pore structure, which results in the largest weak absorption, photothermal effect and smallest LIDT. HfO2 film has the largest LIDT (22.13 J/cm2) due to the smallest number and size of both defects and impurities on the surface. Different films have different damage morphology, which is related to the morphology of defects or impurities in the film before laser irradiation and the interface between films and substrates. In order to enhance LIDT, it is important to prepare high-quality film and passivate the defects in the films.

  1. Global optimization for optical thin-film design using Latin Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-guang; Watson, Anthony

    1997-10-01

    There are many advanced local and global optimization techniques, such as Gradient, Simplex, Flip-flop, Needle, Genetic and Simulated Annealing, which have been successfully applied to optical thin-film design. However, all these optimization techniques either require a selection of a reasonable starting design, which is a big obstacle to an inexperienced designer, or they have some kind of inbuilt random feature, which may give rise to different answers each time. To find the true global optimized solution for a thin film design problem, we need to solve an array of interlinked multi-dimensional simultaneous equations. Until recently, for more than just a few layers, this has been a very difficult task, requiring the use of a supercomputer and highly skilled programming. By using orthogonal Latin Square theory and an experimental design methodology in a search space reduction process, a Windows based program has been written that can operate on even a 20 MHz 386 computer. It can find the global optimum design for up to 23 layers using as many dispersive and lossy materials as one wishes, within a period of hours. Additionally this methodology (called DGL-Optimization) allows the use of multiple target spectra with such as both s & p polarization, for reflection and transmission simultaneously.

  2. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Chang, S. C.; Chang, Y. C.

    2013-07-01

    An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001) single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  3. Effect of Pt nanoparticles on the optical gas sensing properties of WO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad U; Diaz, Alex Fabian Diaz; Cittadini, Michaela; Martucci, Alessandro; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Llobet, Eduard; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten trioxide were deposited on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Different annealing temperatures in the range from 423 to 973 K were used under ambient atmosphere. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure and optical properties of the resulting WO3 thin films were studied. The surface morphology of the films is composed of grains with an average size near 70 nm for the films annealed between 773 and 973 K. Some of the WO3 thin films were also coated with Pt nanoparticles of about 45 nm in size. Spectrometric measurements of transmittance were carried out for both types of WO3 samples in the wavelength range from 200-900 nm, to determine the effect of the exposure to two different gases namely H2 and CO. Films showed fast response and recovery times, in the range of few seconds. The addition of Pt nanoparticles enables reducing the operation temperature to room temperature.

  4. Effect of Pt nanoparticles on the optical gas sensing properties of WO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad U; Diaz, Alex Fabian Diaz; Cittadini, Michaela; Martucci, Alessandro; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Llobet, Eduard; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten trioxide were deposited on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Different annealing temperatures in the range from 423 to 973 K were used under ambient atmosphere. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure and optical properties of the resulting WO3 thin films were studied. The surface morphology of the films is composed of grains with an average size near 70 nm for the films annealed between 773 and 973 K. Some of the WO3 thin films were also coated with Pt nanoparticles of about 45 nm in size. Spectrometric measurements of transmittance were carried out for both types of WO3 samples in the wavelength range from 200-900 nm, to determine the effect of the exposure to two different gases namely H2 and CO. Films showed fast response and recovery times, in the range of few seconds. The addition of Pt nanoparticles enables reducing the operation temperature to room temperature. PMID:24977386

  5. Effect of Pt Nanoparticles on the Optical Gas Sensing Properties of WO3 Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad U.; Diaz Diaz, Alex Fabian; Cittadini, Michaela; Martucci, Alessandro; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Llobet, Eduard; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten trioxide were deposited on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Different annealing temperatures in the range from 423 to 973 K were used under ambient atmosphere. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure and optical properties of the resulting WO3 thin films were studied. The surface morphology of the films is composed of grains with an average size near 70 nm for the films annealed between 773 and 973 K. Some of the WO3 thin films were also coated with Pt nanoparticles of about 45 nm in size. Spectrometric measurements of transmittance were carried out for both types of WO3 samples in the wavelength range from 200–900 nm, to determine the effect of the exposure to two different gases namely H2 and CO. Films showed fast response and recovery times, in the range of few seconds. The addition of Pt nanoparticles enables reducing the operation temperature to room temperature. PMID:24977386

  6. A plastic scintillator film for an electron beam-excitation assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Wataru; Fukuta, Masahiro; Masuda, Yuriko; Nawa, Yasunori; Ono, Atsushi; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    A plastic scintillator film for use in an electron beam excitation-assisted (EXA) optical microscope is characterized. The thin film scatters an incident electron beam weakly and generates high intensity nanoscale luminescence excited by the beam spot. For high spatial resolution and signal to noise, an EXA microscope requires a thin high-efficiency scintillator film. Homogeneous plastic scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 60 to 2800 nm were fabricated on silicon nitride via spin coating. The emission intensity was examined as a function of film thickness and the accelerating voltage of the incident electron beam. The emission wavelength can be tuned by changing scintillator materials in the film matrix. To demonstrate a plastic scintillator film performance with an EXA microscope, time-lapse images of yeast cells were acquired.

  7. High Performance Optical Coatings Utilizing Tailored Refractive Index Nanoporous Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxson, David J.

    Refractive index is perhaps the most important quantity in optics. It is particularly relevant in the field of optical coatings, where the refractive index appears in virtually every optics equation as a figure of merit. Recently it has been demonstrated through control of the deposition angle during oblique-angle electron-beam deposition, nanoporous films of virtually any desired porosity may be accurately deposited. As the porosity of a nanoporous film directly relates to its effective refractive index, the refractive index value of a film may be tailored to any value between that of the bulk material and close to that of air. These two characteristics, namely; (i) tailored-refractive index and (ii) very low-refractive index values close to that of air, offer significant advantages in the design and optical performance in all optical coating applications. In this dissertation we explore optical coating applications whose performance can be greatly enhanced by utilization of a tailored- and low-refractive index nanoporous material system. One such important application is in the design and fabrication of broadband, omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings on solar cell devices. To harness the full spectrum of solar energy, Fresnel reflections at the surface of a photovoltaic cell must be reduced as much as possible over the relevant solar wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. However, the development of AR coatings embodying omni-directionality over a wide range of wavelengths is challenging. By utilizing the tailored- and low-refractive index properties of the nanoporous material system, in conjunction with a computational genetic algorithm and a predictive quantitative model for the porosity of such nanoporous films, truly optimized AR coatings can be designed and fabricated on solar cells. Here we show that these optimized AR structures demonstrate significant improvement to overall device efficiency. Traditionally, nanoporous films

  8. Optical properties of amorphous silicon thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benfeng; Zhao, Qingnan; Zheng, Pan

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films have been prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effects of hydrogen pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering power on deposition rate of a-Si:H thin films and optical characteristics have been investigated. The films are studied by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and NKD7000w thin film analysis system. The results show that the hydrogen pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering power will affect the deposition rate respectively; The refractive index, extinctive index and optical bandgap of hydrogenated silicon thin films vary regularly with the change of one of the deposition parameters. The optical bandgap, absorption coefficient and extinctive index of the films are evaluated. The absorption coefficient values range from 1.1×104cm-1 to 8.3×104cm-1 and the corresponding extinctive index vary from 0.23 to 0.35 at the wavelength of 400nm, and the optical bandgap of a-Si:H vary from 1.77 to 1.89eV.

  9. Engineering of electronic and optical properties of PbS thin films via Cu doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, Baligh; Gassoumi, Abdelaziz; Dobryden, Illia; Natile, Marta Maria; Vomiero, Alberto; Turki, Najoua Kamoun

    2016-09-01

    Copper-doped PbS polycrystalline thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition by adding small amount of Cu (ysolution = [Cu2+]/[Pb2+]) between 0.5 and 2 at%. The composition, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrophotometry and Hall effect measurements. The XRD studies showed that the undoped films have PbS face centered cubic structure with (111) preferential orientation, while preferential orientation changes to (200) plane with increasing Cu doping concentration. The AFM and SEM measurements indicated that the film surfaces consisted of nanosized grains with pyramidal shape. Optical band gap was blue shifted from 0.72 eV to 1.69 eV with the increase in Cu doping concentration. The film obtained with the [Cu2+]/[Pb2+] ratio equal to 1.5 at% Cu showed the minimum resistivity of 0.16 Ω cm at room temperature and optimum value of optical band gap close to 1.5 eV. 1.5 at% Cu-doped PbS thin films exhibit the best optical and electrical properties, suitable for solar cells applications.

  10. Thermal annealing of thin PECVD silicon-oxide films for airgap-based optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, M.; de Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical and optical properties of thin PECVD silicon-oxide layers for optical applications. The different deposition parameters in PECVD provide a promising tool to manipulate and control the film structure. Membranes for use in optical filters typically are of ~λ/4n thickness and should be slightly tensile for remaining flat, thus avoiding scattering. The effect of the thermal budget of the process on the mechanical characteristics of the deposited films was studied. Films with compressive stress ranging from  ‑100 to 0 MPa were deposited. Multiple thermal annealing cycles were applied to wafers and the in situ residual stress and ex situ optical properties were measured. The residual stress in the films was found to be highly temperature dependent. Annealing during the subsequent process steps results in tensile stress from 100 to 300 MPa in sub-micron thick PECVD silicon-oxide films. However, sub-100 nm thick PECVD silicon-oxide layers exhibit a lower dependence on the thermal annealing cycles, resulting in lower stress variations in films after the annealing. It is also shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion, hence the residual stress in layers, varies with the thickness. Finally, several free-standing membranes were fabricated and the results are compared.

  11. A comprehensive simulation model of the performance of photochromic films in absorbance-modulation-optical-lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Apratim; Helms, Phillip L.; Andrew, Trisha L.; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography is the most prevalent method of fabricating micro-and nano-scale structures in the semiconductor industry due to the fact that patterning using photons is fast, accurate and provides high throughput. However, the resolution of this technique is inherently limited by the physical phenomenon of diffraction. Absorbance-Modulation-Optical Lithography (AMOL), a recently developed technique has been successfully demonstrated to be able to circumvent this diffraction limit. AMOL employs a dual-wavelength exposure system in conjunction with spectrally selective reversible photo-transitions in thin films of photochromic molecules to achieve patterning of features with sizes beyond the far-field diffraction limit. We have developed a finite-element-method based full-electromagnetic-wave solution model that simulates the photo-chemical processes that occur within the thin film of the photochromic molecules under illumination by the exposure and confining wavelengths in AMOL. This model allows us to understand how the material characteristics influence the confinement to sub-diffraction dimensions, of the transmitted point spread function (PSF) of the exposure wavelength inside the recording medium. The model reported here provides the most comprehensive analysis of the AMOL process to-date, and the results show that the most important factors that govern the process, are the polarization of the two beams, the ratio of the intensities of the two wavelengths, the relative absorption coefficients and the concentration of the photochromic species, the thickness of the photochromic layer and the quantum yields of the photoreactions at the two wavelengths. The aim of this work is to elucidate the requirements of AMOL in successfully circumventing the far-field diffraction limit.

  12. Structural and optical properties of Al/ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanyinlusi, O.; Mukolu, A. I.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    The effects of annealing temperature and variation of sample thickness on the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films with aluminium contact (Al/ZnO) have been investigated. The study involved the synthesis of a bilayer thin film of Al/ZnO with varied thicknesses on a glass slide substrate by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition technique. 99.99% pure ZnO and aluminium were used as the sputtering target. The films were then annealed in vacuum at annealing temperatures of 200 °C and 400 °C. The structural and optical properties of Al/ZnO thin films grown were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical measurements respectively. The results obtained from the XRD patterns showed that Al/ZnO films (both as-deposited and annealed), exhibits a crystalline structure with (002) preferred orientation. The peak intensity of the preferred plane increases as the annealing temperature increases. The optical studies of the Al/ZnO films showed a maximum value of transmittance ranging from 82% to 91% depending on the condition of the films. A decrease in transmittance as the thickness of the films increases was observed. The transmittance also increased with increasing annealing temperature. The energy gaps (E g) were determined from the transmittance data and found to be in the range 3.73-3.83 eV. The results obtained from the experiment also show that the optical band gap increases as the thickness and annealing temperature increase.

  13. Preparation of Amorphous Carbon Films and Evaluation of Its Optical Properties and Gas Barrier Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsone, Yuuki; Nishi, Hidetaka; Saito, Masanori; Suzuki, Masaki; Murakami, Hiroya; Ohtake, Naoto

    Hydrogenerated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films can improve oxygen gas barrier characteristics of plastic food containers, by coating it on the surfaces of such containers, and is intended to enhance the preservative quality. However, it has a problem that the degradation of optical transparency in the visible light range blocks the view of the inner content. In this study, we aimed to reduce the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) as well as to improve optical transparency, and fabricated a-C:H films by the pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. First, it is clarified that the gas barrier performance in the a-C:H film in the vicinity of the PET boundary surface was lower than that of bulk a-C:H film. Secondly, the OTR and optical transparency of a-C:H films deposited not only from C2H2 but also from Si(CH3)4 were investigated in detail. The a-C:H film deposited from Si(CH3)4 shows high transmittance of 87% for visible light with a relatively low OTR of 3.2 cc/(m2·atm·day).

  14. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  15. Optical characterization of thin nickel films on polymer substrates using reflectance difference spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rinnerbauer, V.; Schmidegg, K.; Hohage, M.; Sun, L. D.; Flores-Camacho, J. M.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2009-06-15

    We have used reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) and its extension, azimuth-dependent RDS (ADRDS), to study the properties of sputtered and evaporated nickel films on biaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films in a roll to roll web-coating process. From the full set of ADRDS spectra we extract and analyze both the intrinsic RDS spectra and the azimuthal orientation of the effective optical anisotropy of the samples. From the latter, contributions to the RDS spectra arising from the nickel layer and the PET substrate with different orientations of the optical eigenaxes can be inferred. We find an attenuation of the characteristic RDS signal of the PET substrate with increasing nickel film thickness which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. For film thicknesses above 20 nm another contribution to the RDS signal attributed to the optical anisotropy of the deposited nickel layers can be observed. Its strength depends on the deposition method, and is considerably larger for evaporated films than for sputtered ones. With increasing nickel film thickness, the azimuthal orientation of the sample anisotropy changes from the initial value of the PET substrate by about 20 deg.toward the machine direction of the foil. We demonstrate that RDS is also a valuable tool for inline monitoring in the roll to roll process, as the attenuation of the RDS signal, under proper consideration of the orientation of the effective anisotropy, is a function of the film thickness and characteristic for the deposited material.

  16. Nanoporous thermochromic VO(2) films with low optical constants, enhanced luminous transmittance and thermochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Litao; Gao, Yanfeng; Luo, Hongjie; Chen, Zhang; Du, Jin; Zhang, Zongtao

    2011-02-01

    Nanoporous thermochromic VO(2) films with low optical constants and tunable thicknesses have been prepared by polymer-assisted deposition. The film porosity and thickness change the interference relationship of light reflected from the film-substrate and the air-film interfaces, strongly influencing the optical properties of these VO(2) films. Our optimized single-layered VO(2) films exhibit high integrated luminous transmittance (T(lum,l) = 43.3%, T(lum,h) = 39.9%) and solar modulation (ΔT(sol) = 14.1%, from T(sol,l) = 42.9% to T(sol,h) = 28.8%), which are comparable to those of five-layered TiO(2)/VO(2)/TiO(2)/VO(2)/TiO(2) films (T(lum,l) = 45%, T(lum,h) = 42% and ΔT(sol) = 12%, from T(sol,l) = 52% to T(sol,h) = 40%, from Phys. Status Solidi A2009, 206, 2155-2160.). Optical calculations suggest that the performance could be further improved by increasing the porosity.

  17. Optical properties and waveguiding in films of a nonlinear polymer: difluorophenyl-polydiphenylenevinylene (DFP-PDPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoc, Anna; Luther-Davies, Barry; Samoc, Marek; Liebegott, Heike; Stockmann, Regina; Hoerhold, Hans-Heinrich

    1999-11-01

    Third-order optically nonlinear polymeric material built of rigid-rod molecules are often insoluble and transmit visible light poorly. We report on optical and waveguiding properties of a new soluble derivative of PPV: a π- conjugated polymer DFP-PDPV. We found that solvents used for processing of the DFP-PDPV polymer may influence the film optical properties. Changes in absorption spectra, birefringence, optical attenuation and the nonlinear refractive index were observed in the films made by spin coating and solution cast using different solvents. The films are birefringent and dispersive. Refractive indices vary from 1.76 to 1.63 for the TE polarisation of the incident light and from 1.70 to 1.60 for the TM polarisation for wavelengths from 476.5 nm to 1.55μ, respectively. The birefringence is an order ofmagnitude lower than that in films ofunsubstituted PPV. DFP-PDPV is suitable for fabrication of optical waveguides. Low loss waveguiding layers could be prepared. Propagation losses were measured at 632.8nm, 8lOnm and 1064nm. The losses decrease at longer wavelengths reaching the level of 1 dB/cm at 1.06μ. The waveguiding properties of DFP-PDPV films depend on the solvents used in processing of the polymer. We investigated thin films of DFP-PDPV for their potential for nonlinear waveguide applications. The modulus of nonlinear refractive index |n2| in the range (0.9-1.5) x10-14 cm2/W was measured in DFP-PDPV films at 8OOnm using a femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) technique. These studies supplement the results of nonlinear optical studies of this polymer in solution using the Z-scan technique described in Proceedings of SPIE 3473, 79-90 (1998).

  18. Material selection for lightweight optical components in fieldable military optical test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Ahmad, Anees; Lewis, George R.; George, Gene

    1994-10-01

    Material selection and suitable low cost manufacturing processes for production of rugged man-portable lightweight optical test set components are described. Field requirements for an ultra lightweight optical test set comprised of an off-axis two mirror collimator plus source and detector optics mandated selection of extremely stable materials. The requirements include temporal, thermal and mechanical performance suitable for portable and transportable military applications. The environmental stability requirement includes operating over a temperature range of 130 degrees fahrenheit. Also military shock and vibration requirements for transportable equipment are imposed on the entire test set. The total weight budget is 5 pounds for the mirrors and the large supporting structure. The structure volume is only about 1% of the occupied space. A near-net fabrication process such as casting or HIP fabrication was required. A comparison of materials and manufacturing methods has resulted in the selection of a hypereutectic aluminum alloy containing 23% by weight silicon with stabilizing elements. This material can be cast and heat treated to produce uniform properties at low cost. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is much lower than other aluminum alloys and the modulus of elasticity is 50% higher. The alloy was machined with conventional tools and plated with nickel phosphorous of the same CTE to produce stable optics.

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  20. Generation Behaviors of Optical Anisotropy Caused by Silver Nanoparticles Precipitated in Uniaxially Drawn Polyimide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Sho-ichi; Ando, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    The optical anisotropy generated during thermal curing and simultaneous uniaxial drawing of poly(amic acid) (PAA) films dissolving silver nitrate was investigated. The PAA was converted to polyimide (PI) during thermal curing, and silver nanoparticles were precipitated in the oriented PI films. The anisotropy in optical transmittance, i.e., the polarization characteristic, of the films strongly depended on the holding time at the final curing temperature, and a large anisotropy in transmittance with a wide wavelength region (wide-range optical anisotropy) was observed only for a film cured for the optimal holding time. During heating at the final curing temperature, silver nanoparticles were anisotropically grown and aggregated along the drawing direction, generating a significant optical anisotropy. However, additional heating induces isotropic growth, aggregation, and fusion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in the reduction in anisotropy. A numerical analysis based on the Mie theory revealed that the wide-range optical anisotropy can be generated by the anisotropies in shape and the preferential aggregation and arrays of silver nanoparticles in the drawing direction as well as the large birefringence of PI films as dielectric media.

  1. Optical component interface scatter characterization by selective polarization extinction.

    PubMed

    Georges, Gaëlle; Deumié, Carole; Amra, Claude

    2011-03-20

    A procedure for the selective extinction of the scattered light based on "null ellipsometry" [R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977)] is presented. The technique allows scattering measurement from individual layers of a multilayer component by extinguishing the scattered light from the other layer interfaces. The technique is easily applicable to multilayer components with nearly identical surface profiles at every interface and little significant bulk scattering. Analysis is provided to determine the conditions required to extinguish the light from the excluded interfaces isolating the scattered light from the desired interface. An analysis of sensitivity of the extinction conditions to experimental parameters and to layer optical thickness is also provided. Experimental data collected using the technique are compared with measurements made using a white-light optical surface profilometry.

  2. Optical realization of bioinspired spiking neurons in the electron trapping material thin film.

    PubMed

    Pashaie, Ramin; Farhat, Nabil H

    2007-12-10

    A thin film of electron-trapping material (ETM), when combined with suitable optical bistability, is considered as a medium for optical implementation of bioinspired neural nets. The optical mechanism of ETM under blue light and near-infrared exposure has the inherent ability at the material level to mimic the crucial components of the stylized Hodgkin-Huxley model of biological neurons. Combining this unique property with the high-resolution capability of ETM, a dense network of bioinspired neurons can be realized in a thin film of this infrared stimulable storage phosphor. When combined with suitable optical bistability and optical interconnectivity, it has the potential of producing an artificial nonlinear excitable medium analog to cortical tissue.

  3. Indigo Carmine Dye-Polymer Nanocomposite Films For Optical Limiting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, S.; Mayadevi, S.; Suresh, S. R.; Frobel, P. G. Louie; Smijesh, N.; Philip, Reji; Muneera, C. I.

    2011-10-01

    Nanocomposite films of an organic dye-polymer (Indigo Carmine-PVA) system were fabricated and their optical limiting behaviour was investigated under excitation with 532 nm laser pulses of 5 ns temporal width using the open aperture Z-scan technique. The samples displayed optical limiting behavior under the experimental conditions. The Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis of the surface topography revealed homogeneous distribution of nanoclustered aggregates grown within the polymer matrix and an average roughness of ˜2.02 nm for the surface. The estimated values of the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient, βeff (˜10-7-10-8 cm/W) marked up to the highest reported ones in literature in the nanosecond regime. The results indicate that these nanocomposite films are potential materials for optical limiting devices used for the protection of human eyes and other delicate optical sensors from laser induced optical damage.

  4. Theoretical simulations of protective thin film Fabry-Pérot filters for integrated optical elements of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Quarrie, L. E-mail: lindsay.o.quarrie@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    The lifetime of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) is limited by damage initiated by reaction of the glass envelope of its gain medium with rubidium vapor. Rubidium is absorbed into the glass and the rubidium cations diffuse through the glass structure, breaking bridging Si-O bonds. A damage-resistant thin film was developed enhancing high-optical transmission at natural rubidium resonance input and output laser beam wavelengths of 780 nm and 795 nm, while protecting the optical windows of the gain cell in a DPAL. The methodology developed here can be readily modified for simulation of expected transmission performance at input pump and output laser wavelengths using different combination of thin film materials in a DPAL. High coupling efficiency of the light through the gas cell was accomplished by matching the air-glass and glass-gas interfaces at the appropriate wavelengths using a dielectric stack of high and low index of refraction materials selected to work at the laser energies and protected from the alkali metal vapor in the gain cell. Thin films as oxides of aluminum, zirconium, tantalum, and silicon were selected allowing the creation of Fabry-Perot optical filters on the optical windows achieving close to 100% laser transmission in a solid optic combination of window and highly reflective mirror. This approach allows for the development of a new whole solid optic laser.

  5. Theoretical simulations of protective thin film Fabry-Pérot filters for integrated optical elements of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarrie, L.

    2014-09-01

    The lifetime of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) is limited by damage initiated by reaction of the glass envelope of its gain medium with rubidium vapor. Rubidium is absorbed into the glass and the rubidium cations diffuse through the glass structure, breaking bridging Si-O bonds. A damage-resistant thin film was developed enhancing high-optical transmission at natural rubidium resonance input and output laser beam wavelengths of 780 nm and 795 nm, while protecting the optical windows of the gain cell in a DPAL. The methodology developed here can be readily modified for simulation of expected transmission performance at input pump and output laser wavelengths using different combination of thin film materials in a DPAL. High coupling efficiency of the light through the gas cell was accomplished by matching the air-glass and glass-gas interfaces at the appropriate wavelengths using a dielectric stack of high and low index of refraction materials selected to work at the laser energies and protected from the alkali metal vapor in the gain cell. Thin films as oxides of aluminum, zirconium, tantalum, and silicon were selected allowing the creation of Fabry-Perot optical filters on the optical windows achieving close to 100% laser transmission in a solid optic combination of window and highly reflective mirror. This approach allows for the development of a new whole solid optic laser.

  6. Optical properties of porous anodic alumina embedded Cu nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyuan; Sun, Huiyuan; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Jia, Xiaoxuan

    2015-06-01

    Porous anodic alumina embedded Cu with iridescent colors were fabricated in copper sulfate electrolyte. The films display highly saturated colors after being synthesized by an ac electrodeposition method. Tunable color in the films is obtained by adjusting anodization time, and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. Theoretical results of the changes in the structural color according to the Bragg-Snell formula are consistent with the experimental results. The films could be used in many areas including decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  7. Structural and optical properties of Cu doped ZnO thin films by co-sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Mook; Shin, Jae-Heon; Lee, Jeong-Min; Ryu, Min Ki; Cheong, Woo-Seok; Park, Sang Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the structural and optical properties of ZnCuO thin films that were prepared by co-sputtering for the application of p-type-channel transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Pure ceramic ZnO and metal Cu targets were prepared for the co-sputtering of the ZnCuO thin films. The effects of the Cu concentration on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnCuO films were investigated after their heat treatment. It was observed from the XRD measurements that the ZnCuO films with a Cu concentration of 7% had ZnO(002), Cu2O(111), and Cu2O(200) planes. The 7% Cu-doped ZnO films also showed a band-gap energy of approximately 2.05 eV, an average transmittance of approximately 62%, and a p-type carrier density of approximately 1.33 x 10(19) cm-3 at room temperature. The bottom-gated TFTs that were fabricated with the ZnCuO thin film as a p-type channel exhibited an on-off ratio of approximately 6. These results indicate the possibility of applying ZnCuO thin films with variable band-gap energies to ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  8. Multifractal, structural, and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. Y.; Wang, W. J.; Li, S. L.; Miao, C. Y.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Zn1-xMnxO (x ≈ 0.07) films were sputter deposited on Si (0 0 1) and fused SiO2 substrates and were annealed at different temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 °C. The influence of postgrowth annealing on multifractal, structural and optical properties of Zn1-xMnxO films has been investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/vis spectrophotometry. A statistical analysis based on multifractal formalism show the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases as the annealing temperature is increased. All as grown and annealed films are textured having preferred orientation along the wurzite c axis. The HRTEM and SAED studies indicate that the Mn doped ZnO film is of high quality, uniform, and free of clustering/segregated phases. The as grown film is in a state of compressive stress and the stress can be largely relieved with annealing temperature of above 700 °C. The optical band gap was found to be 3.25 eV for undoped ZnO film and 3.12 eV for as grown Zn1-xMnxO (x ≈ 0.07) film. For annealed ZnMnO films the band gap was found to increase continuously with an increase in annealing temperature.

  9. Optical properties of WO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in; Tomar, Monika

    2014-01-28

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films. WO{sub 3} thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO{sub 3}/Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO{sub 3} thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO{sub 3} film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light.

  10. Computational studies of optical textures of twist disclination loops in liquid-crystal films by using the finite-difference time-domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dae Kun; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2006-02-01

    Optical images of textured liquid-crystal films containing various types of twist disclination loops are computed using an approximate matrix method and a direct numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The selected defects introduce large multidirectional spatial gradients in the optic axis, mimicking the orientation textures that arise in the construction and use of biosensors based on liquid-crystal vision. It is shown that under these experimentally relevant conditions, the matrix method fails to capture important signatures in the transmitted light intensity under crossed polarizers. The differences between the predictions by the two methods are analyzed with respect to gradients in the optic axis. We show that the FDTD method is a useful tool to perform computational optics of textured liquid-crystal films.

  11. Optical waveguide modeling of refractive index mediated pH responses in silica nanocomposite thin film based fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Wang, C.

    2016-02-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a pH-dependent optical transmission of silica based nanocomposite thin film enabled evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy based fiber optic sensors in aqueous solutions. Although the response was observed to linearly correlate with the pH-dependent surface charge density of the silica matrix, the responsible mechanism was not fully clarified. In this manuscript, an optical waveguide model is applied to describe observed responses through a modified effective refractive index of the silica matrix layer as a function of the solution phase pH. The refractive index dependence results from a surface charge dependent ionic adsorption, resulting in concentration of ionic species at charged surfaces. The resultant effective index modification to porous silica is estimated through effective medium theories and applied to an optical waveguide model of a multi-mode fiber optic based sensor response capable of reproducing all experimental observations reported to date.

  12. Fabrication of Fe-Al nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Pyungwoo; Shin, Seungchan; Jung, Chip-Sup; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Seomoon, Kyu

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%Al films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-Al films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-Al films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-Al films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation.

  13. Method of forming silicon structures with selectable optical characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Schowalter, Leo (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Silicon and metal are coevaporated onto a silicon substrate in a molecular beam epitaxy system with a larger than stoichiometric amount of silicon so as to epitaxially grow particles of metal silicide embedded in a matrix of single crystal epitaxially grown silicon. The particles interact with incident photons by resonant optical absorption at the surface plasmon resonance frequency. Controlling the substrate temperature and deposition rate and time allows the aspect ratio of the particles to be tailored to desired wavelength photons and polarizations. The plasmon energy may decay as excited charge carriers or phonons, either of which can be monitored to indicate the amount of incident radiation at the selected frequency and polarization.

  14. Determination of the Anisotropic Optical Constant of Evaporated Polydiacetylene-C4UC4 Films at 632.8 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Fukui, Masuo; Koda, Takao; Takeda, Kenji

    1998-10-01

    We have proposed a simple reflection method to evaluate the optical constants and optical thicknesses of various films. The optical constants and thicknesses of alkyl-urethane-substituted polydiacetylene (PDA-C4UC4) films on a BK-7 glass prism have been measured using the reflection method proposed in this paper. Unoriented blue-form PDAs have an optically anisotropic nature and their optical constants have been estimated in the tangential direction and in the direction normal to the film surface. Our reflection method also provides information on the polymerization state.

  15. Magneto-Optical Experiments on Rare Earth Garnet Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, B. K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments in which inexpensive or standard laboratory equipment is used to measure several macroscopic magnetic properties of thin rare earth garnet films used in the manufacture of magnetic bubble devices. (Author/CS)

  16. Optically transparent fluoro-containing polyimide films with low dielectric permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, V.; Umersakova, M.; Iskakov, R.; Prikhodko, O.; Korobova, N.

    2014-12-01

    Optical, dielectric, thermal, physico-mechanical properties of new fluoro-containing alicyclic polyimides were investigated. High optical transparency in visible and UV ranges of the films with thickness 10-25 μm, which lower boundary was registered at 125-260 nm; as well as reflectivity index being 1.492-1.515 were recorded. Dielectric permeability was characterized with low rates and stability up to 300 °C depending on chemical structure. Polyimides were stable with heating in air up to 320-380 °C. Prepared films show break tensile at 145 MPa with elongation up to 50% due to the excellent film-forming properties. Films based on polyimides with polyaniline composition demonstrates reflectivity index 1.60.

  17. Optical and microwave detection using Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabow, B. E.; Sova, R. M.; Boone, B. G.; Moorjani, K.; Kim, B. F.; Bohandy, J.; Adrian, F.; Green, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) in the development of optical and microwave detectors using high temperature superconducting thin films is described. Several objectives of this work have been accomplished, including: deposition of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films by laser abation processing (LAP); development of thin film patterning techniques, including in situ masking, wet chemical etching, and laser patterning; measurements of bolometric and non-bolometric signatures in patterned Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films using optical and microwave sources, respectively; analysis and design of an optimized bolometer through computer simulation; and investigation of its use in a Fourier transform spectrometer. The focus here is primarily on results from the measurement of the bolometric and non-bolometric response.

  18. Structural and optical properties of CdO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. Anil; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, Katta Narasimha

    2014-04-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique using a high purity (99.99%) Cd target of 2-inch diameter and 3 mm thickness in an Argon and oxygen mixed atmosphere with sputtering power of 50W and sputtering pressure of 2×10-2 mbar. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis reveals that the films were polycrystalline with cubic structure. The visible range transmittance was found to be over 70%. The optical band gap increased from 2.7 eV to2.84 eV with decrease of film thickness.

  19. Selective Exposure to Horror: An Analysis of the Audience for Frightening Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Stiff, James

    A survey of 155 midwestern movie viewers was conducted to determine the factors of the selective exposure and appeal of horror films. Audience members leaving the theatre after viewing "Halloween II" were interviewed using a questionnaire that contained measures of specific reasons for liking horror films as well as measures of several individual…

  20. Selective Etching via Soft Lithography of Conductive Multilayered Gold Films with Analysis of Electrolyte Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment is designed to expose undergraduate students to the process of selective etching by using soft lithography and the resulting electrical properties of multilayered films fabricated via self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. Students fabricate a conductive film of gold on glass, apply a patterned resist using a polydimethylsiloxane…

  1. Optical Properties of Neodymium Oxide Nanoparticle-Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keikhaei, Mansoureh; Motevalizadeh, Leili; Attaran-Kakhki, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The structural and optical characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with different concentration of Nd2O3 nanoparticles to use an active media for polymer laser were studied. The PVA polymer was considered as the host and Nd2O3 nanoparticles as the active element. The media as a thin film was prepared using spin coating technique. Structural properties of layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. The effect of the concentrations of the neodymium source on the optical properties of Nd2O3/PVA thin films was investigated through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and their optical band gap was evaluated. Also, the FTIR and fluorescence spectra of the samples were detected. The fluorescence spectra of films showed that the maximum wavelength occurred at 568nm with no significant shift.

  2. Super-Resolution Optical Disc with High Readout Stability Using a Zinc Oxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Mori, Go; Tajima, Hideharu; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Akira

    2004-07-01

    We report a new super-resolution read-only-memory (ROM) disc with high readout stability using a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film. A ZnO film utilized in our experiment showed a change in optical constant depending on temperature. By applying this characteristic to a ROM disc, we obtained a linear bit density two times higher than that of conventional ROM discs in our experimental optical pickup system with a 408-nm-wavelength laser and a 0.65-numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens. The readout stability was improved by employing a Si film. A high readout cyclability of more than 1.0× 105 was obtained. Moreover, the super-resolution readout function was confirmed in another optical pickup system with a 408-nm-wavelength laser and a 0.85-NA objective lens.

  3. Selective cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Stefano

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the performance of a selective cloning machine based on linear optical elements and Gaussian measurements, which allows one to clone at will one of the two incoming input states. This machine is a complete generalization of a 1{yields}2 cloning scheme demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is studied for a generic Gaussian input state, and the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency is also taken into account. We show that, if the states to be cloned are squeezed states with known squeezing parameter, then the fidelity can be enhanced using a third suitable squeezed state during the final stage of the cloning process. A binary communication protocol based on the selective cloning machine is also discussed.

  4. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedik, Nuh

    Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. In this talk, I will show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer TMD WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley-selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (approximately 100 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  5. Valley selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Edbert J.; McIver, James W.; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Fu, Liang; Kong, Jing; Gedik, Nuh

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer semiconductors, such as WS2, have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. Here we show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (200 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  6. Detection of pinhole defects in optical film using thermography and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjin; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Singh, Bhavana

    2015-05-01

    Optical film provides anti-glare, anti-reflective, and protective features for cell phones and electronic displays such as LCD screens. Due to increased use of optical film, it is challenging for manufacturers to increase their efficiency in producing better quality films. Even a micro scratch in a high-end application of film can lead to a total failure of the display. Optical and visual methods are typically employed to detect defects, but these methods have limitations such as viewing angle artifacts and design of proper illumination source. This paper describes research to utilize artificial neural networks as a non-destructive defect detection model for predicting the presence of pinhole defects in film. An infrared camera captured the thermal response of optical film subjected to heating and cooling. Pinhole defects of various sizes (0.03mm, 0.08mm, 0.2mm, 0.4mm, 0.7mm, 1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4mm) were investigated. Pinhole defects are one of the most common types of optical film defects. For the process of identification, thermal differences of defective and defect-free regions were investigated. An Artificial Neural Network was trained to use average absolute temperature difference and cooling rate to predict the presence of a defect. The ANN model was trained and verified using separate data sets. The ANN model was able to classify defective and non-defective samples with a 77.8% accuracy rate. The regression coefficient was 0.5874. These results suggest that artificial neural networks can be used for detecting pinhole defects.

  7. Optical Properties of Vanadium Dioxide Film during Semiconductive-Metallic Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Jin, Ping; Nakao, Setsuo; Tazawa, Masato

    2007-02-01

    The optical constants of vanadium dioxide (VO2) films were determined at visible and near-infrared wavelengths at various temperatures during a semiconductive-metallic phase transition by ellipsometric analysis with Lorentz-oscillator formulae. The reversible changes in optical constants against temperature due to thermochromism were observed at around 70 °C. The wavelength dispersions of the optical constants were well expressed by the sum of three oscillators and their oscillating energies were attributed to photon-excited transitions. The variation in band structure during the phase transition was monitored, and the relationship between the band structure and optical properties was discussed.

  8. Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, F.; Gindre, D.; Nunzi, J.-M.; Denis, C.; Dumarcher, V.; Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.; Kretsch, K. P.; Rocha, L.

    2004-11-01

    We report on particular features of thin film distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. Devices are optically pumped using a Lloyd-mirror interferometer. For a given DFB grating period, the number of lasing modes is film thickness dependent. Spectral content of the devices is analysed using planar waveguide theory. An excellent agreement between the theoretical transverse electric mode structure and the laser emission spectrum is found.

  9. Evanescent-wave optical gas sensor with a porous thin-film coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicevic, N.; Maluckov, A.; Petrovic, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis and numerical model of absorptive gas detection by an optical evanescent-wave sensor. We investigate the influence of sensor geometry and thin-film porosity on the attenuation of guided modes caused by their interaction with the gas. We show that film porosity is a critical parameter that should be carefully optimized for a chosen mode. These findings served as a basis for the design of an experimentally realizable sensor of carbon dioxide.

  10. Optical absorption of Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions in gadolinium gallium garnet epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileva, N. V.; Gerus, P. A.; Sokolov, V. O.; Plotnichenko, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Single-crystal Ni-doped gadolinium gallium garnet films were grown for the first time from supercooled Bi2O3-B2O3-based melt solutions by liquid-phase epitaxy. Optical absorption bands due to Ni2+, Ni3+ and Bi3+ ions were observed in those films. Interpretation and tabulation of all absorption bands of nickel ions occupying octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the garnet lattice are presented.

  11. Gold nanorods-silicone hybrid material films and their optical limiting property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfang; Qi, Yanhai; Hao, Xiongwen; Peng, Xue; Li, Dongxiang

    2015-10-01

    As a kind of new optical limiting materials, gold nanoparticles have optical limiting property owing to their optical nonlinearities induced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold nanorods (GNRs) possess transversal SPR absorption and tunable longitudinal SPR absorption in the visible and near-infrared region, so they can be used as potential optical limiting materials against tunable laser pulses. In this letter, GNRs were prepared using seed-mediated growth method and surface-modified by silica coating to obtain good dispersion in polydimethylsiloxane prepolymers. Then the silicone rubber films doped with GNRs were prepared after vulcanization, whose optical limiting property and optical nonlinearity were investigated. The silicone rubber samples doped with more GNRs were found to exhibit better optical limiting performance.

  12. The Psychophysiological Reactions of Film Viewers While Viewing Selected Cinemagraphic Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, Dennis K.

    This study focused on the psychophysiological reactions of viewers seeing such selected cinemagraphic elements as varying camera distances, tracking shots, panning shots, and zooming shots. Subjects (N=29), randomly selected from introductory speech courses, viewed five films that varied in the presence or absence of the selected filmic elements.…

  13. Optical transmission and Faraday rotation spectra of a bismuth iron garnet film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, S.; Popov, V.; Grishin, A. M.

    2003-11-01

    We prepared an epitaxial 530-nm-thick bismuth iron garnet (BIG) film on a Gd3Ga5O12(GGG) (111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition and measured spectra of optical transmission and magneto-optical Faraday rotation θF(λ) in visible light. Both spectra are shaped by the dispersion relations of the dielectric tensor and the effects of multiple-beam interference in the thin film. From fitting of the transmission spectrum, dispersion relations of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index were found for the wavelength range from 515 to 1000 nm, n(λ)=2.36+(413 nm/λ)2 and k(λ)=(λ/4π nm)×exp[(1660 nm/λ)2-15.2]. With these data as input information, a single diamagnetic line centered at λ=486 nm was fitted to the experimentally recorded magneto-optical spectrum. The effects of thin film interference and surface roughness were included in order to closely reproduce the measured spectrum. The roughness determined from spectral analysis was compared to the rms roughness measured by atomic force microscopy. The values agree within a deviation of less than 20% and are approximately 3% of film thickness. The magneto-optical figure of merit 2|θF|/α (α is the absorption coefficient) of our film increases strongly with wavelength and exceeds 100° at 740 nm. The optical efficiency for magneto-optical visualization |exp(-2αd)sin(4θFd)| (d is film thickness) possesses a maximum value of 29% at 600 nm. Both quantities were calculated using the obtained dispersion relations for absorption and Faraday rotation.

  14. Low temperature growth of diamond films on optical fibers using Linear Antenna CVD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, M.; Drijkoningen, S.; Karczewski, J.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Haenen, K.

    2016-01-01

    It is not trivial to achieve a good quality diamond-coated fibre interface due to a large difference in the properties and composition of the diamond films (or use coating even) and the optical fibre material, i.e. fused silica. One of the biggest problems is the high temperature during the deposition which influences the optical fibre or optical fibre sensor structure (e.g. long-period gratings (LPG)). The greatest advantage of a linear antenna microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (LA MW CVD) is the fact that it allows to grow the diamond layers at low temperature (below 300°C) [1]. High quality nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films with thicknesses ranging from 70 nm to 150 nm, were deposited on silicon, glass and optical fibre substrates [2]. Substrates pretreatment by dip-coating and spin coating process with a dispersion consisting of detonation nanodiamond (DND) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been applied. During the deposition process the continuous mode of operation of the LA MW CVD system was used, which produces a continuous wave at a maximum power of 1.9 kW (in each antenna). Diamond films on optical fibres were obtained at temperatures below 350°C, providing a clear improvement of results compared to our earlier work [3]. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging to investigate the morphology of the nanocrystalline diamond films. The film growth rate, film thickness, and optical properties in the VIS-NIR range, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient will be discussed based on measurements on reference quartz plates by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE).

  15. Microstructure, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO₂ Thin Films Prepared by Chelating-Agent Assisted Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Matĕjová, Lenka; Cieslarová, Monika; Matĕj, Zdenĕk; Danis, Stanislav; Peikertová, Pavlína; Sihor, Marcel; Lang, Jaroslav; Matĕjka, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Single and multilayer TiO₂ thin films coated on two types of soda-lime glass substrates (microscope slides and cylinders) were prepared by a chelating agent-assisted sol-gel method, using ethyl acetoacetate as a chelating agent, dip-coating and calcination at 500 °C for 2 h in air. Phase composition, microstructural, morphological and optical properties of thin films were comprehensively investigated by using XRF, advanced XRD analysis, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM. It was found out that the thickness of thin films increases linearly with increasing number of deposited layers, indicating a good adhesion of the titania solution to a glass substrate as well as to a previously calcined layer. 1 layer film crystallized to anatase-TiO₂(B) mixture with minor/negligible amount of nanosized brookite, 2-4 layers films crystallized to anatase-brookite-TiO₂(B) mixture. In contrast to other multilayers films, 4 layers film was highly inhomogeneous. The different phase composition of thin films was clarified based on the crystallization via titanate/s and metastable monoclinic TiO₂(B) as a consequence of several phenomena; the diffusion of Na⁺ ions from a soda-lime glass substrate, acidic conditions and repeated thermal treatment. The multilayer films were in average highly transparent (80-95%) in the visible light region with the sharp absorption edge in the UV light region. Additionally, the photocatalytic properties of selected multilayer films were compared in AO7 photodegradation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that thicker 4 layers film of tricrystalline anatase-brookite-TiO₂(B) phase mixture was similarly active as thinner 3 layers film of similar phase composition, which may be a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the thicker film. PMID:27398480

  16. Microstructure, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO₂ Thin Films Prepared by Chelating-Agent Assisted Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Matĕjová, Lenka; Cieslarová, Monika; Matĕj, Zdenĕk; Danis, Stanislav; Peikertová, Pavlína; Sihor, Marcel; Lang, Jaroslav; Matĕjka, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Single and multilayer TiO₂ thin films coated on two types of soda-lime glass substrates (microscope slides and cylinders) were prepared by a chelating agent-assisted sol-gel method, using ethyl acetoacetate as a chelating agent, dip-coating and calcination at 500 °C for 2 h in air. Phase composition, microstructural, morphological and optical properties of thin films were comprehensively investigated by using XRF, advanced XRD analysis, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM. It was found out that the thickness of thin films increases linearly with increasing number of deposited layers, indicating a good adhesion of the titania solution to a glass substrate as well as to a previously calcined layer. 1 layer film crystallized to anatase-TiO₂(B) mixture with minor/negligible amount of nanosized brookite, 2-4 layers films crystallized to anatase-brookite-TiO₂(B) mixture. In contrast to other multilayers films, 4 layers film was highly inhomogeneous. The different phase composition of thin films was clarified based on the crystallization via titanate/s and metastable monoclinic TiO₂(B) as a consequence of several phenomena; the diffusion of Na⁺ ions from a soda-lime glass substrate, acidic conditions and repeated thermal treatment. The multilayer films were in average highly transparent (80-95%) in the visible light region with the sharp absorption edge in the UV light region. Additionally, the photocatalytic properties of selected multilayer films were compared in AO7 photodegradation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that thicker 4 layers film of tricrystalline anatase-brookite-TiO₂(B) phase mixture was similarly active as thinner 3 layers film of similar phase composition, which may be a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the thicker film.

  17. Structural and optical properties of In doped Se-Te phase-change thin films: A material for optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, H. P.; Shukla, Nitesh; Kumar, Vipin; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Se75-xTe25Inx (x = 0, 3, 6, & 9) bulk glasses were obtained by melt quench technique. Thin films of thickness 400 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-6 Torr onto well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se75-xTe25Inx thin films were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h. As prepared and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction results show that the as-prepared films are of amorphous nature while it shows some poly-crystalline structure in amorphous phases after annealing. The optical absorption spectra of these films were measured in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm in order to derive the extinction and absorption coefficient of these films. It was found that the mechanism of optical absorption follows the rule of allowed non-direct transition. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy has been studied. The optical band gap is found to decrease with increase in annealing temperature in the present glassy system. It happens due to crystallization of amorphous films. The decrease in optical band gap due to annealing is an interesting behavior for a material to be used in optical storage. The optical band gap has been observed to decrease with the increase of In content in Se-Te glassy system.

  18. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, we investigated the friction and wear behavior of bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), magnetron-sputtered MoS2 and ion-plated silver films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440 C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Herizian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa maximum 1.19 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (7x10 (exp -7Pa)), humid air (approx. 20 percent humidity), and dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent humidity). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in friction and wear resulted front the environmental conditions and the film materials. The main criteria for judging the performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 10 (exp -6mm exp 3/Nm or less), respectively. The bonded MoS2 and magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films met the criteria in all three environments. Also, the wear rates of the counterpart AISI 440 C stainless steel balls met that criterion in all three environments. The ion-plated silver films met the criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum. In ultrahigh vacuum the bonded MoS2 films were superior. In humid air the bonded MoS2 films had higher coefficient of friction and shorter wear life than did the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The ion-plated silver films had a high coefficient of friction in humid air but relatively low coefficients of friction in the nonoxidative environments. Adhesion and plastic deformation played important roles in all three environments. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of materials.

  19. A spectroelectrochemical study on single-oscillator model and optical constants of sulfonated polyaniline film.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Mujdat; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Yasemin; Sahin, Yücel; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin; Hür, Deniz

    2008-11-15

    The optical properties of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) thin film prepared by electrochemical method have been investigated. Polychromic behavior of SPAN thin film (transparent yellow-green-dark blue) was observed when the cyclic voltammograms were taken between -0.25 V and +1.90 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, sat.) during the growth of polyaniline film. In situ UV-vis spectra of the polymers-indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode were taken during the oxidation of the polymers at different applied potentials. The direct band gap values of SPAN thin film changed from 3.771 eV to 3.874 eV with the applied potentials. From in situ UV-vis spectra, the optical constants such as refractive index and dielectric constant of the SPAN thin film were determined. The important changes in absorption edge, refractive index and the dielectric constant were observed due to the applied potentials. The refractive index dispersion curves of the film obey the single-oscillator model and oscillator parameters changed with the applied potentials. The most significant result of the present work is in situ spectroelectrochemical method, which can be used to modify the optical band gaps and constants. PMID:18337162

  20. Thermo-responsive Hercosett/Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) films: a new, fast, optically responsive coating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sutti, Alessandra; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2012-03-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a common thermo-responsive, water-soluble polymer, while Hercosett is a cationic resin commonly employed in the paper industry. In this paper, Hercosett™ and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanoparticles were used to prepare composite films that show thermo-responsive behavior and swelling-shrinking properties in water. First, size-controlled PNIPAM hydrogel nanoparticles were synthesized. These were then embedded within a matrix of the cationic resin Kymene 577H by film casting. The distribution of nanoparticles in the resin film was investigated. The thermo-responsive properties of the as-synthesized PNIPAM hydrogel nanoparticles and of the composite films were characterized together with the repeatability of the swelling-shrinking cycles. The presence of nanoparticles endowed the film with highly enhanced water retention (in comparison with resin-only films) and, most importantly, thermo-responsiveness. A very fast optical and morphological response was in fact observed. Due to the dual (optical and morphological) response, this new system is suitable for applications in optical or morphological actuation and gating. PMID:22236607

  1. Strain-induced optical band gap variation of SnO2 films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac; Herklotz, Andreas

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, thickness dependent strain relaxation effects are utilized to study the impact of crystal anisotropy on the optical band gap of epitaxial SnO2 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates. An X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all films are under tensile biaxial in-plane strain and that strain relaxation occurs with increasing thickness. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the optical band gap of the SnO2 films continuously increases with increasing film thickness. This increase in the band gap is linearly related to the strain state of the films, which indicates that the main origin ofmore » the band gap change is strain relaxation. The experimental observation is in excellent agreement with results from density functional theory for biaxial in-plane strain. Our research demonstrates that strain is an effective way to tune the band gap of SnO2 films and suggests that strain engineering is an appealing route to tailor the optical properties of oxide semiconductors.« less

  2. Optical layer development for thin films thermal conductivity measurement by pulsed photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Martan, J.

    2015-01-15

    Measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of optically transparent thin films presents a challenge for optical-based measurement methods like pulsed photothermal radiometry. We present two approaches: (i) addition of an opaque optical layer to the surface and (ii) approximate correction of the mathematical model to incorporate semitransparency of the film. Different single layer and multilayer additive optical layers were tested. The materials of the optical layers were chosen according to analysis and measurement of their optical properties: emissivity and absorption coefficient. Presented are thermal properties’ measurement results for 6 different thin films with wide range of thermal conductivity in three configurations of surface: as deposited, added Ti layer, and added Ti/TiAlSiN layer. Measurements were done in dependence on temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. The obtained thermal effusivity evolution in time after the laser pulse shows different effects of the surface layers: apparent effusivity change and time delay. Suitability of different measurement configurations is discussed and results of high temperature testing of different optical layers are presented.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Studies of the Sol-gel Derived Lithium Tetraborate Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanuskodi, S.; Mohandoss, R.; Philip, Reji

    2011-10-01

    Lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7 films on glass substrate were prepared by chemical solution decomposition (CSD) method. The spin coated film (2000 rpm, 20 sec) was preheated (200 °C, 20 min) and then annealed at different temperatures (450°-600 °C) to form polycrystalline Li2B4O7 film. By X-ray diffraction (XRD), the prominent planes are found to be (100), (113), (302) and (403). The result shows that the main component of the film is Li2B4O7 crystalline phase. A slow XRD scan was used to calculate the crystallite size (D) and the average crystallite size was found to be 178 nm. The lower cut off wavelength at 325 nm with 75% transparency was measured by the UV-Vis spectra and the spectral dependence of the optical constants (extinction coefficient (K), reflectance(R)) was estimated. The optical energy band gap was found to be 3.62 eV. The nonlinear optical properties were studied by Z-scan experiment using a Q-switched, Nd: YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns). The nonlinear absorption coefficient (NLA) β was found to be -5.74×10-5 cm/W. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) is due to the multi photon absorption process. The high value of β makes the film suitable for optical limiting applications.

  4. Morphological characteristics and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haihua; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Yunfei; Chen, Dejun; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique with silane (SiH4) as reactive gas. The influence of process parameters on the morphological characteristics and optical properties of a-Si:H thin films were systematically investigated. When the RF power density was taken as the only variable, it firstly improves the smoothness of the surface with increasing the RF power density below the value of 0.17 W/cm2, and then exhibits an obvious degradation at further power density. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical energy gap initially increase and reach a maximum at 0.17 W/cm2, followed by a significant decrease with further RF power density. When the RF power density was taken as the only variable, the surface of a-Si:H thin films become smoother by increasing the reaction pressure in the investigated range (from 50 Pa to 140 Pa), and the refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical energy gap increase with increasing of reaction pressure. The effect of RF power density and the reaction pressure on the morphological characteristics and optical properties of a-Si:H thin films was obtained, contributing to the further studies of the performance and applications of a-Si:H thin films.

  5. Optical properties change in laser-induced Te/As2Se3 chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Mukta; Naik, Ramakanta

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we report the change in optical parameters due to the deposition and photo-induced diffusion of Te layer into the chalcogenide As2Se3 film. The photo-diffusion creates a solid solution of As-Se-Te which has potential application in optical devices. The Te/As2Se3 bilayer films prepared by thermal evaporation technique were studied by various experimental techniques. The photo-diffusion of Te into As2Se3 matrix was done by 532-nm laser irradiation. The structure of the As2Se3, as-prepared and irradiated Te/As2Se3 films was studied by X-ray diffraction which were amorphous in nature. The presence of all the elements was checked by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and the optical transmission spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The optical band gap is reduced by the deposition and diffusion of Te into As2Se3 film which is due to the increase in density of defect states in the gap region. The transmission is decreased, whereas the absorption efficiency is increased with the increase in disorderness. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy carried out on these films gives information about the bonding change due to the photo-diffusion process. Therefore, this is an important result which will open up new directions for the application of this material in semiconducting devices.

  6. Polymerized micro-patterned optical birefringence film and its fabrication using multi beam mixing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Ku; Song, Jang-Kun

    2011-12-19

    The photo-polymerized liquid crystal (LC) film aligned on a photo-alignment layer was investigated with varying polarizability of UV light exposing on the photo-alignment layer. Interestingly, the polarizability of UV light required to induce bulk LC alignment on the photo alignment layer was found to be very low down to 0.1, and UV light greater than 0.3 polarizability produced outstanding optical performance of the film. The films fabricated with low polarizability light exhibited comparable thermo-stability with one fabricated with high polarizability light. The results suggest that micro-patterned optical birefringence films (MP-OBFs) can be fabricated by using an incoherent multi beam mixing method, where the direction of polarization of UV light can be spatially modulated. A simple MP-OBF was fabricated by using a two beam mixing method, and it exhibited a quality 3D film performance. The method will be highly useful in various optical components such as the MP-OBF, optical retarders, polarization grating etc. PMID:22274279

  7. Healable and Optically Transparent Polymeric Films Capable of Being Erased on Demand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Tianqi; Li, Siheng; Guo, Ruibing; Sun, Junqi

    2015-06-24

    Different from living organisms, artificial materials can only undergo a limited number of damage/healing processes and cannot heal severe damage. As an alternative to solve this problem, we report in this study the fabrication of erasable, optically transparent and healable films by exponential layer-by-layer assembly of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The hydrogen-bonded PAA/PEO films are highly transparent, capable of conveniently healing damages and being erased under external stimuli. The PAA/PEO films can heal damages such as scratches and deep cuts for multiple times in the same location by exposure to pH 2.5 water or humid N2 flow. The healability of the PAA/PEO films originates from the reversibility of the hydrogen bonding interaction between PAA and PEO, and the tendency of films to flow upon adsorption of water. When the damage exceeds the capability of the films to repair, the damaged films can be conveniently erased from substrates to facilitate the replacement of the damaged films with new ones. The combination of healability and erasibility provides a new way to the design of transparent films with enhanced reliability and extended service life. PMID:26040425

  8. Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: The effect of substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    The optical absorption edge and the near-absorption edge characteristics of undoped ZnO films grown by laser ablation on various substrates have been investigated. The band edge of films on C [(0001)] and R-plane [(1102)] sapphire, 3.29 and 3.32 eV, respectively, are found to be very close to the single crystal value of ZnO (3.3 eV) with the differences being accounted for in terms of the thermal mismatch strain using the known deformation potentials of ZnO. In contrast, films grown on fused silica consistently exhibit a band edge {approximately}0.1eV lower than that predicted using the known deformation potential and the thermal mismatch strains. This behavior is attributed to the small grain size (50 nm) realized in these films and the effect of electrostatic potentials that exist at the grain boundaries. Additionally, the spread in the tail (E{sub 0}) of the band edge for the different films is found to be very sensitive to the defect structure in the films. For films grown on sapphire substrates, values of E{sub 0} as low as 30 meV can be achieved on annealing in air, whereas films on fused silica always show a value {gt}100meV. We attribute this difference to the substantially higher density of high-angle grain boundaries in the films on fused silica. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. RF sputtered CuO thin films: Structural, optical and photo-catalytic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Khedr, M. H.; Shahnawaze Ansari, M.; Hasan, P. M. Z.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Farghali, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanocrystalline CuO thin films were deposited for 600, 1200 and 1800 s on glass substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films deposited at room temperature were crystalline and showed Tenorite phase of CuO. The increase in average particle size from 6.67 nm to 9.09 nm and the thickness from 160 nm to 490 nm was observed with the increase in deposition time. The optical band gap was decreased from 2.2 eV to 1.73 eV as the film thickness was increased. The intensity of PL peak showed its maximum for the film deposited for 600 s and minimum for 1800 s. Some unusual emission peaks were observed due to the quantization effect and lattice/surface defects. The CuO films with different thicknesses could be used as photo-catalysts for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) from the wastewater. Under the exposure of 200 W energy of tungsten lamp, CuO thin films showed excellent photo-catalytic activities. CuO thin film of minimum thickness of around 160 nm responded as a best catalyst for MB degradation. The films were very stable and have a speciality to be recycled without much loss of their photo-catalytic activity. These characteristics have proved the high possibility of commercial applications of CuO thin films in environmental remediation.

  10. Nanopattern enabled terahertz all-optical switching on vanadium dioxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. B.; Kyoung, J. S.; Kim, H. S.; Park, H. R.; Park, D. J.; Kim, Bong-Jun; Ahn, Y. H.; Rotermund, F.; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Ahn, K. J.; Kim, D. S.

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast all-optical control of terahertz (THz) radiation through nanoresonators, slot antennas with a hundred micron length but submicron width in thin gold layers, fabricated on vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. Our THz nanoresonators show almost perfect transmission at resonance. By virtue of phase transition of VO2 from insulating to metallic state, induced in subpicosecond time scale by moderate optical pump, ultrafast control of THz transmission is enabled. This is compared to bare VO2 films where no switching dynamics are observed under similar conditions.

  11. A nanohole in a thin metal film as an efficient nonlinear optical element

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinova, T. V.; Melent'ev, P. N.; Afanas'ev, A. E.; Kuzin, A. A.; Starikov, P. A.; Baturin, A. S.; Tausenev, A. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Balykin, V. I.

    2013-07-15

    The nonlinear optical properties of single nanoholes and nanoslits fabricated in gold and aluminum nanofilms are studied by third harmonic generation (THG). It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of aluminum and the presence of strong plasmon resonance of a single nanohole in an aluminum film make possible an efficient nanolocalized radiation source at the third harmonic frequency. The THG efficiency for a single nanohole in a thin metal film can be close to unity for an exciting laser radiation intensity on the order of 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Discrimination of molecular thin films by surface-sensitive time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Simone; Nembrini, Nicola; Damin, Francesco; Chiari, Marcella; Giannetti, Claudio; Banfi, Francesco; Ferrini, Gabriele

    2015-10-01

    An optical discrimination technique, tailored to nanometric-sized, low optical absorbance molecular complexes adhering to thin metal films, is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on a time-resolved evanescent-wave detection scheme in conjunction with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal value decomposition. The present approach aims to differentiate among molecular films based on statistical methods, without using previous detailed knowledge of the physical mechanisms responsible for the detected signal. The technique is open to integration in lab-on-a-chip architectures and nanoscopy platforms for applications ranging from medical screening to material diagnostics.

  13. Photoemission and optical constant measurements of a Cesium Iodide thin film photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triloki; Rai, R.; Gupta, Nikita; Jammal, Nabeel F. A.; Singh, B. K.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of cesium iodide as a reflective photocathode is presented. The absolute quantum efficiency of a 500 nm thick film of cesium iodide has been measured in the wavelength range 150 nm-200 nm. The optical absorbance has been analyzed in the wavelength range 190 nm-900 nm and the optical band gap energy has been calculated. The dispersion properties were determined from the refractive index using an envelope plot of the transmittance data. The morphological and elemental film composition have been investigated by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy techniques.

  14. Photodeposition of Thin Polydiacetylene Films from Solution that Exhibit Large Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abdeldayem, H.; McManus, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    One promising class of organic compounds for applications in the field of nonlinear optics (NLO) are polydiacetylenes, which are of interest because they are highly conjugated polymers capable of exhibiting very large optical nonlinearities with fast response times. During the course of crystal growth studies in anticipation of a space experiment, we discovered a novel, simple method for the formation of polydiacetylene thin films by photodeposition from monomer solutions onto quartz or glass substrates. Characterization of these PDAMNA films is not trivial; they are not soluble in common organic solvents, which makes the standard solution-based methods of polymer analysis useless.

  15. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and optical properties of single crystal Zn3N2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tiedje, T.; Alimohammadi, H.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; Wang, Cong

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal Zn3N2 films with (100) orientation have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on MgO and A-plane sapphire substrates with in situ optical reflectance monitoring of the growth. The optical bandgap was found to be 1.25-1.28 eV and an electron Hall mobility as high as 395 cm2 V-1 s-1 was measured. The films were n-type with carrier concentrations in the 1018-1019 cm-3 range.

  16. 'Diamondlike' carbon films - Optical absorption, dielectric properties, and hardness dependence on deposition parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, V.; Lamb, J. D.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D. C.; Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    An RF plasma deposition system was used to prepare amorphous 'diamondlike' carbon films. The source gases for the RF system include methane, ethylene, propane, and propylene, and the parameters varied were power, dc substrate bias, and postdeposition anneal temperature. Films were deposited on various substrates. The main diagnostics were optical absorption in the visible and in the infrared, admittance as a function of frequency, hardness, and Auger and ESCA spectroscopy. Band gap is found to depend strongly on RF power level and band gaps up to 2.7 eV and hardness up to 7 Mohs were found. There appears to be an inverse relationship between hardness and optical band gap.

  17. Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl film

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.T.; Davidson, P.M.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30/sup 0/C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources.

  18. Effects of oxygen content on the microstructures and optical properties of thermochromic vanadium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhenfei; Wu, Zhiming; Wang, Tao; Li, Weizhi; Jiang, Yadong

    2012-02-01

    Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering and in situ thermal oxidation were used to prepare vanadium oxide (VO X ) thin films with different oxygen contents. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a field emission scanning electron microscope were employed to characterize the films. The optical properties of the VO X films at room temperature and 90 °C were investigated by applying an spectroscopic ellipsometer with a three-layer model of BEMA/Brendel-Bormann oscillator/substrate. It was demonstrated that the vanadium-oxygen bonds were strengthened, the film thickness and roughness decreased, while the grain size increased with increasing oxygen content. The increase in oxygen content had the effect of decreasing the near-infrared reflectance and free-electron concentration of the film at 90°C due to the decrease in the amount of VO2.

  19. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, P. N. Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V.

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  20. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Marquez, Vanessa; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2012-10-01

    The direct deposition of piezoelectric thin films on thin substrates offers an appealing technology for the realization of lightweight adjustable mirrors capable of sub-arcsecond resolution. This solution will make it possible to realize X-ray telescopes with both large effective area and exceptional angular resolution and, in particular, it will enable the realization of the adjustable optics for the proposed mission Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution X-ray Telescope (SMART-X). In the past years we demonstrated for the first time the possibility of depositing a working piezoelectric thin film (1-5 um) made of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on glass. Here we review the recent progress in film deposition and influence function characterization and comparison with finite element models. The suitability of the deposited films is analyzed and some constrains on the piezoelectric film performances are derived. The future steps in the development of the technology are described.

  1. Triphenylmethane dye-doped gelatin films for low-power optical phase-conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethakrishnan, T.; Sakthivel, P.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) based optical phase-conjugation (OPC) in few triphenylmethane (Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green) dye-doped gelatin films using a 633 nm He-Ne laser radiation of total power 35 mW. Phase-conjugate (PC) reflectivity from the dye films was measured by varying the experimental parameters such as incident angle between the pump-probe beams in the DFWM geometry, dopant concentrations of the gelatin film, probe beam intensity and read-out beam intensity. The maximum PC reflectivity was observed in the Acid blue 7, Acid blue 9, Acid blue 1 and Methyl green sensitized gelatin films were 0.22%, 0.24%, 0.07% and 0.13%, respectively. The origin of the mechanism of the PC wave generation from these dye films is also reported.

  2. Electrical and optical characterization of metal oxide/metal/polymer multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryc, Irena

    1998-01-01

    A new procedure for depositing three-layer structures [doped metal oxide/metal/metal oxide (In2O3/Ag/TiO2)] on a glass substrate by applying different methods of film deposition was developed. To obtain the first film -- In2O3:Sn, the spray hydrolysis method was employed and for the second, a thin Ag film, the vacuum evaporation technique was used. The third film -- TiO2 was obtained by the organic oxide compound polymerization method. The electrical and optical properties of the films and the multilayer structure thus obtained were investigated. The studies showed that the three-layer structure could be used as a broad-band infrared filter.

  3. Nonlinear-optical and structural properties of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films

    SciTech Connect

    Brodyn, M. S.; Volkov, V. I. Lyakhovetskii, V. R.; Rudenko, V. I.; Puzilkov, V. M.; Semenov, A. V.

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the nonlinearity of refraction in nanostructured silicon carbide films depending on their structural features (synthesis conditions for such films, substrate temperature during their deposition, concentration of the crystalline phase in the film, Si/C ratio of atomic concentrations in the film, and size of SiC nanocrystals formed in the film). The corresponding dependences are obtained, as well as the values of nonlinear-optical third-order susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)}({omega}; {omega}, -{omega}, {omega}) for various silicon polytypes (3C, 21R, and 27R) which exceed the value of {chi}{sup (3)} in bulk silicon carbide single crystals by four orders of magnitude.

  4. Effects of plasticizers on sorption and optical properties of gum cordia based edible film.

    PubMed

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Jafri, Feroz Alam; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to characterize a biodegradable film produced from the polysaccharide of an indigenous plant Cordia myxa. Effect of plasticizer type (Glycerol, Sorbitol, PEG200 and PEG 400) and concentration (0-30 %) was studied on sorption and optical properties of the casted film. Increase in plasticizer concentration resulted in increase in equilibrium moisture content of the film and was supported by GAB model of sorption indicating that isotherms were of Type II. The monolayer value increased with the increase in plasticizer concentration with a peak of 0.93 g.g-1 for glycerol. Addition of plasticizers improved the total color (ΔE) with glycerol showing the highest effects. All films showed resistance to UV light in the range of 280-200 nm. The polysaccharide of the fruit of C.myxa can be used to prepare an edible film with improved properties as compared to other available edible coatings. PMID:27478216

  5. A Thin Film of an Ni NiO Heterogeneous System for an Optical Recording Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Atsuko; Nishikawa, Reiji

    1994-07-01

    The authors have found a write once read many (WORM) type new optical recording medium of an Ni NiO heterogeneous system thin film. The structure of the recording medium is a single layer Ni NiO heterogeneous thin film on a transparent resin substrate. Irradiation of a converged laser diode beam causes a volume expansion of the film to form a swell. Information reading is done by using its reduction in reflectivity. The recordable composition region of this film is considered to be the transitive region from the metal to the oxide. The volume expansion is assumed to be induced by the oxidation of the Ni NiO heterogeneous thin film and the height of the swell is estimated. This value agrees well with the measured top height of the swell.

  6. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n=0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. PMID:23827588

  7. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F / # systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. The repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100 nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  8. The use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers. Two kinds of diamond surfaces were used: undoped diamond film and boron- doped diamond film. They were deposited on glass plates as well as silicon layers. A conventionally used mirror was used as a reference layer. Diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Measurements were performed using two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with wavelengths of 1300 mm and 1550 mm. The optimal conditions for each layers were examined: the required wavelength of the light source and the length of Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity. Metrological parameters of Fabry-Perot interferometer with different mirrors were compared. The presented thin diamond films may be an interesting alternative to the commonly used reflective surfaces.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical studies on spray deposited highly oriented ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhande, B. J.; Uplane, M. D.

    2000-10-01

    Thin films of Zinc oxide (ZnO) have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis techniques using 0.025 M aqueous solution of Zinc acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal wurtzite type crystal structure. The room temperature resistivity is of the order of 10 -1 Ω cm. Estimated band gap energy from optical absorption data is around 3.27 eV. Thermoemf measurements show that films are of n-type.

  10. Nonlinear coherent optical image processing using logarithmic transmittance of bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-08-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin-film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image-processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude-transmission characteristic of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. I present experimental results demonstrating the principle and the capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. The bacteriorhodopsin film studied here displays the logarithmic transmission response for write intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2 orders of magnitude.

  11. Optical diagnostics of anisotropic nanoscale films on transparent isotropic materials by integrating reflectivity and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Peep

    2009-11-01

    The reflection of s- and p-polarized electromagnetic plane waves from an anisotropic ultrathin dielectric film on transparent isotropic substrate is investigated in the long-wavelength limit. The analytical approximate formulas are obtained for the reflection coefficients and ellipsometric angles that agree with the exact computer solution of the reflection problem for anisotropic systems. The possibilities of using the obtained expressions for resolving the inverse problem for ultrathin anisotropic dielectric films upon isotropic dielectric substrates are discussed. It is shown that a promising technique for determining the optical constants of anisotropic dielectric films on transparent substrates is the integration of ellipsometry and differential reflectivity. PMID:19881659

  12. Holographic characterization of DYE-PVA films studied at 442 nm for optical elements fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, Jean J.

    1991-12-01

    The present work is an experimental study of the speed of hologram recording in dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films (DC-PVA) and DYE-DC-PVA films. Real-time recordings give high diffraction efficiency and low signal-to-noise ratio holograms without any chemical development. The dyes studied here are MALACHITE GREEN, EOSIN Y, and ROSE BENGAL introduced in DC-PVA films having a thickness of 60 - 62 micrometers . The best of these DYE-DC-PVA systems is a good candidate for holographic optical elements fabrication.

  13. Vector magneto-optical sensor based on transparent magnetic films with cubic crystallographic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, A. E.; Vetoshko, P. M.; Gusev, N. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Prokopov, A. R.; Popov, V. V.; Dodonov, D. V.; Shumilov, A. G.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The concept of vector magneto-optical magnetometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key element of the vector magnetometer is a transparent high Faraday activity magnetic film with a cubic crystal lattice. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the film leads to the three dimensional trajectory of the film magnetization when the magnetization is rotated by the control magnetic field. It makes the magnetization sensitive to all three components of the external magnetic field. This field can be found from the harmonic composition of the Faraday rotation dependence on the azimuth angle of the control magnetic field. The demonstrated vector magnetometer is promising for mapping and visualization of ultra small magnetic fields.

  14. Nonlinear Coherent Optical Image Processing Using Logarithmic Transmittance of Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin-film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image-processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude-transmission characteristic of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. I present experimental results demonstrating the principle and the capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. The bacteriorhodopsin film studied here displays the logarithmic transmission response for write intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2 orders of magnitude.

  15. Electrochemically Organized Isolated Fullerene-Rich Thin Films with Optical Limiting Properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shusen; Zhang, Jian; Sang, Liwen; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Ping; Li, Feng; Li, Mao; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-09-21

    Electrochemical assembly was applied directly to determine the aggregation of nanoclusters in isolated fullerene-rich (54-63 wt %) thin films. The electroactive reactions were achieved using electroactive carbazole and pyrene, which led to distinguishable nanoparticle-like and irregular cluster formations. These films, with amorphous and transparent states, showed good photoactivity and significant optical limiting response with an excellent threshold of 63 mJ cm(-2). This work thus paves a way to assemble highly isolated (or monodispersed) building blocks into thin films at the molecular level with control of the nanostructural formations through important molecular design. PMID:27580965

  16. Optically active multilayer films based on chitosan and an azopolymer.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Raquel; Ocando, Connie; Fernandes, Susana C M; Eceiza, Arantxa; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-04-14

    The layer-by-layer technique has been widely adopted for the fabrication of nanostructures with tailored properties. In this work, photoactive multilayer films consisting of alternating layers of chitosan and an azopolymer were developed by this method. Taking into account that pH is the factor controlling the charge of weak polyelectrolytes, the influence of this parameter on the structure and properties of the multilayer films was evaluated. Thus, different films were prepared by varying pH conditions as well as bilayer number. The morphology and properties of the films were analyzed by diverse advanced techniques, such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy equipped with PeakForce QNM (Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping). It was found that the thickness, roughness and elastic modulus of the developed multilayer films increased with the decrease of the chitosan solution pH and the increase of the bilayer number. Furthermore, induced birefringence measurements revealed that a higher level of photo-orientation was attained with the decrease of pH and the increase of bilayer number. PMID:24564819

  17. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  18. Addition of Hetero-Atoms to the Polymer Film by Plasma Enhanced Polymerization and its Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriki, Kazunori; Yumoto, Motoshige

    Plasma enhanced polymerization is an attractive technology to fabricate an optical polymer waveguide, because it has capability to provide an uniform thickness film on a substrate with various surface geometry, and to provide change of refractive index by controlling a proportion of source monomer mixing. In the present paper we discuss optical constants and molecule structures of the films added hetero-atoms, O, N and F in the CHx network of polymer. Refractive index of those films changes from 1.52 to 1.63 at 1.0 μm wavelength, depending on the variety of hetero-atoms. Fluorine atoms added into a film decreases refractive index of the film. Oxygen atoms added into a film, which form ester structure (- COO-), decrease refractive index of the film, and some O atoms token into a film as OH base will increase optical absorption in inferred region for optical communication. Nitrogen atoms added increase optical absorption due to forming NH2 base. Finally, sp3/sp2 fraction controlling in the film will be a suitable to control refractive index of the film for an optical waveguide, for example by using mixed monomer of C6H6 and C6H10.

  19. Optical and structural properties of indium doped bismuth selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavagadhi, Himanshu; Vyas, S. M.; Patel, Piyush; Patel, Vimal; Patel, Jaydev; Jani, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    In: Bi2Se3 crystals were grown by Bridgman method at a growth velocity of 0.5cm/h with temperature gradient of 650 C/cm in our laboratory. The thin films of In:Bi2se3 were grown on amorphous substrate (glass) at a room temperature under a pressure of 10-4Pa by thermal evaporation technique. Thin film were deposited at various thicknesses and optical absorption spectrum of such thin films, obtain in wave no. range 300 to 2600 cm-1. The optical energy gap calculated from this data were found to be inverse function of square of thickness, particularly for thickness about 1800 Å or less. This dependence is explained in terms of quantum size effect. For thicker films, the bandgap is found to be independent of film thickness. For the surface stud of the as grown thin film by using AFM, which shows continuous film with some step height and surface roughness found in terms of few nm and particle size varies with respect to thickness.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of sputtered amorphous vanadium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Podraza, N. J.; Gauntt, B. D.; Motyka, M. A.; Horn, M. W.; Dickey, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Amorphous vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) is a component found in composite nanocrystalline VO{sub x} thin films. These types of composite films are used as thermistors in pulsed biased uncooled infrared imaging devices when containing face centered cubic vanadium monoxide phase crystallites, and substantial fractions of amorphous material in the composite are necessary to optimize device electrical properties. Similarly, optoelectronic devices exploiting the metal-to-semiconductor transition contain the room-temperature monoclinic or high-temperature (>68 deg. C) rutile vanadium dioxide phase. Thin films of VO{sub x} exhibiting the metal-to-semiconductor transition are typically polycrystalline or nanocrystalline, implying that significant amounts of disordered, amorphous material is present at grain boundaries or surrounding the crystallites and can impact the overall optical or electronic properties of the film. The performance of thin film material for either application depends on both the nature of the crystalline and amorphous components, and in this work we seek to isolate and study amorphous VO{sub x}. VO{sub x} thin films were deposited by pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering to produce amorphous materials with oxygen contents {>=}2, which were characterized electrically by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements and optically characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Film resistivity, thermal activation energy, and complex dielectric function spectra from 0.75 to 6.0 eV were used to identify the impact of microstructural variations including composition and density.

  1. [Optical Properties of ZnO Films Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Dong-dong; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Ao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Chen, Qiang; Meng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The ZnO films were deposited by atomic layer deposition method using water and diethylzinc as precursors at different temperatures (110 and 190 degrees C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectra (PL) were used to investigate the elemental composition and optical properties of ZnO films. Our results showed that with the increasing of the growth temperature, the amount of -OH groups in the ZnO film decreased, which indicated that the reactions went to completion at high processing temperatures. The PL spectra of the ZnO film deposited at 110 degrees C exhibited two emission bands, one in the UV region and the other in the visible region. When the deposition temperature increased to 190 degrees C, the emission bands in the visible region disappeared, which indicated that the deep level defect in ZnO became less. The carrier mobility improved from 25 to 32 cm2 x (V x S)(-1) with the reduction of the defects in the ZnO film. The refractive index of the ZnO films decreased from 2.33 to 1.9 in the 375-800 nm region. The optical absorption edge (E(g)) values of the ZnO films deposited at different temperature were about 3.27 eV.

  2. Optical and structural properties of indium doped bismuth selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pavagadhi, Himanshu Vyas, S. M. Patel, Piyush; Patel, Vimal; Patel, Jaydev; Jani, M. P.

    2015-08-28

    In: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals were grown by Bridgman method at a growth velocity of 0.5cm/h with temperature gradient of 650 C/cm in our laboratory. The thin films of In:Bi{sub 2}se{sub 3} were grown on amorphous substrate (glass) at a room temperature under a pressure of 10{sup −4}Pa by thermal evaporation technique. Thin film were deposited at various thicknesses and optical absorption spectrum of such thin films, obtain in wave no. range 300 to 2600 cm{sup −1}. The optical energy gap calculated from this data were found to be inverse function of square of thickness, particularly for thickness about 1800 Å or less. This dependence is explained in terms of quantum size effect. For thicker films, the bandgap is found to be independent of film thickness. For the surface stud of the as grown thin film by using AFM, which shows continuous film with some step height and surface roughness found in terms of few nm and particle size varies with respect to thickness.

  3. Investigation in morphology and optical properties of electron beam gun evaporated nanostructured Bromoindium phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim-Araghi, M. E.; Sahebi, R.

    2014-01-01

    Bromoindium phthalocyanine in thin film form was prepared by electron beam gun evaporation technique, using pre-cleaned polyborosilicate glass as substrate. 2D AFM image confirms that the surface of BrInPc thin film is granular with a grain size of 40-60 nm. 3D AFM image confirms that surface is homogeneous and its RMS roughness is 4.9 nm. The UV-VIS absorption spectrum showed two well-known absorption bands of the phthalocyanines, B and Q bands and characteristics Davydov splitting were observed. The optical transition determined to be direct allowed and the value of optical band gap was obtained. The value of Urbach energy was calculated. To investigation in the effect of thermal annealing on optical properties of BrInPc thin films, we annealed some thin films at 473 and 603 K for 1 h. As the result of thermal annealing we observed another absorption peak, named N-band, in absorption spectrum. A red shift observed in the position of B-band and Q-band peaks. There was not changing in optical transition mechanism. The value of optical band gap decreased and the Urbach energy increased as the result of thermal annealing.

  4. Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In2S3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sonu

    2015-08-01

    There is a highly need of an alternate of toxic materials CdS for solar cell applications and indium sulfide is found the most suitable candidate to replace CdS due to its non-toxic and environmental friendly nature. In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films is undertaken. The indium sulfide thin films of 121 nm were deposited on glass substrates employing thermal evaporation method. The films were subjected to the X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively for structural and optical analysis. The XRD pattern show that the as-deposited thin film was amorphous in nature and crystallinity is found to be varied with annealing temperature. The optical analysis reveals that the optical band gap is varied with annealing. The optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated. The results are in good agreement with available literature.

  5. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 {mu}m; they have extinction coefficients of k{approx}10{sup {minus}7}. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (``pole``) the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ``Poling`` films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  6. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 [mu]m; they have extinction coefficients of k[approx]10[sup [minus]7]. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (''pole'') the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ''Poling'' films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  7. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.

    1997-01-01

    All the goals of the research effort for the first year were met by the accomplishments. Additional efforts were done to speed up the process of development and construction of the experimental gas chamber which will be completed by the end of 1997. This chamber incorporates vacuum sealed multimode optical fiber lines which connect the sensor to the remote light source and signal processing equipment. This optical fiber line is a prototype of actual optical communication links connecting real sensors to a control unit within an aircraft or spacecraft. An important problem which we are planning to focus on during the second year is coupling of optical fiber line to the sensor. Currently this problem is solved using focusing optics and prism couplers. More reliable solutions are planned to be investigated.

  8. Optical observation of evanescent surface magnons in thin magnetic films

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, G.; Emtage, P.R.; Booth, J.G.; Patton, C.E.

    1988-04-15

    A new type of nonpropagating surface-wave-like magnon has been detected in yttrium iron garnet films (YIG) in a magnetostatic wave (MSW) device structure using Brillouin light scattering. The measurements were carried out on a YIG film stripline device operated at 2--4 GHz. With an applied magnetic field parallel to the stripline, magnon signals were observed at fields above the surface wave band edge. Theory shows that highly localized, evanescent surface modes can exist at such fields, but only when a ground plane is present; the bandwidth in field or frequency is inversely proportional to the separation between the film and the ground plane. The observed evanescent wave band limits are in good agreement with the theoretical values.

  9. Diffusion dynamics of small molecules from mesoporous silicon films by real-time optical interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mares, Jeremy W.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2011-09-20

    Time-dependent laser reflectometry measurements are presented as a means to rigorously characterize analyte diffusion dynamics of small molecules from mesoporous silicon (PSi) films for drug delivery and membrane physics applications. Calculations based on inclusion of a spatially and temporally dependent solute concentration profile in a one-dimensional Fickian diffusion flow model are performed to determine the diffusion coefficients for the selected prototypical polar species, sucrose (340 Da), exiting from PSi films. The diffusion properties of the molecules depend on both PSi pore size and film thickness. For films with average pore diameters between 10-30 nm and film thicknesses between 300-900 nm, the sucrose diffusion coefficient can be tuned between approximately 100 and 550 {mu}m{sup 2}/s. Extensions of the real-time measurement and modeling approach for determining the diffusivity of small molecules that strongly interact with and corrode the internal surfaces of PSi films are also discussed.

  10. Low-intensity UV effects on optical constants of PMMA film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian, M.; Dorranian, D.

    2014-04-01

    Effects of low-intensity UV treatment on the optical constants of red BS dye-doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film including refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, band gap energy, Urbach energy, and refractive index dispersion parameters are measured and calculated. Changes in optical constants mainly occurred in the UV-VIS range. Red BS dye, which is used as a UV absorber impurity in PMMA films, generated another energy band gap which was increased by UV treatment. Although some of the optical constants of PMMA are not changed noticeably by the treatment in this low range of UV radiation, our results confirm that polymeric changes such as chain scission and depolymerization can directly affect the optical constants of PMMA.

  11. Shift endpoint trace selection algorithm and wavelet analysis to detect the endpoint using optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Zakour, Sihem; Taleb, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    Endpoint detection (EPD) is very important undertaking on the side of getting a good understanding and figuring out if a plasma etching process is done on the right way. It is truly a crucial part of supplying repeatable effects in every single wafer. When the film to be etched has been completely erased, the endpoint is reached. In order to ensure the desired device performance on the produced integrated circuit, many sensors are used to detect the endpoint, such as the optical, electrical, acoustical/vibrational, thermal, and frictional. But, except the optical sensor, the other ones show their weaknesses due to the environmental conditions which affect the exactness of reaching endpoint. Unfortunately, some exposed area to the film to be etched is very low (<0.5%), reflecting low signal and showing the incapacity of the traditional endpoint detection method to determine the wind-up of the etch process. This work has provided a means to improve the endpoint detection sensitivity by collecting a huge numbers of full spectral data containing 1201 spectra for each run, then a new unsophisticated algorithm is proposed to select the important endpoint traces named shift endpoint trace selection (SETS). Then, a sensitivity analysis of linear methods named principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), and the nonlinear method called wavelet analysis (WA) for both approximation and details will be studied to compare performances of the methods mentioned above. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) is not only computed based on the main etch (ME) period but also the over etch (OE) period. Moreover, a new unused statistic for EPD, coefficient of variation (CV), is proposed to reach the endpoint in plasma etches process.

  12. Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite films studied by magneto-optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E. Višňovský, Š.; Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Prasad, Shiva; Venkataramani, N.; Bohra, Murtaza; Krishnan, R.

    2015-05-07

    Ferrimagnetic Zn-ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) films can be grown with the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 40 Oe at 9.5 GHz without going through a high temperature processing. This presents interest for applications. The work deals with laser ablated ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited at O{sub 2} pressure of 0.16 mbar onto fused quartz substrates. The films about 120 nm thick are nanocrystalline and their spontaneous magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, depends on the nanograin size, which is controlled by the substrate temperature (T{sub s}). At T{sub s} ≈ 350 °C, where the grain distribution peaks around ∼20–30 nm, the room temperature 4πM{sub s} reaches a maximum of ∼2.3 kG. The films were studied by magnetooptical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The complementary characteristics were provided by spectral ellipsometry (SE). Both the SE and MOKE spectra confirmed ferrimagnetic ordering. The structural details correspond to those observed in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} spinels. SE experiments confirm the insulator behavior. The films display MOKE amplitudes somewhat reduced with respect to those in Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to a lower degree of spinel inversion and nanocrystalline structure. The results indicate that the films are free of oxygen vacancies and Fe{sup 3+}-Fe{sup 2+} exchange.

  13. Optical grating recording in anisotropic photorefractive thin film: Dimensional resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, V.; Solymar, L.

    2000-05-01

    A differential equation and boundary conditions are derived for the amplitude of the first harmonic of the space-charge field in the case of a lossy thin photorefractive film with anisotropic conductivity that is illuminated by a moving interference pattern. It is shown that for certain values of the anisotropy parameter, detuning, and film thickness, a new resonance phenomenon may occur. This resonance is distinct from and additional to the one that relies on the agreement between the speed of the interference pattern and that of the space charge wave, and has been known for a long time.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and optical properties of PMMA films by spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method. The films were annealed for 10 minutes in furnace at different annealing temperature of room temperature, 50, 100, 150 and 200 °C. The effect of annealing temperatures to the surface and optical properties of PMMA films spin-coated on the substrate were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy. It was observed in AFM analysis all the annealed films show excellent smooth surface with zero roughness. All the samples demonstrate a high transmittance of 80% in UV region as shown in UV-Vis measurement. Highly transparent films indicate the films are good optical properties and could be applied in various optical applications and also in non-linear optics.

  15. Synthesis and optical characterization of nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Khan, Shamshad A.; Nagat, A.; Abd El-Sadek, M. S.

    2010-11-01

    From several years the study of binary compounds has been intensified in order to find new materials for solar photocells. The development of thin film solar cells is an active area of research at this time. Much attention has been paid to the development of low cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. CdTe is one of the suitable candidates for the production of thin film solar cells due to its ideal band gap, high absorption coefficient. The present work deals with thickness dependent study of CdTe thin films. Nanocrystalline CdTe bulk powder was synthesized by wet chemical route at pH≈11.2 using cadmium chloride and potassium telluride as starting materials. The product sample was characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffraction showed that the films are polycrystalline in nature. CdTe thin films with thickness 40, 60, 80 and 100 nm were prepared on glass substrates by using thermal evaporation onto glass substrate under a vacuum of 10 -6 Torr. The optical constants (absorption coefficient, optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary part of dielectric constant) of CdTe thin films was studied as a function of photon energy in the wavelength region 400-2000 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data shows that the rule of direct transitions predominates. It has been found that the absorption coefficient, refractive index ( n) and extinction coefficient ( k) decreases while the values of optical band gap increase with an increase in thickness from 40 to 100 nm, which can be explained qualitatively by a thickness dependence of the grain size through decrease in grain boundary barrier height with grain size.

  16. A diffuser-based three-dimensional measurement of polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of optical films for 3D-display applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-26

    We propose an accurate and easy-to-use three-dimensional measurement method using a diffuser plate to analyze the scattering characteristics of optical films. The far-field radiation pattern of light scattered by the optical film is obtained from the illuminance pattern created on the diffuser plate by the light. A mathematical model and calibration methods were described, and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct measurement using a luminance meter. The new method gave very precise three-dimensional polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of scattering polarizer films, and it can play an effective role in developing high performance polarization-selective screens for 3D display applications. PMID:25835866

  17. Optical absorption characteristics of polycrystalline AgGaSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. R. A.; Firoz Hasan, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Silver gallium di-selenide (AgGaSe2) composite thin films have been formed onto ultrasonically and chemically cleaned glass substrates by in situ thermal annealing of the stack of successively evaporated individual elemental layers in vacuum. The structural properties of the films were ascertained by the x-ray diffraction method. The diffractogram indicated that these films were polycrystalline in nature having tetragonal structure with lattice parameters, a ap 6.00 Å and c ap 10.92 Å and average grain dimension 40 nm. The optical properties and atomic compositions of the films have been determined by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry (photon wavelength ranging between 300 and 2500 nm) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray, respectively. The typical optical absorption characteristic of the films has been critically analysed. The optical absorption coefficients vary from 103 to 105 cm-1 in the measured wavelength range of photons. The films have more than one type of fundamental electronic transitions. Direct allowed and direct forbidden transitions vary from 1.628 to 1.748 eV and 2.077 to 2.193 eV, respectively, depending on the composition of the films. The former transitions are found to have a general tendency to be symmetric around non-molecularity ΔX = 0, defined by ΔX = [(Ag/Ga)] - 1, while the latter shows no such dependence. Stoichiometric or slightly silver-deficient films show electron transition energies closer to the single crystal value. Spin-orbit splitting of the valence band becomes minimum at perfect stoichiometry.

  18. Improved LRG Selection Algorithms combining Optical And WISE (Infrared) Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Newman, J.; eBOSS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) are the most massive galaxies in nearby universe of z < 1.0 which appear to have formed the bulk of their stars at early times. Mostly ellipticals, they are associated with massive dark matter halos and hence cluster very strongly which makes them an excellent tracer of the large-scale structure of the Universe. LRGs at z < 0.6 can be selected efficiently using optical photometry, but at z >0.6 this becomes increasingly difficult. Here we present the results of new techniques now being applied to select LRGs at redshifts 0.6 < z < 1 utilizing SDSS and WISE photometry in combination. Old stellar populations exhibit a global maximum in their SED at a wavelength of 1.6 μm, commonly referred to as the '1.6 μm bump'. Since LRGs possess very few young stars, this feature generally dominates their overall spectral energy distribution. The lowest wavelength channel in WISE is centered at 3.4 μm, causing LRGs that are at 1 to be extremely bright in this band compared to the optical. As a result, the r-W1 vs. r-i color-color diagram (where W1 is the 3.4 μm WISE AB magnitude) provides an efficient tool for selecting high-redshift LRGs while avoiding stars. In this poster, we present new results from efforts to optimize the color cut used to select LRGs, yielding samples with a very low stellar contamination rate, but a high fraction of galaxies that are both at z>0.6 and intrinsically red in color. Studying their properties and distribution can also help us determine the mechanisms by which these rare objects form. We have tested this method using photometric redshifts and spectroscopic redshifts in the COSMOS field and DEEP2 fields respectively. LRGs selected with this method are the targets for future-generation surveys such as eBOSS and DESI and undergoing surveys like, SEQUELS BOSS ancillary survey which aim at high precision measurement of BAO.

  19. Optical and chemical properties of mixed-valent rhenium oxide films synthesized by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Neil R.; Gallagher, Regina C.; Sun, Lirong; Jones, John G.; Grant, John T.

    2015-07-01

    Mixed-valent rhenium oxide thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering employing a metallic rhenium target within an oxygen-argon environment. The oxygen and argon flow rates were systematically varied, while the extinction coefficient, k, of the deposited layers was monitored using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. In situ monitoring was used to identify absorption features specific to ReO3, namely, the minimization of k brought on by the gap between interband absorption features in the UV at 310 nm and the onset of free electron absorption at wavelengths above 540 nm. Based on these results, oxygen flow ratios of 50% and 60% were shown to produce films having optical properties characteristic of ReO3, and thus, were selected for detailed ex situ characterization. Chemical analysis via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that all films consisted largely of ReO3, but had some contributions from Re2O3, ReO2 and Re2O7. Additional monitoring of the chemistry, as a function of environmental exposure time, indicated a correlation between structural instability and the presence of Re2O3 and Re2O7 in the films.

  20. Optical properties of Azo Dye (1-Phenylazo-2-Naphthol) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. S.; El-Mallah, H. M.; Mansour, A. N.

    2009-11-01

    Thin Films of Azo Dye (1-Phenylazo-2-Naphthol) have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique onto quartz substrates held at about 300 K during the deposition process with different thicknesses range 625-880 nm. X-ray diffraction and the differential thermal analysis showed that the Azo Dye sample is crystalline nature and thermal stable in temperature range from room temperature to 100 circC. The optical constants (the refractive index n, the absorption index k and the absorption coefficient α) were calculated for Azo Dye (1-Phenylazo-2-Naphthol) thin films by using spectrophotometer measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the spectral range 400-2200 nm. The obtained values of both n and k were found to be independent of the film thicknesses. The refractive index has anomalous behavior in the wavelength range 400-1000 nm besides a high energy transition at 2.385 eV. The optical parameters (the dispersion energy Ed, the oscillation energy Eo, the room temperature optical dielectric constant \\varepsilonl, the lattice dielectric constant \\varepsilonL, the high frequency dielectric constant \\varepsilon∞ and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/mast) were calculated. The allowed optical transition responsible for optical absorption was found to be direct transition with optical energy gap of 1.5 eV for Azo Dye sample. The band tail obeys Urbach's empirical relation. in here

  1. Design and fabrication of optical thin films for remote sensing instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C. N.; Chen, H. P.; Chiu, P. K.; Cho, W. H.; Lin, Y. W.; Chen, F. Z.; Tsai, D. P.

    2010-07-15

    Optical thin films designed for multispectral band-pass filters and a primary Ag mirror were deposited on radiation-resistant glass by ion-beam-assisted deposition. The filters and mirror are for use in the optical payload of a remote sensing instrument. The optical parameters of the films and mirror were optimized by using admittance loci analysis. The simulation shows that the band-pass filters can achieve average transmittances of 95% in the blue (B1), green (B2), red (B3), near-infrared (B4), and panchromatic (400-900 nm) spectral ranges and an average reflectance of 99% for the primary Ag mirror in the visible spectrum. The corresponding properties of the films were investigated by in situ optical monitoring, spectrometry, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the average transmittances are above 85% for all five band-pass filters, with a rejection transmittance below 1% in the spectral range of 350-1100 nm. The average reflectance of the primary Ag mirror (with a protective coating) is above 98%. Interference coatings were added to the basic protected silver design to enhance the reflectance in the visible spectral range. Furthermore, to investigate the optical stability of optical thin films for aerospace applications, a space environment was simulated by using a Co{sup 60} gamma ({gamma}) radiation source (total doses of 35 krad and 1 Mrad). The experimental results indicate that both the dielectric thin film stacks and radiation-protected glass are resistant to {gamma} radiation in the simulated space environment.

  2. Optically-Selected Cluster Catalogs As a Precision Cosmology Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Evrard, August E.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.

    2007-03-26

    We introduce a framework for describing the halo selection function of optical cluster finders. We treat the problem as being separable into a term that describes the intrinsic galaxy content of a halo (the Halo Occupation Distribution, or HOD) and a term that captures the effects of projection and selection by the particular cluster finding algorithm. Using mock galaxy catalogs tuned to reproduce the luminosity dependent correlation function and the empirical color-density relation measured in the SDSS, we characterize the maxBCG algorithm applied by Koester et al. to the SDSS galaxy catalog. We define and calibrate measures of completeness and purity for this algorithm, and demonstrate successful recovery of the underlying cosmology and HOD when applied to the mock catalogs. We identify principal components--combinations of cosmology and HOD parameters--that are recovered by survey counts as a function of richness, and demonstrate that percent-level accuracies are possible in the first two components, if the selection function can be understood to {approx} 15% accuracy.

  3. A facile fabrication of electrodeposited luminescent MOF thin films for selective and recyclable sensing of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yi; Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Zhongheng; Li, Wei; Yang, Yangyi

    2016-07-21

    Rapid detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of utmost importance from the perspectives of civilian safety, the natural environment and human health. Herein, we design a simple yet powerful optical sensing motif based on an electrodeposited luminescent MOF thin film of {[Eu2(TDC)3(CH3OH)2]·CH3OH} (Eu-TDC, where TDC is thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate). The parameters of the electrodeposition process were investigated and optimized. The phase and elemental composition of the Eu-TDC film were confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and its morphology and structure were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This thin film shows extremely good luminescence properties with characteristics of Eu(3+) that are sensitized by the electron-rich ligands, which allows for high efficiency in electron-deficient nitroaromatic explosive sensing. Selective and sensitive responses to a series of nitroaromatic explosives were exhibited, especially for nitrophenols (TNP/DNP/4-NP, KSV > 10(4) M(-1)). It is also an efficient luminescent sensor for detecting nitrobenzene vapour. Significantly, this film can be easily recycled just by washing with methanol. The potential sensing mechanisms are discussed in detail. PMID:27158945

  4. A RECOMMENDED SELECTION OF FILMS SUITABLE FOR NDEA INSTITUTES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZARD, PATRICK

    THIS LISTING OF FILMS AND RELATED MATERIALS TOUCHES A WIDE RANGE OF LITERARY AND CULTURAL THEMES. PARTICULARLY RECOMMENDED TO PROVIDE AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MEDIA AND LITERATURE ARE SOURCEBOOKS, CONTEMPORARY CRITICAL REACTIONS, THE LONG-PLAYING RECORD, AND TELEVISION PLAY FOR "BENITO CERENO." EASILY ACCESSIBLE FILM…

  5. The Holocaust in Books and Films. A Selected, Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffs, Judith Herschlag, Ed.

    This is an annotated list of over 400 resource books and films on Jewish history before the Holocaust, the history and development of Nazism, experiences during the Holocaust and its aftermath, and the phenomenon of prejudice and anti-Semitism. Designed primarily for teachers and librarians in secondary schools and to some extent in elementary…

  6. Pump-probe optical switching in prism-coupled Au :SiO2 nanocomposite waveguide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Won-Mok; Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Soonil

    2007-10-01

    The resonance properties due to the surface plasmon excitation of metal nanoparticles make the nanocomposite films promising for various applications such as optical switching devices. In spite of the well-known ultrasensitive operation of optical switches based on a guided wave, the application of nanocomposite film has inherent limitation originating from the excessive optical loss related to the surface plasmon resonance. In this study, we address this problem and present the experimental and theoretical analyses on the pump-probe optical switching in prism-coupled Au(1vol%):SiO2 nanocomposite waveguide film.

  7. Structural Study And Optical Properties Of TiO{sub 2} Thin Films Elaborated By Thermal Oxidation Of RF Magnetron Sputtered Ti Films

    SciTech Connect

    Guitoume, D.; Achour, S.; Guittoum, A.; Abaidia, S. E. H.

    2008-09-23

    We report on the effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by direct exposure of Ti metal film to thermal oxidation. Ti thin films with thicknesses ranging from 87 nm to 484 nm were deposited onto glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. Thereafter, the as-deposited Ti films were annealed in air at temperature equal to 520 deg. C. The structural evolution and optical properties of obtained TiO{sub 2} films were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The films thicknesses were extracted from RBS spectra. From X-ray diffraction spectra, we can see that all the films present three TiO{sub 2} phases (anatase, rutile and Brookite). The anatase and rutile phases exhibit a strong preferred orientation along (004) and (210) planes respectively. The grain sizes, D (nm), did not change much with increasing thickness. The average value of (nm) was equal to 29 nm for anatase and 26 nm for rutile. The micrographs taken from SEM experiments indicate that the films present a dense micro structure with very small grains. Transmittance spectra show that all the films present a good transparency in the visible region. The dependence of transmittance, optical band gap and refractive index on the thickness of the films was also studied.

  8. Fabrication of plasmonic thin films and their characterization by optical method and FDTD simulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, A.; Uherek, F.; Å kriniarová, J.; Pudiš, D.; Weis, M.; Donoval, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present optical properties of thin metal films deposited on the glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition. Localized surface plasmon polaritons of different film thicknesses have been spectrally characterized by optical methods. Evidence of the Au nanoparticles in deposited thin films have been demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and their dimensions as well as separations have been evaluated. As a first approximation, the simulation model of deposited nanoparticles without assuming their dimension and separation distributions has been created. Simulation model defines relation between the nanoparticle dimensions and their separations. Model of deposited nanoparticles has been simulated by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method. The pulsed excitation has been used and transmission of optical radiation has been calculated from the spectral response by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyses. Plasmonic extinctions have been calculated from measured spectral characteristics as well as simulated characteristics and compared with each other. The nanoparticle dimensions and separations have been evaluated from the agreement between the simulation and experimental spectral characteristics. Surface morphology of thin metal film has been used as an input for the detail simulation study based on the experimental observation of metal nanoparticle distribution. Hence, this simulation method includes appropriate coupling effects between nanoparticles and provides more reliable results. Obtained results are helpful for further deep understanding of thin metal films plasmonic properties and simulation method is demonstrated as a powerful tool for the deposition technology optimizations.

  9. Studies on optical properties of antimony doped SnO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürakar, Sibel; Serin, Tülay; Serin, Necmi

    2015-10-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on microscope glass substrates. The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The optical transmittances of thin films were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer in the 300-2000 nm wavelength range. A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model and the important oscillating parameters such as the dispersion energy Ed, the oscillation energy Eo, the high frequency dielectric constant ɛ∞ were determined. The analysis of the refractive index has been carried out to calculate the lattice dielectric constant ɛL and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/m*. The real and imaginary parts of the electronic dielectric constant and optical conductivity were analyzed. The optical band gap, Eg values of the films were obtained from the spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient, using the Tauc relation.

  10. Self-Assembled Nano-heterostructural Thin Film for Optical Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kouji; Kyung, Kyu-Hong; Shiratori, Seimei

    2011-04-01

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly method enables the deposition of functional nanoscale multilayer thin films on intricate-shape substrates. The present problem with optical devices is the formation of a uniform coating of a nanoscale heterostructural thin film on both faces of the lens. In this paper, we introduce self-assembled heterostructural optical films with higher- and lower-refractive index layers, which were fabricated using a stable water base titanium complex [titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (TALH)] and cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes [poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)] and [poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)] on a lens via the LBL method. The antireflectance characteristics of (PDDA/TALH)20/(PDDA/PAA)20 showed a maximum transmittance of 99.2% with (PDDA/TALH)20 (ca. 1.75, 80 nm) and (PDDA/PAA)20 (ca. 1.48, 87 nm) on both faces of the lens. These results demonstrate that we can control the refractive index and film thickness of self-assembled nano-heterostructural films on optical lenses.

  11. Optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline and amorphous Al-Ti thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canulescu, S.; Borca, C. N.; Rechendorff, K.; Davidsdóttir, S.; Pagh Almtoft, K.; Nielsen, L. P.; Schou, J.

    2016-04-01

    The structural, optical, and transport properties of sputter-deposited Al-Ti thin films have been investigated as a function of Ti alloying with a concentration ranging from 2% to 46%. The optical reflectivity of Al-Ti films at visible and near-infrared wavelengths decreases with increasing Ti content. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the atomic ordering around Ti atoms increases with increasing Ti content up to 20% and then decreases as a result of a transition from a polycrystalline to amorphous structure. The transport properties of the Al-Ti films are influenced by electron scattering at the grain boundaries in the case of polycrystalline films and static defects, such as anti-site effects and vacancies in the case of the amorphous alloys. The combination of Ti having a real refractive index (n) comparable with the extinction coefficient (k) and Al with n much smaller than k allows us to explore the parameter space for the free-electron behavior in transition metal-Al alloys. The free electron model, applied for the polycrystalline Al-Ti films with Ti content up to 20%, leads to an optical reflectance at near infrared wavelengths that scales linearly with the square root of the electrical resistivity.

  12. Optical characterisation of gold films for time-resolved reflectance thermometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Jasmina; White, Thomas G.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of temperature represents a long-standing challenge within the field of high-pressure science. Recently, a promising time-resolved reflectance thermometry technique employing embedded gold films has been demonstrated. As an active diagnostic, reflectance thermometry is well suited for dynamic experiments generating temperatures below 1000K, where passive diagnostics such as pyrometry become infeasible due to the transient states created. A critical component of the reflectance thermometry technique is a robust optical characterisation of the gold films, decoupling the thermal and pressure contributions. Additionally, the optical properties of gold vary with both sample preparation and thermal history. With a view towards the development of a spatially-resolved reflectance thermometry technique for temperature measurement, we report the optical characterisation of a range of commercially available or deposited thin film gold samples. Reflectance spectroscopy was performed on the gold films as a function of temperature from ambient conditions to 400K, and as a function of pressure using a diamond anvil cell. The experimental data are fitted to a simple phenomenological Drude model paving the way for the calibrated films to be used during future dynamic experiments.

  13. Subdiffraction-Resolution Optical Measurements of Molecular Transport in Thin Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Pahal, Suman; Raichur, Ashok M; Varma, Manoj M

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of molecular transport within polymer films yields information about the internal structural organization of the films and is useful in applications such as the design of polymeric capsules for drug delivery. Layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayer films has been widely used in such applications where the multilayer structure often exhibits anisotropic transport resulting in different diffusivities in the lateral (parallel to the film) and transverse (normal to the film) directions. Although lateral transport can be probed using techniques such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), it cannot be applied to probing transverse diffusivity in polymer films smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Here we present a technique to probe the transport of molecules tagged with fluorphores in polymer films thinner than the optical diffraction limit using the modulation of fluorescence emission depending on the distance of the tagged molecules from a metal surface. We have used this technique to probe the diffusion of proteins biotin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in polyelectrolyte multilayer films. We also studied the interdiffusion of chains in multilayer films using this technique. We observed a 3 order of magnitude increase in interdiffusion as a function of the ionic strength of the medium. This technique, along with FRAP, will be useful in studying anisotropic transport in polymer films, even those thinner than the diffraction limit, because the signal in this technique arises only from transverse and not lateral transport. Finally, this technique is also applicable to studying the diffusion of chromophore-labeled species within a polymer film. We demonstrate this aspect by measuring the transverse diffusion of methylene blue in the PAH-PAA multilayer system.

  14. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dewani, Aliya A. O’Keefe, Steven G.; Thiel, David V.; Galehdar, Amir

    2015-02-15

    A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm), flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2). It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing) to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  15. Optical nebulosity in X-ray-selected, early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an H-alpha + N II forbidden line narrowband imaging survey of X-ray-selected E and S0 galaxies. A novel technique is described for objectively optimizing the removal of stellar continuum light while providing well-defined estimates of systematic errors. The procedure has the additional benefit of eliminating sky contamination, specifically in image regions occupied by galaxy light. Consideration of the measured spectral energy distributions is included in the flux calibration procedure, and emission-line luminosities (or upper limits), corrected for Galactic foreground extinction, are tabulated for metric apertures. No connection is found between the 'boxiness' or 'diskiness' of stellar isophotes and emission-line or far-infrared luminosity. It is suggested that optical nebulosity in early-type galaxies contains a significant multiparameter dependence on active Galactic nuclei behavior, accretion from the hot interstellar medium, and mass injection from external sources.

  16. Optical design of nanowire absorbers for wavelength selective photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Mokkapati, S.; Saxena, D.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the optical design for the absorptive element of photodetectors to achieve wavelength selective photo response based on resonant guided modes supported in semiconductor nanowires. We show that the waveguiding properties of nanowires result in very high absorption efficiency that can be exploited to reduce the volume of active semiconductor compared to planar photodetectors, without compromising the photocurrent. We present a design based on a group of nanowires with varying diameter for multi-color photodetectors with small footprint. We discuss the effect of a dielectric shell around the nanowires on the absorption efficiency and present a simple approach to optimize the nanowire diameter-dielectric shell thickness for maximizing the absorption efficiency. PMID:26469227

  17. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewani, Aliya A.; O'Keefe, Steven G.; Thiel, David V.; Galehdar, Amir

    2015-02-01

    A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm), flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2). It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing) to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  18. Impact of 100 MeV Ag7+ SHI irradiation fluence and N incorporation on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, L.; Gokul Raj, S.; Meher, S. R.; Asokan, K.; Alex, Z. C.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the influence of Ag7+ ion irradiation fluence and N incorporation on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the retainment of ZnO wurtzite structure even at higher fluence irradiation with slight decrease in crystallinity. Photoluminescence and Hall effect measurement analysis showed an increase in density of defects for high ion fluence irradiation. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the films irradiated at high ion fluence have vertical standing needle-like morphology and also have high value of roughness compared with the films irradiated at low ion fluence. The ammonia and methanol gas sensing properties of the films have been studied at different operating temperature and gas concentration. It conveys that the films have selectivity towards ammonia than methanol and also that the films irradiated at high ion fluence exhibit better sensitivity, low response and recovery times compared with the films irradiated at low ion fluence. The film grown in oxygen ambience and irradiated at high ion fluence showed good sensing characteristics at all temperatures even at room temperature.

  19. Fine-Tunable Absorption of Uniformly Aligned Polyurea Thin Films for Optical Filters Using Sequentially Self-Limited Molecular Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Yi-Seul; Choi, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hyein; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-05-11

    Development of methods enabling the preparation of uniformly aligned polymer thin films at the molecular level is a prerequisite for realizing their optoelectronic characteristics as innovative materials; however, these methods often involve a compromise between scalability and accuracy. In this study, we have grown uniformly aligned polyurea thin films on a SiO2 substrate using molecular layer deposition (MLD) based on sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. By integrating plane-polarized Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopic tools, and density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated the uniform alignment of polyurea MLD films. Furthermore, the selective-wavelength absorption characteristics of thickness-controlled MLD films were investigated by integrating optical measurements and finite-difference time-domain simulations of reflection spectra, resulting from their thickness-dependent fine resonance with photons, which could be used as color filters in optoelectronics. PMID:27092573

  20. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film-coated optical fiber Fabry-Perot sensor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingshun; Li, Qiu-Shun; Wang, Jun-Nan; Jin, Zhongwei; Sui, Qingmei; Ma, Yaohong; Shi, Jianguo; Zhang, Faye; Jia, Lei; Yao, Wei-Guo; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2013-02-11

    In this paper, a novel TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film coated optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensor had been developed for refractive index (RI) sensing by monitoring the shifts of the fringe contrast in the reflectance spectra. Using in situ liquid phase deposition approach, the TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film could be formed on the fiber surface in a controlled fashion. The optical properties of as-prepared F-P sensors were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicated that the RI sensitivity of F-P sensors could be effectively improved after the deposition of nanoparticle thin-films. It was about 69.38 dB/RIU, which was 2.6 times higher than that of uncoated one. The linear RI measurement range was also extended from 1.333~1.457 to 1.333~1.8423. More importantly, its optical properties exhibited the unique temperature-independent performance. Therefore, owing to these special optical properties, the TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film coated F-P sensors have great potentials in medical diagnostics, food quality testing, environmental monitoring, biohazard detection and homeland security, even at elevated temperature. PMID:23481766

  1. Anomalous behavior of the optical band gap of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The optical band gap of ZnO films on fused silica in the carrier concentration regime of 10{sup 18}{endash}10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} is reported. Contrary to theoretical predictions there is an anomalous increase in the band gap of ZnO films at a carrier concentration of 5{times}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}, followed by an abrupt decrease at a critical concentration of 3{endash}4{times}10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} before the optical band gap rises again. Similar observations have been made before, but an explanation of these observations was lacking. We propose a model based on the existence of potential barriers at the grain boundaries, causing quantum confinement of the electrons in the small grains realized in these films. Quantum confinement leads to the initial rise in the optical band gap. On increasing the carrier concentration to the critical value the potentials at the grain boundaries collapse leading, to the abrupt decrease in the optical band gap. Above this carrier concentration the films behave according to existing many-body theories. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  2. Nonlinear optical characterization of the Ag nanoparticles doped in polyvinyl alcohol films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanipour, Mahshad; Dorranian, Davoud

    2015-06-01

    The effect of silver nanoparticles doped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on the nonlinear optical properties of composite films is studied experimentally. Samples are PVA films of 0.14 mm thickness doped with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties of doped polymer films are studied experimentally employing Z-scan techniques. Experiments are performed using the second harmonic of a continuous Nd-Yag laser beam at 532 nm wavelength and 45 mW power. The effect of nonlinear refractive index of samples is obtained by measuring the profile of propagated beam through the samples and their nonlinear refractive index is found to be negative. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is calculated using open aperture Z-scan data while its nonlinear refractive index is measured using the closed aperture Z-scan data, leads to measuring the third order susceptibility |χ(3)|. Real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility |χ(3)| are decrease with increasing the concentration of Ag nanoparticles in the films. The values of thermo-optic coefficient are determined at different concentrations of silver nanoparticles for samples.

  3. Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS–polyaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nayan Mani Roy, Dhrubojyoti Gupta, P. S.; Gupta, M.; Ganesan, V.

    2014-04-24

    Structural, optical and electrical properties study of the cadmium sulphide (CdS) incorporated polyaniline (PANI) thin films with varying layers have been carried out. It is seen that layer variation enhances the particle mean sizes with quenching of photoluminescence and an increase in rectifying nature of current-voltage measurements.

  4. Morphological, compositional, structural, and optical properties of Si-nc embedded in SiOx films

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of silicon nanocrystal (Si-nc) embedded in a matrix of non-stoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) films were studied. SiOx films were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique in the 900 to 1,400°C range. Different microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques were used. The film composition changes with the growth temperature as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy supports the existence of Si-ncs with a diameter from 1 to 6.5 nm in the matrix of SiOx films. The films emit in a wide photoluminescent spectrum, and the maximum peak emission shows a blueshift as the growth temperature decreases. On the other hand, transmittance spectra showed a wavelength shift of the absorption border, indicating an increase in the energy optical bandgap, when the growth temperature decreases. A relationship between composition, Si-nc size, energy bandgap, PL, and surface morphology was obtained. According to these results, we have analyzed the dependence of PL on the composition, structure, and morphology of the Si-ncs embedded in a matrix of non-stoichiometric SiOx films. PMID:23110990

  5. Optical properties of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films: the electrolyte effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombare, J. V.; Shinde, S. K.; Lohar, G. M.; Chougale, U. M.; Dhasade, S. S.; Dhaygude, H. D.; Relekar, B. P.; Fulari, V. J.

    2014-06-01

    Polypyrrole thin films are prepared by the potentiostatic mode of electrodeposition at +0:7 V versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The polypyrrole films are prepared in the presence of different electrolytes such as: p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTS), oxalic acid and H2SO4. The prepared films are characterized by UV—vis absorption spectroscopy and normal reflectance measurements. The electrochemically synthesized films are semiconductor in nature. The band gap energy of polypyrrole thin films is found to be 1.95, 1.92 and 1.79 eV for H2SO4, oxalic acid and p-toluene sulphonic acid, respectively. The normal reflectance spectroscopy of polypyrrole films shows that the maximum reflectance is in the presence of p-toluene sulphonic acid; this is may be due to a more distinct microstructure than the others. The optical constants such as the extinction coefficient, refractive index, optical conductivity, etc. are calculated and studied with various electrolytes.

  6. Functionalized graphene nanoribbon films as a radiofrequency and optically transparent material.

    PubMed

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Salters, Sydney; Samuel, Errol L G; Zhu, Yu; Volman, Vladimir; Tour, James M

    2014-10-01

    We report that conductive films made from hexadecylated graphene nanoribbons (HD-GNRs) can have high transparency to radiofrequency (RF) waves even at very high incident power density. Nanoscale-thick HD-GNR films with an area of several square centimeters were found to transmit up to 390 W (2 × 10(5) W/m(2)) of RF power with negligible loss, at an RF transmittance of ∼99%. The HD-GNR films conformed to electromagnetic skin depth theory, which effectively accounts for the RF transmission. The HD-GNR films also exhibited sufficient optical transparency for tinted glass applications, with efficient voltage-induced deicing of surfaces. The dispersion of the HD-GNRs afforded by their edge functionalization enables spray-, spin-, or blade-coating on almost any substrate, thus facilitating flexible, conformal, and large-scale film production. In addition to use in antennas and radomes where RF transparency is crucial, these capabilities bode well for the use of the HD-GNR films in automotive and general glass applications where both optical and RF transparencies are desired.

  7. Functionalized graphene nanoribbon films as a radiofrequency and optically transparent material.

    PubMed

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Salters, Sydney; Samuel, Errol L G; Zhu, Yu; Volman, Vladimir; Tour, James M

    2014-10-01

    We report that conductive films made from hexadecylated graphene nanoribbons (HD-GNRs) can have high transparency to radiofrequency (RF) waves even at very high incident power density. Nanoscale-thick HD-GNR films with an area of several square centimeters were found to transmit up to 390 W (2 × 10(5) W/m(2)) of RF power with negligible loss, at an RF transmittance of ∼99%. The HD-GNR films conformed to electromagnetic skin depth theory, which effectively accounts for the RF transmission. The HD-GNR films also exhibited sufficient optical transparency for tinted glass applications, with efficient voltage-induced deicing of surfaces. The dispersion of the HD-GNRs afforded by their edge functionalization enables spray-, spin-, or blade-coating on almost any substrate, thus facilitating flexible, conformal, and large-scale film production. In addition to use in antennas and radomes where RF transparency is crucial, these capabilities bode well for the use of the HD-GNR films in automotive and general glass applications where both optical and RF transparencies are desired. PMID:25188912

  8. Structural and optical properties of Ga-doped CdO nanocrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambidurai, M.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, a systematic study has been carried out to understand the effect of gallium doping on the various properties of the CdO nanocrystalline thin films. Ga-doped CdO nanocrystalline thin films with different gallium concentrations (0.01 M, 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.07 M and 0.09 M) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the CdO and Ga-doped CdO films exhibit cubic structure. The chemical composition of the Ga-doped CdO films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results clearly showed the existence of Ga as a doping element in the CdO crystal lattice. Optical absorption spectra of Ga-doped CdO films shows that absorption edge is slightly shifted toward longer wavelength side (red shift) when compared to that of CdO. The optical band gap of CdO film was found to decrease with increasing Ga-doping concentration.

  9. Erasable thin-film optical diode based on a photoresponsive liquid crystal polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinping; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Huai; Yu, Haifeng

    2014-04-01

    We report a thin-film optical diode written into thin films of a liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP), which is based on the photoinduced LC-to-isotropic phase transition of LCPs. The interference pattern between a collimated and a focused UV laser beam is imprinted as chirped volume-phase gratings in photoresponsive LCP films and no further processing steps like development or liftoff are required for the fabrication. The resultant thin-film device not only possesses the fundamental functions of an optical lens for laser beam focusing, but also shows diode effects with the focusing/defocusing function dependent on the direction of light incidence and orientation of the device. Furthermore, this photonic thin-film lens exhibits a spatially tunable spectroscopic response, revealing a unique physics of secondary excitations of resonance modes of the single-layer LCP waveguide grating structures. This reveals the mechanisms for the focusing/defocusing of laser beams by chirped grating structures. Erasability and reconstructibility of the photoresponsive LCPs guarantee rewritability of the thin-film diode lens. PMID:24584886

  10. Study on the optical property of P-C doped a-Si:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Haihong; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yadong; Gong, Yuguang; Li, Zhi

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films doped with Phosphorus (P) and Carbon (C) were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The influence of carbon on the optical property and the content of hydrogen and carbon in the P-doped a-Si:H films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the C-Si bonds in the P-C doped a-Si:H thin films can be observed clearly, and the content of hydrogen and carbon as well as the optical band gap increases with increasing CH4 gas flow rate, but the refractive index decreases with increasing CH4 gas flow rate in the CVD chamber.

  11. Thickness dependent optical and electrical properties of CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, A.; Chander, S.; Nehra, S. P.; Lal, C.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of thickness on the optical and electrical properties of CdSe thin films is investigated in this paper. The films of thickness 445 nm, 631 nm and 810 nm were deposited on glass and ITO coated glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique. The deposited thin films were thermally annealed in air atmosphere at temperature 100°C and were subjected to UV-Vis spectrophotometer and source meter for optical and electrical analysis respectively. The absorption coefficient is observed to increase with photon energy and found maximum in higher photon energy region. The extinction coefficient and refractive index are also calculated. The electrical analysis shows that the electrical resistivity is observed to be decreased with thickness.

  12. Optical and structural properties of CsI thin film photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triloki; Rai, R.; Singh, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, the performance of a cesium iodide thin film photocathode is studied in detail. The optical absorbance of cesium iodide films has been analyzed in the spectral range from 190 nm to 900 nm. The optical band gap energy of 500 nm thick cesium iodide film is calculated from the absorbance data using a Tauc plot. The refractive index is estimated from the envelope plot of transmittance data using Swanepoel's method. The absolute quantum efficiency measurement has been carried out in the wavelength range from 150 nm to 200 nm. The crystallographic nature and surface morphology are investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In addition, the elemental composition result obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis is also reported in the present work.

  13. Investigation of optical pump on dielectric tunability in PZT/PT thin film by THz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jie; Luo, Chunya; Rao, Yunkun; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-11

    The dielectric spectra of single-layer PbTiO3 (PT), single-layer PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and multilayer PZT/PT thin films under an external optical field were investigated at room temperature by time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Results showed that the real part of permittivity increased upon application of an external optical field, which could be interpreted as hardening of the soft mode and increasing of the damping coefficient and oscillator strength. Furthermore, the central mode was observed in the three films. Among the dielectric property of the three thin films studied, the tunability of the PZT/PT superlattice was the largest. PMID:27410799

  14. Optical, Electrical, and Adhesive Properties of ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films were sputtered onto glass substrates to thicknesses from 100 A to 500 A under the following conditions; (a) as-deposited films were maintained at room temperature (RT); (b) films were post-annealed at 150 °C for 1 h, and (c) films were post-annealed at 250 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result thus obtained demonstrate that ZnO has a wurtzite structure with a (002) texture diffraction peak with a 2θ of 34° range. The intensity of the ZnO (002) peak increased with film thickness and upon post-annealing. As the ZnO thin film thickness increased and post-annealing was carried out, the grains became larger. A spectral analyzer was utilized to measure transmittance for various thicknesses. Post-annealing treatment promoted the growth of grains, yielding a large mean grain size and, therefore, low transmittance. The as-deposited ZnO thin film with a thickness of 100 Å had a transmittance maximum of approximately 88% and a reflectance minimum of around 12%. Additionally, the four-point probe measurements revealed that p decreased as the ZnO thickness increased and with post-annealing treatment because grain boundaries and the surface of thin films scatter electrons, so thinner films have a greater resistance. ZnO with a thickness of 500 Å that underwent post-annealing treatment at 250 °C had a minimum resistivity of 7.6 x 10⁻³ Ω · cm. Adhesion critically influences the surface energy of films. The surface energy of as-deposited ZnO films was higher than that following post-annealing treatments, revealing that the adhesion of the as-deposited ZnO films was stronger than that following post-annealing treatment because the degree of crystallinity was lower. Accordingly, the thickness and crystallinity of ZnO importantly affects its optical, electrical, and adhesive characteristics. Finally, thinner as-deposited ZnO films exhibited better optical and adhesive properties. PMID:27398504

  15. Ultrafast optical control of magnetization dynamics in polycrystalline bismuth doped iron garnet thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, Marwan Vomir, Mircea; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-21

    Controlling the magnetization dynamics on the femtosecond timescale is of fundamental importance for integrated opto-spintronic devices. For industrial perspectives, it requires to develop simple growth techniques for obtaining large area magneto-optical materials having a high amplitude ultrafast Faraday or Kerr response. Here we report on optical pump probe studies of light induced spin dynamics in high quality bismuth doped iron garnet polycrystalline film prepared by the spin coating method. We demonstrate an ultrafast non-thermal optical control of the spin dynamics using both circularly and linearly polarized pulses.

  16. Template stripped double nanohole in a gold film for nano-optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Zinck, Aurora A; Gelfand, Ryan M; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-12-12

    Double nanohole (DNH) laser tweezers can optically trap and manipulate objects such as proteins, nanospheres, and other nanoparticles; however, precise fabrication of those DNHs has been expensive with low throughput. In this work, template stripping was used to pattern DNHs with gaps as small as 7 nm, in optically thick Au films. These DNHs were used to trap streptavidin as proof of operation. The structures were processed multiple times from the same template to demonstrate reusability. Template stripping is a promising method for high-throughput, reproducible, and cost efficient fabrication of DNH apertures for optical trapping. PMID:25407447

  17. Ultrafast defect dynamics: A new approach to all optical broadband switching employing amorphous selenium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rituraj; Adarsh, K. V. E-mail: adarsh@iiserb.ac.in; Prasai, Kiran; Drabold, D. A. E-mail: adarsh@iiserb.ac.in

    2015-07-15

    Optical switches offer higher switching speeds than electronics, however, in most cases utilizing the interband transitions of the active medium for switching. As a result, the signal suffers heavy losses. In this article, we demonstrate a simple and yet efficient ultrafast broadband all-optical switching on ps timescale in the sub-bandgap region of the a-Se thin film, where the intrinsic absorption is very weak. The optical switching is attributed to short-lived transient defects that form localized states in the bandgap and possess a large electron-phonon coupling. We model these processes through first principles simulation that are in agreement with the experiments.

  18. Optical properties of PbS/PVP nanocomposites films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mitesh H.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.; Patel, Vaibhav K.; Shripathi, T.; Deshpande, U.

    2016-05-01

    PbS/Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposites films with different volume fraction of PbS have been deposited from single molecular precursors. X-ray diffraction patterns conforms the formation of PbS nanocrystals in PVP matrix. The transmission spectra of the films in the wavelength range of 300 to 2400 nm show the absorption edges are blue shifted due to formation of PbS Nanoparticles. The band gap determined are 2.4, 1.5 and 1.25 eV for PbS volume fraction of 8.5, 16, 27%, respectively. The corresponding refractive indices, n determined from Fresnel relation are 1.8, 2, and 2.35 which are in between that of PbS (4.2) and PVP (1.48).

  19. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films. Part 2; Ion-Plated Lead Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed dry solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, an investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of ion-plated lead films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa (maximum Hertzian contact pressure of 1.2 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7 x 10(exp -7 Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx. 20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less then 1 percent). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films investigated herein resulted from the environmental conditions. The main criteria for judging the performance of the ion-plated lead films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 1(exp -6) cu mm/N.m or less, respectively. The ion-plated lead films met both criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum but failed in humid air and in dry nitrogen, where the coefficient of friction was higher than the criterion. Both the lead film wear rate and the ball wear rate met that criterion in all three environments. Adhesion and plastic deformation played important roles in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films in contact with 440C stainless steel balls in the three environments. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of materials: transfer of lead wear debris to the counterpart 440C stainless steel and transfer of 440C stainless steel wear debris to the counterpart lead.

  20. Optical bandgap of ultra-thin amorphous silicon films deposited on crystalline silicon by PECVD

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulraheem, Yaser; Gordon, Ivan; Bearda, Twan; Meddeb, Hosny; Poortmans, Jozef

    2014-05-15

    An optical study based on spectroscopic ellipsometry, performed on ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers, is presented in this work. Ultrathin layers of intrinsic amorphous silicon have been deposited on n-type mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The layer thicknesses along with their optical properties –including their refractive index and optical loss- were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in a wavelength range from 250 nm to 850 nm. The data was fitted to a Tauc-Lorentz optical model and the fitting parameters were extracted and used to compute the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical bandgap. Furthermore, the a-Si:H film grown on silicon was etched at a controlled rate using a TMAH solution prepared at room temperature. The optical properties along with the Tauc-Lorentz fitting parameters were extracted from the model as the film thickness was reduced. The etch rate for ultrathin a-Si:H layers in TMAH at room temperature was found to slow down drastically as the c-Si interface is approached. From the Tauc-Lorentz parameters obtained from SE, it was found that the a-Si film exhibited properties that evolved with thickness suggesting that the deposited film is non-homogeneous across its depth. It was also found that the degree of crystallinity and optical (Tauc) bandgap increased as the layers were reduced in thickness and coming closer to the c-Si substrate interface, suggesting the presence of nano-structured clusters mixed into the amorphous phase for the region close to the crystalline silicon substrate. Further results from Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the presence of an interfacial transitional layer between the amorphous film and the underlying substrate showing silicon nano-crystalline enclosures that can lead to quantum confinement effects. Quantum confinement is suggested to be the cause of the observed