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Sample records for self-administered subjective gerd

  1. GERD

    MedlinePlus

    ... carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) happens when a muscle at the end of ... more than twice a week, you may have GERD. You can also have GERD without having heartburn. ...

  2. Defining GERD.

    PubMed

    Sontag, S J

    1999-01-01

    "It is not the death of GERD that I seek, but that it turns from its evil ways and follows the path of righteousness." The reflux world is fully aware of what GERD is and what GERD does. What the world does not know, however, is the answer to the most important yet least asked question surrounding GERD's raison-d'etre: Why is GERD here and why do we have it? What GERD is: abnormal gastric reflux into the esophagus that causes any type of mischief. What GERD does: causes discomfort and/or pain with or without destroying the mucosa; causes stricture or stenosis, preventing food from being swallowed; sets the stage for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; invades the surrounding lands to harass the peaceful oropharyngeal, laryngeal and broncho-pulmonary territories; reminds us that we are not only human, but that we are dust and ashes. Why GERD is here: We propose three separate and distinct etiologies of GERD, and we offer the following three hypotheses to explain why, after 1.5 million years of standing erect, we have evolved into a species (specifically Homosapiens sapiens) that is destined to live with the scourge of GERD. Hypothesis 1: congenital. The antireflux barrier, comprising the smooth-muscled lower esophageal sphincter, the skeletal-muscled right crural diaphragm and the phreno-esophageal ligament does not completely develop due to a developmental anomaly or incomplete gestation. Hypothesis 2: acute trauma: The antireflux barrier in adults suffering acute traumatic injury to the abdomen or chest is permanently disrupted by unexpected forces, such as motor vehicle accidents (with steering wheel crush impact), blows to the abdomen (from activities such as boxing, etc.), heavy lifting or moving (e.g., pianos, refrigerators) or stress positions (e.g., hand stands on parallel gym bars). The trauma creates a hiatal hernia that renders the antireflux mechanism useless and incapable of preventing GERD. Hypothesis 3: chronic trauma: The antireflux barrier

  3. Pediatric Acid Reflux and GERD in Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Reflux and GERD : Teen GERD Pediatric Acid Reflux and GERD in Teens If you’re ... And here’s the better news: Most kids with acid reflux are able to lead normal, active, healthy ...

  4. Have You Heard of GERD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be helpful for some people who have GERD. These work by lowering the amount of acid in the ... the stomach empty more quickly. If nothing else works, a person may need surgery to treat GERD, but this isn't done very often. How ...

  5. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  6. Self-administered acupuncture as an alternative to deliberate self-harm: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Susan; Bell, Diana; Irvine, Fiona; Tranter, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this mixed methods feasibility study was to demonstrate the acceptability, practicality, and safety of training patients who regularly use deliberate self harm (DSH) to self-administer acupuncture as an alternative coping skill for emotional distress. Ten adult patients with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder who regularly self-harmed were recruited to the study following baseline assessment by a psychiatrist. An acupuncturist taught participants to self-acupuncture. During the 6-week intervention participants recorded their emotional distress, coping behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in a diary. Face-to-face interviews were used to explore participants' motives for DSH and their experience of acupuncture. Framework analysis was conducted on interview transcripts and diary entries to identify common themes. Mood at baseline and six weeks was measured using the BDI and changes in the use of coping behaviors and acupuncture were measured using diary entries. Subjects used acupuncture regularly through the six-week intervention and over this period there was a reduction in the frequency of DSH. Qualitative analysis identified two broad themes relating to the process and the effects of acupuncture. There was wide variation in the effects experienced by subjects which broadly mapped onto to the wide range of motives behind DSH. BDI scores showed a near significant reduction (p = 0.055) from 44.4. to 34.4 over the 6-week intervention. Patients presenting with deliberate self harm can be safely trained to self-administer acupuncture as an alternative coping skill. Acceptability and effectiveness may vary between patients depending on the complex motives underlying their self-harming behavior. While the pilot study was designed to explore the feasibility of the intervention, results from this limited sample suggest that use of self-administered acupuncture may reduce the frequency of self harming behavior and reduce emotional distress as

  7. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  8. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse. PMID:15019422

  9. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, M. Angelyn; Price, Hermione C.; Sourij, Harald; White, Sarah; Coleman, Ruth L.; Ring, Arne; Kennedy, Irene E.C.; Tucker, Lynne; Holman, Rury R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a disposable, self-administered, capillary blood sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) device in a community setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen healthy and 12 type 2 diabetic volunteers underwent six 75-g OGTTs using a prototype device in the following three settings: unaided at home (twice); unaided but observed in clinic (twice); and performed by a nurse with simultaneous laboratory glucose assays of 0- and 120-min venous plasma samples (twice). The device displayed no results. A detachable data recorder returned to the clinic provided plasma-equivalent 0- and 120-min glucose values and key parameters, including test date, start and end times, and time taken to consume the glucose drink. RESULTS The device was universally popular with participants and was perceived as easy to use, and the ability to test at home was well liked. Device failures meant that 0- and 120-min glucose values were obtained for only 141 (78%) of the 180 OGTTs performed, independent of setting. Device glucose measurements showed a mean bias compared with laboratory-measured values of +0.9 at 5.0 mmol/L increasing to +4.4 at 15.0 mmol/L. Paired device glucose values were equally reproducible across settings, with repeat testing showing no training effect regardless of setting order. CONCLUSIONS Self-administered OGTTs can be performed successfully by untrained individuals in a community setting. With improved device reliability and appropriate calibration, this novel technology could be used in routine practice to screen people who might need a formal OGTT to confirm the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. PMID:23321216

  10. Validation of interviewer- and self-administered physical activity checklists for fifth grade students.

    PubMed

    Sallis, J F; Strikmiller, P K; Harsha, D W; Feldman, H A; Ehlinger, S; Stone, E J; Williston, J; Woods, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate two physical activity recall instruments appropriate for use in epidemiologic studies of fifth grade children. The instruments were similar, except one (PACI) was administered in a personal interview, and the other (SAPAC) was self-completed in a group setting. Both forms required children to report the minutes during the previous day they spent in 21 common physical activities that represented a range of intensities, plus sedentary pursuits. To validate the recalls, children simultaneously wore an accelerometer (motion sensor) and a heart rate monitor for at least 8 h the day before the interview. Subjects were 55 boys and 70 girls from four regions of the United States. The Pearson correlation between the self- and interviewer-administered forms was 0.76 (P < 0.001). The interviewer-administered form correlated 0.51 (P < 0.001) with the heart rate index and 0.33 (P < 0.001) with the accelerometer score. The self-administered form correlated 0.57 (P < 0.001) with the heart rate index and 0.30 (P < 0.001) with the accelerometer score. It is concluded that both self-report forms received moderate support for their validity in all gender and ethnic subgroups. The self-administered format is more cost-effective. PMID:8832538

  11. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  12. Diagnostic work-up of GERD.

    PubMed

    Vela, Marcelo F

    2014-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequently diagnosed by symptoms and good response to acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Further work up is required when the diagnosis of GERD is uncertain, for alarm symptoms, PPI-refractoriness, and often for extraesophageal presentations. Useful tools include endoscopy for mucosal assessment and reflux monitoring (pH or impedance-pH) to quantify reflux burden. Objective documentation of pathological reflux is mandatory prior to anti-reflux surgery. In some patients, symptoms that can be attributed to GERD may have other causes; in these patients, testing that excludes GERD helps direct the diagnostic and treatment efforts to other causes. PMID:25216910

  13. Dose and elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment tested whether the elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats is dose-dependent. Subjects lever pressed for three different doses of intravenous cocaine - 0.11, 0.33, and 1.0 mg/kg/infusion - on a demand procedure where the number of lever presses required per infusion increased within a session. The main finding was that demand for the 0.11 mg/kg dose was more elastic than it was for the two larger doses. There was no difference in demand elasticity between the 0.33 and 1.0 mg/kg doses. These results parallel findings previously reported in monkeys. The present study also demonstrated that a within-session procedure can be used to generate reliable demand curves. PMID:26866971

  14. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  15. Management of refractory typical GERD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ang, Daphne; Pauwels, Ans; De Santis, Adriano; Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with refractory GERD (rGERD) is a major clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. In up to 30% of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or regurgitation), acid-suppressive therapy does not provide clinical benefit. In this Review, we discuss the current management algorithm for GERD and the features and management of patients who do not respond to treatment (such as those individuals with an incorrect diagnosis of GERD, inadequate PPI intake, persisting acid reflux and persisting weakly acidic reflux). Symptom response to existing surgical techniques, novel antireflux procedures, and the value of add-on medical therapies (including prokinetics and reflux inhibitors) for rGERD symptoms are discussed. Pharmaceutical agents targeting oesophageal sensitivity, a condition that can contribute to symptom generation in rGERD, are also discussed. Finally, on the basis of available published data and our expert opinion, we present an outline of a current, usable algorithm for management of patients with rGERD that considers the timing and diagnostic use of pH-impedance monitoring on or off PPI, additional diagnostic tests, the clinical use of baclofen and the use of add-on neuromodulators (tricyclic agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). PMID:27075264

  16. Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Opportunities Sponsorship Opportunities Login Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Print PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Surgery for “Heartburn” If you suffer from moderate to ...

  17. GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux) and LPR (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux)

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat, it causes a reaction similar to squirting lemon juice in your eye. This is why GERD ... of the stomach. Lifestyle factors include diet (chocolate, citrus, fatty foods, spices), destructive habits (overeating, alcohol and ...

  18. Generalization of the effects of teacher- and self-administered token reinforcers to nontreated students.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzo, J W; Clement, P W

    1981-01-01

    Ten, black, second-grade boys served in a series of single-subject studies. They were from poor families, did not do well in arithmetic, were deficient in sustained attention, and presented behavior problems at school. One boy was a therapeutic confederate. Of the remaining nine nontreated students, three observed the confederate reinforced by a teacher, three observed the confederate self-reinforce without having an opportunity to use "self-reinforcement" themselves, and three observed self-reinforcement while having an opportunity to use "self-reinforcement." The target behavior was attending. Other measures of outcome were glancing, academic achievement, and accuracy of reinforcement. The basic experimental design consisted of an ABAB withdrawal applied to the confederate while the nontreated students remained on baseline. Generalization was expressed as a ratio (i.e., percent change in the generalization measure divided by percent change in the target behavior). Teacher-administered reinforcers to the confederate did not produce generalization of any kind. Both arrangements of self-administered reinforcers to the confederate produced across-subjects generalization and subject-response generalization. Additionally, the confederate manifested response generalization.

  19. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

    1988-11-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

  20. Effects of Teacher- and Self-Administered Procedures on the Spelling Performance of Learning-Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, E. Shireen; Fantuzzo, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Compared the relative effectiveness of teacher-administered and self-administered procedures on spelling for four educationally handicapped children using a modified reversal design. Found teacher- and self-administered interventions resulted in gains in performance, although self-administered procedures during treatment phases produced greater…

  1. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  2. Comparison Between a Self-Administered and Supervised Version of a Web-Based Cognitive Test Battery: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailet, Marion; Lecoffre, Amandine C; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Amieva, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major public health problem, and repeated cognitive data from large epidemiological studies could help to develop efficient measures of early prevention. Data collection by self-administered online tools could drastically reduce the logistical and financial burden of such large-scale investigations. In this context, it is important to obtain data concerning the comparability of such new online tools with traditional, supervised modes of cognitive assessment. Objective Our objective was to compare self-administration of the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cognitive test battery (NutriCog) with administration by a neuropsychologist. Methods The test battery included four tests, measuring, among others aspects, psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and associative memory. Both versions of the cognitive battery were completed by 189 volunteers (either self-administered version first, n=99, or supervised version first, n=90). Subjects also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Concordance was assessed by Spearman correlation. Results Agreement between both versions varied according to the investigated cognitive task and outcome variable. Spearman correlations ranged between .42 and .73. Moreover, a majority of participants responded that they “absolutely” or “rather” agreed that the duration of the self-administered battery was acceptable (184/185, 99.5%), that the tasks were amusing (162/185, 87.6%), that the instructions were sufficiently detailed (168/185; 90.8%) and understandable (164/185, 88.7%), and that they had overall enjoyed the test battery (182/185, 98.4%). Conclusions The self-administered version of the Web-based NutriCog cognitive test battery provided similar information as the supervised version. Thus, integrating repeated cognitive evaluations into large cohorts via the implementation of self-administered online versions of traditional test batteries appears to be feasible. PMID

  3. Comparison between web-based and paper versions of a self-administered anthropometric questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Pollet, Clothilde; Malon, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Online data collection could advantageously replace paper-and-pencil questionnaires in epidemiological studies by reducing the logistic burden, the cost and the duration of data processing. However, there is a need for studies comparing these new instruments to traditional ones. Our objective was to compare the web-based version of the NutriNet-Santé self-administered anthropometric questionnaire to the paper-based version. The questionnaire included 17 questions divided into subquestions (55 variables in all) dealing with height, weight, hip and waist circumferences, weight history, restrictive diet and weight self-perception. Both versions of the questionnaire were filled out by 147 volunteers (paper version first, N = 76, or web-based version first, N = 71) participating in the SU.VI.MAX ("Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants") cohort (age-range: 49-75 years; men: 46.3%). At the end of the test, subjects filled in a "satisfaction" questionnaire giving their opinions and feelings about each version. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappas. We also quantified the number of errors inherent in the paper version. Agreement between the two versions was high. ICCs ranged from 0.86 to 1.00. Kappas ranged from 0.69 to 1.00 for comparable variables. A total of 82 data entry mistakes (1.5% of total entries), 60 missing values (1.1%), 57 inconsistent values (1.1%) and 3 abnormal values (0.1%) were counted in the paper version (non-existent in the web-based version due to integrated controls). The web-based version was preferred by 92.2% of users. In conclusion, the quality of information provided by the web-based anthropometric questionnaire used in the NutriNet-Santé Study was equal to, or better than, that of the paper version, with substantial logistic and cost advantages. PMID:20191377

  4. Serum lipids in power athletes self-administering testosterone and anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alén, M; Rahkila, P; Marniemi, J

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of testosterone and anabolic steroids on serum lipids in power athletes. Altogether 11 national top-level adult athletes completed the study. Five of them volunteered for the study group and the rest for controls. The follow-up consisted of 9 months of a strength training period. During the first 6 months, the subjects in the study group self-administered androgenic steroids on an average of 57 +/- 24.9 mg/day. The most interesting observation was the extremely low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL2 cholesterol concentrations of the androgen users. After 8 weeks of training, the study group had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower HDL cholesterol concentrations than the control group (0.53 +/- 0.11 and 1.14 +/- 0.19 mmol/l, respectively). This difference remained significant from 8 to 32 weeks of training. No systematic changes were observed in the control group. The HDL2 cholesterol concentration decreased by about 80% (P less than 0.01) and HDL3 cholesterol by about 55% (P less than 0.01) from the onset values in the study group. A substantial decrease in HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol and in HDL2 cholesterol to HDL3 cholesterol ratios were also noticed under the influence of exogenous androgens. The results of this study suggest that the sustained use of testosterone and anabolic steroids have a marked unfavorable effect on the pattern of HDL cholesterol in the serum of male power athletes.

  5. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  7. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  8. Can the BASNEF Model Help to Develop Self-Administered Healthy Behavior in Iranian Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Bee Koon, Poh; Abd Talib, Ruzita; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Khatooni, Elham; Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stage of youth is critical for human development in several ways. On the one hand, it can lead people towards the adoption of a healthy lifestyle during adulthood based on these earlier practices. On the other hand, it can comprise the development of healthy living practices later on in live, an outcome which is often caused by the youth adopting a risky lifestyle early on. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing an educational intervention program based on the BASNEF Model (a simplified approach to understanding behavior), designed to cultivate self-administered lifestyle control skills in youths. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental intervention study, implemented during 2010 - 2011. A total of 288 randomly selected high-school students between the ages of 15 and 17 participated in this study. These students were later divided into experimental and control groups. Subjects completed a BASNEF questionnaire at the baseline (pre-test), one month later (post-test) and three months after the educational intervention (follow-up). Four educational sessions were held, each of a 120 - 150 minute duration. After the data had been collected, the ANOVA test was used to compare trends in changes. The Pearson correlation coefficient was then used to analyze the correlation between components of the BASNEF model. Finally, regression analysis was used to determine the predictive power of the study. Results: Results from the intervention study reveal that the beliefs and attitudes about nutrition of the intervention group, calculated in terms of scores, improved significantly for both male and female subjects (P < 0.001) as compared to the control group. The mean BASNEF scores for improvements in beliefs among girls and boys were 79.2% and 70.1%, respectively and for attitudes, 61.2% and 59.4%. The increase was significantly higher in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Furthermore

  9. The safety of self-administered allergen immunotherapy during the buildup and maintenance phases

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Frederick M.; Naples, Andrew R.; Ebeling, Myla; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Garner, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-administered allergen immunotherapy is considered controversial. We believe the implementation of a self-administration protocol characterized by patient preselection and a slow buildup phase is safe. Methods We analyzed 23,614 patient records and associated immunotherapy injections for systemic reactions (SR) during a 1-year period (2011 to 2012). SRs were graded in accordance with the World Allergy Organization (WAO) criteria. Results Thirty-seven SRs were reported for 23,614 patients who self-administered 2,021,600 injections yielding an annual SR rate of 0.16% (per patient) or 0.002% (per injection). Only 9 of 4643 pediatric (0.19%) and 28 of 18,971 adult patients (0.15%) experienced 1 or more SRs. No deaths (grade V SR) occurred. From 2009 through early 2014, over 90,000 patients received more than 10 million injections in accordance with the United Allergy Services (UAS) protocol without fatalities. Conclusion We believe this safety profile is due to a preselection of patients to exclude those with a high risk for adverse reactions and a slow immunotherapy buildup phase. In contrast, previous studies documented office-based SRs ranging from approximately 3% to greater than 14%. Thus, the UAS home-immunotherapy SR rate is significantly lower than office-based immunotherapy SR rates (p < 0.0001). The enhanced safety of this protocol results in a decreased frequency and severity of SRs. This safety report, derived from analyses of one of the largest patient cohorts studied, corroborates and expands the observations of previous studies of self-administered subcutaneous immunotherapy in a low-risk patient population by assessing self-administered allergen immunotherapy during the buildup and maintenance phases. PMID:25476041

  10. The Relative Reinforcing Strength of Methamphetamine and d-Amphetamine in Monkeys Self-Administering Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of d-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially-increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of d-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A range of doses of methamphetamine (0.003–0.1 mg/kg/injection), d-amphetamine (0.003–0.1 mg/kg/injection) and cocaine (0.003–0.3 mg/kg/injection) was tested to capture the ascending and descending limbs of the dose-effect functions. Each drug functioned as a reinforcer, but the peak number of self-administered d-amphetamine injections was significantly lower compared to methamphetamine and cocaine; the peak number of self-administered injections of cocaine and methamphetamine did not differ. Although differences in availability and other social factors likely impact relative rates of abuse, the present data suggest that the greater reinforcing strength of methamphetamine contributes to its increased use compared to d-amphetamine. PMID:23907377

  11. The relative reinforcing strength of methamphetamine and D-amphetamine in monkeys self-administering cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Charnigo, Richard J; Nader, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of D-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of D-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A range of doses of methamphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), D-amphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg/injection) was tested to capture the ascending and descending limbs of the dose-effect functions. Each drug functioned as a reinforcer, but the peak number of self-administered D-amphetamine injections was significantly lower compared with methamphetamine and cocaine; the peak number of self-administered injections of cocaine and methamphetamine did not differ. Although differences in availability and other social factors likely impact relative rates of abuse, the present data suggest that the greater reinforcing strength of methamphetamine contributes to its increased use compared with D-amphetamine.

  12. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  13. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N.; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. PMID:23727175

  14. The relative reinforcing strength of methamphetamine and D-amphetamine in monkeys self-administering cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Charnigo, Richard J; Nader, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of D-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of D-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A range of doses of methamphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), D-amphetamine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg/injection) was tested to capture the ascending and descending limbs of the dose-effect functions. Each drug functioned as a reinforcer, but the peak number of self-administered D-amphetamine injections was significantly lower compared with methamphetamine and cocaine; the peak number of self-administered injections of cocaine and methamphetamine did not differ. Although differences in availability and other social factors likely impact relative rates of abuse, the present data suggest that the greater reinforcing strength of methamphetamine contributes to its increased use compared with D-amphetamine. PMID:23907377

  15. Patient Impression and Satisfaction of a Self-administered, Automated Medical History-taking Device in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjay; Goldberg, Andrew D.; Menchine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated patient impressions and satisfaction of an innovative self-administered, hand-held touch-screen tablet to gather detailed medical information from emergency department (ED) patients in the waiting room prior to physician contact. Methods: Adult, medically stable patients presenting to the ED at Los Angeles County Hospital used the PatientTouch™ system to answer a series of questions about their current history of present illness and past medical/surgical histories in English or Spanish. Patients then completed a survey rating their experience. Results: Among 173 participants, opinion of PatientTouch™ was strongly positive; 93.6% (95%CI 90.0–97.3%) felt the physical product was easy to hold and handle, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) felt the questions were detailed enough for them to fully describe their condition; 97.8% (95.4–100.0%) felt using PatientTouch™ would help them organize their thoughts and communicate better with their physician, 94.8% (91.4–98.1%) thought it would improve the quality of their care, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) expressed desire to use the product again in the future. Conclusion: The study was conducted at a largely Hispanic county ED, and only patients with 1 of 6 pre-determined chief complaints participated. We did not include a control group to assess if perceived improvements in communication translated to measurable differences. In this pilot study, patients were highly satisfied with all aspects of the PatientTouch™ self-administered, hand-held, touch-screen tablet. Importantly, subjects felt it would help them better communicate with their doctor, would improve their overall quality of care and overwhelmingly expressed a desire to use it in the future. PMID:24695871

  16. [Therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)].

    PubMed

    Storr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) comprises all symptoms and clinical consequences in the context of reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. The symptoms reported by patients include heartburn, regurgitation and sour taste in the mouth. In some cases atypical reflux associated symptoms such as asthma, laryngitis or recurrent pneumonias are reported. Pathophysiologically an incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter and a disturbed clearance of the esophagus are the underlying mechanisms. Current treatment recommendations include a change of lifestyle and a drug treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) being widely used. In patients with persistent symptoms other diagnoses like functional dyspepsia should be considered especially when additional symptoms like epigastric pain, postprandial fullness and nausea are present. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology, the diagnosis and the treatment of GERD and gives an outlook on therapies currently developed for the treatment of reflux disease. A promising new drug, presently classified as being a reflux inhibitor, is lesogaberan. Lesogaberan is presently studied in phase II clinical trials.

  17. Community Cognitive Screening Using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu Ing; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Yager-Schweller, Jennifer; Murden, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functionality of the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) for cognitive screening in community settings and examined its characteristics as a cognitive screening assessment tool. From 45 community events, 1,047 individuals over age 50 were screened with SAGE. Cognitive impairment was identified in 28%. Principal-component and correlation analysis indicate that SAGE is an internally-consistent test that is very well balanced, with language, cognition, visuospatial, executive, and memory domains. Community cognitive screening using SAGE was found to be feasible and efficient in diverse settings with both small and large groups. PMID:24419587

  18. Community Cognitive Screening Using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu Ing; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Yager-Schweller, Jennifer; Murden, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functionality of the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) for cognitive screening in community settings and examined its characteristics as a cognitive screening assessment tool. From 45 community events, 1,047 individuals over age 50 were screened with SAGE. Cognitive impairment was identified in 28%. Principal-component and correlation analysis indicate that SAGE is an internally-consistent test that is very well balanced, with language, cognition, visuospatial, executive, and memory domains. Community cognitive screening using SAGE was found to be feasible and efficient in diverse settings with both small and large groups.

  19. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P; Quinn, R; Buchanan, S; Eakle, W; Chambers, D

    1985-07-01

    To determine the effect on periodontal health of a daily self-administered irrigation with 0.02% stannous fluoride (SnF2) solution, 28 subjects who had moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 9) which used no irrigation, a group (n = 8) which used a self-administered water irrigation device (Water Pik) daily with water (H2O group) and a group (n = 11) which used the Water Pik in a similar manner but with SnF2 solution (SnF2 group). All subjects were instructed in routine tooth brushing and flossing but received no other periodontal treatment. 4 study sites were selected from each patient which had pocket depths greater than 4 mm and bleeding upon probing. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and microbiologic samples of subgingival plaque for morphologic determinations were collected from all study sites at baseline, 2, 6, and 10 weeks. A cross-over was then initiated for 2 additional monthly checks in which the H2O group changed to SnF2 and the SnF2 group was divided into 2 subgroups which either continued to use SnF2 or changed to H2O. The control group completed the study at the beginning of the crossover. The clinical data showed significantly more improvement in periodontal health during the first 10 weeks for the SnF2 group (p less than 0.01). After cross-over, the clinical data indicated the group that changed from H2O to SnF2 significantly improved their periodontal health, while the group that changed from SnF2 to H2O became worse. The microbiologic data showed trends which agreed with the clinical data during the first 10 weeks but were less significant. After cross-over, the %s of motile rods and spirochetes were too small (0-7%) to establish statistically significant changes considering the accuracy of the technique used. PMID:3860511

  20. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.

  1. Prevalence of dental erosions in GERD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    PICOS, ALINA M.; POENAR, SIMINA; OPRIS, ALEXANDRA; CHIRA, ALEXANDRA; BUD, MARIUS; BERAR, ANTONELA; PICOS, ANDREI; DUMITRASCU, DAN L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental erosions are determined by a mechanism involving increased oral acidity. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) represents the pathological reflux of gastric content into the oral cavity, affecting the hard dental tissues integrity, with a major risk of advanced tooth wear. Aim This study aims to investigate the prevalence of dental erosions in GERD patients, in order to obtain a basis for therapeutic strategies and specific prophylactic measures. Methods We incorporated a mandatory dental consultation in the therapeutic protocol of GERD patients. The study was carried out in a group of 60 patients with GERD. Dental examination of these patients revealed 21 cases showing visible dental erosions. The control group included 60 patients, without GERD, age and sex matched. All examinations were carried out in a tertiary center by the same team of dentists, instructed in dental erosion recognition and questionnaire administration. Results The dental erosion prevalence in patients with GERD was 35%. In the control group, erosions were 13% (OR: 3.6); 67% of patients with dental erosions were females and 33% were males. Middle age showed the highest risk for dental erosions, with peaks in the fourth and sixth decades. Conclusions The risk of dental erosion was significantly higher in GERD patients as compared to the control group. The sex ratio shows a higher prevalence of erosion in females PMID:26527975

  2. Certain or uncertain cocaine expectations influence accumbens dopamine responses to self-administered cocaine and non-rewarded operant behavior.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Duvauchelle, Christine L

    2008-09-01

    Uncertainty and errors in predicting natural rewards influence associative learning and dopamine activity. The present study was conducted to determine the influence of cue-induced cocaine uncertainty, certainty and prediction error on nucleus accumbens dopamine (NAcc DA) in rats. For Certainty training, distinctive sensory cues were present during cocaine availability and alternate cues were paired with non-reinforced (saline) operant sessions. For Uncertainty training, all cues were equally associated with both cocaine and non-reinforcement. After training, animals self-administered cocaine or saline in the presence of conditioned cues while NAcc DA responses were assessed using in vivo microdialysis. Findings revealed cocaine-stimulated NAcc DA increased significantly less in Certainty--compared to Uncertainty-trained animals, and cocaine-paired cues in the absence of cocaine (Negative Prediction Error) resulted in a significant depression of baseline NAcc DA. These findings provide support for enhanced DA activity during cocaine uncertainty or the development of conditioned cocaine tolerance in subjects certain of a cocaine outcome.

  3. Protecting eyewitness evidence: examining the efficacy of a self-administered interview tool.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Fiona; Hope, Lorraine; Fisher, Ronald P

    2009-08-01

    Given the crucial role of eyewitness evidence, statements should be obtained as soon as possible after an incident. This is not always achieved due to demands on police resources. Two studies trace the development of a new tool, the Self-Administered Interview (SAI), designed to elicit a comprehensive initial statement. In Study 1, SAI participants reported more correct details than participants who provided a free recall account, and performed at the same level as participants given a Cognitive Interview. In Study 2, participants viewed a simulated crime and half recorded their statement using the SAI. After a delay of 1 week, all participants completed a free recall test. SAI participants recalled more correct details in the delayed recall task than control participants. PMID:18561007

  4. Disclosure of sensitive behaviors across self-administered survey modes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gnambs, Timo; Kaspar, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors that are in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey experiments reporting 460 effect sizes (total N =125,672). Self-reported prevalence rates of several sensitive behaviors for which motivated misreporting has been frequently observed were compared across self-administered paper-and-pencil versus computerized surveys. The results revealed that computerized surveys led to significantly more reporting of socially undesirable behaviors than comparable surveys administered on paper. This effect was strongest for highly sensitive behaviors and surveys administered individually to respondents. Moderator analyses did not identify interviewer effects or benefits of audio-enhanced computer surveys. The meta-analysis highlighted the advantages of computerized survey modes for the assessment of sensitive topics.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire".

    PubMed

    da Rocha Lopes, Sofia Manuela; Duarte, José Alberto; Mesquita, Cristina Teresa Torrão Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis regarding the adoption of appropriate behaviours and education. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" for the Portuguese population with ankylosing spondylitis. The Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" was administered to a sample of 180 subjects, from which 63 individuals responded. The adaptation process involved translation, back-translation and submission to a committee of experts in the area, culminating with a Portuguese version of the instrument. Next, the scale reliability and validity were assessed. There was a statistically significant decrease from test to retest, although the intra-class correlation coefficient between test and retest was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.86), which was considered good. From 180 individuals, 63 (35.0 %) subjects were available for the present study. The proportion of individuals that correctly answered each item ranged from 19 to 92 %, corresponding to items 8 and 13, respectively. The mean number of correct answers was 8.5 [mean (SD) = 2.4] in 12 questions. The proposed Portuguese version of the ankylosing spondylitis knowledge scale showed good reliability, reproducibility and construct validity.

  6. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia A; Robins, Jo Lynne W; Masho, Saba W

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  7. Brain-Cocaine Concentrations Determine the Dose Self-Administered by Rats on a Novel Behaviorally Dependent Dosing Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Benjamin A; Dobrin, Carson V; Roberts, David C S

    2011-01-01

    A novel behaviorally dependent dosing (BDD) schedule was used to examine the relationship between doses of cocaine self-administered by rats and brain drug levels within a session. The BDD schedule used a hold-down response to activate a syringe pump. The length of time the lever was held down determined the duration that the syringe pump was activated. In the first experiment, rats self-administered cocaine for daily 3 h sessions and brain levels of cocaine were modeled using well-established parameters. Although analysis revealed that rats self-administered doses within a predicted range, one extremely large dose was consistently observed at the beginning of each session when brain levels of cocaine were low. In the second experiment, we introduced a range of timeout periods (10–25 min) in order to produce variability in brain-cocaine concentrations. Animals self-administered larger doses immediately following each timeout period and the dose size was inversely correlated with the length of the timeout. These results show that the dose of cocaine that rats self-administer within a session is inversely related to the amount of drug on board. PMID:21849981

  8. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia A; Robins, Jo Lynne W; Masho, Saba W

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities. PMID:27672398

  9. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Masho, Saba W.

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities. PMID:27672398

  10. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Masho, Saba W.

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  11. Dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): is there any correlation?

    PubMed

    Simadibrata, Marcellus

    2009-10-01

    Dyspepsia is a syndrome characterized by symptoms and signs of upper gastrointestinal tract and the adjacent organs. It is estimated that 25% of the community have symptoms of dyspepsia syndrome. One-third of patients who visit general physician practices are patients with dyspepsia syndrome; and half of patients who visit gastroenterologists are also patients with dyspepsia syndrome. Dyspepsia syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are very prevalent in the community throughout the world.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is more and more commonly found in daily medical practice. Until now,the natural history of disease on GERD and dyspepsia is hardly understood, even though many scientists studied both conditions and there are frequently overlapping. In an individual, GERD and dyspepsia may occur simultaneously and therefore they are hardly to be discriminated.The management of GERD is performed in keeping with Indonesia and Asia Pacific consensus, life-style modification and administering the acid suppression agents (Proton pump inhibitor (drug of choice), H2-receptor antagonist, etc),prokinetic agents (Cisapride, domperidone, etc). Life-style modification shall be performed as follows, i.e. sleep with 30-45 degree elevated head or upper chest, do not avoid sour beverages, chocolate, coffee or alcohol, avoid fat and various fried foods, sour food, less stress, stop smoking, small but frequent feeding, etc. There is a correlation between dyspepsia syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD), particularly between the functional dyspepsia and non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux (NERD). More appropriate definition is necessary to differentiate the dyspepsia syndrome and GERD. Further studies are needed to establish distinct definition and criteria between dyspepsia syndrome and GERD.

  12. Review of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Paawan; Hira, Angela; Prasad, Shanti; Wang, Xiangbing; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the known pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbid gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the diabetic patient, discusses therapeutic options in care, and provides an approach to its evaluation and management. We searched for review articles published in the past 10 years through a PubMed search using the filters diabetes mellitus, GERD, pathophysiology, and management. The search only yielded a handful of articles, so we independently included relevant studies from these review articles along with related citations as suggested by PubMed. We found diabetic patients are more prone to developing GERD and may present with atypical manifestations. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the connection between these two diseases. Studies involving treatment options for comorbid disease suggest conflicting drug-drug interactions. Currently, there are no published guidelines specifically for the evaluation and management of GERD in the diabetic patient. Although there are several proposed mechanisms for the higher prevalence of GERD in the diabetic patient, this complex interrelationship requires further research. Understanding the pathophysiology will help direct diagnostic evaluation. In our review, we propose a management algorithm for GERD in the diabetic patient.

  13. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA) who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100) between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD]) to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males) with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were < 0.1 SD. Differences in scores were highest for the social and role function domains but the adjusted differences were still < 0.2 SD. There was no quantitatively meaningful difference between administration formats for EuroQol, Feeling Thermometer and VFQ-25 domain

  14. Self-administered interventions: a health education strategy for improving population health.

    PubMed

    Black, D R; Cameron, R

    1997-12-01

    A case is presented for using self-administered interventions (SAIs) as a viable public health education/promotion option. SAIs are promulgated as a means to more fully participate in projected health care changes. One readily available opportunity is to incorporate SAIs into managed care organizations concerned about balancing costs and care, and responsible for the health care of the populations they serve. SAIs are both clinical and 'population-based' strategies that are viable alternatives to 'usual' care because SAIs offer a means to enhance reach, efficiency and efficacy when used independently or as part of a sequential, systematic series of interventions. SAIs also have other advantages such as being easily shared, disseminated, reusable and capable of including a valuable, inexpensive human resource, trained peer helpers or volunteers. The SAIs of minimal intervention and self-instruction have been widely used with a variety of lifestyle behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Research from the weight management literature is used as a heuristic illustration of the application of SAIs, and to describe the nature and potential of SAIs as public health strategies to meet health care challenges of the future related to service delivery.

  15. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    PubMed

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test’s final version Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  17. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test's final version Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  18. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    PubMed

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243111

  19. Self-administered methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia: experience in a tertiary Australasian centre.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, A L; Jephcott, C G; Smithells, J R; Sleigh, J W

    2016-04-01

    Methoxyflurane, an agent formerly used as a volatile anaesthetic but that has strong analgesic properties, will soon become available again in the UK and Europe in the form of a small hand-held inhaler. We describe our experience in the use of inhaled methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia within a large tertiary hospital. In a small pilot crossover study of patients undergoing burns-dressing procedures, self-administered methoxyflurane inhalation was preferred to ketamine-midazolam patient-controlled analgesia by five of eight patients. Patient and proceduralist outcomes and satisfaction were recorded from a subsequent case series of 173 minor surgical and radiological procedures in 123 patients performed using inhaled methoxyflurane. The procedures included change of dressing, minor debridement, colonoscopy and incision-and-drainage of abscess. There was a 97% success rate of methoxyflurane analgesia to facilitate these procedures. Limitations of methoxyflurane include maximal daily and weekly doses, and uncertainty regarding its safety in patients with pre-existing renal disease.

  20. Impact of self-administered relaxation and guided imagery techniques during final trimester and birth.

    PubMed

    Gedde-Dahl, Merete; Fors, Egil A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test if and how self-administered practice of relaxation techniques, positive affirmation and guided imagery, in the final part of pregnancy had an impact on giving birth. Further to see if the use of a simple method, a CD with a booklet, with no previous training or specific support of the participants (neither required nor delivered), affected the birth experience. Outcome measures were monitored both during and after delivery: During delivery, pain and anxiety were measured at different stages of birth. Post-delivery Wellbeing (Edmonton Scale 0-10, where 10 is the worst possible feeling of Wellbeing), pain, anxiety, Apgar score, duration of birth, complications and anesthesia/analgesic were recorded. Those in the CD-intervention group also reported how many times they had practiced the techniques. The study employed a randomized controlled trial. Results show that the CD-intervention group had a significantly better score on total Wellbeing, as measured by the ESAS (0-10) Edmonton Scale.

  1. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  2. Construction and field validation of a self-administered screener for testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism) in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Smith, K W; Feldman, H A; McKinlay, J B

    2000-12-01

    To design a self-administered screening questionnaire to inform men about their risk for testosterone deficiency. The screener was developed in two phases. First was a construction phase in which relevant risk factors and a scoring algorithm were defined from multiple logistic regression analyses of survey data. In the second phase, the screener's accuracy (based on sensitivity, specificity, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves) was tested using patients from a primary care clinic. All subjects provided blood samples for endocrine testing. Survey data from 1660 men aged 40-79 years participating in the Massachusetts Male Ageing Study (MMAS) were analysed in the first phase. The clinic sample consisted of 304 men aged 40-79 years presenting at a large Massachusetts primary health care clinic for routine check-ups or minor medical problems. The primary outcome was testosterone deficiency, defined as serum total testosterone below 12.1 nmol/l. Self-reported variables considered as potential risk factors included age, obesity, chronic diseases, health behaviour, the Jackson dominance scale, and symptoms of stress. The prevalence of testosterone deficiency was 20.4% in the MMAS and 42.1% in the clinic sample. An eight-item screener was developed based on age, body mass index, diabetes, asthma, headaches, sleep patterns, dominance preferences, and smoking status. The screener performed significantly better than chance in identifying men with low testosterone levels; the area under the ROC curve was 0.66 in the MMAS sample and 0.67 in the clinic sample. The self-scored screener developed in this study reliably detects men at risk of hypogonadism. The screener encourages at risk men to seek professional evaluation of their testosterone levels.

  3. Strategies and Considerations for Teaching an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Type I Diabetes to Self-Administer Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosner, Sylvia M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a system of least prompts, partial participation, and parental involvement was used to successfully teach an adolescent with Down syndrome, moderate mental retardation, and Type I diabetes to self-administer an injection of insulin as part of an overall plan to increase self-determination and independence. (Contains seven…

  4. Satisfaction with Therapist-Delivered vs. Self-Administered Online Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Depression Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Participants with symptoms of depression received either eight sessions of therapist-delivered email cognitive behaviour therapy (eCBT; n = 37), or eight sessions of computerised CBT self-administered treatment (cCBT; n = 43). At post-treatment participants completed a questionnaire to determine what they found satisfying about their online…

  5. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  6. Diagnostic testing in extraesophageal GERD: another case of "furor medicus"?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work for most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). But when PPIs fail to work, or when there are atypical extra-esophageal symptoms, diagnostic and management decisions become much more difficult. Although atypical GERD is common, there are limited data about how best to approach these patients. The temptation is often to perform extensive diagnostic testing, sometimes to little avail. In this issue of The Journal, Francis et al. present a new study to help close the research gap in understanding the costs and benefits of testing in atypical GERD. The authors conclude that diagnostic testing is very expensive and real-life benefits are modest. This editorial reviews the findings, places them into clinical perspective, and concludes that diagnostic testing in atypical GERD may be another example of "furor medicus" - an old but descriptive term referring to the instinct of doctors to implore "don't just stand there, do something!" The data from Francis et al. suggest we might do the opposite in atypical GERD: "Don't just do something, stand there." PMID:23735914

  7. Regulation of σ-1 Receptors and Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperones in the Brain of Methamphetamine Self-Administering Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Teruo; Justinova, Zuzana; Hayashi, Eri; Cormaci, Gianfrancesco; Mori, Tomohisa; Tsai, Shang-Yi; Barnes, Chanel; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    σ-1 Receptors are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones that are implicated in the neuroplasticity associated with psychostimulant abuse. We immunocytochemically examined the distribution of σ-1 receptors in the brain of drug-naive rats and then examined the dynamics of σ-1 receptors and other ER chaperones in specific brain subregions of rats that self-administered methamphetamine, received methamphetamine passively, or received only saline injections. σ-1 Receptors were found to be expressed in moderate to high levels in the olfactory bulb, striatum, nucleus accumbens shell, olfactory tubercle, amygdala, hippocampus, red nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, and locus ceruleus. Methamphetamine, whether self-administered or passively received, significantly elevated ER chaperones including the σ-1 receptor, BiP, and calreticulin in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. In the olfactory bulb, however, only the σ-1 receptor chaperone was increased, and this increase occurred only in rats that actively self-administered methamphetamine. Consistent with an increase in σ-1 receptors, extracellular signal-regulated kinase was found to be activated and protein kinase A attenuated in the olfactory bulb of methamphetamine self-administering rats. σ-1 Receptors in the olfactory bulb were found to be colocalized with dopamine D1 receptors. These results indicate that methamphetamine induces ER stress in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra in rats whether the drug is received actively or passively. However, the changes seen only in rats that actively self-administered methamphetamine suggest that D1 and σ-1 receptors in the olfactory bulb might play an important role in the motivational conditioning/learning aspects of methamphetamine self-administration in the rat. PMID:19940104

  8. Effect of Body Weight and Esophageal Damage on the Severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms. Mexican GERD Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vargas, José Antonio; Lopez, Luis Humberto; Fass, Ronnie; Sobrino-Cossio, Sergio; Higgins, Paul; Comuzzie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Several studies have demonstrated overweight and obesity are strong independent risk factor of GERD symptoms and esophageal erosions. Our aim was to analyze the joint effect of BMI with the grade of esophageal damage over symptoms’ intensity of GERD. Methods We used a questionnaire with a Likert scale for severity of symptoms related to GERD. The distal portion of the esophagus was evaluated to determine the presence of mucosal injury, classified by Los Angeles criteria (LA). Results We included 917 subjects (53.76% females) with average age 36.8 ± 7 years. Males had higher BMI than females (26.8 ± 3.5 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5, p <0.001). Severe damage (C–D ulcers) was associated with overweight (BMI 25–30), severity of heartburn, retching, halitosis, regurgitation, and chest oppression. BMI >30 had high score for heartburn and retching, but low score for nausea, compared with lower weight. The model with interaction showed a non-linear association between BMI and LA. Overweight (but not obese) patients with damage scored C–D had the highest score for intensity of heartburn and retching. Conclusions BMI and LA do not have additive effects on the severity of symptoms of GERD. Those with BMI between 25 and 30 had severe symptoms score, but those with BMI >30 showed lower scores. These findings could explain controversial results found in other studies. PMID:20082872

  9. Inspiratory muscle training improves antireflux barrier in GERD patients.

    PubMed

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Lima, Maria Josire Vitorino; Martins, Giovanni Bezerra; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    The crural diaphragm (CD) is an essential component of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), and inspiratory exercises may modify its function. This study's goal is to verify if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves EGJ motility and gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Twelve GER disease [GERD; 7 males, 20-47 yr, 9 esophagitis, and 3 nonerosive reflex disease (NERD)] and 7 healthy volunteers (3 males, 20-41 yr) performed esophageal pH monitoring, manometry, and heart rate variability (HRV) studies. A 6-cm sleeve catheter measured average EGJ pressure during resting, peak inspiratory EGJ pressures during sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM) and inhalations under 17-, 35-, and 70-cmH2O loads (TH maneuvers), and along 1 h after a meal. GERD patients entered a 5-days-a-week IMT program. One author scored heartburn and regurgitation before and after IMT. IMT increased average EGJ pressure (19.7 ± 2.4 vs. 29.5 ± 2.1 mmHg; P < 0.001) and inspiratory EGJ pressure during SAM (89.6 ± 7.6 vs. 125.6 ± 13.3 mmHg; P = 0.001) and during TH maneuvers. The EGJ-pressure gain across 35- and 70-cmH2O loads was lower for GERD volunteers. The number and cumulative duration of the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations decreased after IMT. Proximal progression of GER decreased after IMT but not the distal acid exposure. Low-frequency power increased after IMT and the higher its increment the lower the increment of supine acid exposure. IMT decreased heartburn and regurgitation scores. In conclusion, IMT improved EGJ pressure, reduced GER proximal progression, and reduced GERD symptoms. Some GERD patients have a CD failure, and IMT may prove beneficial as a GERD add-on treatment.

  10. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  11. D1 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated LTP at GABA Synapses Encodes Motivation to Self-Administer Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Michal; Mason, Xenos; DeBacker, Julian; Sharma, Robyn; Normandeau, Catherine P.; Hawken, Emily R.; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Chiang, Cindy; Martinez, Audrey; Jones, Andrea A.; Doudnikoff, Évelyne; Caille, Stephanie; Bézard, Erwan; Georges, François; Dumont, Éric C.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced motivation to take drugs is a central characteristic of addiction, yet the neural underpinning of this maladaptive behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we report a D1-like dopamine receptor (DRD1)-mediated long-term potentiation of GABAA-IPSCs (D1-LTPGABA) in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that was positively correlated with motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats. Likewise, in vivo intra-oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis DRD1 pharmacological blockade reduced lever pressing for cocaine more effectively in rats showing enhanced motivation toward cocaine. D1-LTPGABA resulted from enhanced function and expression of G-protein-independent DRD1 coupled to c-Src tyrosine kinases and required local release of neurotensin. There was no D1-LTPGABA in rats that self-administered sucrose, in those with limited cocaine self-administration experience, or in those that received cocaine passively (yoked). Therefore, our study reveals a novel neurophysiological mechanism contributing to individual motivation to self-administer cocaine, a critical psychobiological element of compulsive drug use and addiction. PMID:23864683

  12. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A.; Dumont, Éric C.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal. PMID:24472317

  13. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  14. Evolocumab lowers LDL-C safely and effectively when self-administered in the at-home setting.

    PubMed

    Dent, Ricardo; Joshi, Raju; Stephen Djedjos, C; Legg, Jason; Elliott, Mary; Geller, Michelle; Meyer, Dawn; Somaratne, Ransi; Recknor, Chris; Weiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Evolocumab has been shown to consistently reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) across populations. The phase 3 studies included administration in the home-use and in-clinic settings but did not specifically evaluate the feasibility of home-use administration. Two clinical studies enrolled patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia on statin therapy and with/without ezetimibe received evolocumab in the home-use setting. Patients were randomized to self-administer evolocumab using one of two injection devices biweekly over 6 weeks (autoinjector or prefilled syringe; n = 149; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01849497) or monthly over 12 weeks (autoinjector or automated minidoser; n = 164; NCT01879319). The first self-administration occurred in the in-clinic setting, and two more were performed in the at-home setting. Patients were successful in self-administering evolocumab in the home-use setting in approximately 95 % of attempts and experienced LDL-C reductions from baseline to week 6 or the mean of weeks 10 and 12 of approximately 65 %. Rates of successful self-administration and LDL-C reduction were similar across dosing schedules and study devices. Adverse events were similar between randomized groups and generally mild in severity. In two clinical studies, therefore, patients were able to successfully self-administer evolocumab in both the in-clinic and at-home settings regardless of which dosing schedule or device they used.

  15. Impact of PPIs on patient focused symptomatology in GERD

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, ABR

    2008-01-01

    About half of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have a normal endoscopy, so symptom assessment is the only appropriate outcome measure for these persons. Symptom assessment is also of great importance in persons with erosive esophagitis. There is currently no fully validated questionnaire to compare symptom response to treatment of patients with GERD. The aim of this review is to consider ReQuest™ assessment tool to evaluate esophageal, supra-esophageal, and infra-esophageal symptoms, as well as any modification of the patient’s quality of life. The ReQuest™ may be combined with the Los Angeles classification of esophagitis (LA A–D), to include the normal endoscopic finding in normal endoscopy reflux disease. The ReQuest™ score declines rapidly towards normal with patient treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. A proportion of patients need more than the usual 8 weeks of therapy. For example, in GERD patients with Los Angeles B–D, the ReQuest™ score falls more with pantoprazole 40 mg than with esomoprazole 40 mg after 12 weeks of therapy. Now that the simplified ReQuest in Practice™ is available, this validated brief questionnaire has potential as an instrument for use in GERD patients seen in everyday clinical practice. PMID:19337426

  16. The assessment of generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the self-administered GAD-2 scale in daily medical practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim To psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the self-administered 2-item GAD-2 scale for screening probable patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods The GAD-2 was self-administered by patients diagnosed with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and by age- and sex-matched controls who were recruited at random in mental health and primary care centres. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined for different cut-off values. Concurrent validity was also established using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHODAS II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD) with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76). No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to complete the questionnaire. Reliability (internal consistency) was high; Cronbach’s α = 0.875. A cut-off point of 3 showed adequate sensitivity (91.5%) and specificity (85.8%), with a statistically significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.937, p < 0.001), to distinguish GAD patients from controls. Concurrent validity was also high and significant with HAM-A (0.806, p < 0.001), HADS (anxiety domain, 0.825, p < 0.001) and WHO-DAS II (0.642, p < 0.001) scales. Conclusion The Spanish version of the GAD-2 scale has been shown to have appropriate psychometric properties to rapidly detect probable cases of GAD in the Spanish cultural context under routine clinical practice conditions. PMID:22992432

  17. Assessment of airway inflammation by exhaled breath condensate and impedance due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2009-09-01

    Avoiding oxidative stress in the airways is important for the treatment of respiratory disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is often difficult to decide whether GERD is causing airway inflammation or whether an airway disease is complicated by GERD. Measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is performed by cooling and collecting the airway lining fluid contained in exhaled air. A decrease of pH and an increase of the 8-isoprostane concentration in EBC have been observed in patients with mild to moderate asthma accompanied by GERD. There are still problems to be overcome before EBC can be used clinically, but pH and 8-isoprostane may be promising objective markers of airway inflammation due to GERD. The disease concept and diagnosis of GERD are constantly advancing, including the development of impedance methods. It is expected that treatment will be based on the latest diagnostic knowledge of GERD associated with respiratory disease and on monitoring of airway inflammation.

  18. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  19. Psychological profile and self-administered relaxation in patients with craniofacial pain: a prospective in-office study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological profile of craniofacial pain sufferers and the impact of patient subtype classification on the short-time effectiveness of a self-administered relaxation training. Methods One hundred unselected in-office patients (67% females) suffering from chronic facial pain and/or headache with the presumptive diagnose of temporo-mandibular disorder (TMD) completed a questionnaire battery comprising craniofacial pain perception, somatic complaints, irrational beliefs, and pain behavior and were classified into subtypes using cluster analysis. They underwent a self-administered progressive relaxation training and were re-evaluated for pain perception after 3 months. Results Pain was mild to moderate in the majority of patients. Symptom domains comprised parafunctional activities, temporo-mandibular pain and dysfunction, fronto-temporal headache, head/neck and neck/back pain. Three patient subtypes were identified regarding symptom/dysfunction level: (i) low burden (mild/moderate), (ii) psychosocial dysfunction (moderate/high), (iii) adaptive coping (moderate/mild). Self-rated adherence to the recommended relaxation training was moderate throughout the sample, but self-rated relief was significantly different between clusters. At follow-up, pain intensity was significantly decreased in all patients, whereas pain-related interference was improved only in dysfunctional and adaptive patients. Improvement of symptom domains varied between clusters and was most comprehensive in adaptive patients. Conclusions In conclusion, craniofacial pain sufferers can be divided in meaningful subtypes based on their pain perception, irrational beliefs, and pain behaviour. A self-administered relaxation training generally yielded positive effects on pain perception, however the benefit may be greater in patients with more marked symptom impact (both dysfunctional and adaptive). PMID:24382096

  20. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; King, Diane K.; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective “apps” that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  1. Directly observed versus self-administered antiretroviral therapies: preference of HIV-positive jailed inmates in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Parya; Caswell, Nikolai H; Jamison, Ross; Estes, Milton; Tulsky, Jacqueline P

    2012-10-01

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) of antiretroviral (ARV) medications has beneficial effects on HIV treatment for incarcerated inmates but has been associated with limited continuation after release and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Guided self-administered therapy (g-SAT) may be a preferred method of ARV delivery and may encourage medication-taking behavior. We surveyed the preference of 102 HIV-positive jailed inmates at the San Francisco City and County Jails regarding receiving ARVs via DOT versus g-SAT while incarcerated. Participants overwhelmingly preferred g-SAT over DOT. PMID:22547327

  2. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis.

    PubMed

    Dulin, Patrick L; Gonzalez, Vivian M; King, Diane K; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective "apps" that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  3. Parent Use and Efficacy of a Self-Administered, Tablet-Based Parent Training Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Louis; Ocampo, Edith V; Acosta, Diana I

    2016-01-01

    Background Parent training programs are traditionally delivered in face-to-face formats and require trained facilitators and weekly parent attendance. Implementing face-to-face sessions is challenging in busy primary care settings and many barriers exist for parents to attend these sessions. Tablet-based delivery of parent training offers an alternative to face-to-face delivery to make parent training programs easier to deliver in primary care settings and more convenient and accessible to parents. We adapted the group-based Chicago Parent Program (CPP) to be delivered as a self-administered, tablet-based program called the ez Parentprogram. Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the feasibility of the ez Parentprogram by examining parent satisfaction with the program and the percent of modules completed, (2) test the efficacy of the ez Parentprogram by examining the effects compared with a control condition for improving parenting and child behavior in a sample of low-income ethnic minority parents of young children recruited from a primary care setting, and (3) compare program completion and efficacy with prior studies of the group-based CPP. Methods The study used a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with repeated measures follow up. Subjects (n=79) were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control condition. Data collection was at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks post baseline. Parents were recruited from a large, urban, primary care pediatric clinic. ez Parentmodule completion was calculated as the percentage of the six modules completed by the intervention group parents. Attendance in the group-based CPP was calculated as the percentage of attendance at sessions 1 through 10. Satisfaction data were summarized using item frequencies. Parent and child data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) with simple contrasts to determine if there were significant intervention effects on the outcome

  4. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  5. Self-administered C1 esterase inhibitor concentrates for the management of hereditary angioedema: usability and patient acceptance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huamin Henry

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by episodic subcutaneous or submucosal swelling. The primary cause for the most common form of HAE is a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). The swelling caused by HAE can be painful, disfiguring, and life-threatening. It reduces daily function and compromises the quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. Among different treatment strategies, replacement with C1-INH concentrates is employed for on-demand treatment of acute attacks and long-term prophylaxis. Three human plasma-derived C1-INH preparations are approved for HAE treatment in the US, the European Union, or both regions: Cinryze(®), Berinert(®), and Cetor(®); however, only Cinryze is approved for long-term prophylaxis. Postmarketing studies have shown that home therapy (self-administered or administered by a caregiver) is a convenient and safe option preferred by many HAE patients. In this review, we summarize the role of self-administered plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate therapy with Cinryze at home in the prophylaxis of HAE. PMID:27660422

  6. Self-administered C1 esterase inhibitor concentrates for the management of hereditary angioedema: usability and patient acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huamin Henry

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by episodic subcutaneous or submucosal swelling. The primary cause for the most common form of HAE is a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). The swelling caused by HAE can be painful, disfiguring, and life-threatening. It reduces daily function and compromises the quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. Among different treatment strategies, replacement with C1-INH concentrates is employed for on-demand treatment of acute attacks and long-term prophylaxis. Three human plasma-derived C1-INH preparations are approved for HAE treatment in the US, the European Union, or both regions: Cinryze®, Berinert®, and Cetor®; however, only Cinryze is approved for long-term prophylaxis. Postmarketing studies have shown that home therapy (self-administered or administered by a caregiver) is a convenient and safe option preferred by many HAE patients. In this review, we summarize the role of self-administered plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate therapy with Cinryze at home in the prophylaxis of HAE. PMID:27660422

  7. Self-administered C1 esterase inhibitor concentrates for the management of hereditary angioedema: usability and patient acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huamin Henry

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by episodic subcutaneous or submucosal swelling. The primary cause for the most common form of HAE is a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). The swelling caused by HAE can be painful, disfiguring, and life-threatening. It reduces daily function and compromises the quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. Among different treatment strategies, replacement with C1-INH concentrates is employed for on-demand treatment of acute attacks and long-term prophylaxis. Three human plasma-derived C1-INH preparations are approved for HAE treatment in the US, the European Union, or both regions: Cinryze®, Berinert®, and Cetor®; however, only Cinryze is approved for long-term prophylaxis. Postmarketing studies have shown that home therapy (self-administered or administered by a caregiver) is a convenient and safe option preferred by many HAE patients. In this review, we summarize the role of self-administered plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate therapy with Cinryze at home in the prophylaxis of HAE.

  8. Use of electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Most epidemiologic studies employ a vacuum cleaner used by a trained technician to collect household allergens. This approach is labor intensive, equipment dependent, and impractical if study subjects reside over a wide geographic area. We examined the feasibility of a s...

  9. Comprehensive Comparison of Self-Administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masako; Adachi, Katsunori; Sumi, Satoshi; Okada, Kensuke; Kishino, Hirohisa; Sakai, Saeko; Kamio, Yoko; Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Sadao; Kanne, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype…

  10. A Self-Administered Intervention to Improve Reading Comprehension in Underachieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyma, Richard J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates a self-regulation package designed to improve the reading comprehension of elementary students. Found that the performance of four male fourth grade subjects improved at a level superior to that of the average performance of their 36 classmates. (FMW)

  11. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease.

  12. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease. PMID:26207411

  13. Relationship between salt intake as estimated by a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) and 24-h urinary salt excretion in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Satoko; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-08-01

    Assessing an individual's salt intake is necessary for providing guidance with respect to salt restriction. However, the methods that exist for assessing salt intake have both merits and limitations. Therefore, the evaluation methods should be selected for their appropriateness to the patients and the environment of the medical facilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) by comparing the responses with 24-h urinary salt excretion. A total of 136 hypertensive outpatients (54 men and 82 women) were included in this study. All subjects were given the BDHQ and performed 24-h home urine collection. The energy-adjusted salt intake as assessed by the BDHQ was 12.3 (95% confidence interval: 11.8-12.9) g per day, and the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection was 9.0 (8.4-9.5) g per day. The energy-adjusted salt intake assessed by the BDHQ correlated significantly with the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection (r=0.34, P<0.001). In conclusion, the estimated salt intake evaluated by the BDHQ weakly, but significantly, correlated with 24-h urinary salt excretion. In clinical practice, it seems important to utilize both methods to assess an individual's salt intake in order to provide adequate guidance for salt restriction.

  14. Comparison of central and intraesophageal factors between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and those with GERD-related noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, M; Simantov, R; Yair, M; Leitman, M; Blatt, A; Scapa, E; Broide, E

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) causes a wide range of symptoms. Some patients present with typical symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation and others with atypical symptoms such as chest pain. The mechanism responsible for the varying clinical presentation of GERD is still not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate differences in central and local intraesophageal factors between patients with typical GERD symptoms and those with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). Patients presenting with typical and atypical symptoms suspicious of GERD underwent upper endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring with four sensors, each positioned at a different esophageal level. All patients completed GERD symptom, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Symptom Stress Rating questionnaires. From January 2006 to December 2009, 50 patients were recruited, 29 with typical symptoms, and 21 with NCCP. Patients with proven GERD and NCCP had higher proximal extension of acid during reflux episodes than patients with typical symptoms. They were found to be older, had a shorter history of symptom onset, worse anxiety scores, and more endoscopic findings compatible with gastritis. Proximal extension of acid during the reflux episodes in patients with GERD presenting with NCCP may play a role in symptom generation.

  15. The Motivation to Self-Administer is Increased After a History of Spiking Brain Levels of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Benjamin A; Oleson, Erik B; Roberts, David CS

    2012-01-01

    Recent attempts to model the addiction process in rodents have focused on cocaine self-administration procedures that provide extended daily access. Such procedures produce a characteristic loading phase during which blood levels rapidly rise and then are maintained within an elevated range for the duration of the session. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that multiple fast-rising spikes in cocaine levels contribute to the addiction process more robustly than constant, maintained drug levels. Here, we compared the effects of various cocaine self-administration procedures that produced very different patterns of drug intake and drug dynamics on Pmax, a behavioral economic measure of the motivation to self-administer drug. Two groups received intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine during daily 6-h sessions. Access was limited to twelve 5-min trials that alternated with 25-min timeout periods, using either a hold-down procedure or a fixed ratio 1 (FR1). Cocaine levels could not be maintained with this procedure; instead the animals experienced 12 fast-rising spikes in cocaine levels each day. The IntA groups were compared with groups given 6-h FR1 long access and 2-h short access sessions and two other control groups. Here, we report that cocaine self-administration procedures resulting in repeatedly spiking drug levels produce more robust increases in Pmax than procedures resulting in maintained high levels of cocaine. These results suggest that rapid spiking of brain-cocaine levels is sufficient to increase the motivation to self-administer cocaine. PMID:22453139

  16. Development of a menu of performance tests self-administered on a portable microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen cognitive, motor, and information processing performance subtests were screened for self-administration over 10 trials by 16 subjects. When altered presentation forms of the same test were collectively considered, the battery composition was reduced to 10 distinctly different measures. A fully automated microbased testing system was employed in presenting the battery of subtests. Successful self-administration of the battery provided for the field testing of the automated system and facilitated convenient data collection. Total test administration time was 47.2 minutes for each session. Results indicated that nine of the tests stabilized, but for a short battery of tests only five are recommended for use in repeated-measures research. The five recommended tests include: the Tapping series, Number Comparison, Short-term Memory, Grammatical Reasoning, and 4-Choice Reaction Time. These tests can be expected to reveal three factors: (1) cognition, (2) processing quickness, and (3) motor. All the tests stabilized in 24 minutes, or approximately two 12-minute sessions.

  17. Treatment Challenges in the Management of Gastroparesis-Related GERD

    PubMed Central

    Fass, Ronnie; McCallum, Richard W.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between gastroparesis and GERD is multi-factorial. The delay in gastric emptying associated with gastroparesis can lead to prolonged gastric retention of food that may have a propensity to reflux. Because gastroparesis allows material to remain in the stomach, there is an increase in the gastroesophageal pressure gradient, gastric volume, and the volume of potential refluxate. Additionally, the prolonged exposure of material in the stomach can increase gastric acid secretion. The onset of gastroparesis has been attributed to several causes, including comorbidities (mainly diabetes), surgical complications, and the use of specific medications (including anticholinergics, narcotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and calcium channel blockers). The etiology of some cases of gastroparesis remain unclear, a condition termed idiopathic gastroparesis. Symptoms commonly associated with gastroparesis or GERD, including nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation, may delay drug absorption. This has the potential to greatly impact systemic absorption and concentration of drugs. Several patient populations may benefit from the use of medication formulations that offer an alternative to swallowing a traditional tablet. In addition, prokinetic drugs, such as metoclopramide, are used in the first-line treatment of gastroparesis to improve the contractility of the gut muscles, as well as the movement of contents through the gastrointestinal system and regulate drug metabolism and absorption.

  18. Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery might help you. How does surgery for GERD work? In a fundoplication, the top part of your ... how well endoscopic treatments (EndoCinch™, Stretta®, and EsophyX™) work to control the symptoms of GERD. What are the side effects of endoscopic treatments? ...

  19. Diagnostic testing and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, J; Subbarao, G; Croffie, J

    2012-12-01

    The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has evolved from reliance on history and fluoroscopy to continuous esophageal pH monitoring with catheter-based pH probes and wireless pH probes to continuous impedance/pH monitoring. This review describes the currently employed diagnostic tests and the actual management of GERD in children.

  20. Extraesophageal gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms are not more frequently associated with proximal esophageal reflux than typical GERD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J R; Aravapalli, A; Pohl, D; Freeman, J; Castell, D O

    2012-01-01

    Extraesophageal (EE) symptoms such as cough and throat clearing are common in patients referred for reflux testing, but are less commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Patients with reflux associated EE symptoms often lack typical GERD symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation. Our aim was to compare the frequency of proximal esophageal reflux between esophageal (typical) symptoms and EE (atypical) symptoms. Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) tracings were blinded by an investigator so that symptom markers were relabeled with a number without disclosure of symptom type. We selected 40 patients with at least five reflux-related symptom events for one of four symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, cough, or throat clearing). A blinded investigator analyzed all 200 reflux episodes, reporting the proximal esophageal extent of the reflux for all symptoms. The percentage of symptom-related reflux extending proximally to 17 cm above the LES was similar among all four symptom types. At least 50% of all symptoms were associated with proximal esophageal reflux to 17 cm, with regurgitation having the highest frequency at 60%. Our data indicate that EE symptoms are not more frequently associated with proximal esophageal reflux than typical esophageal symptoms.

  1. Surgical Approach After Failed Enteryx Injection for GERD

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, A.; Anvari, M.; Dallemagne, B.; Mutter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We report on 3 patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux procedures for persistent symptoms of GERD after biopolymer injection. Methods: Experienced laparoscopic surgeons completed all 3 procedures laparoscopically. In 2 patients, there was an extramural extravasation of the polymer outside and adherent to the esophageal wall. In these patients, a partial posterior fundoplication was used. The third patient, who had the polymer material deposits removed preoperatively by endoscopic mucosal resection, underwent a Nissen fundoplication. Results: Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all cases. At follow-up of 6 to 12 months, all patients were symptom free, off medical therapy, and experiencing no dysphagia. Conclusion: Surgical therapy for patients after failed biopolymer injection is safe and effective. The choice of surgery may depend on whether the polymer mass can be removed preoperatively. PMID:17651566

  2. Dopaminergic responses to self-administered cocaine in Rhesus monkeys do not sensitize following high cumulative intake.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Charles W; Rubino, Susan R

    2006-05-01

    Sensitization of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems by administration of psychostimulants has been observed repeatedly in rodents. This phenomenon has been incorporated into theories of neurobiological adaptation underlying addiction, and is believed to be a mechanism whereby drug-associated cues acquire the ability to control behaviour via a conditioned release of DA. However, we have previously demonstrated in nonhuman primates that drug cues that cause cocaine seeking do not promote a conditioned increase in DA release of sufficient endurance to be measured in 2-min samples. In addition, imaging studies in humans and nonhuman primates that have been chronically exposed to psychostimulants have not demonstrated an increase in DA release upon psychostimulant challenge. Here we report that following 32 weeks of self-administration by rhesus monkeys, no increase over time in the DA response to self-administered cocaine was observed in any striatal subregion or individual animal. These results are consistent with clinical imaging studies showing a lack of DA sensitization, and might provide a mechanism to explain our previous observation that the rodent and primate differ in neurochemical response to drug-associated cues. PMID:16817880

  3. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  4. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  5. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  6. Self-Administered Cued Naming Therapy: A Single-Participant Investigation of a Computer-Based Therapy Program Replicated in Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsberger, Gail; Marie, Basem

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the benefits of a self-administered, clinician-guided, computer-based, cued naming therapy. Results of intense and nonintense treatment schedules were compared. Method: A single-participant design with multiple baselines across behaviors and varied treatment intensity for 2 trained lists was replicated over 4…

  7. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  8. Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Maternal vitamin D status is important for fetal development and the prevention of pregnancy complications. Mothers require both sufficient intakes and skin production of this vitamin. We investigated the validity and test-retest reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) to establish a method of assessing vitamin D intakes of Japanese pregnant women, using a serum marker. A total of 245 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, who were not taking vitamin D supplements, were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured as an indicator of vitamin D status. To assess the test-retest reliability of the DHQ, 58 pregnant women completed it twice within a 4-5-week interval. Significant positive correlations between intakes and serum concentrations of vitamin D were found (r = 0.266 for daily intakes and r = 0.249 for energy-adjusted intakes). In the winter investigation in which the serum 25(OH)D concentrations were less likely to be affected by sunlight exposure, the correlation coefficients were 0.304 for both daily and energy-adjusted intakes. After excluding participants with pregnancy-associated nausea, the coefficients increased. The intraclass correlation coefficient between vitamin D intakes estimated from the two-time DHQ was 0.638. The DHQ provides an acceptable validity and reliability of the vitamin D intake of Japanese pregnant women. However, the data of women with nausea should be interpreted with caution. We believe that the DHQ is a useful questionnaire to grasp and improve vitamin D intakes during pregnancy.

  9. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings.

  10. A comparison of self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation to static stretching on range of motion and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Jason; Gainey, Kamar; Figueroa, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Stretching is known to be an effective method for increasing range of motion. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a stretching technique that is often associated with a partner. The goal of this study was to examine the changes in hip range of motion (ROM) and hip, back and shoulder flexibility (HBSF) after an intervention of self-administered PNF vs. traditional static stretching. Nineteen healthy college-aged individuals (ages 19-25 years) completed the study. Participants were tested preintervention and postintervention for hip ROM and HBSF using a goniometer and sit-and-reach test, respectively. Interventions included static or self-PNF hamstring stretching 2 × 40 seconds on each leg for 6 weeks. Participants were randomly placed in a group, and upon completion of the intervention and a 1-week rest period, they repeated the process with the other intervention. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the change in hip ROM and HBSF between the static stretch and self-PNF group. Mean and SD changes in the hip ROM were -6.2 ± 6.6° vs. 0.6 ± 4.5° for the PNF and static groups, respectively (where a negative value indicates an increase in ROM) and 5.2 ± 3.3 cm vs. 2.0 ± 2.6 cm, respectively, for HSBF. In addition, significant improvements (using 99% confidence intervals) were found in the 2 measures after the PNF intervention but only in HBSF after the static stretching intervention. These results suggest that self-PNF can be used in place of static stretching, does not require a partner, and gives control of the stretching to the individual.

  11. Validation of a Web-based, self-administered, non-consecutive-day dietary record tool against urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-28

    New technologies are promising for the use of short-term instruments for dietary data collection; however, innovative tools should be validated against objective biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of a Web-based, self-administered dietary record (DR) tool using protein, K and Na intakes against 24 h urinary biomarkers (24 h U). Of the total participants, 199 adult volunteers (104 men and 95 women, mean age 50·5 (23-83 years)) of the NutriNet-Santé Study were included in the protocol. They completed three non-consecutive-day DR and two 24 h U on the first and third DR days. Relative differences between reported (DR) and measured (24 h U) intakes were calculated from the log ratio (DR/24 h U) for protein, K and Na intakes: -14·4,+2·6 and -2·1 % for men; and -13·9, -3·7 and -8·3 % for women, respectively. The correlations between reported and true intakes were 0·61, 0·78 and 0·47 for men and 0·64, 0·42 and 0·37 for women for protein, K and Na, respectively. Attenuation factors, that represent attenuation of the true diet-disease relationship due to measurement error (a value closer to 1 indicating lower attenuation), ranged from 0·23 (Na, women) to 0·60 (K, men). We showed that the Web-based DR tool used in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study performs well in estimating protein and K intakes and fairly well in estimating Na intake. Furthermore, three non-consecutive-day DR appear to be valid for estimating usual intakes of protein and K, although caution is advised regarding the generalisability of these findings to other nutrients and general population.

  12. Directly-Observed and Self-Administered Tuberculosis Treatment in a Chronic, Low-Intensity Conflict Setting in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinalini; Isaakidis, Petros; Armstrong, Edward; Gundipudi, Nirmala Rani; Babu, Ramesh B.; Qureshi, Ihtesham A.; Claes, Andrea; Mudimanchi, Anil Kumar; Prasad, Nagendra; Mansoor, Homa; Abraham, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data are available about tuberculosis treatment models of care for internally displaced populations in chronic, low-intensity conflict zones. This study aimed to detail experiences of a Médecins Sans Frontières tuberculosis programme in Andhra Pradesh-Chhattisgarh border area, India, from January to December 2012. Methods The study was a description of two retrospective, observational cohorts receiving category I tuberculosis treatment, either intermittent directly observed treatment (DOT) or daily self-administered therapy (SAT) depending on the security of the area and access to health care services. Results A total of 55 and 17 new tuberculosis patients under DOT and SAT respectively, with complete outcomes were included in the study. Most patients registered were new cases suffering from pulmonary, smear-positive tuberculosis. More than half of the patients in both cohorts were cured or completed treatment: 38/55 (69%) patients were successfully treated under DOT compared to 9/17 (53%) under SAT. Of the patients with adverse outcomes, the ratios of loss to follow up: failure: died were 10∶4:3 under DOT and 7∶0:1 under SAT. A much smaller proportion of patients under DOT (18%) were lost to follow up than under SAT (41%). Discussion Maximum efforts are required to implement successful tuberculosis control programmes for internally displaced populations in conflict zones. Our study suggests that complete tuberculosis treatment can be given to patients using either intermittent DOT or daily SAT, depending on security and access to health services. National TB programmes should include SAT strategies for tuberculosis treatment as these may be an alternative feasible option in conflict settings. PMID:24651176

  13. Role Preferences of People with Multiple Sclerosis: Image-Revised, Computerized Self-Administered Version of the Control Preference Scale

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Alessandra; Giordano, Andrea; Kasper, Jurgen; Drulovic, Jelena; van Nunen, An; Vahter, Liina; Viala, Frederique; Pietrolongo, Erika; Pugliatti, Maura; Antozzi, Carlo; Radice, Davide; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The Control Preference Scale (CPS) is the most frequently used measure of patients’ preferred roles in treatment decisions. We revised the original CPS and developed a new computerized patient self-administered version (eCPS). We used the eCPS to assess role preferences, and their determinants, in Italian and German people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods New cartoons were produced, based on MS health professional and patient input/feedback and previous findings, and pilot tested on 26 Italian and German MS patients. eCPS acceptability and reliability (weighted kappa statistic, wK) in comparison to the original tool, was determined in 92 MS patients who received both CPS versions in random order. Results The new cartoons were well accepted and easily interpreted by patients, who reported they based their choices mainly on the text and considered the images of secondary importance. eCPS reliability was moderate (wK 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.65) and similar to the test-retest reliability of face-to-face administration assessed in a previous publication (wK 0.65, 95% CI 0.45–0.81). Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 3.74, 95% CI 1.00–14.05) and German nationality (OR 10.30, 95% CI 3.10–34.15) were associated with preference for an active role in the logistic model. Conclusions The newly devised eCPS was well received and considered easy to use by MS patients. Reliability was in line with that of the original version. Role preference appears affected by cultural characteristics and (borderline statistical significance) education. PMID:23823627

  14. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  15. Methoxetamine, a ketamine derivative, produced conditioned place preference and was self-administered by rats: Evidence of its abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Yoon, Robin; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Yong Sup; Jang, Choon Gon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to ketamine. Recently, there have been many reports regarding its use/misuse in humans which have resulted in serious or even fatal outcomes. Despite these reports, MXE is not controlled or regulated in many countries which may be partly due to the lack of scientific evidence regarding its abuse potential. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of MXE through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, locomotor activity during the conditioning phase of the CPP was also analyzed. Ketamine was used as a reference drug. MXE (2.5 and 5mg/kg) induced significant CPP in rats, an effect comparable to that of ketamine (5mg/kg). Interestingly, MXE did not produce any locomotor alterations while ketamine decreased the locomotor activity of rats. In the SA test, rats showed modest self-administration of MXE (0.25, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg/infusion), while ketamine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) was robustly self-administered. These results demonstrate that MXE, similar to ketamine, has rewarding and reinforcing effects in rats. The present study strongly suggests that MXE has a potential for human abuse. In addition, the discrepant effects of MXE and ketamine on locomotor activity and rate of self-administration propose that the psychopharmacological effects of these drugs may diverge in some aspects. More importantly, this study advocates the careful monitoring and prompt regulation of MXE and its related substances.

  16. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  17. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change −5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response—as measured by THI—with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  18. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Computerized Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Use in Studies of American Indian and Alaskan Native People

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Johnson, Jennifer; Edwards, Sandra; Edwards, Roger; Benson, Joan; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

    2008-01-01

    Collection of dietary intake in epidemiologic studies involves using methods that are comprehensive yet appropriate for the population being studied. Here we describe a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed using an audio self-administered computer-assisted interview technique. The DHQ was developed for use in a cohort of American Indians and Alaskan Natives with tribal input and area-specific modules to incorporate local food availability. The DHQ includes 54 main food group questions, specific food items within the main food group, and food preparation and general eating practice questions. The questionnaire was programmed to be self-administered using a computer with a touch screen. The average time for the first 6,604 participants to complete the questionnaire was 36 minutes. Almost 100% of participants had complete DHQ data and the average number of food items selected was 70. The methods developed for collection of dietary data appear to be appropriate for the targeted population and may have usefulness for other populations where collecting dietary data in a self-administered format is desirable. PMID:18155994

  19. [Handling of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) during pregnancy--a review].

    PubMed

    Fill, S; Malfertheiner, M; Costa, S-D; Mönkemüller, K

    2007-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common during pregnancy. The pathogenesis is a decrease in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure caused by female sex hormones, especially progesterone. The most common symptom of GERD is heartburn. Nevertheless, serious reflux complications during pregnancy are rare. In contrast to non-pregnant patients, GERD during pregnancy should be managed with a step-up algorithm beginning with lifestyle modifications and dietary changes. Antacids or sucralfate are considered the first-line on-demand drug therapy. If symptoms persist, any of the histamine-2-receptor antagonists can be used. Proton pump inhibitors are reserved for women with intractable symptoms or complicated reflux disease. Usually, heartburn during pregnancy resolves soon after delivery but little is known about the late sequelae or, respectively, an influence on subsequent pregnancies. Accordingly a prospective study (longitudinal cohort analysis) is currently underway.

  20. A Review of Nonsurgical Treatment for the Symptom of Irritability in Infants with GERD

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Madalynn; Corwin, Elizabeth; Lareau, Suzanne C.; Marcheggiani-Howard, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review was to assess effectiveness of nonsurgical treatment on irritable behavior of infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Design and Method A systematic literature review was conducted. Results Research targeted treatment for irritability in infants with GERD. All interventions including placebo were similar in reducing irritability. Which specific intervention is best for which infant is not yet known. Minor adverse effects that could increase discomfort in infants were found with pharmacologic treatments. Practice Implications Knowledge of the effects of treatment on irritability and regurgitation can assist the nurse to work with other care providers in deciding how best to treat an individual infant. PMID:22734872

  1. GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Blockade Rescues Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis of Cocaine Self-Administering Rats

    PubMed Central

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  2. Correlation of the American Urological Association symptom index with self-administered versions of the Madsen-Iversen, Boyarsky and Maine Medical Assessment Program symptom indexes. Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    PubMed

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1992-11-01

    We correlated the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index with other indexes that have been used to measure symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compared their psychometric properties. A self-administered questionnaire that allowed derivation of AUA, Maine Medical Assessment Program, Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky symptom scores was completed by 76 men with clinically defined BPH, 59 younger control subjects, and 27 men before and after prostatectomy. The scores from the 4 indexes were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 0.93). All 4 indexes had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. All indexes were predictive of patient global ratings of the degree of bother from the urinary condition. The AUA index discriminated BPH patients from controls significantly better than the Maine Medical Assessment Program index, and equivalently to the Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky indexes (despite having fewer items). All 4 indexes were responsive when BPH patients underwent prostatectomy, although the AUA and Madsen-Iversen indexes were significantly more sensitive.

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Self-Administered Questionnaire to Assess Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms and Related Parenting Decisions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy B; White, Marney A

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms Survey (PATFS), a self-report measure of parental attitudes about firearms and parenting behavior. The initial item pool was generated based on a literature review and discussion with experts in violence reduction, psychometrics, and public health. Data were collected online from 362 volunteers and subjected to exploratory factor analysis which revealed a 13-item, 3-factor solution accounting for 59.7% of the variance. The 3 conceptual factors (subscales) were interpreted as Firearms Exposure, Parental Control, and Violent Play. The PATFS demonstrated good internal consistency and content and construct validity. The PATFS can be used to investigate parenting attitudes and behaviors specific to firearms and violent play. PMID:27075751

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Self-Administered Questionnaire to Assess Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms and Related Parenting Decisions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy B; White, Marney A

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms Survey (PATFS), a self-report measure of parental attitudes about firearms and parenting behavior. The initial item pool was generated based on a literature review and discussion with experts in violence reduction, psychometrics, and public health. Data were collected online from 362 volunteers and subjected to exploratory factor analysis which revealed a 13-item, 3-factor solution accounting for 59.7% of the variance. The 3 conceptual factors (subscales) were interpreted as Firearms Exposure, Parental Control, and Violent Play. The PATFS demonstrated good internal consistency and content and construct validity. The PATFS can be used to investigate parenting attitudes and behaviors specific to firearms and violent play.

  5. Accuracy of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and self-administered questionnaires for the assessment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Tu, Xin

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the accuracy of two retrospective methods and assessment intervals for recall of sexual behavior and assessed predictors of recall accuracy. Using a 2 [mode: audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) vs. self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)] by 2 (frequency: monthly vs. quarterly) design, young women (N =102) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants completed baseline measures, monitored their behavior with a daily diary, and returned monthly (or quarterly) for assessments. A mixed pattern of accuracy between the four assessment methods was identified. Monthly assessments yielded more accurate recall for protected and unprotected vaginal sex but quarterly assessments yielded more accurate recall for unprotected oral sex. Mode differences were not strong, and hypothesized predictors of accuracy tended not to be associated with recall accuracy. Choice of assessment mode and frequency should be based upon the research question(s), population, resources, and context in which data collection will occur. PMID:16721506

  6. Temporal and qualitative dynamics of conditioned taste aversions in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice self-administering LiCl.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Glatt, A; St John, Steven J; Lu, Lianyi; Boughter, John D

    2016-01-01

    Self-administration of LiCl solution has been shown to result in the formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that generalizes to NaCl in rats. This paradigm may have considerable ecological validity as it models CTA learning in natural settings, and also allows for the investigation of drinking microstructure as an assay of potential shifts in stimulus palatability. We used this paradigm to examine possible mouse strain differences in CTA acquisition, generalization, and extinction. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice self-administered LiCl (or control NaCl) over a 20-minute free access acquisition period and were tested on the following day with a panel of taste solutions available in brief (5-s) trials delivered in random order. In the second experiment, mice again self-administered LiCl or NaCl (at low, 0.12 M, or high, 0.24 M concentrations) in a 20-minute session, and on the following day received a 20-minute free access period to equimolar NaCl. Strain differences were found for aspects of ingestive behavior, with B6 mice showing greater consumption of all stimuli, including water, while D2 mice lick faster, in less frequent but longer bursts. We did not, however, find evidence of a robust strain difference in taste aversion learning. Both strains demonstrated profound alterations in licking microstructure in the generalization session relative to controls. We suggest that a decrease in "lick efficiency" (the percentage of inter-lick intervals within a burst of short duration vs. longer duration) reflects avoidance behavior, and signals a shift in palatability of a stimulus following CTA. PMID:26524511

  7. Temporal and qualitative dynamics of conditioned taste aversions in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice self-administering LiCl.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Glatt, A; St John, Steven J; Lu, Lianyi; Boughter, John D

    2016-01-01

    Self-administration of LiCl solution has been shown to result in the formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that generalizes to NaCl in rats. This paradigm may have considerable ecological validity as it models CTA learning in natural settings, and also allows for the investigation of drinking microstructure as an assay of potential shifts in stimulus palatability. We used this paradigm to examine possible mouse strain differences in CTA acquisition, generalization, and extinction. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice self-administered LiCl (or control NaCl) over a 20-minute free access acquisition period and were tested on the following day with a panel of taste solutions available in brief (5-s) trials delivered in random order. In the second experiment, mice again self-administered LiCl or NaCl (at low, 0.12 M, or high, 0.24 M concentrations) in a 20-minute session, and on the following day received a 20-minute free access period to equimolar NaCl. Strain differences were found for aspects of ingestive behavior, with B6 mice showing greater consumption of all stimuli, including water, while D2 mice lick faster, in less frequent but longer bursts. We did not, however, find evidence of a robust strain difference in taste aversion learning. Both strains demonstrated profound alterations in licking microstructure in the generalization session relative to controls. We suggest that a decrease in "lick efficiency" (the percentage of inter-lick intervals within a burst of short duration vs. longer duration) reflects avoidance behavior, and signals a shift in palatability of a stimulus following CTA.

  8. Enhanced motivation to self-administer cocaine is predicted by self-grooming behaviour and relates to dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R; van den Akker, Margot; Raasø, Halfdan S; Wardeh, George; Binnekade, Rob; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; de Vries, Taco J

    2002-05-01

    Rats, like humans, show strong individual differences in their response to anxiogenic and stressful stimuli. In the present study we evaluated whether differences in stress-induced self-grooming behaviour may predict an individual's vulnerability to engage in drug self-administration behaviour. From a population of Wistar rats, the lower and upper quartile with respect to time spent self-grooming on an elevated plus maze (EPM) were selected and trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine under fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. High grooming (HG) rats reached considerably higher breakpoints than low grooming (LG) rats but showed no differences in acquisition rate and dose-response relationships. Further, EPM exposure elicited higher anxiety levels and enhanced plasma corticosterone secretion in HG rats. In addition, HG rats did not display enhanced novelty-seeking and still spent more time self-grooming during an EPM re-test following the cocaine self-administration procedure, indicating that stress-induced self-grooming is a stable behavioural trait marker. Neurochemically, electrically evoked [(3)H]dopamine release in vitro was profoundly lower in brain slices from the substantia nigra, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala of naive HG rats as compared to LG rats, whereas no differences were found in the nucleus accumbens shell and core, the ventral tegmental area and caudate putamen. In conclusion, stress-induced self-grooming specifically predicts enhanced motivation to self-administer cocaine rather than sensitivity to its reinforcing effects. Responsiveness of dopaminergic nerve terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala may represent pre-existing underlying factors. PMID:12028365

  9. [Endoluminal fundoplication (ELF) with EsophyX2 for gastroesophageal reflux desease (GERD)].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, A E; Lobonţiu, A; Constantinescu, G

    2009-01-01

    GERD is a frequent, evolving, life quality-impairing disease. In addition to medication and laparoscopic fundoplication we have recently added endoluminal fundoplication (ELF). The EsophyX2 is currently the most efficient device for endoluminal fundoplication. This device produces a partial, anterior valve, redesigning the antireflux barrier and the Hiss angle geometry, thus improving the activity of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This paper presents the operative technique, the patient selection criteria and published results. It has been shown that this technique is both secure, reproductible and effective in patients followed for 12-24 months: life-quality improvement, decreased acid exposure, suppression of antiacids, reduced hospitalization and recovery. Compared to antiacid therapy, ELF is far more effective and less invasive than laparoscopic fundoplication. For the moment we have no long-term results. ELF with EsophyX2 is a minimally invasive and efficient therapy for GERD that requires further evaluation. PMID:19886043

  10. Self-Administered Outpatient Antimicrobial Infusion by Uninsured Patients Discharged from a Safety-Net Hospital: A Propensity-Score-Balanced Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhavan, Kavita P.; Brown, L. Steven; Haley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is accepted as safe and effective for medically stable patients to complete intravenous (IV) antibiotics in an outpatient setting. Since, however, uninsured patients in the United States generally cannot afford OPAT, safety-net hospitals are often burdened with long hospitalizations purely to infuse antibiotics, occupying beds that could be used for patients requiring more intensive services. OPAT is generally delivered in one of four settings: infusion centers, nursing homes, at home with skilled nursing assistance, or at home with self-administered therapy. The first three—termed healthcare-administered OPAT (H-OPAT)—are most commonly used in the United States by patients with insurance funding. The fourth—self-administered OPAT (S-OPAT)—is relatively uncommon, with the few published studies having been conducted in the United Kingdom. With multidisciplinary planning, we established an S-OPAT clinic in 2009 to shift care of selected uninsured patients safely to self-administration of their IV antibiotics at home. We undertook this study to determine whether the low-income mostly non-English-speaking patients in our S-OPAT program could administer their own IV antimicrobials at home with outcomes as good as, or better than, those receiving H-OPAT. Methods and Findings Parkland Hospital is a safety-net hospital serving Dallas County, Texas. From 1 January 2009 to 14 October 2013, all uninsured patients meeting criteria were enrolled in S-OPAT, while insured patients were discharged to H-OPAT settings. The S-OPAT patients were trained through multilingual instruction to self-administer IV antimicrobials by gravity, tested for competency before discharge, and thereafter followed at designated intervals in the S-OPAT outpatient clinic for IV access care, laboratory monitoring, and physician follow-up. The primary outcome was 30-d all-cause readmission, and the secondary outcome was 1-y all

  11. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Wright, Shana; Rotrosen, John; Khan, Rubina; Lee, Joshua D.; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    The time required to conduct drug and alcohol screening has been a major barrier to its implementation in mainstream healthcare settings. Because patient self-administered tools are potentially more efficient, we translated the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) into an audio guided computer assisted self interview (ACASI) format. This study reports on the test-retest reliability of the ACASI ASSIST in an adult primary care population. Adult primary care patients completed the ACASI ASSIST, in English or Spanish, twice within a 1–4 week period. Among the 101 participants, there were no significant differences between test administrations in detecting moderate to high risk use for tobacco, alcohol, or any other drug class. Substance risk scores from the two administrations had excellent concordance (90–98%) and high correlation (ICC 0.90–0.97) for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The ACASI ASSIST has good test-retest reliability, and warrants additional study to evaluate its validity for detecting unhealthy substance use. PMID:24629887

  12. Results of a Pilot Test of a Self-Administered Smartphone-Based Treatment System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Usability and Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Campbell, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides results from a pilot study focused on assessing early-stage effectiveness and usability of a smartphone-based intervention system that provides a stand-alone, self-administered intervention option, the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A). The LBMI-A provided numerous features for intervening with ongoing drinking, craving, connection with supportive others, managing life problems, high risk location alerting and activity scheduling. Methods Twenty-eight participants, ranging in age from 22 to 45, who met criteria for an alcohol use disorder used an LBMI-A enabled smartphone for 6 weeks. Results Participants indicated the LBMI-A intervention modules were helpful in highlighting alcohol use patterns. Tools related to managing alcohol craving, monitoring consumption, and identifying triggers to drink were rated by participants as particularly helpful. Participants also demonstrated significant reductions in hazardous alcohol use while using the system (56% of days spent hazardously drinking at baseline vs. 25% while using the LBMI-A) and drinks per day diminished by 52%. Conclusions Implications for system improvement as well as suggestions for designing ecological momentary assessment and intervention systems for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:24821354

  13. Effect of directly observed antiretroviral therapy compared to self-administered antiretroviral therapy on adherence and virological outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, Becky L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; Kiziah, C Nichole; Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G; Wohl, David A; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    The effect of directly observed therapy (DOT) versus self-administered therapy (SAT) on antiretroviral (ART) adherence and virological outcomes in prison has never been assessed in a randomized, controlled trial. Prisoners were randomized to receive ART by DOT or SAT. The primary outcome was medication adherence [percent of ART doses measured by the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and pill counts] at the end of 24 weeks. The changes in the plasma viral loads from baseline and proportion of participants virological suppressed (<400 copies/mL) at the end of 24 weeks were assessed. Sixty-six percent (90/136) of eligible prisoners declined participation. Participants in the DOT arm (n = 20) had higher viral loads than participants in the SAT (n = 23) arm (p = 0.23). Participants, with complete data at 24 weeks, were analyzed as randomized. There were no significant differences in median ART adherence between the DOT (n = 16, 99% MEMS [IQR 93.9, 100], 97.1 % pill count [IQR 95.1, 99.3]) and SAT (n = 21, 98.3 % MEMS [IQR 96.0, 100], 98.5 % pill count [95.8, 100]) arms (p = 0.82 MEMS, p = 0.40 Pill Count) at 24 weeks. Participants in the DOT arm had a greater reduction in viral load of approximately -1 log 10 copies/mL [IQR -1.75, -0.05] compared to -0.05 [IQR -0.45, 0.51] in the SAT arm (p value = 0.02) at 24 weeks. The proportion of participants achieving virological suppression in the DOT vs SAT arms was not statistically different at 24 weeks (53 % vs 32 %, p = 0.21). These findings suggest that DOT ART programs in prison settings may not offer any additional benefit on adherence than SAT programs. PMID:25055766

  14. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  15. A comparative study of laparoscopic and open Nissen fundoplication for GERD in Georgia.

    PubMed

    A Kiladze, Merab; T Giuashvili, Shalva; M Kiladze, Merab; V Elgandashvili, David

    2014-01-01

    Lo studio paragona ed analizza l’efficacia ed i risultati della fundoplicatio di Nissen in laparotomia secondo la modifica di Chernousov (CMNF) e la fundoplicatio totale laparoscopica eseguite in Georgia per la malattia da reflusso gastroesofageo (GERD), prendendo in considerazione la tecnica operatoria, le complicanze postoperatorie, i vantaggi per la sintomatologia, le recidive e la necessità di successivi reinterventi. Si tratta di uno studio prospettico randomizzato eseguito su 243 pazienti: 123 sottoposti alla procedura laparotomica CMNF e 120 pazienti trattati con la fundoplicatio totale laparoscopica. Gli esami pre- e postoperatori comprendono l’endoscopia, lo studio radiologico, un questionario da sottoporre al paziente (secondo lo schema GERD-HQRL) e lo studio clinico. Tutti i paziente sono stati controllati per un follow-up di 10 anni. Questo trial prospettico randomizzato ha mostrato risultati a lungo termine rispettivamente buoni ed eccellenti dopo chirurgia laparotomica e laparoscopica per GERD (92,7% vs 88,5% rispettivamente) (p=0,03). Dopo CMNF laparotomica si sono verificati tre casi di laparocele e 9 casi di modica disfagia. In nessun caso di è registrata una recidiva. Dopo approccio laparoscopico si sono osservati 7 casi di disfagia transitoria per i solidi, 3 casi di stenosi grave a livello cardiaco in rapporto alla plicatura. Vi sono stati due casi di recidiva, 3 casi di reflusso ed 1 caso di ernia epigastrica a livello del foro del trocar. Come nel resto del mondo, attualmente in Georgia la fundoplicatio totale per via laparoscopica rappresenta il metodo preferito di scelta per il trattamento della GERD. Esso presenta i migliori risultati estetici, il minor dolore ed i minori problemi a livello delle ferite, un più breve ricovero e un più precoce ritorno all’attività. Anche la procedura CMNF laparotomica è efficace e sicura. In essa si previene la sindrome da scivolamento ed è caratterizzata da un migliore controllo del reflusso ed

  16. Understanding GERD

    MedlinePlus

    ... heartburn: chocolate, coffee, peppermint, greasy or spicy foods, tomato products and alcoholic beverages. * Stop smoking. Tobacco inhibits saliva, which is the body’s major buffer. Tobacco may also stimulate stomach acid production and relax the muscle between the esophagus ...

  17. Adult and paediatric GERD: diagnosis, phenotypes and avoidance of excess treatments.

    PubMed

    Nikaki, Kornilia; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Detailed investigations and objective measurements in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux should be performed with the intent of making the correct diagnosis, thus enabling choice of appropriate therapy. Establishing the most effective therapy is particularly important in adults who do not respond to standard treatment and in children. The use of PPIs for suspected GERD has increased substantially over the past decade, providing great relief in patients with acid-related symptoms, but also leading to adverse effects and a considerable economic burden. Adults with functional heartburn do not benefit from PPIs, while prolonged PPI use in patients with extraoesophageal symptoms remains a controversial area. Moreover, PPIs are not indicated in infants with GERD unless symptoms are proven to be acid-related. With regard to antireflux surgery, patients must be carefully selected to avoid the need for ongoing PPI treatment postoperatively. Correct diagnosis and phenotyping of patients with symptoms attributed to gastro-oesophageal reflux through detailed investigations is therefore imperative, leading to improved patient outcomes and rationalized use of available treatment options. In this Review, we outline currently available diagnostic tests and discuss approaches to limit any unnecessary medical or surgical interventions. PMID:27485786

  18. Patient adherence to and tolerability of self-administered interferon β-1a using an electronic autoinjection device: a multicentre, open-label, phase IV study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving good adherence to self-injected treatments for multiple sclerosis can be difficult. Injection devices may help to overcome some of the injection-related barriers to adherence that can be experienced by patients. We sought to assess short-term adherence to, and tolerability of, interferon (IFN) β-1a administered via electronic autoinjection device in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods BRIDGE (RebiSmart to self-inject Rebif serum-free formulation in a multidose cartridge) was a 12-week, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, observational, Phase IV study in which patients self-administered IFN β-1a (titrated to 44 μg), subcutaneously (sc), three times weekly, via electronic autoinjection device. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4-weekly intervals to Week 12 or early termination (ET) for: physical examinations; diary card completion (baseline, Weeks 4, 8 only); neurological examinations (baseline, Week 12/ET only); MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire (MSTCQ; Weeks 4, 8, 12 only); Convenience Questionnaire (Week 12 only); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT; baseline only). Adherence was defined as administration of ≥ 80% of scheduled injections, recorded by the autoinjection device. Results Overall, 88.2% (105/119; intent-to-treat population) of patients were adherent; 67.2% (80/119) administered all scheduled injections. Medical reasons accounted for 35.6% (31/87) of missed injections, forgetfulness for 20.6% (18/87). Adherence did not correlate with baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (P = 0.821) or PASAT (P = 0.952) scores, or pre-study therapy (P = 0.303). No significant changes (baseline-Week 12) in mean HADS depression (P = 0.482) or anxiety (P = 0.156) scores were observed. 'Overall convenience' was the most important reported benefit of the autoinjection device. Device features associated with handling and ease of use were highly rated

  19. Evaluation of anti-GERD activity of gastro retentive drug delivery system of itopride hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Trilochan; Panda, Prasana K; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2010-08-01

    The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of the gastroretentive system of Itopride hydrochloride. In this research, we have formulated floating hydrogel-based microspheres employing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas forming agent dispersed in alginate matrix. In vitro characterizations such as drug content, particle size, and drug release were carried out. GI motility was determined by administration of charcoal meal to rats. Results demonstrated that prepared microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface, good loading efficiency, and excellent buoyancy. The gastro retentive dosage form of itiopride demonstrated significant antacid, anti-ulcer, and anti-GERD activity after 12 hours in comparison with the conventional dosage form. PMID:20515421

  20. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication – results of 151 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Nowosad, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. Aim To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Material and methods Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male), aged 17–76 years (mean 44), underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure (WTP). Results The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17–80 years). Forty-nine (32.45%) patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58%) had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96%) had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95%) patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04%) had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18–144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90–300 min) and 147 min (90–210 min), respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2–16 post-operative days (POD) = Toupet) vs. 4.7 days (2–9 POD = WTP). No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Conclusions Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice. PMID:27458484

  1. A causal relationship between cough and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been established: a pro/con debate.

    PubMed

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Smith, Jaclyn A; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2014-02-01

    Along with upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) and eosinophilic airway inflammation (asthma, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered among the most common etiologies of chronic cough. Indeed, cough management guidelines published by numerous respiratory societies worldwide recommend evaluation and treatment of GERD as an integral component of the diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic cough. However, a significant number of patients with chronic cough presumed due to GERD do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of nonacid or weakly acidic reflux. Further contributing to the controversy are recent studies that demonstrate that patients with chronic cough do not have excessive reflux events relative to healthy volunteers. Although a temporal relationship between cough and reflux events has been suggested by studies utilizing impedance-pH monitoring of reflux events and objective cough recording, consensus is lacking in terms of whether this temporal relationship proves a causal link between reflux and cough. The fourth American Cough Conference (New York, June 2013) provided an ideal forum for the debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of reflux and chronic cough.

  2. Comparison of generic (SF-36) vs. disease-specific (GERD-HRQL) quality-of-life scales for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Velanovich, V

    1998-01-01

    The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality-Of-Life (GERD-HRQL) scale was developed to objectively quantify symptom severity. It was compared to a "gold standard" health survey, the SF-36. Forty-three patients treated either medically or surgically for gastroesophageal reflux disease were asked to complete both the GERD-HRQL and the SF-36. They were asked the following: (1) Which questionnaire do you like best? (2) Which questionnaire was easier to understand? (3) Which questionnaire was more reflective of the problems you have with reflux disease? (4) Given the choice, which questionnaire would you rather fill out? Patients were asked to state their overall satisfaction with their present reflux symptom conditions. Multivariate analysis showed that the only significant predictor of patient satisfaction was the total GERD-HRQL score (P <0.00001). There were differences in the SF-36 domains of physical function (88.7 vs. 65.3; P = 0.004) and general health (68 vs. 46.5; P = 0.006). There were no correlations between the total GERD-HRQL scores and the SF-36 domain scores. Fifty-nine percent of patients preferred the GERD-HRQL questionnaire, 62% felt it was easier to understand, 86% felt it was more reflective of their symptoms, and 67% said they would rather use it over the SF-36. The GERD-HRQL better assesses symptom severity for gastroesophageal reflux disease than the generic SF-36

  3. Esophagogastric disconnection following failed fundoplication for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children with severe neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Silvia; Kamenwa, Rose; Dohil, Ranjan; Collins, David; Lavine, Joel E

    2004-10-01

    This report describes our experience with esophagogastric disconnection and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in seven neurologically impaired children as a second antireflux operation following failed Nissen fundoplication. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, three children (43%) were completely or almost completely symptom-free and had improved nutritional status. Early complications occurred in three patients (43%): small bowel obstruction, wound infection, and necrosis of the Roux-en-Y loop. Three patients (43%) presented long-term complications: jejunoesophageal bile reflux and bile reflux with gastric irritation. Two patients required reoperation (28%), and two deaths occurred in the postoperative period (28%). In three previous reports in the surgical literature, severe postoperative complications occurred in 0-44%, requiring reoperation in 0-22% of the patients, and the mortality rate was 0-11%. Esophagogastric disconnection for the treatment of GERD in neurologically impaired children is associated with major complications and should be considered after more conservative procedures fail.

  4. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure

    PubMed Central

    SALLUM, Rubens Antonio Aissar; PADRÃO, Eduardo Messias Hirano; SZACHNOWICZ, Sergio; SEGURO, Francisco C. B. C.; BIANCHI, Edno Tales; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. Aim To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. Results From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Conclusions Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the

  5. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Brief-Type Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Japanese Children Aged 3–6 Years: Application of a Questionnaire Established for Adults in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment and subsequent dietary education or intervention in young children is important in decreasing prevalence of various noncontagious diseases in adulthood. Validation of diet assessment questionnaires for preschool children has just started in Japan. In this study, we rearranged the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), a convenient diet assessment questionnaire that is widely used in a range of situations for adults, for use in children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y) and then validated the BDHQ3y in Japanese children. Methods The guardians of 61 children aged 3–4 years completed the BDHQ3y twice at an interval of 1 month, along with a 3-nonconsecutive-day diet record (DR) between the two administrations of the BDHQ3y. Dietary intakes for energy and 42 selected nutrients were estimated using both the DR and the BDHQ3y. Mean intakes estimated by the two methods were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated. Reproducibility of the BDHQ3y estimates was investigated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results No significant differences in mean intakes estimated by the DR and the BDHQ3y were observed for one- to two-thirds of energy and examined nutrients. The median of Pearson correlation coefficients between intakes energy-adjusted by the residual method was 0.31 (interquartile range, 0.24 to 0.38). The median ICC was 0.72 (interquartile range, 0.63 to 0.76) for the crude nutrient intakes. Conclusions Although the BDHQ3y might be a good candidate for dietary intake assessment in Japanese preschool children, its validity is currently moderate to low. Shortcomings should be overcome by obtaining and utilizing more information about children’s dietary habits. PMID:25843433

  6. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods garlic and onions mint flavorings spicy foods tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, chili, and pizza ... Regurgitation is when food and liquid containing stomach acid comes back up into the throat or mouth.) ...

  9. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing 20 and 40 mg of pantoprazole for symptom relief in adolescents (12 to 16 years of age) with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An age-appropriate questionnaire (GASP-Q) was used to assess the frequency and severity of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms: abdominal/belly pain, chest pain/heartburn, pain after eating, nausea, burping/belching, vomiting/regurgitation, choking when eating, and difficulty swallow...

  10. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  11. Using self-administered tampons to diagnose STDs.

    PubMed

    Bowden, F J; Paterson, B A; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Garland, S M

    1998-01-01

    The new nucleic acid amplification techniques (e.g., LCR and PCR) have allowed the introduction of non- and minimally-invasive techniques for the detection of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this article, we describe one of these-the self-administrated tampon method-which we have used to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus in women.

  12. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  13. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  14. Improving subjective health and reducing absenteeism in a natural work life-intervention.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, P O; Nytrø, K

    2001-02-01

    A natural one-year work-life intervention to improve occupational health and reduce absenteeism was designed as a field experiment. The intervention allowed the employees in the health care sector of a municipality to take up to five days of self-administered sick leave with full financial compensation up to four times a year. 165 employees in the intervention group and 100 employees in the control group filled out a questionnaire before and after the intervention. The result showed no evidence of misuse of this sick-leave option and some positive subjective health effects were found among those who used the option. Slight improvements were found in musculoskeletal problems and for cold/influenza. There were no effects on overall absenteeism. The question of the impact of local cultures on interventions to improve occupational health is also discussed. PMID:11273575

  15. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a cohort of Italian hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Artom, Nathan; Pinna, Giuliano; Musso, Natale R; Orlandini, Francesco; Malasoma, Paolo; Uccelli, Massimiliano; Artom, Alberto; Rabbia, Franco; Pascale, Claudio; Lantieri, Francesca; Pende, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of Italian hypertensive men and the association with clinical and biochemical data. The study involved 270 consecutive hypertensive subjects aged 40-70 years evaluated in Italian Hypertension Centers of six hospitals from Liguria and Piedmont. ED was assessed through the self-administered questionnaire of the International Index of Erectile Function. Clinical history with ongoing drug treatment, various clinical parameters, biochemical data and evidence about the presence of subclinical target organ damage was collected. Twenty-seven subjects refused to answer the questionnaire (10%). Among the 243 remained subjects, 123 presented ED (50.6%). ED was highly related to age, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, smoking status, statin therapy and kidney function. The addition of a thiazide diuretic to an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system significantly increased the prevalence of ED. The prevalence of ED increased in relation with the number of hypotensive drug classes taken by the patients. ED was highly prevalent in this cohort of Italian hypertensive subjects and was associated with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, smoking status and kidney function. The role of ED as an early marker of cardiovascular disease is discussed.

  16. Subjective musculoskeletal symptoms in winter and summer among indoor working construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold exposure on the musculoskeletal system, two surveys on the subjective musculoskeletal symptoms among male electricians working in the buildings under construction were performed in winter (N=74) and summer seasons (N=83). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habit, present illness, and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean age, occupational career and daily smoking of the supervisors were significantly higher than those of the other subjects. In general, prevalence rates of stiffness, numbness, pain and Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers, finger cold sensation, dull movement of the fingers, pain in the wrist, knee joint pain, pain and numbness in the foot and foot cold sensation in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. These results were marked especially in the workers except supervisors. In winter, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of subjective musculoskeletal complaints between the supervisors and the other workers. On the other hand, in summer, prevalence of stiffness and pain in the shoulder, stiffness and pain in the neck, dullness and pain in the arm, finger cold sensation, low back dullness and low back pain in the supervisors were significantly higher than those in the other workers. These results suggest that effects of cold on the musculoskeletal symptoms markedly appeared in the workers except supervisors. PMID:20160405

  17. Prevalence of subjective symptoms among hospital pharmacists and association with drug compounding practices.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the principal role of hospital pharmacists has changed from that of dispensing medicines for outpatients to provision of clinical pharmacy services for inpatients. A self-administered questionnaire about subjective symptoms, working patterns, work environments and job satisfaction was administered to 495 hospital pharmacists and 84 prefectural office-based pharmacists (control group). The response rates were 63.4% and 90.5%, respectively. Hospital pharmacists showed a higher prevalence of nasal symptoms than that shown by the control office-based pharmacist group. The prevalence rate of nasal symptoms was lower only in male pharmacists who worked in a dispensary equipped with dust collector. The prevalence of symptoms noticed by hospital pharmacists and community pharmacists after starting drug compounding practices was also compared. The prevalence of subjective symptoms that pharmacists noticed after starting drug compounding was lower in hospital pharmacists than in community pharmacists. Job satisfaction was lower in hospital pharmacists than in office-based pharmacists; however, there was no clear association between the subjective symptoms reported and job satisfaction. Further studies on removal effect of drug dust in a dispensary and symptoms in individual pharmacy facilities are needed.

  18. Differences in understanding and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation between user families and rehabilitation providers

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Tomoko; Tsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify differences in understanding and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation between user families and rehabilitation providers. [Subjects] The subjects were home-visit rehabilitation providers and user families. [Methods] Home-visit rehabilitation providers and user families completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding the content and subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation. For statistical analysis, the McNemar’s test was used. [Results] Fifty pairs of responses met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of user families was 65.0 ± 11.2 years, and 58.0% (29/50) were spouses of users (user mean age, 77.7 ± 10.2 years; 48.0% (24/50) female). With regard to home-visit rehabilitation content, user families thought that paralysis improvement exercise, massage, and self-care activities were implemented to a greater degree than did rehabilitation providers. With regard to the subjective effects of home-visit rehabilitation, a higher proportion of user families noticed “maintenance/improvement” effects on symptoms and sequelae, as well as pain and suffering, compared with providers. [Conclusion] User families believed that rehabilitation would also improve users’ symptoms and pain. Care providers should explain the aims of home-visit rehabilitation to users and their families, both of which require a strong understanding of home-visit rehabilitation in order to achieve rehabilitation goals. PMID:26834364

  19. Risk indicators for dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Mulic, Aida; Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Tveit, Anne B; Skaare, Anne B

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to investigate risk indicators associated with dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway. Of 3,206 adolescents invited to participate in a screening examination for erosive wear, 1,456 were examined (giving a response rate of 45%). As part of the examination all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between the presence of erosive lesions and the possible risk indicators were assessed by logistic regression analyses, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between the independent variables. Of all 18-yr-old subjects examined, 38% had at least one tooth with erosive lesions. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between the presence of erosive wear and being male, brushing teeth once per day or less, episodes of vomiting, daily/weekly episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux, consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks several times per day, as well as consumption of sugary soft drinks daily to once per week. In conclusion, in addition to gender, dietary habits such as frequent consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks, and the occurrence of reflux and vomiting, appear to be risk indicators for erosive wear. When counselling adolescents at risk, the gender-specific risk indicators should be taken into account.

  20. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  1. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  2. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (and Asthma)

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  4. The role of hiatus hernia in GERD.

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Increased esophageal acid exposure in gastroesophageal reflux disease has several potential causes, some related primarily to physiological dysfunction of the LES and others related to anatomic distortion of the gastroesophageal junction as occurs with hiatus hernia. One attractive feature of implicating hiatal hernias in the pathogenesis of reflux disease is that, like reflux disease, axial hernias become more common with age and obesity. However, the importance of hiatus hernia is obscured by imprecise definition and an all-or-none conceptualization that has led to wide variation in estimates of prevalence among normal or diseased populations. There are at least three potentially significant radiographic features of a hiatus hernia: axial length during distention, axial length at rest, and competence of the diaphragmatic hiatus. Although any or all of these features may be abnormal in a particular instance of hiatus hernia, each is of different functional significance. Grouping all abnormalities of the gastroesophageal junction as "hiatus hernia" without detailing the specifics of each case defies logic. Mechanistically, the gastroesophageal junction must protect against reflux both in static and dynamic conditions. During abrupt increases in intra-abdominal pressure, the crural diaphragm normally serves as a "second sphincter," and this mechanism is substantially impaired in individuals with a gaping hiatus. Large, non-reducing hernias also impair the process of esophageal emptying, thereby prolonging acid clearance time following a reflux event (especially while in the supine posture). These anatomically-determined functional impairments of the gastroesophageal junction lead to increased esophageal acid exposure. Thus, although hiatus hernia may or may not be an initiating factor at the inception of reflux disease, it clearly can act as a sustaining factor accounting for the frequently observed chronicity of the disease. PMID:10780571

  5. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150

  6. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  7. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee; Lofwall, Michelle R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of cannabis with few psychoactive effects, has been reported in some studies to attenuate certain aspects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication. However, most studies have tested only one dose of CBD in combination with one dose of oral THC, making it difficult to assess the nature of this interaction. Further, the effect of oral CBD on smoked cannabis administration is unknown. The objective of this multi-site, randomized, double-blind, within-subject laboratory study was to assess the influence of CBD (0, 200, 400, 800 mg, p.o.) pretreatment on the reinforcing, subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects of smoked cannabis (0.01 (inactive), 5.30-5.80% THC). Non-treatment-seeking, healthy cannabis smokers (n=31; 17M, 14 F) completed eight outpatient sessions. CBD was administered 90 min prior to cannabis administration. The behavioral and cardiovascular effects of cannabis were measured at baseline and repeatedly throughout the session. A subset of participants (n=8) completed an additional session to measure plasma CBD concentrations after administration of the highest CBD dose (800 mg). Under placebo CBD conditions, active cannabis (1) was self-administered by significantly more participants than placebo cannabis and (2) produced significant, time-dependent increases in ratings of 'High', 'Good Effect', ratings of the cannabis cigarette (eg, strength, liking), and heart rate relative to inactive cannabis. CBD, which alone produced no significant psychoactive or cardiovascular effects, did not significantly alter any of these outcomes. Cannabis self-administration, subjective effects, and cannabis ratings did not vary as a function of CBD dose relative to placebo capsules. These findings suggest that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis. PMID:26708108

  8. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone’s liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today’s environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  9. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone's liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today's environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  10. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes. PMID:25075882

  11. Wireless data collection of self-administered surveys using tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Kyle W; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A T

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention. PMID:22195187

  12. Wireless data collection of self-administered surveys using tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Kyle W; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A T

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention.

  13. Overexpression of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell increases cocaine reinforcement in self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erin B; Graham, Danielle L; Arzaga, Rose R; Buzin, Nicole; Webb, Joseph; Green, Thomas A; Bass, Caroline E; Neve, Rachael L; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W

    2011-11-01

    Chronic exposure to addictive drugs enhances cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated gene expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these effects are thought to reduce the positive hedonic effects of passive cocaine administration. Here, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to produce short- and long-term regulation of CREB activity in NAc shell of rats engaging in volitional cocaine self-administration. Increasing CREB expression in NAc shell markedly enhanced cocaine reinforcement of self-administration behavior, as indicated by leftward (long-term) and upward (short-term) shifts in fixed ratio dose-response curves. CREB also increased the effort exerted by rats to obtain cocaine on more demanding progressive ratio schedules, an effect highly correlated with viral-induced modulation of BDNF protein in the NAc shell. CREB enhanced cocaine reinforcement when expressed either throughout acquisition of self-administration or when expression was limited to postacquisition tests, indicating a direct effect of CREB independent of reinforcement-related learning. Downregulating endogenous CREB in NAc shell by expressing a short hairpin RNA reduced cocaine reinforcement in similar tests, while overexpression of a dominant-negative CREB(S133A) mutant had no significant effect on cocaine self-administration. Finally, increasing CREB expression after withdrawal from self-administration enhanced cocaine-primed relapse, while reducing CREB levels facilitated extinction of cocaine seeking, but neither altered relapse induced by cocaine cues or footshock stress. Together, these findings indicate that CREB activity in NAc shell increases the motivation for cocaine during active self-administration or after withdrawal from cocaine. Our results also highlight that volitional and passive drug administration can lead to substantially different behavioral outcomes.

  14. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices.

  15. Wheel running exercise attenuates vulnerability to self-administer nicotine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Lycas, Matthew D; Lynch, Wendy J; Brunzell, Darlene H

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or postponing tobacco use initiation could greatly reduce the number of tobacco-related deaths. While evidence suggests that exercise is a promising treatment for tobacco addiction, it is not clear whether exercise could prevent initial vulnerability to tobacco use. Thus, using an animal model, we examined whether exercise attenuates vulnerability to the use and reinforcing effects of nicotine, the primary addictive chemical in tobacco. Methods Initial vulnerability was assessed using an acquisition procedure wherein exercising (unlocked running wheel, n = 10) and sedentary (locked or no wheel, n = 12) male adolescent rats had access to nicotine infusions (0.01-mg/kg) during daily 21.5-hr sessions beginning on postnatal day 30. Exercise/sedentary sessions (2-hr/day) were conducted prior to each of the acquisition sessions. The effects of exercise on nicotine’s reinforcing effects were further assessed in separate groups of exercising (unlocked wheel, n = 7) and sedentary (no wheel, n = 5) rats responding for nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule with exercise/sedentary sessions (2-hr/day) conducted before the daily progressive-ratio sessions. Results While high rates of acquisition of nicotine self-administration were observed among both groups of sedentary controls, acquisition was robustly attenuated in the exercise group with only 20% of exercising rats meeting the acquisition criterion within the 16-day testing period as compared to 67% of the sedentary controls. Exercise also decreased progressive-ratio responding for nicotine as compared to baseline and to sedentary controls. Conclusions Exercise may effectively prevent the initiation of nicotine use in adolescents by reducing the reinforcing effects of nicotine. PMID:26433561

  16. Evaluation of Web-Based, Self-Administered, Graphical Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Kolar, Ann S.; Fisher, James L.; Plascak, Jesse J.; Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can address limitations inherent in paper questionnaires, by allowing very complex skip patterns, portion size estimation based on food pictures and real-time error checking. This manuscript evaluates a web-based FFQ, the Graphical Food Frequency System (GraFFS). Participants completed the GraFFS, six, telephone-administered 24-hr dietary recalls over the next 12 weeks, followed by a second GraFFS. Participants were 40 men and 34 women, ages 18–69, living in the Columbus, OH area. Intakes of energy, macronutrients and 17 micronutrients/food components were estimated from the GraFFS and the mean of all recalls. Bias (recalls minus the second GraFFS) was −9%, −5%, +4% and −4% for energy and percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein. De-attenuated, energy-adjusted correlations (inter-method reliability) between the recalls and the second GraFFS for fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol were 0.82, 0.79, 0.67 and 0.90; for micronutrients/food components the median was 0.61 and ranged from 0.40 for zinc to 0.92 for β-carotene. The correlations between the two administrations of the GraFFS (test-retest reliability) for fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol were 0.60, 0.63, 0.73 and 0.87; among micronutrients/food components the median was 0.67 and ranged from 0.49 for vitamin B12 to 0.82 for fiber. The measurement characteristics of the GraFFS were at least as good as those reported for most paper FFQs, and its high inter-method reliability suggests that further development of computer-administered FFQs is warranted. PMID:24462267

  17. Wireless Data Collection of Self-administered Surveys using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Kyle W.; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention. PMID:22195187

  18. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  19. Self-administered hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in complicated primary antibody deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Maria Giovanna; Pulvirenti, Federica; Rocchi, Valeria; Morariu, Ramona; Quinti, Isabella

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (fSCIg) is a new immunoglobulin product for replacement therapy in patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD). The pre-administration of recombinant human hyaluronidase associated with 10% immunoglobulin allowed the infusion of larger (up to 600 ml) amounts of immunoglobulin at a single infusion site, enabling patients to receive the necessary treatment in a single monthly dose. Here, we report the effectiveness and the tolerability of fSCIg in patients with severe PAD-related comorbidities: refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenia; systemic granulomatous disease; severe enteropathy, and Type I diabetes. We conclude that fSCIg could be a feasible option to improve the adherence to replacement therapy also by patients with severe PAD. PMID:27485073

  20. Self-disclosure of HIV status: perception of malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care.

    PubMed

    Sujak, S L; Abdul-Kadir, R; Omar, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of Malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to them. The study design was cross-sectional with the sampling frame comprising of 27 Government Drug Rehabilitation Centres throughout Malaysia. A convenience sample was then taken from 20 centres with the highest enrolment of HIV-positive subjects. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on the perception of HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to the patient with HIV-positive. The study sample consisted of 509 HIV-positive individuals with a mean age of 31.3+/-12.9 years old. Of these, only 15.1% attended a dental clinic after confirmation of HIV-positive status. The study demonstrated that 67.5% of the HIV-positive subjects disclosed their status voluntarily to the dentists and majority of the dentists (76.9%) did not show any negative reaction on knowing their HIV positive status. There was also no difference in the attitude of auxiliary staff toward the above disclosure. In conclusion, the study showed that oral health care personnel are more receptive to the HIV-positive subjects receiving dental care and treatment.

  1. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  2. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  3. Comparison of subjective symptoms and hot prevention measures in summer between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, a survey on subjective symptoms and hot prevention measures in summer was conducted in 204 male traffic control workers and 115 male construction workers. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR 1-2 and RMR 2-4, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habit, present or past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the heat, and subjective symptoms in the summer. Daily working hours in the sunshine of the traffic control workers were significantly longer than those of the construction workers. Prevalence rates of changing clothes frequently, avoiding direct exposure of face and neck to sunlight using towel like materials, and wearing sunglasses in the traffic control workers were significantly lower than the construction workers. Prevalence rates of symptoms in the upper extremities in the traffic control workers were significantly lower than those in the construction workers. Prevalence of work difficulty due to hot weather during work in the traffic control workers was significantly lower than the construction workers. On the basis of the results obtained, some preventive countermeasures to improve working environment are presented.

  4. The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Akın, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.

  5. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  6. Differences between home-visit rehabilitation users and providers in their understanding of the content and subjective effects of rehabilitation practices

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Tomoko; Tsuyama, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify differences between home-visit rehabilitation users and providers in their understanding of the content and subjective effects of this practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were home-visit rehabilitation users and providers. [Methods] Home-visit rehabilitation users and providers were given self-administered questionnaires regarding home-visit rehabilitation, such as the content and subjective effects. The McNemar’s test was used for statistical analysis. [Results] Responses of 34 pairs meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean user age was 75.2 ± 9.2 years, and 58.8% (20/34) of respondents were female. In terms of home-visit rehabilitation content, users believed that the following 3 items had been “implemented” to a greater extent than that estimated by providers: paralysis improvement exercise, floor sitting and standing, and self-care activities. No significant differences in awareness were identified between users and providers regarding the maintenance/improvement effects of home-visit rehabilitation. [Conclusion] Users tend to consider that programs aimed at relieving symptoms and pain and improving mobility are being implemented to a greater extent than that considered by providers. Providers need to explain the aims of home-visit rehabilitation programs in a way that can be understood by users. PMID:26180302

  7. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  8. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  9. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  10. Influence of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on the Heart Rate Corrected-QT Interval in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Mihara, Rikako; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Kiyonaga, Akira

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that imbalances in the dietary electrolytes are associated with a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, a prolonged heart rate corrected-QT (QTc) interval is associated with an increased risk of cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction, the incidence of CVD and sudden cardiac death. This study was designed to clarify the association between the nutritional status and the QTc interval in elderly subjects. The subjects included 119 elderly subjects (46 males and 73 females, age; 72.9±4.8 y) without a history of CVD, who were taking cardioactive drugs. Resting 12-lead electrocardiography was performed, while the QTc interval was calculated according to Bazett's formula. The nutritional status was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The subjects were divided into three categories, which were defined as equally trisected distributions of the body mass index (BMI). The QTc interval was significantly longer in both the low and high BMI groups than in the moderate BMI group in both genders (p<0.05, respectively). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the QTc interval to be independently associated with the potassium intake in the low BMI group and the sodium intake in the high BMI group in both genders (p<0.05, respectively). These results suggest that the body mass, especially lean body mass and overweight, were associated with a prolonged QTc interval and dietary electrolytes in elderly subjects. Based on our results, we consider that it is necessary to perform dietary counseling, especially focusing on sodium and potassium intake, depending on the body mass.

  11. Factors influencing subjects' comprehension of a set of medicine package inserts.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2016-08-01

    Background Package inserts (PIs) should promote the safe and effective use of medicines. The comprehension of PIs is related to socio-demographic features, such as education. Objectives To evaluate the participants' comprehension of a sample of PIs and to build an explanatory model of subjects' understanding of the content of these documents. Setting The data were collected from municipalities, city halls, firefighters, the military, schools and charities from two Portuguese regions. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive survey: 503 participants, homogeneously distributed by education and gender. The self-administered tool comprised questions on socio-demographic data, literacy tasks and comprehension evaluation of 12 purposively selected PIs. A logistic regression analysis was used. Main outcome measures Scores of numeracy tasks and comprehension. Results The average comprehension score for the PIs was 63 % (±32 %), with 48 % (n = 239) of the participants scoring <75 %. The most important predictors in explaining a comprehension score ≥75 % were having >12 years of education and correctly performing a numeracy task [respectively, OR 49.6 (CI 95 %: 22.8-108) and OR 2.48 (CI 95 %: 1.5-4.2)]. Conclusion An explanatory model of subjects' knowledge about the content of the tested PIs was built. Given that a high level of education and literacy were found to be the most relevant predictors for acceptable comprehension rates, PIs should be clearly written to assure that they are understood by all potential users, including the less educated. The evaluated PIs may thus need to be simplified. PMID:27107582

  12. Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

  13. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  14. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  15. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  16. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  17. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  18. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  19. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kottow, Andrea R; Kottow, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease. PMID:17603873

  20. SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUANG, SHUAN FAN

    TWO OF THE MAJOR GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS MUCH STUDIED BY MANDARIN GRAMMARIANS IN THE PAST DECADE ARE THE EXISTENCE OF PARTS OF SPEECH AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN SENTENCES. THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO DEAL WITH A VARIETY OF PROBLEMS IN CONNECTION WITH THE NOTIONS OF SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN MANDARIN CHINESE…

  1. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  2. Subject Specialization in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadiran, D. O.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a subject specialization approach in university libraries. Also described are some of the difficulties which have arisen with the introduction of subject specialization in some of the newer or provincial universities. Four references are listed. (LLS)

  3. Re-Energising Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, John

    2012-01-01

    The value of knowledge and the role of subjects in the school curriculum have been widely questioned in recent years, often portrayed as old-fashioned and irrelevant, especially in the face of a fast-changing global economy. This article argues that this is both limited in its view of the potential of knowledge and subjects, and limiting for those…

  4. Sensory Information and Subjective Contour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brussell, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)

  5. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  6. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  7. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  8. Therapist-Assisted, Self-Administered Bibliotherapy to Enhance Parental Competence: Short- and Long-Term Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Feldmann, Marit

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of bibliotherapy has primarily been investigated in anxiety disorders, depression, or substance dependence. The efficacy of self-help books to increase parenting competence was only investigated in a few studies despite their broad dissemination in public. The aims of the study were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy of…

  9. Individual differences in discount rate are associated with demand for self-administered cocaine, but not sucrose.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Woods, James H

    2013-01-01

    Substance abusers, including cocaine abusers, discount delayed rewards to a greater extent than do matched controls. In the current experiment, individual differences in discounting of delayed rewards in rats (choice of one immediate over three delayed sucrose pellets) were assessed for associations with demand for either sucrose pellets or an intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were split into three groups based on sensitivity to delay to reinforcement. Then, demand for sucrose pellets and cocaine was determined across a range of fixed-ratio values. Delay discounting was then reassessed to determine the stability of this measure over the course of the experiment. Individual differences in impulsive choice were positively associated with elasticity of demand for cocaine, a measure of reinforcer value, indicating that rats having higher discount rates also valued cocaine more. Impulsive choice was not associated with the level of cocaine consumption as price approached 0 or with any parameter associated with demand for sucrose. Individual sensitivity to delay was correlated with the initial assessment when reassessed at the end of the experiment, although impulsive choice increased for this cohort of rats as a whole. These findings suggest that impulsive choice in rats is positively associated with valuation of cocaine, but not sucrose.

  10. Neuronal metabolomics by ion mobility mass spectrometry in cocaine self-administering rats after early and late withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Chiu, Veronica M; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A; Hill, Herbert H

    2016-06-01

    The neuronal metabolomes in rat striatum (STR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAC) were analyzed by Hadamard transform ion mobility mass spectrometry (HT-IMMS) in order to reveal global and specific metabolic changes induced by cocaine self-administration after 1-day or 3-week withdrawal. Metabolite features were comprehensively separated and detected using HPLC-IMMS within minutes. Global metabolic differences were observed by PCA for comparisons between cocaine and saline treatments at 1-day withdrawal time. Metabolite features that were significantly changed were selected using PCA loadings' plot and unpaired LLL test and then tentatively identified by accurate m/z, yielding a complete profile of metabolic changes induced by cocaine self-administration. The majority of these changes were found at the 1-day withdrawal time, but several of them endured even after 3-week withdrawal from cocaine, and these changes were generally brain region specific. Putatively identified metabolites associated with oxidative stress and energy metabolism were also specifically investigated. We discovered that the dysregulation of creatine/creatinine was different between the STR and NAC, demonstrating that metabolic alterations are brain region specific. Glutathione and adenosine were also changed in their abundance, and the results agreed with previous studies. In general, this study provided a high-throughput analytical platform to perform metabolomics analyses with putative identifications for altered metabolite features induced by cocaine treatment, therefore revealing additional metabolic targets of cocaine-induced changes after early and extended withdrawal times.

  11. Efficacy of a Self-Administered Home-Based Parent Intervention on Parenting Behaviors for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…

  12. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  13. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  14. Changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle fiber characteristics of elite power athletes self-administering androgenic and anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alén, M; Häkkinen, K; Komi, P V

    1984-12-01

    The influence of androgenic-anabolic steroid-induced changes in measures of body composition, muscle fiber characteristics and various aspects of the neuromuscular performance of the leg extensor muscles was investigated in five experimental and six control power athletes during the 24-week programmed strength training followed by the additional six week training without hormone drugs. The mean values of the dosages of self-administration during the 24-week period were 31.0 +/- 14.3 mg/day for anabolic steroids (methandienone, stanozolol, nandrolone) and 178.4 +/- 82.7 mg/week for testosterone. During the 24-week hormone period the experimental group gained in fat-free weight (p less than 0.01) and in the mean muscle fiber areas (p less than 0.01) of the vastus lateralis muscle while the corresponding gains in the control group were minor (NS). The increases of maximal isometric force in the experimental and control groups were 14.7% (p less than 0.01) and 6.1% (NS), respectively, and the values obtained in average load-vertical jumping height curves were improved significantly (p less than 0.05) only in the experimental group. Increases of 18.2% (p less than 0.001) and 12.9% (p less than 0.01) took place in the squat lift in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Both groups demonstrated similar (p less than 0.05) improvements in isometric fast force production. During the additional six week programmed training without hormone drugs significant (p less than 0.05) increases were observed in the experimental group in addition to maximal isometric force and the squat-lift but also in isometric fast force production, while the corresponding changes in the control group were minor (NS). It is suggested that strength training in combination with administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids causes improvements in selected neuromuscular parameters. These changes may be greater than those of caused by the strength training alone.

  15. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  16. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  17. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Guasco, G; Gamalero, P C; Cuniolo, A

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: T.A.T., Rogers, Rosenzweig. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to the illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  18. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  19. Do Subjective Measures Improve the Ability to Identify Limited Health Literacy in a Clinical Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Griffey, Richard T.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing health literacy assessments developed for research purposes have constraints that limit their utility for clinical practice, including time requirements and administration protocols. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) consists of 3 self-administered Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions and obviates these clinical barriers. We assessed whether the addition of SILS items or the BHLS to patient demographics readily available in ambulatory clinical settings reaching underserved patients improves the ability to identify limited health literacy. Methods We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional convenience samples of patients from an urban academic emergency department (n = 425) and a primary care clinic (n = 486) in St. Louis, Missouri. Across samples, health literacy was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the BHLS. Our analytic sample consisted of 911 adult patients, who were primarily female (62%), black (66%), and had at least a high school education (82%); 456 were randomly assigned to the estimation sample and 455 to the validation sample. Results The analysis showed that the best REALM-R estimation model contained age, sex, education, race, and 1 SILS item (difficulty understanding written information). In validation analysis this model had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.26, and a negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.47; there was a 28% misclassification rate. The best NVS estimation model contained the BHLS, age, sex, education and race; this model had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 72%, LR+ of 2.75, LR− of 0.32, and a misclassification rate of 25%. Conclusions Findings suggest that the BHLS and SILS items improve the ability to identify patients with limited health literacy compared with demographic predictors alone. However, despite being easier to administer in clinical settings, subjective

  20. On the Subject of Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbrook, David, Ed.

    This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…

  1. Reestablishing clinical psychology's subjective core.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients.

  2. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  3. On the Subjectivity of Intensifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiadou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    Intensification is a means of indexing the speakers' perspective. This paper attempts to show the semantic development of particular intensifiers following Langacker's framework of subjectivity. In this framework, the focus lies on the way the conceptualizer construes an event or a situation as an observer or as an experiencer with degrees of…

  4. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  5. Subjectivity, Lifeworld, and Work Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithaeuser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…

  6. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  7. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  8. Why Are School Subjects Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…

  9. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  10. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed. PMID:14750465

  11. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  12. Testosterone increases bone mineral density in female-to-male transsexuals: a case series of 15 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Adrian; Chen, Tai C.; Barber, Tom W.; Malabanan, Alan O.; Holick, Michael F.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE Testosterone therapy for osteoporosis has not been studied extensively in women because of its potential to cause virilization. Female-to-male transsexuals are genetic females who suffer from gender dysphoria and thus take supra-physiologic doses of testosterone to change from the female to male phenotype. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of testosterone treatment on the genetic female skeleton. PATIENTS AND DESIGN A group of 15 female-to-male transsexuals was prospectively enrolled for observation over a 2-year period. The subjects had a mean age of 37·0 ± 3·0 years. All of the subjects self-administered testosterone esters intramuscularly at a mean dose of 70·7 ± 4·5 mg weekly. MEASUREMENTS The subjects had measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the femoral neck and spine (L2–L4) at 12-month intervals. They had determinations of serum oestradiol, testosterone, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and urine N-telopeptide (NTX) at the date of enrolment and at the end of 2 years. RESULTS There was a significant positive increase in mean BMD of 7·8% at the femoral neck and a nonsignificant increase in mean BMD of 3·1% at the spine over 2 years. The levels of testosterone reached the upper normal range for males and the levels of oestradiol declined to near the postmenopausal range. sRANKL levels decreased significantly in female-to-male transsexuals who newly initiated testosterone therapy. There was no significant change in urine NTX or serum OPG during the study. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that supra-physiologic testosterone therapy increases BMD at the hip while maintaining BMD at the spine in female-to-male transsexuals. The effects of testosterone may be the result of testosterone hormone directly acting on the bone or indirectly through aromatization to oestradiol. Lower RANKL levels coupled with unchanged OPG levels results in an increased OPG/RANKL ratio, which may be

  13. Chronotype in patients with epilepsy: A controlled study in 60 subjects with late-onset focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Manni, Raffaele; Cremascoli, Riccardo; De Icco, Roberto; Terzaghi, Michele

    2015-09-01

    Studies based on self-administered questionnaires indicate that most patients with epilepsy are morning-oriented. We aimed to investigate chronotype in patients with epilepsy with late-onset focal epilepsy by combining subjective data with dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as an objective marker of the circadian phase. Sixty adult patients (mean age 46.5±13.8; 27 males) with late-onset focal epilepsy under pharmacological treatment were prospectively studied. Subjective chronotype was determined using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and circadian phase through analysis of salivary melatonin secretion, considering 3pg/ml as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) threshold. The mean MEQ score was significantly higher in the patients with epilepsy than in the controls, and significantly, more patients had a MEQ score indicative of the morning type (50.0% vs 30.0%, p=0.02). However, no significant differences were found in mean time of DLMO (21:38±01:21 vs 21:26±01:03; p=ns), and DLMO time was in the range indicative of an intermediate chronotype in both patients and controls. Sleep onset and sleep offset phase angles were significantly shorter in the patients. Patients whose global MEQ score identified them as morning types were significantly older than those with an intermediate or evening chronotype, and they had less social jet lag. No difference in epilepsy features and treatments was found between morning-oriented and nonmorning-oriented patients. Our analyses showed that the patients with epilepsy tended to be morning-oriented and to perceive themselves as morning types, even though this was not reflected in their DLMO values which did not differ significantly from those of controls and mostly fell within the intermediate chronotype range. Several factors may considerably influence subjective chronotype. We speculate that, in patients with epilepsy, the disease itself, prompting certain lifestyle choices, including a regular sleep schedule and

  14. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  15. Experimental subjects are not different.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  16. Extraesophageal presentations of GERD: where is the science?

    PubMed

    Madanick, Ryan D

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews the evaluation and management of patients with suspected extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, such as asthma, chronic cough, and laryngitis, which are commonly encountered in gastroenterology practices. Otolaryngologists and gastroenterologists commonly disagree upon the underlying cause for complaints in patients with one of the suspected extraesophageal reflux syndromes. The accuracy of diagnostic tests (laryngoscopy, endoscopy, and pH- or pH-impedance monitoring) for patients with suspected extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease is suboptimal. An empiric trial of proton pump inhibitors in patients without alarm features can help some patients, but the response to therapy is variable.

  17. Diseases of Anatomical Subjects (Bacteriomycosis and Entomobacteriomycosis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoli, Rene M., And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes problems with the preservation of anatomy subjects (cadavers) for subsequent studies. Occasionally, the subjects are diseased, and the process of bacteriomycosis and entomobacteriomycosis makes them worthless as anatomy subjects. (Author/ABB)

  18. Osteocalcin levels in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, M; Ciotti, G; Pioli, G; Girasole, G; Davoli, L; Palummeri, E; Passeri, M

    1989-12-01

    Because a series of reports suggests the existence of altered bone and mineral metabolism in diabetes mellitus, we studied 106 diabetic subjects (42 insulin-dependent (IDD) and 64 noninsulin dependent (NIDD] to determine whether a difference in bone turnover (evaluated by serum osteocalcin (OC] could be found in comparison with normal controls. OC levels in diabetic subjects were lower than the age- and sex-specific predicted values. The reduction was especially evident in male and female NIDD (Z-score: - 1.12 +/- 0.92, t = 8.4, P less than 0.001 and -0.84 +/- 0.86, t = 4.0, P less than 0.01, respectively) and male IDD (Z-score: - 0.90 +/- 0.86, t = 4.5, P less than 0.01). The mean Z-score for female IDD, albeit negative (-0.31 +/- 0.79; t = 1.6; 0.2 greater than P greater than 0.1), was not significantly different from normal. Total serum calcium (Ca) and calcitonin (CT) showed an opposite pattern, being higher in all the diabetic subgroups (with the exception of Ca in female IDD), whereas parathyroid hormone (PTH) was lower than expected in each diabetic subset. By multiple regression analysis, the reduction of OC was related to PTH and CT levels and to the type of treatment. Subjects controlled with diet showed differences of greater magnitude from the expected normal values than those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin (Z-score: -1.28 +/- 1.05 vs. -0.85 +/- 0.90 and -0.63 +/- 0.97, respectively; P = 0.05). However, the variance explained by these three factors was small, suggesting that other variables (possibly 1 alpha,25(OH)2D) exerted important influences on OC levels.

  19. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  20. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them.

  1. Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview of the use of subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Unconscious knowledge is knowledge we have, and could very well be using, but we are not aware of. Hence appropriate methods for indicating unconscious knowledge must show that the person (a) has knowledge but (b) does not know that she has it. One way of determining awareness of knowing is by taking confidence ratings after making judgments. If the judgments are above baseline but the person believes they are guessing (guessing criterion) or confidence does not relate to accuracy (zero-correlation criterion) there is evidence of unconscious knowledge. The way these methods can deal with the problem of bias is discussed, as is the use of different types of confidence scales. The guessing and zero-correlation criteria show whether or not the person is aware of knowing the content of the judgment, but not whether the person is aware of what any knowledge was that enabled the judgment. Thus, a distinction is made between judgment and structural knowledge, and it is shown how the conscious status of the latter can also be assessed. Finally, the use of control over the use of knowledge as a subjective measure of judgment knowledge is illustrated. Experiments using artificial grammar learning and a serial reaction time task explore these issues.

  2. Physician practicing preferences for conventional or homeopathic medicines in elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders in the EPI3-MSD cohort

    PubMed Central

    Danno, Karine; Joubert, Clementine; Duru, Gerard; Vetel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common in elderly persons. Analgesic use is high in the elderly and may involve unacceptable risk in individuals with chronic pain. Our aim was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of elderly subjects with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and to assess medication use and clinical evolution of musculoskeletal pain according to physician prescribing preference: homeopathy (Ho) group, conventional medicine (CM) group, or mixed prescription (MX) group. Methods The EPI3 study was a 1 year observational survey carried out among general practitioners in France between March 2007 and July 2008. This sub-analysis was carried out on elderly subjects aged ≥70 years from the original EPI3 cohort. Socio-demographic data were collected at inclusion using a self-administered patient questionnaire and medical data were recorded for each patient. Quality of life was measured using the Short Form-12 questionnaire. Patients completed a structured telephone interview on their functional status (evaluated with the QuickDash questionnaire, EIFEL scale or Lequesne index) within 72 hours of inclusion. This telephone interview was repeated at 1, 3, and 12 months. Drug exposure was also assessed during these interviews. Results 146 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 75.8±4.8 years) were analyzed (80.1% female, 74.7% MSD of the spine or lower limbs, 64.4% chronic MSD). Patients in the CM and MX groups were 3.7 times or 2.5 times more likely (odds ratio [OR] =3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–12.30; OR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.05–6.05; respectively) to have used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) than those in the Ho group. In contrast, analgesic use was comparable in the three groups (OR =1.06 [CM versus Ho], 95% CI: 0.09–12.11; OR =0.34 [MX versus Ho], 95% CI: 0.07–1.57). Overall functional score evolution was similar in the three groups over time (P=0.16). Conclusion NSAID use was significantly higher in elderly MSD

  3. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  4. Subjectivity NOT Statement and NOT APA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihelkova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    I inspect in a brief theoretical-philosophical essay the roots of subjectivity and suggest many possible directions for examining the phenomenon of subjectivity so that multiple different meanings can be revealed. For instance, a researcher can explore her or his own subjectivity or he/she can attempt to define subjectivity per se or the…

  5. Payment expectations for research participation among subjects who tell the truth, subjects who conceal information, and subjects who fabricate information.

    PubMed

    Devine, Eric G; Knapp, Clifford M; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; O'Keefe, Sean M; Wardell, Cale; Baskett, Morgan; Pecchia, Ashley; Ferrell, Katie; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2015-03-01

    Multiple models guide researchers' payment practices but few studies have assessed subjects' expectations for payment. Payments in excess of subjects' expectations may result in undue inducement, while payments below these expectations may be associated with exploitation. Data on subjects' payment expectations will help inform practices to avoid undue inducement and exploitation. This study examined subjects' expectations for payment for common research procedures and explored the relationship between subjects' honesty and payment expectations. One-hundred subjects who participated in two or more studies in the last year reported the minimum payment they expect for completing study procedures. They were also asked about their use of deception while screening for studies. Subjects expected $20 on average to complete the least risky and least burdensome procedure. Subjects' expectations for payment consistently increased with greater procedure risks. Subjects who denied using deception to enroll in studies refused more procedures than subjects who reported using deception. Among subjects who used deception, the rate of procedure refusal increased with procedure risks, suggesting that these subjects have some risk aversion and may act to protect themselves from undue inducement. Although subjects expect greater payments for more risky procedures, ethical considerations for limiting undue inducement may prevent researchers from meeting subjects' expectations. Subjects who use deceptive practices appear to be more risk-tolerant than subjects who deny using deception; nonetheless, these deceptive subjects also exercise some risk aversion when they refuse higher-risk procedures. These subjects may be able to protect themselves from undue inducement by refusing procedures that exceed their risk tolerance.

  6. Prisoner subjects and drug testing.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1977-09-01

    Objections to prison research are based more often on opposition to the evils of prison life than to unethical practices and to the memories of atrocities committed in the name of science in Nazi prison camps during World War II. The National Commission's pronouncements on prison research specifically illustrate this general phenomenon. Having decided that research on prisoners can be performed ethically, and having learned that most prisoner volunteers bitterly resent being deprived of the opportunity to participate in research, the Commission has nevertheless stipulated prison conditions that cannot realistically be met and thus has de facto eliminated such research. The most serious potential loss is the elimination of the unique facility in Lexington, Kentucky--the Addiction Research Center. Predicting the addiction liability of drugs is not likely to be feasible in any nonprison setting, so that the addiction potential of new marketed drugs will be established in the future as it was in the past--by trial-and-error in patients, who will become the unwilling, uninformed research subjects in this area. PMID:892002

  7. Writing errors by normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; Bava, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    Writing is a complex process requiring visual memory, attention, phonological and semantic operations, and motor performance. For that reason, it can easily be disturbed by interfering with attention, memory, by interfering subvocalization, and so on. With 16 female third-year students (23.4 +/- 0.8 yr.) from the University of Trieste, we investigated the production of errors in three experimental conditions (control, articulatory suppression, and tapping). In the articulatory suppression condition, the participants produced significantly more linguistic impairments (such as agrammatism, unrelated substitutions, sentence omissions, and semantically deviant sentences), which are similar to linguistic impairments found in aphasia. On the tapping condition there were more perseverations, deletions, and substitutions of both letters and words. These data suggest that writing is not an automatic skill. Only after many years of experience and practice of processing information (through cortical to subcortical channels) can writing be considered an automatic skill. Limited experimental conditions can disrupt the writing system of normal subjects, probably interfering with the cortical to subcortical loops, and link normality to pathology. PMID:14604043

  8. Objective and subjective measures for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2007-07-01

    Subjective and objective measures of sleep structure or quality could help to characterize the chronic sleep disturbances, with relation to patients' risk factor profiles and co-morbidities. Studies have shown that discrepancies can occur between subjective data regarding sleep disturbances and the impact of insomnia and objective assays, and surrogate markers of sleep and sleep disturbances. Both objective and subjective measures should be incorporated into clinic studies. It seems likely that sleep quality is represented by a combination of more than one subjective sleep parameter. Objective and subjective assessments of sleep quality may relate to different parameters. Future studies incorporated both subjective and objective measures could help to address the sleep disorders.

  9. Comparison of Modes of Administration and Response Options in the Assessment of Subjective Health Using the First Question of SF-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Salome; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2012-01-01

    To compare two modes of administration (self-administered; by interviewer) and two response options format (using words; images of "facial-expressions") of the first question of SF-36 (Q1SF-36), and to test its validity. We included 825 participants (20-90 years). Q1SF-36, using words or images, was included in a global questionnaire interview and…

  10. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of chillness in the arms and legs between the traffic control workers (5.1%) and the construction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm

  11. Multifocal electroretinogram in diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkader, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify local retinal abnormalities and evaluate the nature and extent of retinal dysfunction in diabetics using full field electroretinogram (ERG) and multifocal ERG (MF-ERG) and to determine the correlation between features of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and MF-ERG. Methods Twenty-eight normal subjects (Control Group; 56 eyes) and 37 patients (72 eyes) with diabetes mellitus (DM Group) were evaluated. In the DM Group, 17 eyes had no retinopathy (grade 1), 18 eyes had early non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (grade 3), 16 eyes had late NPDR (grade 4), 21 eyes had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (grade 5). Full field ERG and MF-ERG, were used to assess the effects of diabetic retinopathy on retinal function. OCT and fluorescein angiography were used to assess and compare morphological changes with functional changes in diabetes mellitus. Results In diabetic patients without retinopathy (17 eyes), the amplitudes of the second order component of MF-ERG were reduced and implicit times were delayed, while only implicit times of first order component of MF-ERG were delayed but the amplitudes of first order component were normal. In diabetic patients with retinopathy (55 eyes), the overall amplitudes were reduced and peak implicit time increased in the first order component and second order component. OCT of the DM Group showed the fovea of eyes with edema were thicker than the Normal Group. The fovea of eyes with cystoid macular edema (CME) were significantly thicker than the fovea of eyes with diffuse swelling. The implicit times of MF-ERG were directly correlated with foveal thickness. Conclusion MF-ERG reveals local retinal dysfunction in diabetic patients. MF-ERG offers the advantage of topographic mapping of retinal dysfunction. The magnitude of delay of MF-ERG implicit time reflects the degree of local clinical abnormalities in eyes with retinopathy. Local response delays found in eyes without retinopathy detects subclinical

  12. Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…

  13. Expanded Subject Access to Reference Collection Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a computer assisted index emphasizing expanded subject access to the reference collection of the Iowa State University Library. The index displays abbreviated length records and complements existing catalogs. Limitations of subject access and a system for assigning subject descriptors are discussed. (Author/RAA)

  14. Promoting Subjective Well-Being at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…

  15. Can activity be understood out of subjectivity?

    PubMed

    Hubault, F; Sznelwar, L I

    2012-01-01

    The PSR echo a crisis of the relation of the organization with the subjectivity, which is at the same time a crisis of the relation of the organization with the reality that subjectivity is confronting through activity. Thus, they also raise, with ergonomics, the question to know which place it grants itself to subjectivity in the relation health-effectiveness. PMID:22316695

  16. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  17. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  18. Subject Access to Archival Materials Using LCSH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiraglia, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of subject access to archival materials focuses on the use of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The process of subject analysis is described, an example of the depth of cataloging for archival materials is given, and the basic principles of syndetic structure of LCSH are explained. (five references) (LRW)

  19. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  20. The Subject and the World: Educational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the notion of "the subject" in the context of education as an alternative to more limited concepts such as the student or learner. Drawing on the thought of Cornelius Castoriadis, the subject under consideration is a conscious, self-reflective subject that organizes and modifies itself in relation to a world of…

  1. Experimental Tests of Subjective Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li,Yuelin; Krantz, David H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Samaniego and Reneau's 1994 novel weight method for eliciting subjective probability estimates. Experiment 1 replicated their experiment (subjects weighed their prior estimate against 10 new observations), with an additional weight judgment against 50 observations. In Experiment 2, subjects gave prior estimates to questions in a…

  2. Subject Access Project. Second Quarterly Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Pauline

    The Subject Access Project second quarterly report for September to December 1976 summarized in-progress work to improve subject access to monographs. Activities include: (1) analysis of book indexes and tables of contents for terms to augment MARC subject description; (2) analysis of additional book sections--e.g., maps, illustrations, charts,…

  3. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  4. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Remedy for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Double-Blinded Randomized-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alecci, Umberto; Bonina, Francesco; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Inferrera, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms. Male/female 118 (intention to treat) subjects with moderate GER and having at least 2 to 6 days of GER episodes/week were treated with verum (6 g/day) or placebo for two months. The questionnaires Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQoL) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) were self-administered by participants before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Verum produced statistically significant reduction of GERD-HRQoL and GSAS scores, −56.5% and −59.1%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. Heartburn and acid regurgitation episodes for week were significantly reduced by verum (p < 0.01). Results indicate that Mucosave formulation provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for reducing the frequency and intensity of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux.

  6. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  7. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  10. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2016-07-01 2016-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  16. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  17. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  18. The Importance of Subjective Norms for a Minority of People: Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A.

    1996-01-01

    Subjective norms account for a significant, albeit small, proportion of unique variance in intentions. To explore the hypothesis that this effect can be explained largely by individual differences in the degree to which people are apt to be more under normative control, subjects were asked to indicate their intentions, attitudes, and subjective…

  19. Unequal Treatment of Human Research Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice requires that equals be treated equally. If two research subjects are the same in the relevant respects, they should be treated equally. However, not all human subjects are the same in relevant respects: people differ with respect to age, health, gender, race, mental abilities, socioeconomic status, and other characteristics. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and should therefore be treated equally. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a serious dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects. Patently unequal treatment occurs when there is no significant dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and they are treated unequally. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, institutional review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Additional guidance may be necessary to minimize patently unequal treatment of research subjects. PMID:24879129

  20. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine does not alter total choices for methamphetamine, but may reduce positive subjective effects, in a laboratory model of intravenous self-administration in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    De La Garza, R; Mahoney, J J; Culbertson, C; Shoptaw, S; Newton, T F

    2008-04-01

    A human laboratory model of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration may facilitate study of putative treatments for methamphetamine addiction. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between groups investigation of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor rivastigmine in non-treatment-seeking volunteers who met criteria for methamphetamine abuse or dependence. Safety and subjective effects data derived from days 1-10 of this protocol are described in a separate publication. In this report, we describe self-administration outcomes in participants randomized to treatment with rivastigmine (0 mg, N=7; 1.5 mg, N=6; 3 mg, N=9); data that were collected on days 11-15 of the inpatient protocol. On day 11, participants sampled two infusions of methamphetamine (0 and 30 mg, i.v.). On days 12-15, participants made ten choices each day to receive an infusion of either methamphetamine (3 mg, IV) or saline or a monetary alternative ($0.05-$16). The study design allowed for evaluation of differences in behavior on days in which infusions were performed by the physician (experimenter-administered) versus by the participant using a PCA pump (self-administered), and when monetary alternatives were presented in either ascending or descending sequence. The data show that rivastigmine (1.5 and 3 mg), as compared to placebo, did not significantly alter total choices for methamphetamine (p=0.150). Importantly, the number of infusion choices was greater when methamphetamine was available then when saline was available (p<0.0001), and the number of money choices was greater when saline was available then when methamphetamine was available (p<0.0001). The total number of choices for methamphetamine was not altered as a function of a participant's preferred route of methamphetamine use (p=0.57), and did not differ significantly whether they were experimenter-administered or self-administered (p=0.30). In addition, total choices for methamphetamine were similar made when

  1. Impossible Subjects: Writing, Ethics, and Radical Alterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes-Burton, Cynthia

    One way to "reinitiate" possible productive responses to the question of the subject for composition theory and pedagogy is to defuse the terror of the "impossible," to "negotiate" with the impossible, and to ask impossible questions. Although there are dangers associated with any critical theorizing about the subject positions of students and/or…

  2. 46 CFR 535.201 - Subject agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject agreements. 535.201 Section 535.201 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Scope § 535.201...

  3. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  4. Vertical File Subject Headings KWIK List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Em Claire; And Others

    A subject heading keyword-in-context (KWIK) list for the vertical files at the University of California, Davis, is presented. It is noted that the KWIK list was prepared to assist library users in locating more subject headings for available materials in the various pamphlet collections and that the list is computerized to enable frequent…

  5. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  6. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  7. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  8. International Collaboration on Internet Subject Gateways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Emma

    A number of libraries in Europe are involved in the development of Internet subject gateways--services that aim to help users find high quality resources on the Internet. Subject gateways such as SOSIG (Social Science Information Gateway) have been available on the Internet for some years now, and they offer an alternative to Internet search…

  9. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  10. Macular dazzling test on normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M

    1986-01-01

    The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979

  11. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  12. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research.

  13. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  14. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  15. It is possible to classify non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients into endoscopically normal groups and minimal change groups by subjective symptoms and responsiveness to rabeprazole -- a report from a study with Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Shirai, Naohito; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Hongo, Michio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-12-01

    The hypothesis that non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients comprise various subgroups is gaining popularity. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of categorizing NERD patients according to symptom types and response to acid-suppressive drug rabeprazole (RPZ) 10 mg/day. NERD patients were classified as grade N (endoscopically normal), M (minimal change), or erosive GERD, and answered a 51-item, yes-or-no questionnaire pre and post-treatment. Compared to erosive GERD, clear differences existed in pretreatment prevalence of symptoms and responsiveness to RPZ in grades N and M; the results suggested stomachaches (especially at night) were significant symptoms in grade N and dysmotility-like symptoms like bloated stomach were significant in grade M while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were significant in erosive GERD. Clinical significance of classifying NERD was indicated from different symptoms and responsiveness to PPI. PMID:18465242

  16. Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Smith, M D; Van Toller, C; Dodd, G H

    1983-01-01

    In the first session, two groups of male and female subjects were given a stressful task involving the completion of eleven WAIS block patterns under time limitations. A low intensity of a neutral odour (TUA) was present for half of the subjects. During a second session several days later, subjects completed a mood rating scale and then entered a room, where the odour of TUA was present, to judge a series of photographs of people and complete a second mood rating scale. During the first session female subjects completed significantly fewer block patterns, and completed fewer correct designs. In the second session, female subjects who had experienced TUA odour in the stress condition showed an increase in anxiety ratings. They also had higher ratings scores when judging the photographs. In contrast, subjects who did not experience odour during the stress session became calmer during the second session. None of the female subjects reported perceiving the odour irn either session. As both pairing and elicitation occurred at low levels of awareness, the study demonstrates how odours might acquire values through pairing with emotionally significant events.

  17. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis. PMID:26348203

  18. Auditory localization by subjects with unilateral tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Petteri; Mendonça, Catarina; Santala, Olli; Pulkki, Ville; Aarnisalo, Antti A

    2016-05-01

    Tinnitus is associated with changes in neural activity. How such alterations impact the localization ability of subjects with tinnitus remains largely unexplored. In this study, subjects with self-reported unilateral tinnitus were compared to subjects with matching hearing loss at high frequencies and to normal-hearing subjects in horizontal and vertical plane localization tasks. Subjects were asked to localize a pink noise source either alone or over background noise. Results showed some degree of difference between subjects with tinnitus and subjects with normal hearing in horizontal plane localization, which was exacerbated by background noise. However, this difference could be explained by different hearing sensitivities between groups. In vertical plane localization there was no difference between groups in the binaural listening condition, but in monaural listening the tinnitus group localized significantly worse with the tinnitus ear. This effect remained when accounting for differences in hearing sensitivity. It is concluded that tinnitus may degrade auditory localization ability, but this effect is for the most part due to the associated levels of hearing loss. More detailed studies are needed to fully disentangle the effects of hearing loss and tinnitus. PMID:27250123

  19. The ideal subject distance for passport pictures.

    PubMed

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Witzel, Carsten; Kreutz, Kerstin; Ramsthaler, Frank

    2008-07-01

    In an age of global combat against terrorism, the recognition and identification of people on document images is of increasing significance. Experiments and calculations have shown that the camera-to-subject distance - not the focal length of the lens - can have a significant effect on facial proportions. Modern passport pictures should be able to function as a reference image for automatic and manual picture comparisons. This requires a defined subject distance. It is completely unclear which subject distance, in the taking of passport photographs, is ideal for the recognition of the actual person. We show here that the camera-to-subject distance that is perceived as ideal is dependent on the face being photographed, even if the distance of 2m was most frequently preferred. So far the problem of the ideal camera-to-subject distance for faces has only been approached through technical calculations. We have, for the first time, answered this question experimentally with a double-blind experiment. Even if there is apparently no ideal camera-to-subject distance valid for every face, 2m can be proposed as ideal for the taking of passport pictures. The first step would actually be the determination of a camera-to-subject distance for the taking of passport pictures within the standards. From an anthropological point of view it would be interesting to find out which facial features allow the preference of a shorter camera-to-subject distance and which allow the preference of a longer camera-to-subject distance. PMID:18450396

  20. Subjective judgements in scientific practice and art.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Since art and science went their separate ways in the 18th century, the purpose of science has been to generate true knowledge based on reason and objectivity. However, during the second half of the 20th century, opinions emerged within science that showed the impossibility of eliminating subjectivity in scientific practice. This paper describes the similarity of the subjective judgements that form part of the peer-review system-the method devised by the scientific community to guarantee truth and objectivity-and the subjective judgements involved in artistic evaluation.

  1. Different gastoroesophageal reflux symptoms of middle-aged to elderly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Kusano, Motoyasu; Mori, Masatomo

    2012-03-01

    Symptomatic differences and the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have not been clarified in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to assess the differences of GERD symptoms among asthma, COPD, and disease control patients, and determine the impact of GERD symptoms on exacerbation of asthma or COPD by using a new questionnaire for GERD. A total of 120 subjects underwent assessment with the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire, including 40 age-matched patients in each of the asthma, COPD, and disease control groups. Asthma and control patients had more regurgitation-related symptoms than COPD patients (p<0.05), while COPD patients had more dysmotility-related symptoms than asthma patients (p<0.01) or disease control patients (p<0.01). The most distinctive symptom of asthma patients with GERD was an unusual sensation in the throat, while bloated stomach was the chief symptom of COPD patients with GERD, and these symptoms were associated with disease exacerbations. The presence of GERD diagnosed by the total score of FSSG influences the exacerbation of COPD. GERD symptoms differed between asthma and COPD patients, and the presence of GERD diagnosed by the FSSG influences the exacerbation of COPD. PMID:22448100

  2. Leakage of Experimental Information to Potential Future Subjects by Debriefed Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Edward; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Leakage of experimental information from debreifed subjects into a university subject pool was studied. It was concluded that in settings similar to those of the experiment, leakage of information is not a serious problem. (Authors)

  3. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  4. Creating Better Subject Access with Multiple Vocabularies: Upgrading the Subject Heading List for the Alzheimer's Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Cochrane, Pauline Atherton

    1999-01-01

    A new subject list was generated for the Alzheimer's Association's Green-Field Library catalog, resulting in a mix of Medical Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings, augmented by local- and reviewer-supplied terms. The list gives the Library authoritative terms to use for original and copy cataloging. It can also be placed with…

  5. Subject Compatibility between "Chemical Abstracts" Subject Sections and Search Profiles Used for Computerized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of relevant answers to 41 search profiles among the 80 subject sections of Chemical Abstracts" revealed that the average profile requires 10 CA-subject sections for adequate coverage. The average printing expense could be reduced 25 percent by searching the individual profiles in the appropriate subject sections. (5…

  6. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  7. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  17. Knowing the Subject Matter of a Secondary-School Science Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental yet largely neglected distinction between school subjects and academic disciplines in the discourse on teachers' specialized subject-matter knowledge. It analyses and critiques the curricular positions embedded in that discourse in the light of five possible relationships between school subjects and academic…

  18. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  19. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  20. Calibrating Subjective Probabilities Using Hierarchical Bayesian Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Edgar C.

    A body of psychological research has examined the correspondence between a judge's subjective probability of an event's outcome and the event's actual outcome. The research generally shows that subjective probabilities are noisy and do not match the "true" probabilities. However, subjective probabilities are still useful for forecasting purposes if they bear some relationship to true probabilities. The purpose of the current research is to exploit relationships between subjective probabilities and outcomes to create improved, model-based probabilities for forecasting. Once the model has been trained in situations where the outcome is known, it can then be used in forecasting situations where the outcome is unknown. These concepts are demonstrated using experimental psychology data, and potential applications are discussed.

  1. Variable Subject Presence in ASL Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Alyssa; Dudis, Paul; Bayley, Robert; Lucas, Ceil

    2002-01-01

    Examines one kind of syntactic variation--variable subject pronoun presence with American Sign Language plain verbs. Focuses on narratives that occurred during conversations recorded as part of a larger study. (Author/VWL)

  2. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  3. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial.

  4. In Search of Subject Matter Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for subject-matter experts who understands that purity of content must be coupled with ensuring that the participants actually learn. Looks at ways to leverage and circulate intellectual capital within an organization. (JOW)

  5. Books -- Agriculture and Related Subjects. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Presented are 28 pages of titles of books related to agriculture, arranged in alphabetical order according to subject matter. Prices and publishers' names are provided. A five-page directory of publishers provides addresses of each publishing company. (SA)

  6. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. PMID:25051653

  7. Subjective Frequency Ratings for 432 ASL Signs

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Hall, Matthew L.; Zvaigzne, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of lexical frequency for psycholinguistic research, and the lack of comprehensive frequency data for sign languages, we collected subjective estimates of lexical frequency for 432 signs in American Sign Language. Participants were 59 deaf signers who first began to acquire ASL at ages ranging from birth to 14 years with a minimum of 10 years experience. Subjective frequency estimates were made on a scale ranging from 1 = rarely see the sign to 7 = always see the sign. Mean subjective frequency ratings for individual signs did not vary in relation to age of sign language exposure (AoLE), chronological age, or length of ASL experience. Nor did AoLE show significant effects on response time for making the ratings. However, RT was highly correlated with mean frequency rating. These results suggest that the distributions of subjective lexical frequencies are consistent across signers with varying AoLE. The implications for research practice are that subjective frequency ratings from random samples of highly experienced deaf signers can provide a reasonable measures of lexical control in sign language experiments. The appendix gives the mean and median subjective frequency rating, and the median and mean log(RT) for the ASL signs for the entire sample; the supplemental material gives these measures for three AoLE groups, Native, Early, and Late. PMID:23943581

  8. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  9. Comparing subjective video quality testing methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Margaret H.; Wolf, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    International recommendations for subjective video quality assessment (e.g., ITU-R BT.500-11) include specifications for how to perform many different types of subjective tests. Some of these test methods are double stimulus where viewers rate the quality or change in quality between two video streams (reference and impaired). Others are single stimulus where viewers rate the quality of just one video stream (the impaired). Two examples of the former are the double stimulus continuous quality scale (DSCQS) and double stimulus comparison scale (DSCS). An example of the latter is single stimulus continuous quality evaluation (SSCQE). Each subjective test methodology has claimed advantages. For instance, the DSCQS method is claimed to be less sensitive to context (i.e., subjective ratings are less influenced by the severity and ordering of the impairments within the test session). The SSCQE method is claimed to yield more representative quality estimates for quality monitoring applications. This paper considers data from six different subjective video quality experiments, originally performed with SSCQE, DSCQS and DSCS methodologies. A subset of video clips from each of these six experiments were combined and rated in a secondary SSCQE subjective video quality test. We give a method for post-processing the secondary SSCQE data to produce quality scores that are highly correlated to the original DSCQS and DSCS data. We also provide evidence that human memory effects for time-varying quality estimation seem to be limited to about 15 seconds.

  10. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy. PMID:22322683

  11. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Stenard, Fabien; Iannelli, Antonio

    2015-09-28

    Bariatric surgery is the only effective procedure that provides long-term sustained weight loss. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has emerged over the last few years to be an ideal bariatric procedure because it has several advantages compared to more complex bariatric procedures, including avoiding an intestinal bypass. However, several published follow-up studies report an increased rate of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) after a SG. GERD is described as either de novo or as being caused by aggravation of preexisting symptoms. However, the literature on this topic is ambivalent despite the potentially increased rate of GERDs that may occur after this common bariatric procedure. This article reviews the mechanisms responsible for GERD in obese subjects as well as the results after a SG with respect to GERD. Future directions for clinical research are discussed along with the current surgical options for morbidly obese patients with GERD and undergoing bariatric surgery.

  12. Individual differences in subjective circadian flexibility.

    PubMed

    Marcoen, Nele; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Neu, Daniel; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate individual differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system in a community sample, with respect to age, gender, chronotype, and sleepiness perceptions. An online questionnaire containing the Circadian Type Inventory, the Composite Scale of Morningness, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was administered. In addition, participants performed a visuo-verbal judgment task to determine time-of-day variations in estimated sleepiness. We analyzed data of 752 participants, aged between 18 and 83 years, who reported good sleep quality, no sleep disturbances, no excessive daytime sleepiness, and no engagement in shiftwork. Our results suggest gender- and chronotype-related differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system. Subjective circadian flexibility was higher in men in comparison with women and was positively related to evening preference. Age was not associated with flexibility scores. Additionally, the subjective flexibility of the circadian system had an influence on estimated sleepiness profiles: individuals with a high flexibility displayed lower sleepiness estimations during the biological night in comparison to individuals with a low flexibility. These findings suggests that, next to known chronotype and other dispositional differences, subjective circadian flexibility should be taken into account when evaluating tolerance to activities associated with nighttime functioning (e.g. night shifts).

  13. Subjective organization of U.S. presidents.

    PubMed

    Brown, N R; Siegler, R S

    1991-01-01

    College students appear to subjectively organize U.S. presidents into three groups and to use this organization to help them learn new information. Results of a paired comparison task in Experiment 1 suggested that subjects organized the presidents into Founding Fathers (Washington through John Quincy Adams), post-World War II presidents (Truman through Reagan), and noncontemporary presidents (Jackson through Franklin Roosevelt). This hypothesized organization was tested in Experiment 2 by presenting subjects with several lists with alternative organizations of the presidents. Difficulty of learning classifications of particular presidents within each list was predicted on the basis of the relation between that president's classification in the list and in the hypothesized preexisting organization. Instances where the preexisting and new classifications were consistent both for the particular president and for all other members of the group were easiest to learn. Instances where the particular president's classification was consistent but where some other presidents in the group were classified differently were of intermediate difficulty. Instances where neither the individual president's classification nor that of the entire group were consistent were most difficult. The results provided converging evidence for the hypothesized subjective organization of the presidents and also demonstrated the usefulness of a method that may be applicable to testing subjective organizations in a wide variety of other areas. PMID:2058756

  14. Agriculture as a subject in primary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Herbert

    1985-12-01

    Many countries have included agriculture as a subject in primary school for a number of reasons. The present article briefly presents five rationales for including agriculture and offers three main approaches which seem to emerge from current practice. The main results of the subsequent discussion can be summarized as follows: integrating education with rural development most of the time would mean including agriculture as a subject in primary schools in rural areas and compensating it in core curriculum with some sort of practical subject taught in urban areas. It becomes clear that narrow vocational and extension-support approaches to school agriculture should be avoided in favour of a more general approach which relates agriculture to science. Unless these problems — curricular, technical, and organizational — are tackled, the results of school agriculture and its acceptance by those concerned will remain far behind expectations and possibilities.

  15. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  16. Saccadic eye movements of dyslexic adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B; Biscaldi, M; Otto, P

    1993-09-01

    The characteristics of visually guided saccadic eye movements were compared in 12 normal adult subjects and 12 test subjects of normal intelligence, but with problems in reading and writing. All subjects were examined psychometrically for different cognitive abilities, and for their reading and writing capabilities. The anamnestic reports about their reading and writing problems earlier in their lives were analysed. Based on scores of the writing and reading tests, the test group was subdivided into two subgroups: A and B (group A reached medium, group B very low scores in both tests). Five different non-cognitive eye movement tasks were applied: two single tasks (gap and overlap) requiring single saccades from a fixation point to a peripherally appearing target and three sequential tasks (overlap, synchronous, and simultaneous) requiring sequences of saccades to four equally spaced targets presented sequentially to the right side from an initial fixation point. Many parameters of the subjects' eye movement performance were determined and their mean values were calculated for each subject. The Student t-test revealed that the eye movement data of the two test groups deviated differently from the data of the control group. Group B had the largest deviation of the eye movement parameter from the control group. The differentiating parameters were the consistency of target acquisition, the saccadic reaction time, and the number of anticipatory responses in the single target tasks. In the sequential tasks these differences were in the amplitude, the number of saccades, and the fixation durations. The incidence of regressive saccades did not discriminate between test subjects and controls. The possible underlying deficits in the attentional control over the saccadic system and their implications for reading are discussed.

  17. Subjective measures and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A

    1989-07-01

    I have attempted to use Feinstein's model of clinimetric indexes and his criteria as a focus for further development of measures that in physical therapy are currently considered "soft" or "subjective". I feel this development will enhance the body of knowledge by objectifying a portion of clinical assessment (eg, the patient's complaints, "subjective" portion of the POMR's SOAP format) that is in tremendous need of quantification. By making these "soft" data "hard," I feel we will enhance the decision-making power of clinicians.

  18. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  19. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  20. CNS Sites Cooperate to Detect Duplicate Subjects with a Clinical Trial Subject Registry

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Charles S.; Gevorgyan, Lilit; Shawkat, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report the results of the first 1,132 subjects in a pilot project where local central nervous system trial sites collaborated in the use of a subject database to identify potential duplicate subjects. Method: Central nervous system sites in Los Angeles and Orange County, California, were contacted by the lead author to seek participation in the project. CTSdatabase, a central nervous system-focused trial subject registry, was utilized to track potential subjects at pre-screen. Subjects signed an institutional review board-approved authorization prior to participation, and site staff entered their identifiers by accessing a website. Sites were prompted to communicate with each other or with the database administrator when a match occurred between a newly entered subject and a subject already in the database. Results: Between October 30, 2011, and August 31, 2012, 1,132 subjects were entered at nine central nervous system sites. Subjects continue to be entered, and more sites are anticipated to begin participation by the time of publication. Initially, there were concerns at a few sites over patient acceptance, financial implications, and/or legal and privacy issues, but these were eventually overcome. Patient acceptance was estimated to be above 95 percent. Duplicate Subjects (those that matched several key identifiers with subjects at different sites) made up 7.78 percent of the sample and Certain Duplicates (matching identifiers with a greater than 1 in 10 million likelihood of occurring by chance in the general population) accounted for 3.45 percent of pre-screens entered into the database. Many of these certain duplicates were not consented for studies because of the information provided by the registry. Conclusion: The use of a clinical trial subject registry and cooperation between central nervous system trial sites can reduce the number of duplicate and professional subjects entering clinical trials. To be fully effective, a trial subject

  1. Measures of diet quality across calendar and holiday seasons among midlife women: A one-year longitudinal study using the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Systematic seasonal bias may confound efforts to estimate usual dietary intake and diet quality; little is known of dietary quality over the holiday season. Objectives: Test for differences in intakes of energy, percentage of energy from macronutrients, vegetables and fruits, and diet qu...

  2. Comparison of Web-Based versus Paper-and-Pencil Self-Administered Questionnaire: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate differences in responses related to (mental) health and behavior between two methods of data collection: web-based (web) and paper-and-pencil (p&p). Study Design Within each participating school all third-grade classes (mainly 14–15-year-old pupils) were randomly assigned to either the Internet condition (n=271) or the paper-and-pencil condition (n=261). Principal Findings Significant but small differences were found for the strengths and difficulties subscales “emotional symptoms” (p&p>web) and “prosocial behavior” (p&p>web), and carrying a weapon (web>p&p). Perceived level of privacy and confidentiality did not differ between the two modes. Conclusions The findings suggest that in a controlled school setting, web-based administration of health indicators yields almost the same results as paper-and-pencil administration. To generalize these findings, we recommend repeated studies in other populations and settings. PMID:18479404

  3. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  4. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional. PMID:25540620

  5. Routine Self-administered, Touch-Screen Computer Based Suicidal Ideation Assessment Linked to Automated Response Team Notification in an HIV Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah T.; Willig, James H.; Crane, Heidi M.; Ye, Jiatao; Aban, Inmaculada; Lober, William; Nevin, Christa R.; Batey, D. Scott; Mugavero, Michael J.; McCullumsmith, Cheryl; Wright, Charles; Kitahata, Mari; Raper, James L.; Saag, Micheal S.; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The implementation of routine computer-based screening for suicidal ideation and other psychosocial domains through standardized patient reported outcome instruments in two high volume urban HIV clinics is described. Factors associated with an increased risk of self-reported suicidal ideation were determined. Background HIV/AIDS continues to be associated with an under-recognized risk for suicidal ideation, attempted as well as completed suicide. Suicidal ideation represents an important predictor for subsequent attempted and completed suicide. We sought to implement routine screening of suicidal ideation and associated conditions using computerized patient reported outcome (PRO) assessments. Methods Two geographically distinct academic HIV primary care clinics enrolled patients attending scheduled visits from 12/2005 to 2/2009. Touch-screen-based, computerized PRO assessments were implemented into routine clinical care. Substance abuse (ASSIST), alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (PHQ-A) were assessed. The PHQ-9 assesses the frequency of suicidal ideation in the preceding two weeks. A response of “nearly every day” triggered an automated page to pre-determined clinic personnel who completed more detailed self-harm assessments. Results Overall 1,216 (UAB= 740; UW= 476) patients completed initial PRO assessment during the study period. Patients were white (53%; n=646), predominantly males (79%; n=959) with a mean age of 44 (± 10). Among surveyed patients, 170 (14%) endorsed some level of suicidal ideation, while 33 (3%) admitted suicidal ideation nearly every day. In multivariable analysis, suicidal ideation risk was lower with advancing age (OR=0.74 per 10 years;95%CI=0.58-0.96) and was increased with current substance abuse (OR=1.88;95%CI=1.03-3.44) and more severe depression (OR=3.91 moderate;95%CI=2.12-7.22; OR=25.55 severe;95%CI=12.73-51.30). Discussion Suicidal ideation was associated with current substance abuse and depression. The use of novel technologies to incorporate routine self-reported screening for suicidal ideation and other health domains allow for timely detection and intervention for this life threatening condition. PMID:20210646

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire for Middle-Aged Urban Cancer Screenees: Comparison With 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hosoi, Satoko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of estimates of dietary intake calculated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) depends on the specific population. The 138-item FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study was initially developed for and validated in rural residents. However, the validity of estimates based on this FFQ for urban residents, whose diet and lifestyle differ from those of rural residents, has not been clarified. We examined the validity of ranking individuals according to level of dietary consumption, as estimated by this FFQ, among an urban population in Japan. Methods Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 144 participated in the study. In 2007–2008, at an average 2.7 years after cancer screening, participants were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to provide 4-day weighed diet records (4d-DRs) for use as the reference intake. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and 4d-DR estimates were calculated, after correction for intraindividual variation of 4d-DRs. Results The median (range) deattenuated CC for men and women was 0.57 (0.23 to 0.89) and 0.47 (0.08 to 0.94), respectively, across 45 nutrients and 0.51 (0.10 to 0.98) and 0.51 (−0.36 to 0.88) for 43 food groups. Conclusions Although the FFQ was developed for a rural population, it provided reasonably valid measures of consumption for many nutrients and food groups in middle-aged screenees living in urban areas in Japan. PMID:21963789

  7. Development and Validation of the "iCAN!"--A Self-Administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Tseretopoulou, Xanthippi; Tzamalis, Theodoros; Bazoukis, George; Benos, Alexis; Gogos, Charalambos; Malizos, Konstantinos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N.; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The Tuning-Medicine Project produced a set of "level one" and "level two" learning outcomes/competences to be met by European medical graduates. In the learner-centered era self-assessment becomes more and more important. Our aim was to develop a self-completion questionnaire ("iCAN!") evaluating graduates' learning…

  8. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  9. Online self-administered training of PTSD treatment providers in cognitive-behavioral intervention skills: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruzek, Josef I; Rosen, Raymond C; Garvert, Donn W; Smith, Lauren D; Sears, Katharine C; Marceau, Lisa; Harty, Brian; Stoddard, Anne M

    2014-12-01

    Despite potential advantages in scalability and efficiency of web-based training for trauma providers, few controlled trials of feasibility and effectiveness of web-based mental health training have been performed. Our study compared web-based training in 3 intervention skills (motivation enhancement [ME], goal setting [GS], behavioral task assignment [BTA]) with web-based training plus telephone consultation, and a no-training control. The primary outcome measures included objective measures of skills acquisition (standardized patient assessments). Results showed significant differences among the training conditions. The overall tests of differences among the groups were statistically significant for ME and BTA skills (p < .001 and p = .005, respectively), but not for GS (p = .245). The web training plus consultation group improved in ME skills by 0.35 units compared to 0.12 units in the web only group (p < .001) and no change in the control group (p = .001). For BTA skills, the web training plus consultation improved by 0.27 units compared to 0.17 units in the web only group (p = .175) and no change in the control group (p = .004). Overall, these findings support the use of web-based dissemination for large-scale training programs for trauma providers in health care delivery systems. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific role of consultation as an adjunct to web-based training. PMID:25522731

  10. Alterations of prefrontal cortical microRNAs in methamphetamine self-administering rats: From controlled drug intake to escalated drug intake.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao-Yue; Cao, Dan-Ni; Chen, Ying; Wang, Lv; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2016-01-12

    Drug addiction is a process that transits from recreative and regular drug use into compulsive drug use. The two patterns of drug use, controlled drug intake and escalated drug intake, represent different stages in the development of drug addiction; and escalation of drug use is a hallmark of addiction. Accumulating studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in drug addiction. However, the molecular adaptations in escalation of drug use, as well as the difference in the adaptations between escalated and controlled drug use, remain unclear. In the present study, 28 altered miRNAs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were found in the groups of controlled methamphetamine self-administration (1h/session) and escalated self-administration (6h/session), and some of them were validated. Compared with saline control group, miR-186 was verified to be up-regulated while miR-195 and miR-329 were down-regulated in the rats with controlled methamphetamine use. In the rats with escalated drug use, miR-127, miR-186, miR-222 and miR-24 were verified to be up-regulated while miR-329 was down-regulated compared with controls. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis indicated that the predicted targets of these verified miRNAs involved in the processes of neuronal apoptosis and synaptic plasticity. However, the putative regulated molecules may be different between controlled and escalated drug use groups. Taken together, we detected the altered miRNAs in rat PFC under the conditions of controlled methamphetamine use and escalated use respectively, which may extend our understanding of the molecular adaptations underlying the transition from controlled drug use to addiction.

  11. A feasibility study of low-cost, self-administered skin care interventions in patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Catherine Marie; Bartholomay, Marian Mahin; Doherty, Carol S; Lewis, Maryellen; Bilodeau, Mary-Liz Connors

    2012-06-01

    Current evidence for the management of radiation skin toxicities demonstrates equivocal outcomes using a variety of interventions, leaving substantial gaps in knowledge. Skin toxicities can lead to treatment delays, infection, pain, and increased costs for the patient. Patients with head and neck cancers receiving chemoradiation (N = 100), a population particularly vulnerable to disruptions in skin integrity, were enrolled into a prospective, descriptive study. Data collection was conducted and photographs were taken at baseline and weekly throughout treatment. Patients received skin care kits, instructions, and a diary to record adherence. Skin toxicity was measured and validated by at least three observers using serial photographs with 100% interrater agreement. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, graphs, and bivariate analysis. Adherence to both washing and moisturizing was consistently high. Although a correlation existed between the radiation dose and skin toxicity at week 6, no correlation existed between skin toxicity and adherence. Given the rate of grade 3 toxicities at week 6 and product costs, this proved to be an affordable regimen to which patients could easily adhere. Positive patient outcomes can be promoted through teaching and reinforcement of self-care measures to reduce skin toxicity.

  12. Excessive Interviews: Listening to Maternal Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willink, Kate

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits an interview with Ava Montalvo--a mother of two living in Albuquerque, New Mexico--which initially confounded her interpretive resources. This reflexive, performative article examines the role of excess as an analytical lens through which to understand maternal subjectivity and elaborates the methodological…

  13. On the subjectivity of personality theory.

    PubMed

    Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

    1976-04-01

    Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general.

  14. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  15. Subjects' Hypotheses, Experimental Instructions and Autonomic "Conditioning".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Charles W.

    Research on learning and conditioning suggests that verbal response modification does not occur in the absence of the subject's ability to define verbally (1) the response-reinforcement relationships and (2) his intention to change his behavior in the direction of reinforcement. This seems to be true for operant conditioning of verbal behavior,…

  16. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  17. Subjective Wellbeing: Telling Only Half the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckersley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A new paper presents a strong case for life satisfaction scales (Diener et al. in "Soc Indic Res," 2012). However, it underestimates two important weaknesses in subjective wellbeing (SWB) measures: the contrast between individual satisfaction and social discontent; and the contradictory evidence on the benefits of personal freedom. This commentary…

  18. "Being Good" at Maths: Fabricating Gender Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronaki, Anna; Pechtelidis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Current research in mathematics education places emphasis on the analysis of men and women's accounts about their life trajectories and choices for studying, working and developing a career that involves the learning and teaching of mathematics. Within this realm, the present study aims to highlight how mathematics, gender and subjectivity become…

  19. Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

  20. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  1. Career Construction and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…

  2. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real...

  3. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real...

  4. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real...

  5. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real...

  6. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real...

  7. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  8. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  9. Changing the Subject of Your Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Patricia Anne; Maloney, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    In most districts, the evaluation of superintendents by the members of the board of education takes place in executive session of the board behind closed doors. Few board members or superintendents question the status quo. Most evaluation forms are merely collections of subjective checklists that catalog approved personality traits, attributes,…

  10. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  11. Thematic Role Properties of Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kako, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests two claims about the thematic roles Agent and Patient: first, that they can be decomposed into more primitive features, as laid out in Dowty's (1991) Proto-Roles Hypothesis; and second, that these properties can be inferred directly from the grammatical roles subject and object. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the…

  12. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau. PMID:14590626

  13. Between Subjects: Shared Meanings of Intersubjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    While the term "intersubjectivity" has become widely used to mean something like "shared experience," it is, paradoxically, poorly understood. This review of the theoretical foundations of intersubjectivity argues that the problem lies in the developmental starting points of the theories. Either subjective experiences are seen to develop before…

  14. Constructing Multiple Subjectivities in Classroom Literacy Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthey, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates ways in which three students in a multi-age, literature-based grade 3/4 classroom constructed and reconstructed their subjectivities based on demands of the social setting. Notes that each student's participation was influenced by gender, social class, ethnicity, and the task. Suggests that interpretations of students' interactions…

  15. Punctuation in Library of Congress Subject Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Hilda

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the punctuation of the eighth edition Library of Congress Subject Headings reveals that the hyphen, coma and parentheses are most often used. Examples of these and the use of the apostrophe, dash, and period are discussed. (Author/MBR)

  16. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  17. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    PubMed

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  18. Women, Subjectivities and Learning to Be Adaptable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance understandings of the subjectivities that influence auxiliary-level female employees' work and learning experiences in general legal practice. Moreover, the aim is to maximise the opportunities for these workers. Design/methodology/approach: A broader critical ethnographic study investigated…

  19. The Future for Mathematics Subject Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Subject associations have developed, over the years, to serve the interests of the mathematics education community. We live in changing times, and education is often at the forefront of such change. So, to remain contemporary, relevant, and to have a regard for the future in a world influenced by technology, it is suggested that there is a need…

  20. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  1. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  2. Enframing Geography: Subject, Curriculum, Knowledge, Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The word "geo-graphy" means "writing the earth". The subject of geography bears responsibility for engaging, constituting and configuring world knowledge, in other words, what the world is. This paper describes an enquiry into the nature of school geographical knowledge at a time of curriculum policy reform. In 2010, the newly appointed Coalition…

  3. Beyond Useful Knowledge: Developing the Subjective Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wringe, Colin

    2015-01-01

    While not underestimating the value of useful knowledge and skills, it is suggested that education should also develop the subjective self of the learner. A distinction is drawn between an "additive" view of education which simply furnishes the individual with knowledge and skills and a "transformative" concept which concerns…

  4. What Can Be Learnt from Subject Review?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottewill, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To consider the shortcomings and strengths of the subject review process with a view to identifying criteria that might be used to assess the value of externally administered quality assurance processes in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Use is made of material from a variety of secondary sources blended with personal…

  5. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  6. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  7. Subjective and objective probabilities in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Srednicki, Mark

    2005-05-15

    We discuss how the apparently objective probabilities predicted by quantum mechanics can be treated in the framework of Bayesian probability theory, in which all probabilities are subjective. Our results are in accord with earlier work by Caves, Fuchs, and Schack, but our approach and emphasis are different. We also discuss the problem of choosing a noninformative prior for a density matrix.

  8. On the subjectivity of personality theory.

    PubMed

    Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

    1976-04-01

    Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general. PMID:1029746

  9. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    PubMed

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  10. Religious Culture as a School Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrev, F. N.; Avest, K. H. ter

    2007-01-01

    In Russia a new school subject has been introduced in order to facilitate educators in shaping the enculturation process of the autonomous student into the cumulative tradition. In this article the Russian societal and educational context is described and the concepts "religion" and "culture" are clarified. Together they build the concentric…

  11. Ketosis resistance in under thirty diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, S R; Ali, L; Khan, A K; Siddiqui, N I; Sarker, C B; Rahman, S; Huq, M H; Debnath, C R

    2004-07-01

    Young onset diabetic subjects in tropical developing countries include a group of subjects who exhibits a characteristic ketosis resistance termed as Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM) by the WHO Study Group. The mechanism for this resistance to ketosis is still uncertain. To understand this mechanism we have studied the serum responses of glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triglyceride (TG) to intravenous fat emulsion in newly diagnosed 8 fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) and 11 low insulin secretory (LIS) subjects under 30 years of age along with 27 age-matched Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Overnight fasting subjects were given a 90 min infusion of intralipos 10% (2.5 mg/kg body weight/min) and serum was collected at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min. The fasting NEFA in the 3 groups were almost similar (micromol/l, M +/- SEM: 486 +/- 58, 564 +/- 76 and 559 +/- 34 in FCPD, LIS and NIDDM respectively). Fasting TG also showed a close similarity among 3 groups (mg/dl, M+/-SEM: 117 +/- 11, 110 +/- 22 and 123 +/- 4 in FCPD, LIS and NIDDM respectively). Intravenous fat caused a steady rise of NEFA as well as TG in all groups during the 90 minutes of infusion followed by a gradual fall. No two groups significantly differed regarding NEFA and TG at any time point. Fasting glucose was markedly higher in FCPD (22.9 +/- 2.5, mmol/l, M+/-SEM) and LIS (20.8 +/- 1.6) than NIDDM (11.0 +/- 1.0). In all the 3 groups glucose showed a slow but steady fall. Fasting C-peptide was very low in FCPD (0.42 +/- 0.08, ng/ml, M +/- SEM) and LIS (0.55 +/- 0.09) whereas it was within normal range in NIDDM patients (2.99 +/- 0.24). The results suggest the following: (a) Depleted body fat store do not lead to a decreased supply of NEFA in FCPD and LIS subjects at the fasting state; (b) Increased supply of NEFA in these subjects lead to a normal esterification response as evidenced by a parallel rise of TG; (c) Inspite of markedly low level of

  12. Subjective testing methodology in MPEG video verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenimore, Charles; Baroncini, Vittorio; Oelbaum, Tobias; Tan, Thiow K.

    2004-11-01

    The development of new video processing, new displays, and new modes of dissemination and usage enables a variety of moving picture applications intended for mobile and desktop devices as well as the more conventional platforms. These applications include multimedia as well as traditional video and require novel lighting environments and bit rates previously unplumbed in Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) video compression. The migration to new environments poses a methodological challenge to testers of video quality. Both the viewing environment and the display characteristics differ dramatically from those used in well-established subjective testing methods for television. The MPEG Test Committee has adaptated the television-centric methodology to the new testing environments. The adaptations that are examined here include: " The display of progressive scan pictures in the Common Intermediate Format (CIF at 352x288 pixel/frame) and Quarter CIF (QCIF at176x144 pixel/frame) as well as other, larger moving pictures requires new ways of testing the subjects including different viewing distances and altered ambient lighting. " The advent of new varieties of display technologies suggests there is a need for methods of characterizing them to assure the results of the testing do not depend strongly on the display. " The use of non-parametric statistical tests in test data analysis. In MPEG testing these appear to provide rigorous confidence statements more in line with testing experience than those provided by classical parametric tests. These issues have been addressed in a recent MPEG subjective test. Some of the test results are reviewed; they suggest that these adaptations of long-established subjective testing methodology for TV are capable of providing practical and reliable measures of subjective video quality for a new generation of technology.

  13. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  14. EEG markers for cognitive decline in elderly subjects with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David M; Arns, Martijn W; Paul, Robert H; Rowe, Donald L; Cooper, Nicholas; Esser, Aristide H; Fallahpour, Kamran; Stephan, Blossom C M; Heesen, Erica; Breteler, Rien; Williams, Leanne M; Gordon, Evian

    2006-03-01

    New treatments for Alzheimer's disease require early detection of cognitive decline. Most studies seeking to identify markers of early cognitive decline have focused on a limited number of measures. We sought to establish the profile of brain function measures which best define early neuropsychological decline. We compared subjects with subjective memory complaints to normative controls on a wide range of EEG derived measures, including a new measure of event-related spatio-temporal waves and biophysical modeling, which derives anatomical and physiological parameters based on subject's EEG measurements. Measures that distinguished the groups were then related to cognitive performance on a variety of learning and executive function tasks. The EEG measures include standard power measures, peak alpha frequency, EEG desynchronization to eyes-opening, and global phase synchrony. The most prominent differences in subjective memory complaint subjects were elevated alpha power and an increased number of spatio-temporal wave events. Higher alpha power and changes in wave activity related most strongly to a decline in verbal memory performance in subjects with subjective memory complaints, and also declines in maze performance and working memory reaction time. Interestingly, higher alpha power and wave activity were correlated with improved performance in reverse digit span in the subjective memory complaint group. The modeling results suggest that differences in the subjective memory complaint subjects were due to a decrease in cortical and thalamic inhibitory gains and slowed dendritic time-constants. The complementary profile that emerges from the variety of measures and analyses points to a nonlinear progression in electrophysiological changes from early neuropsychological decline to late-stage dementia, and electrophysiological changes in subjective memory complaint that vary in their relationships to a range of memory-related tasks. PMID:16544366

  15. Effects of Subject-Area Degree and Classroom Experience on New Chemistry Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science…

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  20. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... physical risk but may pose psychological or informational risks. Some have argued that, particularly given... to protect research subjects from psychological or informational risks.\\22\\ Over-regulating social... educational tests, surveys, interviews, and similar procedures so long as the subjects are competent...

  1. [Risk profiles of hypertension in normotensive subjects].

    PubMed

    Ducher, M; Fauvel, J P; Cerutti, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 10 factors suspected to be involved in hypertension genesis (age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, sodium to potassium urinary excretion ratio, systolic BP and heart rate response to mental stress, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), job demand, job latitude (Karasec's questionnaire), and personality (Bortner's score). A cohort of 213 normotensive healthy subjects was followed during five years. Using K-means clustering technique we have defined 7 homogeneous groups of subjects. Four groups with different combinations of these factors had a significantly higher 5-year systolic BP increase. The common characteristic of these groups was a low BRS. In conclusion, cluster analysis is well suited to analyse combined effect of factors on hypertension genesis. Only low BRS seems to be the common factor involved in hypertension development.

  2. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

  3. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  4. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness. PMID:21542199

  5. Teaching physics as a service subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  6. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648

  7. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  8. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  9. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent. PMID:27587443

  10. The functions of human subjects review committees.

    PubMed

    Gray, B H

    1977-08-01

    After summarizing the literature on the functioning of committees set up to review research involving human subjects, the author describes three latent or emerging functions of these committees. These include using the committees to protect institutions, to judge proposed research in terms of possible social policy impact, and to consider proposed research from the standpoint of "community acceptability". The author expresses concern about the possible politicization of review committee decisions.

  11. The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J

    1981-01-01

    In 19 normal subjects the pupillary reflex to light was studied over a range of stimulus intensities by infrared electronic pupillography and analysed by a computer technique. Increasing stimulus intensity was associated with an increase in direct light reflex amplitude and maximum rate of constriction and redilatation. Latency from stimulus to onset of response-decreased with increasing stimulus intensity. The normal range for each of these parameters is given and the significance of these results in clinical pupillary assessment discussed. PMID:7326222

  12. Subjective Nasal Fullness and Objective Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.

    2011-01-01

    How well do subjective descriptions of the sensation of nasal closure or absence of nasal patency agree with objective measures of nasal geometry and airflow? Problems with this concept begin with terminology. “Congestion” has been applied to both the subjective and objective measures. Therefore, the term “fullness” will be used to describe perceptions of nasal mucosal heaviness or blockage that subjects with allergic rhinitis articulate. “Congestion” will refer to the objective measures used to assess patency. Sensations attributed to the nasal mucosa are highly integrated interpretations summed from multiple subsets of nociceptive and other neurons. Activation of sensor systems is required to depolarize afferent neurons. These sensors and other receptor proteins can be modulated by inflammation as part of the neural plasticity that leads to increased sensitivity to nasal stimuli. This plasticity and hyperalgesia may extend from the afferent neuron to spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, and regulatory and analytical regions of the brainstem and cerebrum. Although glandular hypersecretion can deliver obstructing material into the nasal cavities, the dilation of deep venous sinusoids is the strongest factor regulating nasal airspace volumes. There is a long history of attempts to correlate subjective sensations to objective measurements such as airflow resistance (rhinomanometry), nasal wall geometry (acoustic rhinometry), and peak nasal inspiratory flow. The medical evidence supporting each method has been analyzed on the basis of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. These results provide a starting point for linking the outcomes of pathophysiological processes with a patient's psychometrically calibrated sensation of airflow. PMID:21364223

  13. About subjective evaluation of adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso

    2015-03-01

    The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.

  14. The responsible subject in the global age.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Elena

    2010-09-01

    The first thesis of this article is that the concept of responsibility takes on an unprecedented meaning in the twentieth century resulting from the emergence of a new dimension of the other: to be responsible comes to mean not just to account for oneself in relation to the other, but also to take the other into account, to take care of the other-what I call responsibility towards (the other). The main reason for this change consists in the emergence of global risks and the necessity, as underlined by Hans Jonas, to be responsible for the destiny of the world and future generations. The problem, as explored in the article's second thesis, is that this implies the existence of a subject who is capable of responsibility. Jonas's insights on this point are insufficient, since he only recognizes duty as the fundament for his ethics of responsibility and thus neglects the problem of motivation. This is a particularly crucial problem today as we are witnessing the presence of a pathological subject, characterized by a split in his faculties (between doing and imagining, knowing and feeling). To underline this fact, this article makes use of Günther Anders's reflections, which provide a psycho-anthropological analysis of the subject, showing his pathologies and the necessity, from a moral perspective, to overcome his scission. Finally, this author suggests, as the article's third thesis, that this overcoming is the necessary fundament for the perception of risk, which in turn reinstates the subject's perception of his own vulnerability. Responsibility thus finds a motivation, which is neither altruistic nor duty-centred, in the awareness of our own vulnerability and the bond with the destiny of humankind as a whole.

  15. Mapping brain function in freely moving subjects

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, Daniel P.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of many fundamental mammalian behaviors such as, for example, aggression, mating, foraging or social behaviors, depend on locomotor activity. A central dilemma in the functional neuroimaging of these behaviors has been the fact that conventional neuroimaging techniques generally rely on immobilization of the subject, which extinguishes all but the simplest activity. Ideally, imaging could occur in freely moving subjects, while presenting minimal interference with the subject’s natural behavior. Here we provide an overview of several approaches that have been undertaken in the past to achieve this aim in both tethered and freely moving animals, as well as in nonrestrained human subjects. Applications of specific radiotracers to single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography are discussed in which brain activation is imaged after completion of the behavioral task and capture of the tracer. Potential applications to clinical neuropsychiatry are discussed, as well as challenges inherent to constraint-free functional neuroimaging. Future applications of these methods promise to increase our understanding of the neural circuits underlying mammalian behavior in health and disease. PMID:15465134

  16. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of subjective alertness and to explore the circadian mechanisms underlying such changes. Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) instrument, 25 older men and women (71 y and older; 15 female, 10 male) rated their subjective alertness about 7 times per day during 5 baseline days of temporal isolation during which habitual bedtimes and waketimes were enforced. Comparisons were made with 13 middle-aged men (37-52 y) experiencing the same protocol. Advancing age (particularly in the men) resulted in less rhythmic alertness patterns, as indicated by lower amplitudes and less reliability of fitted 24-h sinusoids. This appeared in spite of the absence of any reliable age-related diminution in circadian temperature rhythm amplitude, thus suggesting the effect was not due to SCN weakness per se, but to weakened transduction of SCN output. In a further experiment, involving 36 h of constant wakeful bedrest, differences in the amplitude of the alertness rhythm were observed between 9 older men (79 y+), 7 older women (79 y+), and 17 young controls (9 males, 8 females, 19-28 y) suggesting that with advancing age (particularly in men) there is less rhythmic input into subjective alertness from the endogenous circadian pacemaker. These results may explain some of the nocturnal insomnia and daytime hypersomnia that afflict many elderly people.

  17. Subjective effects of transdermal nicotine among nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-04-01

    The subjective experience of nicotine, which may be influenced by personality traits as well as environmental factors, may be important for understanding the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of nicotine dependence. The present study examined the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine among a relatively large sample (n = 91; 44 women) of college-aged nonsmokers. Using a placebo controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, nicotine's effects were examined at rest and again after participants completed a sustained attention task. Sex and personality factors (Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Approach; BIS/BAS Scales; Carver & White, 1994) were examined as potential moderators. Overall, the effects of nicotine were generally modest and unpleasant. In the context of the cognitive task, nicotine increased nausea and negative affect but reduced fatigue, relative to placebo. In contrast, effects of nicotine during the initial 4 hr of patch administration, in which participants were in their natural environments, were moderated by individual differences in behavioral approach. Neither behavioral inhibition nor gender reliably moderated any subjective effects of nicotine. The present work suggests transdermal nicotine exerts only modest, mostly negative effects among nonsmokers. Future work should examine both contextual and personality moderators in large samples of participants who are exposed to nicotine through multiple routes of administration. PMID:20384428

  18. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  19. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  20. Validation and Diagnostic Usefulness of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire in a Primary Care Level in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Gonzáles, Miguel Angel; Azamar-Jacome, Amyra Ali; Meixueiro-Daza, Arturo; de la Medina, Antonio Ramos; Reyes-Huerta J, Job; Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Remes-Troche, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Different non-invasive diagnostics strategies have been used to assess patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaire (GerdQ) is a 6-item, easy to use questionnaire that was developed primarily as a diagnostic tool for GERD in primary care. Our aim was to validate and assess diagnostic utility of GerdQ questionnaire in Mexican patients in the primary care setting. Methods The study was performed in 3 phases: (1) a questionnaire translation and comprehension study (n = 20), (2) are a reproducibility and validation study (50 patients and 50 controls) and (3) a study to assess the clinical utility in 252 subjects with GERD symptoms. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated using endoscopy and/or pH-metry as the gold standard. Results Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.81 for patients and 0.90 for healthy controls, with a mixed coefficient of 0.93. Reproducibility for GerdQ was very good and its discriminating validity was 88%. Most of the patients with erosive reflux and non-erosive reflux with abnormal pH-metry had scores > 8, meanwhile most of the patients with functional heartburn and hypersensitive esophagus had < 8. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of GerdQ com -pared to the gold standard were 72%, 72% and 87%, respectively. Conclusions In Mexico, the GerdQ questionnaire Spanish validated version is useful for GERD diagnosis in the primary care setting. PMID:25273118

  1. Causes of dissociation between subjective workload measures and performance - Caveats for the use of subjective assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Wickens, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Dissociations between subjective workload assessments and performance were investigated. The difficulty of a Sternberg memory search task was manipulated by varying stimulus presentation rate, stimulus discernibility, value of good performance, and automaticity of performance. All Sternberg task conditions were performed both alone and concurrently with a tracking task. Bipolar subjective workload assessments were collected. Dissociations between workload and performance were found related to automaticity, presentation rate, and motivation level. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that the specific cognitive processes responsible for subjective assessments can differ from those responsible for performance. The potential contamination these dissociations could inflict on operational workload assessments is discussed.

  2. [Body and subjectivity: about anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Pereña Garcia, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    To start with the clinical description of anorexia nervosa is indicative of the difficulty involved not only with regard to its etiology (whether it is an endocrine, neurological or psychological disorder) but also with regard to its diagnosis (whether or not it is a hysterical disorder, whether or not it is a disease as such) and with regard to its treatment (the stubbornness of the symptom). The early-onset differential criterion is rejection. The subject's eating-related problem must be placed within the framework of the radical dependency the human organism has with regard to the mother's body, thus breaking the close connection between need and demand, which throws the instinctive life out of balance. Drive is the name given to this imbalance. Drived life must be controlled by wish. The transmitting of life is the transmitting of the innermost wish to live, without which the body fails or life and the body separate from one another. Rejection, which is the subjectivity-related aspect, then turns into anorexia in rejection of the body and in submission to bewildering ideals with which anorexic subjects attempt to find their bearings. Bulimia marks the most addictive aspect of impulsive imbalance. There is no ready answer to the question as to why anorexia occurs more among females than males. Female sexuality (the relationship with sexual wish and reproduction), as well as how in a aboundance society, women symbolize the trimming on the cake, an inert virtual figure. Anorexia nervosa can be taken as a pronouncement against an automated, devitalized family life and of a society characterized by commodity fetishism and cannibalism. PMID:18274356

  3. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  4. On the emergence of the subject.

    PubMed

    Zittoun, Tania

    2012-09-01

    The paper retraces the elaboration of a model that accounts for the emergence of subjectivity-the possibility to distance self from others and oneself-if we consider people as always taken in social and cultural streams of meaning and tensions. It builds a model considering first, human experience as possible when a person takes distance from the here-and-now. Second, it suggests considering two general semiotic streams that feed in, or support, that distancing-social and cultural discourses, and personal experience. Third, a knitting model suggests the constant creation of personal patters out of these two streams. Fourth, a dynamic, star-like model is proposed to account for the actual and constant emergence of subjectivity out of such social and cultural configurations. The model is constituted by a 2, 3 or N-number of eight-shaped crossing loops, resulting in a star-like model situated in a 3 dimensional space. The proposition is to analyze a person in a specific situation: the attractors enabling these loops, or end-points of the star, are the relevant social and cultural elements: others with whom he or she interacts, specific bodies of shared knowledge, social representations, cultural elements and tools, and so on. In each situation, the relative strength of these elements, or the tension they generate, are negotiated by the person; the unique ways of dealing with that situation and inviting solutions can thus be seen as the emergent subjectivity. The model is explored to account for developmental dynamics at various scales in the lifecourse. Finally, the pragmatic interest of a model emphasizing complex configurations, not simple causalities, is recalled.

  5. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  6. The Subjective Experience of Youth Psychotropic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Summary The psychotropic treatment of youth is increasing dramatically. This article examines child and adolescent psychopharmacological research and argues that social work practice and research must examine the complex relationships, social and psychological, in youth pharmacologic treatment. Regarding identity formation, this article explores the developmental consequences when youth adopt an illness narrative to make sense of everyday medication treatment. A conceptual framework for mapping the socio-cultural context of youth medication management is outlined. In the conclusion, youth psychotropic treatment is connected to a perplexing ‘interpretive gap,’ which highlights the subjective quality of medication treatment. PMID:20352031

  7. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    PubMed

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.

  8. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    PubMed

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition. PMID:26838589

  9. Subjective wellbeing: a primer for poverty analysts

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the current theory and measurement of subjective wellbeing (SWB). The first two sections discuss growing efforts in many countries to measure and monitor national wellbeing, particularly in the United Kingdom. The third and fourth sections discuss the novelty and controversies about SWB research. It concludes that a critical approach is essential in evaluating SWB research but dismissing it offhand or framing it as antithetical to objective wellbeing is misconceived. The pressing issue for poverty research and public policy is to determine which insights about SWB are worth using, and how much space within conceptions of wellbeing used in public policy should be given to SWB. PMID:24382984

  10. Predicting subjective disability in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kröner-Herwig, B; Jäkle, C; Frettlöh, J; Peters, K; Seemann, H; Franz, C; Basler, H D

    1996-01-01

    Subjective disability is considered as the variable that reflects the impact of chronic pain on a patient's life. This study examines the questions of which syndrome or patient characteristics determine subjective disability and whether there are differences between samples of patients with chronic headaches and low back pain. Direct pain variables and depression, pain coping strategies, and pain-related self-statements (including catastrophizing) are introduced into multivariate regression analyses as potential predictors of disability using a sample of 151 pain patients. Disability is not predicted by pain severity in patients with headaches or back pain. Psychological variables, especially coping strategies, are far more influential. Coping explains more variance in disability in the headache sample than in the chronic law hack pain group, whereas depression is more relevant for the degree of disability in the back pain sample. In this study, we present a critical analysis of possible interpretations of our results. We point to an overlap of concepts underlying some of the variables used: this overlap also considerably invalidates conclusions drawn from a multitude of studies done in this field, including the one presented. We strongly argue for a conceptual clarification, and consequently for the revision of assessment instruments, before further empirical work in this area is done.

  11. Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.

  12. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS. PMID:22316208

  13. Sensitization, subjective health complaints, and sustained arousal.

    PubMed

    Ursin, H; Eriksen, H R

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the possibility that sensitization is a psychobiological mechanism underlying not only multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), but a much more general cluster of illness, referred to as "subjective health complaints". Sustained arousal, or sustained "stress" responses, may be an important factor for the development of these conditions. Patients with subjective complaints without objective changes are sometimes referred to as having "fashionable diagnoses" or "unexplained symptoms". They may be given diagnoses like MCS, epidemic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, burnout, stress, a variety of intoxications, environmental illness, radiation, multiple chemical hypersensitivity, food intolerance, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel, myalgic encephalitis, postviral syndrome, yuppie flu, fibromyalgia, or vital exhaustion. One issue is whether this is one general condition or separate entities. Another issue is whether sensitization may be the psychobiological mechanism for most or all of these conditions. Finally, is it likely that sustained arousal may facilitate the development of sensitization in some or many neural circuits? In this review, the main emphasis will be on musculoskeletal pain. This is the most frequent and most expensive condition for sickness compensation and disability. The comorbidity of other complaints, however, will also be taken into account.

  14. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS.

  15. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson. PMID:739097

  16. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity in psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of criteriological diagnostic systems since the 1980s has increased the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. On the other hand, the limits of this approach for clinicians and researchers are becoming increasingly apparent. In particular, the assessment of subjective experience is nearly excluded on the theoretical level and undervalued on the pragmatic level, with detrimental consequences for the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, empirical research and therapeutic purposes. To correct this unfavourable development, three major approaches to the assessment of mental illness should be equally taken into account: (1) the positivistic, objectifying or 3rd-person approach as endorsed by DSM-IV and ICD-10, focusing mainly on observable behavioural symptoms; (2) the phenomenological, subject-oriented or 1st-person approach, focusing on the patient's self-experience and exploring its basic structures, and (3) the hermeneutic, intersubjective or 2nd-person approach, mainly aiming at the co-construction of narratives and interpretations regarding the patient's self-concept, relationships and conflicts. These three approaches will be compared regarding their respective values for psychopathological description, diagnosis, research and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques.

  18. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. PMID:25579747

  19. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  20. Remediation of heterogeneous aquifers subject to uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, K L

    2009-01-01

    Optimal cost pump-and-treat ground water remediation designs for containment of a contaminated aquifer are often developed using deterministic ground water models to predict ground water flow. Uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity fields used in these models results in remediation designs that are unreliable. The degree to which uncertainty contributes to the reliability of remediation designs as measured by the characterization of the uncertainty is shown to differ depending upon the geologic environments of the models. This conclusion is drawn from the optimal design costs for multiple deterministic models generated to represent the uncertainty of four distinct models with different geologic environments. A multi scenario approach that includes uncertainty into the remediation design called the deterministic method for optimization subject to uncertainty (DMOU) is applied to these distinct models. It is found that the DMOU is a method for determining a remediation design subject to uncertainty that requires minimal postprocessing efforts. Preprocessing, however, is required for the application of the DMOU to unique problems. In the ground water remediation design problems, the orientation of geologic facies with respect to the orientation of flow patterns, pumping well locations, and constraint locations are shown to affect the preprocessing, the solutions to the DMOU problems, and the computational efficiency of the DMOU approach. The results of the DMOU are compared to the results of a statistical analysis of the effects of the uncertainty on remediation designs. This comparison validates the efficacy of the DMOU and illustrates the computational advantages to using the DMOU over statistical measures.

  1. Subject-specific functional localizers increase sensitivity and functional resolution of multi-subject analyses.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Castañón, Alfonso; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2012-11-15

    One important goal of cognitive neuroscience is to discover and explain properties common to all human brains. The traditional solution for comparing functional activations across brains in fMRI is to align each individual brain to a template brain in a Cartesian coordinate system (e.g., the Montreal Neurological Institute template). However, inter-individual anatomical variability leads to decreases in sensitivity (ability to detect a significant activation when it is present) and functional resolution (ability to discriminate spatially adjacent but functionally different neural responses) in group analyses. Subject-specific functional localizers have been previously argued to increase the sensitivity and functional resolution of fMRI analyses in the presence of inter-subject variability in the locations of functional activations (e.g., Brett et al., 2002; Fedorenko and Kanwisher, 2009, 2011; Fedorenko et al., 2010; Kanwisher et al., 1997; Saxe et al., 2006). In the current paper we quantify this dependence of sensitivity and functional resolution on functional variability across subjects in order to illustrate the highly detrimental effects of this variability on traditional group analyses. We show that analyses that use subject-specific functional localizers usually outperform traditional group-based methods in both sensitivity and functional resolution, even when the same total amount of data is used for each analysis. We further discuss how the subject-specific functional localization approach, which has traditionally only been considered in the context of ROI-based analyses, can be extended to whole-brain voxel-based analyses. We conclude that subject-specific functional localizers are particularly well suited for investigating questions of functional specialization in the brain. An SPM toolbox that can perform all of the analyses described in this paper is publicly available, and the analyses can be applied retroactively to any dataset, provided that

  2. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  3. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  4. Effects of subject-area degree and classroom experience on new chemistry teachers' subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-07-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science subjects for which they do not hold a degree. This study investigates the SMK of new secondary science teachers assigned to teach chemistry in their first three years of teaching. These new teachers do not have the advantage of years of experience to develop their SMK and half hold a degree in biology rather than chemistry. This qualitative study explores the effects of holding a degree in the subject area one teaches as well as classroom teaching experience on teachers' SMK for two chemistry topics, conservation of mass and chemical equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews indicated that the SMK of teachers who had a chemistry degree and more extensive classroom experience was more coherent, chemistry-focused, and sophisticated than that of teachers who lacked this preparation and experience. This study provides evidence that new science teachers' SMK is influenced by both holding a degree in the subject area and having classroom experience.

  5. Comparison of Subjective Refraction under Binocular and Monocular Conditions in Myopic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Handa, Tomoya; Ando, Wakako; Kawamorita, Takushi; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-07-28

    To compare subjective refraction under binocular and monocular conditions, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting the difference in spherical refraction between the two conditions. We examined thirty eyes of 30 healthy subjects. Binocular and monocular refraction without cycloplegia was measured through circular polarizing lenses in both eyes, using the Landolt-C chart of the 3D visual function trainer-ORTe. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relations among several pairs of variables and the difference in spherical refraction in binocular and monocular conditions. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in subjective cylindrical refraction (p = 0.99). The explanatory variable relevant to the difference in spherical refraction between binocular and monocular conditions was the binocular spherical refraction (p = 0.032, partial regression coefficient B = 0.029) (adjusted R(2) = 0.230). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition. Eyes with higher degrees of myopia are more predisposed to show the large difference in spherical refraction between these two conditions.

  6. Discovering and validating between-subject variations in plasma lipids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Husna; Li, Bowen; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Soong, Richie; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wenk, Markus R.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid levels are commonly used in clinical settings as disease biomarkers, and the advent of mass spectrometry-based (MS) lipidomics heralds the possibility of identifying additional lipids that can inform disease predispositions. However, the degree of natural variation for many lipids remains poorly understood, thus confounding downstream investigations on whether a specific intervention is driving observed lipid fluctuations. Here, we performed targeted mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring across a comprehensive spectrum of 192 plasma lipids on eight subjects across three time-points separated by six hours and two standardized meals. A validation study to confirm the initial discoveries was performed in a further set of nine subjects, subject to the identical study design. Technical variation of the MS was assessed using duplicate measurements in the validation study, while biological variation was measured for lipid species with coefficients of variation <20%. We observed that eight lipid species from the phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine lipid classes were discovered and validated to vary consistently across the three time-points, where the within-subject variance can be up to 1.3-fold higher than between-subject variance. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the range of biological variation in plasma lipids as a precursor to their use in clinical biochemistry. PMID:26743939

  7. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  8. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  9. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  10. The malleable meaning of subjective ease.

    PubMed

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Tormala, Zakary L

    2006-03-01

    People can generate the same thoughts or process the same information with different degrees of ease, and this subjective experience has implications for attitudes and social judgment. In prior research, it has generally been assumed that the experience of ease or fluency is interpreted by people as something good. In the two experiments reported here, the meaning or value of ease was directly manipulated, and the implications for evaluative judgments were explored. Across experiments, we replicated the traditional ease-of-retrieval effect (more thought-congruent attitudes when thoughts were easy rather than difficult to generate) when ease was described as positive, but we reversed this effect when ease was described as negative. These findings suggest that it is important to consider both the content of metacognition (e.g., "those thoughts were easy to generate") and the value associated with that content (e.g., "ease is good" or "ease is bad").

  11. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, J; Church, R M

    1981-04-01

    In two experiments, subjects were given a choice between a standard fixed interval to reinforcement and the time left to reinforcement in an elapsing comparison interval. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to respond on a comparison 60-sec fixed-interval schedule on one lever and a standard 30-sec fixed-interval schedule on a second lever. Then combined trials were given that began with the entry of the comparison 60-sec lever, followed by the standard 30-sec lever after 15, 30, or 45 sec. Rats preferred to respond on the standard lever when it entered early (at 15 sec), they preferred to respond on the comparison lever when the standard entered late (at 45 sec), and they were approximately indifferent between the two levers when the standard entered halfway through the comparison interval so that the remaining time to food was equal on both levers. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained to choose between the time left to food in an elapsing comparison interval (C sec long) and a standard fixed interval one half as long (S = C/2) in a concurrent-chains paradigm. Birds came to choose the standard early and the comparison late in the trial interval. The indifference point was linearly related to the midpoint of the elapsing C interval at a variety of S,C pairs. The results of both experiments are consistent with a Scalar Timing theory in which subjective time is linear in real time and memory variance is scalar, and they are inconsistent with a logarithmic time scale.

  12. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = -0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p < 0.001), but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  13. Being anorexic: hunger, subjectivity, and embodied morality.

    PubMed

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2008-09-01

    This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.

  14. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. PMID:25890886

  15. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p < 0.001), but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  16. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process.

  17. Influence of Some Hypnotist and Subject Variables on Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Robert P.; Land, Jay M.

    1971-01-01

    As predicted, subjects run by the objectively warmer, more competent appearing hypnosis obtained significantly higher susceptibility scores. Structured warmth produced significant differences only in subjects run by the objectively less warm hypnotists. Both structured warmth and experience affected subjects' subjective impressions of whether they…

  18. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  19. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  20. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  1. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  2. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  3. Beyond the Masks. Race, Gender and Subjectivity. Critical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mama, Amina

    This book explores the construction of subjectivity and advances a theoretical account of the processes through which subjectivities are constituted in the context of a two-fold study of black subjectivity. The first three chapters are devoted to the deconstruction of the black subject construed by scientific psychology, and the remainder is…

  4. Resolving subjects and measuring observer/subject distances with a thermal tactile imager.

    PubMed

    Do, David H; Riehle, Timothy H; Solinsky, Ryan; Assadi-Lamouki, Pouyan; Hillesheim, Christopher T; Vu, An N; Velie, Troy; Seifert, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Visually-impaired people have difficulty detecting objects beyond the reach of a cane. We functionally coupled a far-infrared camera to a linear array of tactile elements to create a thermal tactile viewer that enhances environmental awareness. Users may scan such a device across a scene to spatially locate people. We observed in a series of acuity-measuring tasks, at twenty feet of observer/subject separation, observers could resolve two people standing four inches apart (a separation angle of 1 degrees ) and locate the angular position of people within a room with 78% accuracy. Additionally, when employing a technique involving two sweeps from two observation points separated by approximately an arm span, subjects correctly reported observer/subject separation distance with 60% accuracy. These observations suggest the technique of information transfer provided by a thermal tactile viewing device provides the fundamental acuity required for an assistive locating device. PMID:19163664

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... obligation, 86.4(b) Form, 86.4(c) Athletics, ; 86.41 Adjustment period, ; 86.41(d) Contact sport defined, 86... responsible employee”, 86.8(a) (b) H Health and Insurance Benefits and Services, ; 86.39, 86.56...

  6. Science K-12. Teacher Handbook. North Carolina Competency-Based Curriculum Subject-by-Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    An integrated competency-based course of study in the sciences is provided in the handbook for North Carolina teachers of grades K-12. Recommended goals, objectives, and suggested measures for each subject and skill area related to the sciences are outlined. This guide contains: (1) an introduction (defining North Carolina's basic educational…

  7. Moving beyond Physical Education Subject Knowledge to Develop Knowledgeable Teachers of the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capel, Susan

    2007-01-01

    All knowledge is socially constructed, including physical education teachers' knowledge of their subject. It is acquired from other people either formally and deliberately (e.g. by being taught) or informally and casually (e.g. by interacting with physical education teachers or playing in a sports team). The social aspects of learning appear to be…

  8. Objective and subjective assessment of hangover during subacute administration of temazepam and nitrazepam to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mattila, M J; Aranko, K; Mattila, M E; Strömberg, C

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen, healthy students volunteered for a double-blind, cross-over trial of temazepam 20 mg (soft gelatine capsule), nitrazepam 10 mg (uncoated tablet) and placebo in matched formulations, single doses of each being given for 10 nights with a three-week wash-out period between each treatment. Residual drug effects were measured objectively (psychomotor skills) and subjectively (visual analogue scales) in the morning and afternoon of Days 0 (before the first tablet), 1 and 10. The subjects also recorded various events during each treatment period. Serum benzodiazepine concentrations were bioassayed in blood samples taken after the last assessment. Both benzodiazepines shortened sleep latency during the first few nights, and nitrazepam prolonged the duration of sleep. The residual effect of drowsiness was noted during the nitrazepam period, whilst temazepam proved less sedating. The 'morning after' effect was a subjective observation and not an objective measurement. The learning effect interfered with the complex objective assessments, and simple measurement of exophoria with the Maddox wing test provided the clearest objective evidence of drug effects. On Day 10 residual concentrations of nitrazepam were detectable in the serum whereas the level of temazepam was found to be low or negligible. It is concluded, that temazepam 20 mg in a soft gelatine capsule is a suitable hypnotic for subjects whose daily work requires constant alertness.

  9. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erbagci, Hulya; Oren, Burak; Okumus, Seydi; Kenan, Serhat; Celemler, Pelin; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT), measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years). The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 μm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all), whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. PMID:26257510

  10. Scene reduction for subjective image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska (Tomaszewska), Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of image quality is important for many image processing systems, such as those used for acquisition, compression, restoration, enhancement, or reproduction. Its measurement is often accompanied by user studies, in which a group of observers rank or rate results of several algorithms. Such user studies, known as subjective image quality assessment experiments, can be very time consuming and do not guarantee conclusive results. This paper is intended to help design an efficient and rigorous quality assessment experiment. We propose a method of limiting the number of scenes that need to be tested, which can significantly reduce the experimental effort and still capture relevant scene-dependent effects. To achieve it, we employ a clustering technique and evaluate it on the basis of compactness and separation criteria. The correlation between the results obtained from a set of images in an initial database and the results received from reduced experiment are analyzed. Finally, we propose a procedure for reducing the initial scenes number. Four different assessment techniques were tested: single stimulus, double stimulus, forced choice, and similarity judgments. We conclude that in most cases, 9 to 12 judgments per evaluated algorithm for a large scene collection is sufficient to reduce the initial set of images.

  11. Molecular genetics and subjective well-being

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Tiemeier, Henning; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Krueger, Robert F.; Bartels, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is a major topic of research across the social sciences. Twin and family studies have found that genetic factors may account for as much as 30–40% of the variance in SWB. Here, we study genetic contributions to SWB in a pooled sample of ≈11,500 unrelated, comprehensively-genotyped Swedish and Dutch individuals. We apply a recently developed method to estimate “common narrow heritability”: the fraction of variance in SWB that can be explained by the cumulative additive effects of genetic polymorphisms that are common in the population. Our estimates are 5–10% for single-question survey measures of SWB, and 12–18% after correction for measurement error in the SWB measures. Our results suggest guarded optimism about the prospects of using genetic data in SWB research because, although the common narrow heritability is not large, the polymorphisms that contribute to it could feasibly be discovered with a sufficiently large sample of individuals. PMID:23708117

  12. ICA and me--a subjective review.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Gustaf

    2012-04-15

    ICA - instrumentation, control and automation - is a hidden technology. It is ubiquitous in all industrial processes, including water and wastewater treatment systems. Still, as long as everything works fine, it is not noted but when things go wrong it will be observed. ICA has now about forty years of history in water and wastewater systems and is well recognized. One early attitude was that ICA will be a necessary burden to be added to a plant in order to correct for a poor design. However, the key reason for ICA is the fact that all processes are subject to disturbances, externally via the wastewater influent, from the customers in a water supply system, or from operations in one unit process that will propagate as a disturbance to another unit within a plant. This paper is an attempt to describe the development of ICA in water and wastewater systems. Most of it is based on personal experiences with all their limitations. No single paper can fairly describe the development that is documented in thousands of research papers, practiced by so many operators and process engineers and implemented in so many treatment systems. Still, the hope is that the paper can give a flavour of the most important ingredients of this fascinating development.

  13. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  14. MOPEDS: Motorized Objects Propelling Ethanol Drinking Subjects.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A Britton; Brintzenhoff, Rita A; Schmelzer, Thomas M; Head, Karen E; Sing, Ronald F

    2011-03-01

    Mopeds are not subject to the same laws and jurisdiction as cars or motorcycles, including the requirement of a driver's license. We undertook this study to examine the influence of alcohol (ETOH) on moped crashes. We retrospectively reviewed adult moped injuries compared with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and motorcycle crashes (MCCs) from 1995 through 2006. Demographics, severity of injury, mortality, and serum ETOH levels were recorded. Data were analyzed using the Student t test for continuous data and the χ² test for proportional data. Motor vehicle crashes accounted for 7186 admissions. MCC and moped crashes numbered 973 and 113, respectively. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.064), moped crashes yielded the highest mortality (9.7%) compared with MCCs (8.5%) and MVCs (6.7%). An increased association of blood ETOH levels with moped crashes, however, was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Serum ETOH levels above 0.05 g/dL were observed in 1681 MVCs (23.4%), 241 MCCs (24.8%), and 44 moped crashes (39%). In this study, we discovered that moped crashes demonstrate a significantly higher ETOH involvement than either MVCs or MCCs representing a previously unrecognized public safety risk.

  15. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  16. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  17. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20478770

  18. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Rollins, Brandi; Magnan, Christophe; van Oven, Mannis; Baldi, Pierre; Myers, Richard M; Barchas, Jack D; Schatzberg, Alan F; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Bunney, William E; Vawter, Marquis P

    2015-01-01

    A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage) and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C). Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  19. A bracing system subjected to dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.D.; Khan, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    As part of the seismic upgrade at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), it was necessary to provide horizontal support at the second floor level of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building. A steel strut connected these points to an anchor at the ground line. Two methods of anchoring the strut at the ground were considered in this initial study (AGRA, 1994). One solution was a 12 foot cube of concrete, equal in weight to the vertical upward force. That solution provided acceptable Demand/Capacity (D/C) ratios. The other method considered was a 4 foot diameter drilled caisson, 30 feet deep. The deflection at the second story support was too large, using this method, and second floor concrete members had D/C ratios greater than unity (overstressed). Using the cube as an anchor would cost in excess of $100,000 more than the estimated cost for the caissons. The caisson design is the subject of this paper. Although neither of the authors are geotechnical engineers, the senior author has 30 years experience working with the volcanic tuff in the Los Alamos area. Whenever unusual situations arose, the senior author worked in concert with geotechnical firms to arrive at reasonable engineering solutions. In the case of lateral loading on caissons in volcanic tuff, there was a steep learning curve for both the authors and for their geotechnical counterparts to measure and apply the known properties of the volcanic tuff. In this paper the knowledge gained during the development of the initial report and that learned to date will be shared.

  20. Airway response to hair spray in normal subjects and subjects with hyperreactive airways.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, D P; Soto, R J; Baretta, E D; Herrmann, A A; Ostrander, L E; Stewart, R D

    1979-05-01

    Short-term 20-second exposure to hair sprays A and B failed to show significant decreases in maximum expiratory flow rates at low pulmonary volumes in normal subjects; however, significant decreases were observed with hair spray B in eight subjects with hyperractive airways (abnormal response to inhalation of methacholine). On the partial flow-volume curves, flows at 40 percent and 25 percent of forced vital capacity decreased 8.9 to 10.3 percent and 14 to 18.7 percent, respectively. The hair sprays differed in their content of perfume and plasticizer, and since the latter is generally considered nontoxic at room temperature, the perfume may be the responsible agent. It would appear from this study that normal healthy individuals are at little risk, at least from brief exposure to hair spray; however, in the presence of hyperreactive airways, as seen in asthmatic subjects and in some people with allergic rhinitis and viral respiratory infections, an immediate response of the airways may result from exposure to some hair sprays.

  1. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools.

  2. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Funabashi, Martha; Flores, Aline I.; Vicentino, Amanda; Barros, Camila G. C.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Leite, João P.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs) are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear) in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and −0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation (p = 0.113). Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies. PMID:26161271

  3. 40 CFR 71.3 - Sources subject to permitting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... they are subject to 40 CFR part 60, subpart AAA—-Standards of Performance for New Residential Wood... because they are subject to 40 CFR part 61, subpart M—National Emission Standard for Hazardous...

  4. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results showed that the…

  5. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  6. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  7. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  8. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  9. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  10. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  11. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  12. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  14. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  15. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  17. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  18. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following provision: Notice to Offerors of Requirements of 45 CFR Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects... protection of human subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, are available from the Office for Human Research Protections... directly regulated by 45 CFR Part 46. (c) Activities in which the only involvement of human subjects...

  19. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  20. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...